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PLoS Medicine

Amitabh B Suthar, Patrick K Moonan, Heather L Alexander
In a Perspective on the research article from Jacobson and colleagues, Amitabh Suthar and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention discuss the importance of and considerations for developing real-time and large-scale reporting systems for tracking and controlling antimicrobial resistance.
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Joshua A Bell, Mark Hamer, Rebecca C Richmond, Nicholas J Timpson, David Carslake, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Multiple occasions of device-measured physical activity have not been previously examined in relation to metabolic traits. We described associations of total activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary time from three accelerometry measures taken across adolescence with detailed traits related to systemic metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: There were 1,826 male and female participants recruited at birth in 1991-1992 via mothers into the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children offspring cohort who attended clinics in 2003-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2008 who were included in ≥1 analysis...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Haroon Ahmed, Daniel Farewell, Nick A Francis, Shantini Paranjothy, Christopher C Butler
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the risk of adverse outcomes in older people with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years presenting to primary care with a UTI, by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and empirical prescription of nitrofurantoin versus trimethoprim. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective cohort study using linked health record data from 795,484 patients from 393 general practices in England, who were aged ≥65 years between 2010 and 2016...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Kittipong Maneechotesuwan, Xin Yao, Kazuhiro Ito, Elen Jazrawi, Omar S Usmani, Ian M Adcock, Peter J Barnes
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000076.].
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Andrew S P Lim, Chris Gaiteri, Lei Yu, Shahmir Sohail, Walter Swardfager, Shinya Tasaki, Julie A Schneider, Claire Paquet, Donald T Stuss, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Jacques Hugon, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
BACKGROUND: There are few data concerning the association between season and cognition and its neurobiological correlates in older persons-effects with important translational and therapeutic implications for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to measure these effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 3,353 participants from 3 observational community-based cohort studies of older persons (the Rush Memory and Aging Project [MAP], the Religious Orders Study [ROS], and the Minority Aging Research Study [MARS]) and 2 observational memory-clinic-based cohort studies (Centre de Neurologie Cognitive [CNC] study at Lariboisière Hospital and the Sunnybrook Dementia Study [SDS])...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Xuehong Zhang, Megan Rice, Shelley S Tworoger, Bernard A Rosner, A Heather Eliassen, Rulla M Tamimi, Amit D Joshi, Sara Lindstrom, Jing Qian, Graham A Colditz, Walter C Willett, Peter Kraft, Susan E Hankinson
BACKGROUND: No prior study to our knowledge has examined the joint contribution of a polygenic risk score (PRS), mammographic density (MD), and postmenopausal endogenous hormone levels-all well-confirmed risk factors for invasive breast cancer-to existing breast cancer risk prediction models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II including 4,006 cases and 7,874 controls ages 34-70 years up to 1 June 2010...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Marc Schiltz
In this Perspective, a group of national funders, joined by the European Commission and the European Research Council, announce plans to make Open Access publishing mandatory for recipients of their agencies' research funding.
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Weiming Tang, Chongyi Wei, Bolin Cao, Dan Wu, Katherine T Li, Haidong Lu, Wei Ma, Dianmin Kang, Haochu Li, Meizhen Liao, Katie R Mollan, Michael G Hudgens, Chuncheng Liu, Wenting Huang, Aifeng Liu, Ye Zhang, M Kumi Smith, Kate M Mitchell, Jason J Ong, Hongyun Fu, Peter Vickerman, Ligang Yang, Cheng Wang, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: HIV testing rates are suboptimal among at-risk men. Crowdsourcing may be a useful tool for designing innovative, community-based HIV testing strategies to increase HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to use a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a crowdsourced HIV intervention on HIV testing uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) in eight Chinese cities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An HIV testing intervention was developed through a national image contest, a regional strategy designathon, and local message contests...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Joshua A Bell, David Carslake, Kaitlin H Wade, Rebecca C Richmond, Ryan J Langdon, Emma E Vincent, Michael V Holmes, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Earlier puberty is widely linked with future obesity and cardiometabolic disease. We examined whether age at puberty onset likely influences adiposity and cardiometabolic traits independent of childhood adiposity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses were conducted on up to 3,611 white-European female and male offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited at birth via mothers between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
QiPing Feng, Wei-Qi Wei, Cecilia P Chung, Rebecca T Levinson, Alexandra C Sundermann, Jonathan D Mosley, Lisa Bastarache, Jane F Ferguson, Nancy J Cox, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, MacRae F Linton, Digna R Velez Edwards, C Michael Stein
BACKGROUND: Observations from statin clinical trials and from Mendelian randomization studies suggest that low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the findings from statin clinical trials and genetic studies, there is little direct evidence implicating low LDL-C concentrations in increased risk of T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) at Vanderbilt University Medical Center to compare the risk of T2DM in a cross-sectional study among individuals with very low (≤60 mg/dl, N = 8,943) and normal (90-130 mg/dl, N = 71,343) LDL-C levels calculated using the Friedewald formula...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Martin White, Jean Adams
In a Perspective, Martin White and Jean Adams discuss challenges in the evaluation of interventions intended to benefit population health.
