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PLoS Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338000/progression-of-the-first-stage-of-spontaneous-labour-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-two-sub-saharan-african-countries
#1
Olufemi T Oladapo, Joao Paulo Souza, Bukola Fawole, Kidza Mugerwa, Gleici Perdoná, Domingos Alves, Hayala Souza, Rodrigo Reis, Livia Oliveira-Ciabati, Alexandre Maiorano, Adesina Akintan, Francis E Alu, Lawal Oyeneyin, Amos Adebayo, Josaphat Byamugisha, Miriam Nakalembe, Hadiza A Idris, Ola Okike, Fernando Althabe, Vanora Hundley, France Donnay, Robert Pattinson, Harshadkumar C Sanghvi, Jen E Jardine, Özge Tunçalp, Joshua P Vogel, Mary Ellen Stanton, Meghan Bohren, Jun Zhang, Tina Lavender, Jerker Liljestrand, Petra Ten Hoope-Bender, Matthews Mathai, Rajiv Bahl, A Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: Escalation in the global rates of labour interventions, particularly cesarean section and oxytocin augmentation, has renewed interest in a better understanding of natural labour progression. Methodological advancements in statistical and computational techniques addressing the limitations of pioneer studies have led to novel findings and triggered a re-evaluation of current labour practices. As part of the World Health Organization's Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project, which aimed to develop a new labour monitoring-to-action tool, we examined the patterns of labour progression as depicted by cervical dilatation over time in a cohort of women in Nigeria and Uganda who gave birth vaginally following a spontaneous labour onset...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337985/increased-risk-of-ischemic-heart-disease-hypertension-and-type-2-diabetes-in-women-with-previous-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-target-group-in-general-practice-for-preventive-interventions-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Barbara Daly, Konstantinos A Toulis, Neil Thomas, Krishna Gokhale, James Martin, Jonathan Webber, Deepi Keerthy, Kate Jolly, Ponnusamy Saravanan, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329301/estimated-mortality-on-hiv-treatment-among-active-patients-and-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-4-provinces-of-zambia-findings-from-a-multistage-sampling-based-survey
#3
Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kombatende Sikombe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K Beres, Njekwa Mukamba, Sandra Simbeza, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Cardinal Hantuba, Peter Mwaba, Caroline Phiri, Nancy Padian, David V Glidden, Elvin Geng
BACKGROUND: Survival represents the single most important indicator of successful HIV treatment. Routine monitoring fails to capture most deaths. As a result, both regional assessments of the impact of HIV services and identification of hotspots for improvement efforts are limited. We sought to assess true mortality on treatment, characterize the extent under-reporting of mortality in routine health information systems in Zambia, and identify drivers of mortality across sites and over time using a multistage, regionally representative sampling approach...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320495/the-who-2016-verbal-autopsy-instrument-an-international-standard-suitable-for-automated-analysis-by-interva-insilicova-and-tariff-2-0
#4
Erin K Nichols, Peter Byass, Daniel Chandramohan, Samuel J Clark, Abraham D Flaxman, Robert Jakob, Jordana Leitao, Nicolas Maire, Chalapati Rao, Ian Riley, Philip W Setel
BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a practical method for determining probable causes of death at the population level in places where systems for medical certification of cause of death are weak. VA methods suitable for use in routine settings, such as civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems, have developed rapidly in the last decade. These developments have been part of a growing global momentum to strengthen CRVS systems in low-income countries. With this momentum have come pressure for continued research and development of VA methods and the need for a single standard VA instrument on which multiple automated diagnostic methods can be developed...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320494/sexually-transmitted-infections-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-based-hiv-prevention-priorities-for-discovery-research-implementation-science-and-community-involvement
#5
Jeanne M Marrazzo, Julia C Dombrowski, Kenneth H Mayer
Jeanne M. Marrazzo and colleagues join PLOS Medicine's Collection on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of STIs with a Perspective on HIV research imperatives in our time of effective viral suppression and pre-exposure prophylaxis.
