journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

PLoS Medicine

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632739/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-tool-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-pediatric-deaths-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#1
Quique Bassat, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Tacilta Nhampossa, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sónia Bandeira, Calvino Sambo, Valeria Chicamba, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Pau Cisteró, Alfredo Mayor, Anelsio Cossa, Inacio Mandomando, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Jordi Vila, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Clara Menéndez, Jaume Ordi
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the world has witnessed unprecedented progress in child survival. However, our knowledge of what is killing nearly 6 million children annually in low- and middle-income countries remains poor, partly because of the inadequacy and reduced precision of the methods currently utilized in these settings to investigate causes of death (CoDs). The study objective was to validate the use of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) approach as an adequate and more acceptable substitute for the complete diagnostic autopsy (CDA) for pediatric CoD investigation in a poor setting...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#2
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617810/population-level-impact-of-an-accelerated-hiv-response-plan-to-reach-the-unaids-90-90-90-target-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#3
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609465/malaria-control-adds-to-the-evidence-for-health-aid-effectiveness
#4
Eran Bendavid
In this Perspective, Eran Bendavid discusses the broader political and health consequences of US foreign aid in light of the study by Aleksandra Jakubowski and colleagues of the President's Malaria Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa.
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609445/estimating-the-causal-influence-of-body-mass-index-on-risk-of-parkinson-disease-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#5
Alastair J Noyce, Demis A Kia, Gibran Hemani, Aude Nicolas, T Ryan Price, Eduardo De Pablo-Fernandez, Philip C Haycock, Patrick A Lewis, Thomas Foltynie, George Davey Smith, Anette Schrag, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Andrew Singleton, Mike A Nalls, Neil Pearce, Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas W Wood
BACKGROUND: Both positive and negative associations between higher body mass index (BMI) and Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported in observational studies, but it has been difficult to establish causality because of the possibility of residual confounding or reverse causation. To our knowledge, Mendelian randomisation (MR)-the use of genetic instrumental variables (IVs) to explore causal effects-has not previously been used to test the effect of BMI on PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association (GWA) study data...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609442/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-and-under-5-child-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-difference-in-differences-analysis
#6
Aleksandra Jakubowski, Sally C Stearns, Margaret E Kruk, Gustavo Angeles, Harsha Thirumurthy
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial financial contributions by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) since 2006, no studies have carefully assessed how this program may have affected important population-level health outcomes. We utilized multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate the association between introduction of PMI and child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used difference-in-differences analyses to compare trends in the primary outcome of under-5 mortality rates and secondary outcomes reflecting population coverage of malaria interventions in 19 PMI-recipient and 13 non-recipient countries between 1995 and 2014...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604777/risk-factors-and-short-term-projections-for-serotype-1-poliomyelitis-incidence-in-pakistan-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#7
Natalie A Molodecky, Isobel M Blake, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Hiromasa Okayasu, Nicholas C Grassly
BACKGROUND: Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586351/reducing-us-cardiovascular-disease-burden-and-disparities-through-national-and-targeted-dietary-policies-a-modelling-study
#8
Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Piotr Bandosz, Colin D Rehm, Jose Penalvo, Laurie Whitsel, Tom Gaziano, Zach Conrad, Parke Wilde, Renata Micha, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Simon Capewell, Dariush Mozaffarian, Martin O'Flaherty
BACKGROUND: Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects on total CVD mortality and disparities of specific dietary policies to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in the US...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582414/data-sharing-statements-for-clinical-trials-a-requirement-of-the-international-committee-of-medical-journal-editors
#9
EDITORIAL
Darren B Taichman, Peush Sahni, Anja Pinborg, Larry Peiperl, Christine Laine, Astrid James, Sung-Tae Hong, Abraham Haileamlak, Laragh Gollogly, Fiona Godlee, Frank A Frizelle, Fernando Florenzano, Jeffrey M Drazen, Howard Bauchner, Christopher Baethge, Joyce Backus
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors announces requirements that a data sharing plan be prospectively registered, and a data sharing statement be included in submitted manuscripts, for clinical trials to be published in ICMJE journals.
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558049/tobacco-control-developing-an-innovative-and-effective-global-strategy
#10
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
In this month's editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors discuss the campaign for World No Tobacco Day 2017.
