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PLoS Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441435/implementation-science-relevance-in-the-real-world-without-sacrificing-rigor
#1
EDITORIAL
Elvin H Geng, David Peiris, Margaret E Kruk
Three members of PLOS Medicine's editorial board who are leading researchers in implementation science define the characteristics of high-quality studies and invite their submission to the journal.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441426/identification-of-genes-associated-with-dissociation-of-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathological-burden-multistep-analysis-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-data
#2
Charles C White, Hyun-Sik Yang, Lei Yu, Lori B Chibnik, Robert J Dawe, Jingyun Yang, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Daniel Felsky, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Konstantinos Arfanakis, William G Honer, Reisa A Sperling, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
INTRODUCTION: The molecular underpinnings of the dissociation of cognitive performance and neuropathological burden are poorly understood, and there are currently no known genetic or epigenetic determinants of the dissociation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: "Residual cognition" was quantified by regressing out the effects of cerebral pathologies and demographic characteristics on global cognitive performance proximate to death. To identify genes influencing residual cognition, we leveraged neuropathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data available for deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study (n = 492) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 487)...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441387/governing-multisectoral-action-for-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Kumanan Rasanathan, Sara Bennett, Vincent Atkins, Robert Beschel, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Jodi Charles, Rajib Dasgupta, Kirk Emerson, Douglas Glandon, Churnrurtai Kanchanachitra, Pete Kingsley, Don Matheson, Rees Murithi Mbabu, Charles Mwansambo, Michael Myers, Jeremias Paul, Thulisile Radebe, James Smith, Orielle Solar, Agnès Soucat, Aloysius Ssennyonjo, Matthias Wismar, Shehla Zaidi
Kumanan Rasanathan and colleagues argue that the potential of multisectoral collaboration for improving health remains untapped in many low- and middle-income countries.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441386/graft-derived-cell-free-dna-a-noninvasive-early-rejection-and-graft-damage-marker-in-liver-transplantation-a-prospective-observational-multicenter-cohort-study
#4
Ekkehard Schütz, Anna Fischer, Julia Beck, Markus Harden, Martina Koch, Tilo Wuensch, Martin Stockmann, Björn Nashan, Otto Kollmar, Johannes Matthaei, Philipp Kanzow, Philip D Walson, Jürgen Brockmöller, Michael Oellerich
BACKGROUND: Graft-derived cell-free DNA (GcfDNA), which is released into the blood stream by necrotic and apoptotic cells, is a promising noninvasive organ integrity biomarker. In liver transplantation (LTx), neither conventional liver function tests (LTFs) nor immunosuppressive drug monitoring are very effective for rejection monitoring. We therefore hypothesized that the quantitative measurement of donor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) would have independent value for the assessment of graft integrity, including damage from acute rejection...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430777/correction-the-subclonal-architecture-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-a-prospective-community-based-rapid-autopsy-program-cascade
#5
Peter Savas, Zhi Ling Teo, Christophe Lefevre, Christoffer Flensburg, Franco Caramia, Kathryn Alsop, Mariam Mansour, Prudence A Francis, Heather A Thorne, Maria Joao Silva, Nnennaya Kanu, Michelle Dietzen, Andrew Rowan, Maik Kschischo, Stephen Fox, David D Bowtell, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Terence P Speed, Charles Swanton, Sherene Loi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002204.].
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419108/changes-in-prices-sales-consumer-spending-and-beverage-consumption-one-year-after-a-tax-on-sugar-sweetened-beverages-in-berkeley-california-us-a-before-and-after-study
#6
Lynn D Silver, Shu Wen Ng, Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Marta Induni, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419097/clinical-decision-tools-are-needed-to-identify-hiv-positive-patients-at-high-risk-for-poor-outcomes-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Margaret L McNairy, Elaine J Abrams, Miriam Rabkin, Wafaa M El-Sadr
Margaret McNairy and colleagues highlight the need for clinical decision tools to help identify HIV patients who would benefit from tailored services to avoid poor outcomes such as death and loss to follow-up.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419095/effectiveness-of-a-live-oral-human-rotavirus-vaccine-after-programmatic-introduction-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#8
K Zaman, David A Sack, Kathleen M Neuzil, Mohammad Yunus, Lawrence H Moulton, Jonathan D Sugimoto, Jessica A Fleming, Ilias Hossain, Shams El Arifeen, Tasnim Azim, Mustafizur Rahman, Kristen D C Lewis, Andrea J Feller, Firdausi Qadri, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alejandro Cravioto, John C Victor
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are now globally recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but in early 2009 WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization reviewed available data and concluded that there was no evidence for the efficacy or effectiveness of a two-dose schedule of the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix) given early at 6 and 10 wk of age. Additionally, the effectiveness of programmatic rotavirus vaccination, including possible indirect effects, has not been assessed in low-resource populations in Asia...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419094/an-open-source-pharma-roadmap
#9
Manica Balasegaram, Peter Kolb, John McKew, Jaykumar Menon, Piero Olliaro, Tomasz Sablinski, Zakir Thomas, Matthew H Todd, Els Torreele, John Wilbanks
In an Essay, Matthew Todd and colleagues discuss an open source approach to drug development.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403209/correction-how-much-can-the-usa-reduce-health-care-costs-by-reducing-smoking
#10
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002021.].
