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PLoS Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787574/child-morbidity-and-mortality-associated-with-alternative-policy-responses-to-the-economic-crisis-in-brazil-a-nationwide-microsimulation-study
#1
Davide Rasella, Sanjay Basu, Thomas Hone, Romulo Paes-Sousa, Carlos Octávio Ocké-Reis, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: Since 2015, a major economic crisis in Brazil has led to increasing poverty and the implementation of long-term fiscal austerity measures that will substantially reduce expenditure on social welfare programmes as a percentage of the country's GDP over the next 20 years. The Bolsa Família Programme (BFP)-one of the largest conditional cash transfer programmes in the world-and the nationwide primary healthcare strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família [ESF]) are affected by fiscal austerity, despite being among the policy interventions with the strongest estimated impact on child mortality in the country...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782486/clinical-socioeconomic-and-behavioural-factors-at-age-50-years-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-multimorbidity-and-mortality-a-cohort-study
#2
Archana Singh-Manoux, Aurore Fayosse, Séverine Sabia, Adam Tabak, Martin Shipley, Aline Dugravot, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763434/ibuprofen-versus-pivmecillinam-for-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-double-blind-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Ingvild Vik, Marianne Bollestad, Nils Grude, Anders Bærheim, Eivind Damsgaard, Thomas Neumark, Lars Bjerrum, Gloria Cordoba, Inge Christoffer Olsen, Morten Lindbæk
BACKGROUND: Although uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often self-limiting, most patients will be prescribed antibiotic treatment. We assessed whether treatment with ibuprofen was non-inferior to pivmecillinam in achieving symptomatic resolution by day 4, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind non-inferiority trial. We recruited patients from 16 sites in a general practice setting in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763433/injury-and-death-during-the-isis-occupation-of-mosul-and-its-liberation-results-from-a-40-cluster-household-survey
#4
Riyadh Lafta, Maha A Al-Nuaimi, Gilbert Burnham
BACKGROUND: Measurement of mortality and injury in conflict situations presents many challenges compared with stable situations. However, providing information is important to assess the impact of conflict on populations and to estimate humanitarian needs, both in the immediate and longer term. Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, was overrun by fighters of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) on June 4, 2014. In this study, we conducted household surveys to measure reported deaths, injuries, and kidnappings in Mosul, Iraq, both during the occupation of the city by fighters of ISIS and the months of Iraqi military action known as the liberation...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750787/distributional-change-of-women-s-adult-height-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-over-the-past-half-century-an-observational-study-using-cross-sectional-survey-data
#5
Jewel Gausman, Ivan Meija Guevara, S V Subramanian, Fahad Razak
BACKGROUND: Adult height reflects childhood circumstances and is associated with health, longevity, and maternal-fetal outcomes. Mean height is an important population metric, and declines in height have occurred in several low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa, over the last several decades. This study examines changes at the population level in the distribution of height over time across a broad range of low- and middle-income countries during the past half century...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738523/the-next-forum-for-unraveling-fda-off-label-marketing-rules-state-and-federal-legislatures
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael S Sinha, Aaron S Kesselheim
In a Guest Editorial, Aaron S. Kesselheim and Michael S. Sinha show how federal and state legislation to allow promotion of drugs for non-approved uses threatens to undermine the FDA's public health mission.
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727458/access-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-aged-0-19-years-in-the-international-epidemiology-databases-to-evaluate-aids-iedea-global-cohort-consortium-2004-2015-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Sophie Desmonde, Franck Tanser, Rachel Vreeman, Elom Takassi, Andrew Edmonds, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Jorge Pinto, Karen Malateste, Catherine McGowan, Azar Kariminia, Marcel Yotebieng, Fatoumata Dicko, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a global priority. However, the attrition across the continuum of care for HIV-infected children between their HIV diagnosis and ART initiation is not well known. We analyzed the time from enrollment into HIV care to ART initiation in HIV-infected children within the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Global Cohort Consortium. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 135,479 HIV-1-infected children, aged 0-19 years and ART-naïve at enrollment, between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015, in IeDEA cohorts from Central Africa (3 countries; n = 4,948), East Africa (3 countries; n = 22,827), West Africa (7 countries; n = 7,372), Southern Africa (6 countries; n = 93,799), Asia-Pacific (6 countries; n = 4,045), and Latin America (7 countries; n = 2,488)...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723196/all-science-should-inform-policy-and-regulation
#8
EDITORIAL
John P A Ioannidis
In the context of a recent proposal to exclude research from consideration at the Environmental Protection Agency, John Ioannidis points out that "perceived perfection is not a characteristic of science, but of dogma" and envisions how governments can promote a standard of openness in science.