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558024/maternal-age-and-severe-maternal-morbidity-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Sarka Lisonkova, Jayson Potts, Giulia M Muraca, Neda Razaz, Yasser Sabr, Wee-Shian Chan, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: One of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals of 2000 was to reduce maternal mortality by 75% in 15 y; however, this challenge was not met by many industrialized countries. As average maternal age continues to rise in these countries, associated potentially life-threatening severe maternal morbidity has been understudied. Our primary objective was to examine the associations between maternal age and severe maternal morbidities. The secondary objective was to compare these associations with those for adverse fetal/infant outcomes...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557989/association-between-expansion-of-primary-healthcare-and-racial-inequalities-in-mortality-amenable-to-primary-care-in-brazil-a-national-longitudinal-analysis
#12
Thomas Hone, Davide Rasella, Mauricio L Barreto, Azeem Majeed, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage (UHC) can play an important role in achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 10, which addresses reducing inequalities, but little supporting evidence is available from low- and middle-income countries. Brazil's Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF) (family health strategy) is a community-based primary healthcare (PHC) programme that has been expanding since the 1990s and is the main platform for delivering UHC in the country. We evaluated whether expansion of the ESF was associated with differential reductions in mortality amenable to PHC between racial groups...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552987/contribution-of-systemic-and-somatic-factors-to-clinical-response-and-resistance-to-pd-l1-blockade-in-urothelial-cancer-an-exploratory-multi-omic-analysis
#13
Alexandra Snyder, Tavi Nathanson, Samuel A Funt, Arun Ahuja, Jacqueline Buros Novik, Matthew D Hellmann, Eliza Chang, Bulent Arman Aksoy, Hikmat Al-Ahmadie, Erik Yusko, Marissa Vignali, Sharon Benzeno, Mariel Boyd, Meredith Moran, Gopa Iyer, Harlan S Robins, Elaine R Mardis, Taha Merghoub, Jeff Hammerbacher, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Dean F Bajorin
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with atezolizumab can induce durable clinical benefit (DCB) in patients with metastatic urothelial cancers, including complete remissions in patients with chemotherapy refractory disease. Although mutation load and PD-L1 immune cell (IC) staining have been associated with response, they lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the peripheral blood immune environment and to conduct detailed analyses of mutation load, predicted neoantigens, and immune cellular infiltration in tumors to enhance our understanding of the biologic underpinnings of response and resistance...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542506/impact-evaluation-of-different-cash-based-intervention-modalities-on-child-and-maternal-nutritional-status-in-sindh-province-pakistan-at-6-mo-and-at-1-y-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bridget Fenn, Tim Colbourn, Carmel Dolan, Silke Pietzsch, Murtaza Sangrasi, Jeremy Shoham
BACKGROUND: Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542201/data-sharing-in-clinical-trials-an-experience-with-two-large-cancer-screening-trials
#15
Claire S Zhu, Paul F Pinsky, James E Moler, Andrew Kukwa, Jerome Mabie, Joshua M Rathmell, Tom Riley, Philip C Prorok, Christine D Berg
Paul Pinsky of the US National Cancer Institute and colleagues describe the implementation and outcomes of web-based data sharing from the PLCO and NLST cancer screening trials.
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542184/estimation-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-prevention-portfolios-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-united-states-a-model-based-analysis
#16
Cora L Bernard, Douglas K Owens, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: The risks of HIV transmission associated with the opioid epidemic make cost-effective programs for people who inject drugs (PWID) a public health priority. Some of these programs have benefits beyond prevention of HIV-a critical consideration given that injection drug use is increasing across most United States demographic groups. To identify high-value HIV prevention program portfolios for US PWID, we consider combinations of four interventions with demonstrated efficacy: opioid agonist therapy (OAT), needle and syringe programs (NSPs), HIV testing and treatment (Test & Treat), and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542176/measuring-personal-beliefs-and-perceived-norms-about-intimate-partner-violence-population-based-survey-experiment-in-rural-uganda
#17
Alexander C Tsai, Bernard Kakuhikire, Jessica M Perkins, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q McDonough, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Jordan M Downey, David R Bangsberg
BACKGROUND: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510604/ebola-exposure-illness-experience-and-ebola-antibody-prevalence-in-international-responders-to-the-west-african-ebola-epidemic-2014-2016-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Catherine F Houlihan, Catherine R McGowan, Steve Dicks, Marc Baguelin, David A J Moore, David Mabey, Chrissy H Roberts, Alex Kumar, Dhan Samuel, Richard Tedder, Judith R Glynn
BACKGROUND: Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV). Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510573/comparison-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-chloroquine-with-and-without-primaquine-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-in-ethiopia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tesfay Abreha, Jimee Hwang, Kamala Thriemer, Yehualashet Tadesse, Samuel Girma, Zenebe Melaku, Ashenafi Assef, Moges Kassa, Mark D Chatfield, Keren Z Landman, Stella M Chenet, Naomi W Lucchi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Zhiyong Zhou, Ya Ping Shi, S Patrick Kachur, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede, Hiwot Solomon, Addis Mekasha, Bereket Hailegiorgis Alemayehu, Joseph L Malone, Gunewardena Dissanayake, Hiwot Teka, Sarah Auburn, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts in malaria control have resulted in great gains in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, but P. vivax has been more refractory. Its ability to form dormant liver stages confounds control and elimination efforts. To compare the efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens for radical cure, we undertook a randomized controlled trial in Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status with symptomatic P...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486524/rotavirus-vaccine-will-have-an-impact-in-asia
#20
Carl D Kirkwood, A Duncan Steele
Carl Kirkwood and Duncan Steele discuss the evidence supporting rotavirus vaccine deployment in Asian countries.
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
journal
journal
40821
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"