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320493/from-macro-to-microfactors-in-health-social-science-approaches-in-research-on-sexually-transmitted-infections
#6
Ruth Kutalek, Elena Jirovsky, Igor Grabovac
Ruth Kutalek and colleagues share their Perspective on Kipruto Chesang and colleagues' qualitative study of beliefs and practices among healthcare providers managing STIs in Kenya and discuss the value of this type of research for addressing biosocial challenges.
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315334/immune-related-genetic-enrichment-in-frontotemporal-dementia-an-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies
#7
Iris Broce, Celeste M Karch, Natalie Wen, Chun C Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Chin Hong Tan, Naomi Kouri, Owen A Ross, Günter U Höglinger, Ulrich Muller, John Hardy, Parastoo Momeni, Christopher P Hess, William P Dillon, Zachary A Miller, Luke W Bonham, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard J Rosen, Gerard D Schellenberg, Andre Franke, Tom H Karlsen, Jan H Veldink, Raffaele Ferrari, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Bruce L Miller, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Rahul S Desikan, Leo P Sugrue
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that immune-mediated dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although genetic studies have shown that immune-associated loci are associated with increased FTD risk, a systematic investigation of genetic overlap between immune-mediated diseases and the spectrum of FTD-related disorders has not been performed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) (total n = 192,886 cases and controls) and recently developed tools to quantify genetic overlap/pleiotropy, we systematically identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) jointly associated with FTD-related disorders-namely, FTD, corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-and 1 or more immune-mediated diseases including Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), celiac disease (CeD), and psoriasis...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300725/association-between-intake-of-less-healthy-foods-defined-by-the-united-kingdom-s-nutrient-profile-model-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Oliver T Mytton, Nita G Forouhi, Peter Scarborough, Marleen Lentjes, Robert Luben, Mike Rayner, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model) is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of less-healthy food as defined by the FSA-Ofcom model is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293504/what-about-drinking-is-associated-with-shorter-life-in-poorer-people
#9
Jürgen Rehm, Charlotte Probst
In a Perspective, Jürgen Rehm and Charlotte Probst examine the links between socioeconomic status, alcohol use, and cardiovascular mortality and discuss implications for policy.
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293503/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-risk-following-negative-results-from-chlamydia-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-naats-versus-non-naats-in-denmark-a-retrospective-cohort
#10
Bethan Davies, Katy M E Turner, Thomas Benfield, Maria Frølund, Berit Andersen, Henrik Westh, Helen Ward
BACKGROUND: Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia). However, less sensitive diagnostic methods-including direct immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)-remain in use in lower resourced settings. We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Denmark's national Chlamydia Study dataset to extract all chlamydia tests performed in women aged 15-34 years (1998-2001)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293492/life-course-socioeconomic-position-alcohol-drinking-patterns-in-midlife-and-cardiovascular-mortality-analysis-of-norwegian-population-based-health-surveys
#11
Eirik Degerud, Inger Ariansen, Eivind Ystrom, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Gudrun Høiseth, Jørg Mørland, George Davey Smith, Øyvind Næss
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups tend to experience more harm from the same level of exposure to alcohol as advantaged groups. Alcohol has multiple biological effects on the cardiovascular system, both potentially harmful and protective. We investigated whether the diverging relationships between alcohol drinking patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality differed by life course socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS AND FINDINGS: From 3 cohorts (the Counties Studies, the Cohort of Norway, and the Age 40 Program, 1987-2003) containing data from population-based cardiovascular health surveys in Norway, we included participants with self-reported information on alcohol consumption frequency (n = 207,394) and binge drinking episodes (≥5 units per occasion, n = 32,616)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281640/sexually-transmitted-infections-research-priorities-for-new-challenges
#12
EDITORIAL
Nicola Low, Nathalie J Broutet
In an Editorial, Guest Editors Nicola Low and Nathalie Broutet discuss the Collection on sexually transmitted infections in the context of research priorities in the field.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281636/healthcare-provider-perspectives-on-managing-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-hiv-care-settings-in-kenya-a-qualitative-thematic-analysis