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Lars Åke Persson
Despite its clear biological benefits, many infants globally do not receive exclusive breastfeeding. In a Guest Editorial, Lars Åke Persson discusses what is needed to make breastfeeding the social norm.
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Avery I McIntosh, Helen E Jenkins, Laura F White, Marinus Barnard, Dana R Thomson, Tania Dolby, John Simpson, Elizabeth M Streicher, Mary B Kleinman, Elizabeth J Ragan, Paul D van Helden, Megan B Murray, Robin M Warren, Karen R Jacobson
BACKGROUND: South Africa has the highest tuberculosis incidence globally (781/100,000), with an estimated 4.3% of cases being rifampicin resistant (RR). Control and elimination strategies will require detailed spatial information to understand where drug-resistant tuberculosis exists and why it persists in those communities. We demonstrate a method to enable drug-resistant tuberculosis monitoring by identifying high-burden communities in the Western Cape Province using routinely collected laboratory data...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ga Eun Nam, Seon Mee Kim, Kyungdo Han, Nan Hee Kim, Hye Soo Chung, Jin Wook Kim, Byoungduck Han, Sung Jung Cho, Ji Hee Yu, Yong Gyu Park, Kyung Mook Choi
BACKGROUND: The association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) is currently unclear. We sought to determine whether MetS and its components are associated with the risk of incident PD using large-scale cohort data for the whole South Korean population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Health checkup data of 17,163,560 individuals aged ≥40 years provided by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of South Korea between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012, were included, and participants were followed up until December 31, 2015...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Muin J Khoury, W Gregory Feero, David A Chambers, Lawrence C Brody, Nazneen Aziz, Robert C Green, A Cecile J W Janssens, Michael F Murray, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Joni L Rutter, Sheri D Schully, Deborah M Winn, George A Mensah
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002631.].
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Mary Dillon, Louisa Flander, Daniel D Buchanan, Finlay A Macrae, Jon D Emery, Ingrid M Winship, Alex Boussioutas, Graham G Giles, John L Hopper, Mark A Jenkins, Driss Ait Ouakrim
BACKGROUND: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006. When fully implemented, the programme will invite people aged 50 to 74 to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) every 2 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate colorectal cancer (CRC) screening occurring outside of the NBCSP, we classified participants (n = 2,480) in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) into 3 risk categories (average, moderately increased, and potentially high) based on CRC family history and assessed their screening practices according to national guidelines...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Jeremy D Keenan, Zerihun Tadesse, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Ayalew Shiferaw, Mulat Zerihun, Paul M Emerson, Kelly Callahan, Sun Y Cotter, Nicole E Stoller, Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends annual mass azithromycin administration in communities with at least 10% prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children, with further treatment depending on reassessment after 3-5 years. However, the effect of stopping mass azithromycin distribution after multiple rounds of treatment is not well understood. Here, we report the results of a cluster-randomized trial where communities that had received 4 years of treatments were then randomized to continuation or discontinuation of treatment...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Arianna Zanolini, Kombatende Sikombe, Izukanji Sikazwe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Paul Somwe, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Stephanie M Topp, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K Beres, Chanda P Mwamba, Nancy Padian, Charles B Holmes, Elvin H Geng
BACKGROUND: In public health HIV treatment programs in Africa, long-term retention remains a challenge. A number of improvement strategies exist (e.g., bring services closer to home, reduce visit frequency, expand hours of clinic operation, improve provider attitude), but implementers lack data about which to prioritize when resource constraints preclude implementing all. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify preferences for a number of potential clinic improvements to enhance retention...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Matthew P Fox, Jacob Bor, Alana T Brennan, William B MacLeod, Mhairi Maskew, Wendy S Stevens, Sergio Carmona
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002589.].
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Rebecca Kahn, Annette Rid, Peter G Smith, Nir Eyal, Marc Lipsitch
In a Policy Forum, Marc Lipsitch and colleagues discuss trial design issues in infectious disease outbreaks.
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
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