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399160/a-new-cascade-of-hiv-care-for-the-era-of-treat-all
#11
Matthew P Fox, Sydney Rosen
Matthew Fox and Sydney Rosen discuss a cascade of HIV care adapted to WHO-recommended antiretroviral therapy irrespective of CD4 cell count.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399154/silk-garments-plus-standard-care-compared-with-standard-care-for-treating-eczema-in-children-a-randomised-controlled-observer-blind-pragmatic-trial-clothes-trial
#12
Kim S Thomas, Lucy E Bradshaw, Tracey H Sach, Jonathan M Batchelor, Sandra Lawton, Eleanor F Harrison, Rachel H Haines, Amina Ahmed, Hywel C Williams, Taraneh Dean, Nigel P Burrows, Ian Pollock, Joanne Llewellyn, Clare Crang, Jane D Grundy, Juliet Guiness, Andrew Gribbin, Eleanor J Mitchell, Fiona Cowdell, Sara J Brown, Alan A Montgomery
BACKGROUND: The role of clothing in the management of eczema (also called atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema) is poorly understood. This trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of silk garments (in addition to standard care) for the management of eczema in children with moderate to severe disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, observer-blind trial. Children aged 1 to 15 y with moderate to severe eczema were recruited from secondary care and the community at five UK medical centres...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399129/the-effects-of-implementing-a-point-of-care-electronic-template-to-prompt-routine-anxiety-and-depression-screening-in-patients-consulting-for-osteoarthritis-the-primary-care-osteoarthritis-trial-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-primary-care
#13
Christian D Mallen, Barbara I Nicholl, Martyn Lewis, Bernadette Bartlam, Daniel Green, Sue Jowett, Jesse Kigozi, John Belcher, Kris Clarkson, Zoe Lingard, Christopher Pope, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Peter Croft, Elaine M Hay, George Peat
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs) to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire-2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0-10 numerical rating scale])...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399126/fresh-fruit-consumption-in-relation-to-incident-diabetes-and-diabetic-vascular-complications-a-7-y-prospective-study-of-0-5-million-chinese-adults
#14
Huaidong Du, Liming Li, Derrick Bennett, Yu Guo, Iain Turnbull, Ling Yang, Fiona Bragg, Zheng Bian, Yiping Chen, Junshi Chen, Iona Y Millwood, Sam Sansome, Liangcai Ma, Ying Huang, Ningmei Zhang, Xiangyang Zheng, Qiang Sun, Timothy J Key, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the well-recognised health benefits of fresh fruit consumption, substantial uncertainties remain about its potential effects on incident diabetes and, among those with diabetes, on risks of death and major vascular complications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between June 2004 and July 2008, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 (mean 51) y from ten diverse localities across China. During ~7 y of follow-up, 9,504 new diabetes cases were recorded among 482,591 participants without prevalent (previously diagnosed or screen-detected) diabetes at baseline, with an overall incidence rate of 2...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399122/community-based-strategies-to-strengthen-men-s-engagement-in-the-hiv-care-cascade-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Monisha Sharma, Ruanne V Barnabas, Connie Celum
Monica Sharma and colleagues discuss evidence-based approaches to improving HIV services for men in sub-Saharan Africa.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376113/risk-prediction-models-for-selection-of-lung-cancer-screening-candidates-a-retrospective-validation-study
#16
Kevin Ten Haaf, Jihyoun Jeon, Martin C Tammemägi, Summer S Han, Chung Yin Kong, Sylvia K Plevritis, Eric J Feuer, Harry J de Koning, Ewout W Steyerberg, Rafael Meza
BACKGROUND: Selection of candidates for lung cancer screening based on individual risk has been proposed as an alternative to criteria based on age and cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years). Nine previously established risk models were assessed for their ability to identify those most likely to develop or die from lung cancer. All models considered age and various aspects of smoking exposure (smoking status, smoking duration, cigarettes per day, pack-years smoked, time since smoking cessation) as risk predictors...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376089/talking-sensibly-about-depression
#17
Vikram Patel
In an Essay to highlight World Health Day 2017, Vikram Patel proposes a staged model, from wellness to distress to disorder, for classifying depressive symptoms.
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376085/status-and-methodology-of-publicly-available-national-hiv-care-continua-and-90-90-90-targets-a-systematic-review
#18
Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta, Irene Hall, John Aberle-Grasse, Shannon Hader, Jonathan Mermin
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) issued treatment goals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The 90-90-90 target specifies that by 2020, 90% of individuals living with HIV will know their HIV status, 90% of people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive antiretroviral treatment (ART), and 90% of those taking ART will be virally suppressed. Consistent methods and routine reporting in the public domain will be necessary for tracking progress towards the 90-90-90 target...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376084/demographic-transition-and-the-dynamics-of-measles-in-six-provinces-in-china-a-modeling-study
#19
Sheng Li, Chao Ma, Lixin Hao, Qiru Su, Zhijie An, Fubao Ma, Shuyun Xie, Aiqiang Xu, Yanyang Zhang, Zhengrong Ding, Hui Li, Lisa Cairns, Huaqing Wang, Huiming Luo, Ning Wang, Li Li, Matthew J Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Industrialization and demographic transition generate nonstationary dynamics in human populations that can affect the transmission and persistence of infectious diseases. Decades of increasing vaccination and development have led to dramatic declines in the global burden of measles, but the virus remains persistent in much of the world. Here we show that a combination of demographic transition, as a result of declining birth rates, and reduced measles prevalence, due to improved vaccination, has shifted the age distribution of susceptibility to measles throughout China...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350889/cultural-representations-of-dementia
#20
Alexandra Hillman, Joanna Latimer
In a Perspective, Alexandra Hillman and Joanna Latimer discuss cultural representations of dementia in the media, film, and literature.
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
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