#13
Kipruto Chesang, Sureyya Hornston, Odylia Muhenje, Teresa Saliku, Joy Mirjahangir, Amanda Viitanen, Helgar Musyoki, Christine Awuor, George Githuka, Naomi Bock
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been increasing in Kenya, as is the case elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, while measures for control and prevention are weak. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe healthcare provider (HCP) knowledge and practices, (2) explore HCP attitudes and beliefs, (3) identify structural and environmental factors affecting STI management, and (4) seek recommendations to improve the STI program in Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using individual in-depth interviews (IDIs), data were obtained from 87 HCPs working in 21 high-volume comprehensive HIV care centers (CCCs) in 7 of Kenya's 8 regions...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281632/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-are-interlinked-consequences-for-treatment-and-prevention
#14
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert
In a Perspective for our Collection on STI research, Janneke van de Wijgert discusses the latest on how the vaginal microbiota predisposes women to acquisition of STIs and discusses future potential for clinical intervention.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281630/re-emerging-and-newly-recognized-sexually-transmitted-infections-can-prior-experiences-shed-light-on-future-identification-and-control
#15
Kyle Bernstein, Virginia B Bowen, Caron R Kim, Michel J Counotte, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Edna Kara, Gail Bolan, Nicola Low, Nathalie Broutet
How do we spot the next sexually transmitted infection? Kyle Bernstein and colleagues look for lessons from past discovery.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281628/internet-accessed-sexually-transmitted-infection-e-sti-testing-and-results-service-a-randomised-single-blind-controlled-trial
#16
Emma Wilson, Caroline Free, Tim P Morris, Jonathan Syred, Irrfan Ahamed, Anatole S Menon-Johansson, Melissa J Palmer, Sharmani Barnard, Emma Rezel, Paula Baraitser
BACKGROUND: Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing) is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app), collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS) or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281620/dual-strain-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-infection-in-the-us-peru-and-8-countries-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-nested-cross-sectional-viral-genotyping-study
#17
Christine Johnston, Amalia Magaret, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Alexander L Greninger, Daniel Reeves, Joshua Schiffer, Keith R Jerome, Cassandra Sather, Kurt Diem, Jairam R Lingappa, Connie Celum, David M Koelle, Anna Wald
BACKGROUND: Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months) were included...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281619/shortages-of-benzathine-penicillin-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-syphilis-an-evaluation-from-multi-country-surveys-and-stakeholder-interviews
#18
Stephen Nurse-Findlay, Melanie M Taylor, Margaret Savage, Maeve B Mello, Sanni Saliyou, Manuel Lavayen, Frederic Seghers, Michael L Campbell, Françoise Birgirimana, Leopold Ouedraogo, Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nancy Kidula, Lee Pyne-Mercier
BACKGROUND: Benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is the only recommended treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Due to recent reports of country-level shortages of BPG, an evaluation was undertaken to quantify countries that have experienced shortages in the past 2 years and to describe factors contributing to these shortages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country-level data about BPG shortages were collected using 3 survey approaches. First, a survey designed by the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research was distributed to 41 countries and territories in the Americas and 41 more in Africa...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261655/cell-salvage-and-donor-blood-transfusion-during-cesarean-section-a-pragmatic-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-salvo
#19
Khalid S Khan, Philip A S Moore, Matthew J Wilson, Richard Hooper, Shubha Allard, Ian Wrench, Lee Beresford, Tracy E Roberts, Carol McLoughlin, James Geoghegan, Jane P Daniels, Sue Catling, Vicki A Clark, Paul Ayuk, Stephen Robson, Fang Gao-Smith, Matthew Hogg, Doris Lanz, Julie Dodds
BACKGROUND: Excessive haemorrhage at cesarean section requires donor (allogeneic) blood transfusion. Cell salvage may reduce this requirement. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (at 26 obstetric units; participants recruited from 4 June 2013 to 17 April 2016) of routine cell salvage use (intervention) versus current standard of care without routine salvage use (control) in cesarean section among women at risk of haemorrhage...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240766/estimated-clinical-impact-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-cartridge-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-modeling-study
#20
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
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