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718904/association-of-vitamin-d-with-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-a-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-european-and-chinese-adults
#9
Ling Lu, Derrick A Bennett, Iona Y Millwood, Sarah Parish, Mark I McCarthy, Anubha Mahajan, Xu Lin, Fiona Bragg, Yu Guo, Michael V Holmes, Shoaib Afzal, Børge G Nordestgaard, Zheng Bian, Michael Hill, Robin G Walters, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen, Robert Clarke
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported that higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations are associated with lower risks of diabetes, but it is unclear if these associations are causal. The aim of this study was to test the relevance of 25(OH)D for type 2 diabetes using genetically instrumented differences in plasma 25(OH)D concentrations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were available on four 25(OH)D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; n = 82,464), plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (n = 13,565), and cases with diabetes (n = 5,565) in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB)...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715303/health-insurance-coverage-with-or-without-a-nurse-led-task-shifting-strategy-for-hypertension-control-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial-in-ghana
#10
Gbenga Ogedegbe, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Joyce Gyamfi, William Chaplin, Michael Ntim, Kingsley Apusiga, Juliet Iwelunmor, Kwasi Yeboah Awudzi, Kofi Nana Quakyi, Jazmin Mogaverro, Kiran Khurshid, Bamidele Tayo, Richard Cooper
BACKGROUND: Poor access to care and physician shortage are major barriers to hypertension control in sub-Saharan Africa. Implementation of evidence-based systems-level strategies targeted at these barriers are lacking. We conducted a study to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of provision of health insurance coverage (HIC) alone versus a nurse-led task shifting strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) plus HIC on systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Ghana...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715300/public-versus-internal-conceptions-of-addiction-an-analysis-of-internal-philip-morris-documents
#11
Jesse Elias, Yogi Hale Hendlin, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Tobacco addiction is a complex, multicomponent phenomenon stemming from nicotine's pharmacology and the user's biology, psychology, sociology, and environment. After decades of public denial, the tobacco industry now agrees with public health authorities that nicotine is addictive. In 2000, Philip Morris became the first major tobacco company to admit nicotine's addictiveness. Evolving definitions of addiction have historically affected subsequent policymaking. This article examines how Philip Morris internally conceptualized addiction immediately before and after this announcement...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689098/maternal-age-and-offspring-developmental-vulnerability-at-age-five-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-australian-children
#12
Kathleen Falster, Mark Hanly, Emily Banks, John Lynch, Georgina Chambers, Marni Brownell, Sandra Eades, Louisa Jorm
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW), enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689085/determining-the-scope-of-attacks-on-health-in-four-governorates-of-syria-in-2016-results-of-a-field-surveillance-program
#13
Rohini J Haar, Casey B Risko, Sonal Singh, Diana Rayes, Ahmad Albaik, Mohammed Alnajar, Mazen Kewara, Emily Clouse, Elise Baker, Leonard S Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Violent attacks on and interferences with hospitals, ambulances, health workers, and patients during conflict destroy vital health services during a time when they are most needed and undermine the long-term capacity of the health system. In Syria, such attacks have been frequent and intense and represent grave violations of the Geneva Conventions, but the number reported has varied considerably. A systematic mechanism to document these attacks could assist in designing more protection strategies and play a critical role in influencing policy, promoting justice, and addressing the health needs of the population...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689059/attacks-on-medical-workers-in-syria-implications-for-conflict-research
#14
Michael Spagat
In a Perspective linked to the Research Article by Haar and colleagues, Michael Spagat discusses the challenges and importance of conducting research on mortality in regions affected by violent conflicts.
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689057/impacts-2-years-after-a-scalable-early-childhood-development-intervention-to-increase-psychosocial-stimulation-in-the-home-a-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-in-colombia
#15
Alison Andrew, Orazio Attanasio, Emla Fitzsimons, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Costas Meghir, Marta Rubio-Codina
BACKGROUND: Poor early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries is a major concern. There are calls to universalise access to ECD interventions through integrating them into existing government services but little evidence on the medium- or long-term effects of such scalable models. We previously showed that a psychosocial stimulation (PS) intervention integrated into a cash transfer programme improved Colombian children's cognition, receptive language, and home stimulation...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689056/from-surviving-to-thriving-what-evidence-is-needed-to-move-early-child-development-interventions-to-scale
#16
Mark Tomlinson
In a Perspective, Mark Tomlinson discusses research on early interventions to support child development in developing countries.
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689045/two-year-impact-of-community-based-health-screening-and-parenting-groups-on-child-development-in-zambia-follow-up-to-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Peter C Rockers, Arianna Zanolini, Bowen Banda, Mwaba Moono Chipili, Robert C Hughes, Davidson H Hamer, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: Early childhood interventions have potential to offset the negative impact of early adversity. We evaluated the impact of a community-based parenting group intervention on child development in Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a non-masked cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia. Thirty clusters of villages were matched based on population density and distance from the nearest health center, and randomly assigned to intervention (15 clusters, 268 caregiver-child dyads) or control (15 clusters, 258 caregiver-child dyads)...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677187/breastfeeding-during-infancy-and-neurocognitive-function-in-adolescence-16-year-follow-up-of-the-probit-cluster-randomized-trial
#18
Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Mikhail Hameza, Glen Doniger, Shimon Amit, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development is based almost exclusively on observational studies. In the 16-year follow-up study of a large, cluster-randomized trial of a breastfeeding promotion intervention, we evaluated the long-term persistence of the neurocognitive benefits of the breastfeeding promotion intervention previously observed at early school age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 13,557 participants (79...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664951/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-cluster-randomized-community-based-non-inferiority-trial
#19
Luke C Mullany, Elburg W van Boetzelaer, Julie R Gutman, Laura C Steinhardt, Pascal Ngoy, Yolanda Barbera Lainez, Alison Wittcoff, Steven A Harvey, Lara S Ho
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's integrated community case management (iCCM) guidelines recommend that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs return for follow-up on day 3 following the initial consultation on day 1. Such fevers often resolve rapidly, however, and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aimed to determine if a conditional follow-up visit was non-inferior to a universal follow-up visit for these children...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664899/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-ethiopia-a-cluster-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#20
Karin Källander, Tobias Alfvén, Tjede Funk, Ayalkibet Abebe, Abreham Hailemariam, Dawit Getachew, Max Petzold, Laura C Steinhardt, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: With declining malaria prevalence and improved use of malaria diagnostic tests, an increasing proportion of children seen by community health workers (CHWs) have unclassified fever. Current community management guidelines by WHO advise that children seen with non-severe unclassified fever (on day 1) should return to CHWs on day 3 for reassessment. We compared the safety of conditional follow-up reassessment only in cases where symptoms do not resolve with universal follow-up on day 3...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
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