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PLoS Medicine

Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Stephanie Law, H Simon Schaaf, Tamara Kredo, James A Seddon, Dick Menzies, Anna Turkova, Jay Achar, Farhana Amanullah, Pennan Barry, Mercedes Becerra, Edward D Chan, Pei Chun Chan, Domnica Ioana Chiotan, Aldo Crossa, Peter C Drobac, Lee Fairlie, Dennis Falzon, Jennifer Flood, Medea Gegia, Robert M Hicks, Petros Isaakidis, S M Kadri, Beate Kampmann, Shabir A Madhi, Else Marais, Andrei Mariandyshev, Ana Méndez-Echevarría, Brittany Kathryn Moore, Parpieva Nargiza, Iveta Ozere, Nesri Padayatchi, Saleem- Ur-Rehman, Natasha Rybak, Begoña Santiago-Garcia, N Sarita Shah, Sangeeta Sharma, Tae Sun Shim, Alena Skrahina, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Martin van den Boom, Marieke J van der Werf, Tjip S van der Werf, Bhanu Williams, Elena Yablokova, Jae-Joon Yim, Jennifer Furin, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: An estimated 32,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) each year. Little is known about the optimal treatment for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To inform the pediatric aspects of the revised World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guidelines, we performed a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, describing treatment outcomes in children treated for MDR-TB...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Justine A Hutchinson, Jason Vargo, Meredith Milet, Nancy H F French, Michael Billmire, Jeffrey Johnson, Sumi Hoshiko
BACKGROUND: The frequency and intensity of wildfires is anticipated to increase as climate change creates longer, warmer, and drier seasons. Particulate matter (PM) from wildfire smoke has been linked to adverse respiratory and possibly cardiovascular outcomes. Children, older adults, and persons with underlying respiratory and cardiovascular conditions are thought to be particularly vulnerable. This study examines the healthcare utilization of Medi-Cal recipients during the fall 2007 San Diego wildfires, which exposed millions of persons to wildfire smoke...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Jose Guillermo Cedeño Laurent, Augusta Williams, Youssef Oulhote, Antonella Zanobetti, Joseph G Allen, John D Spengler
BACKGROUND: In many regions globally, buildings designed for harnessing heat during the cold exacerbate thermal exposures during heat waves (HWs) by maintaining elevated indoor temperatures even when high ambient temperatures have subdued. While previous experimental studies have documented the effects of ambient temperatures on cognitive function, few have observed HW effects on indoor temperatures following subjects' habitual conditions. The objective was to evaluate the differential impact of having air conditioning (AC) on cognitive function during a HW among residents of AC and non-AC buildings using a prospective observational cohort study...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Laura Pimpin, Lise Retat, Daniela Fecht, Laure de Preux, Franco Sassi, John Gulliver, Annalisa Belloni, Brian Ferguson, Emily Corbould, Abbygail Jaccard, Laura Webber
BACKGROUND: Air pollution damages health by promoting the onset of some non-communicable diseases (NCDs), putting additional strain on the National Health Service (NHS) and social care. This study quantifies the total health and related NHS and social care cost burden due to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in England. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Air pollutant concentration surfaces from land use regression models and cost data from hospital admissions data and a literature review were fed into a microsimulation model, that was run from 2015 to 2035...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Lara Cushing, Dan Blaustein-Rejto, Madeline Wander, Manuel Pastor, James Sadd, Allen Zhu, Rachel Morello-Frosch
BACKGROUND: Policies to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can yield public health benefits by also reducing emissions of hazardous co-pollutants, such as air toxics and particulate matter. Socioeconomically disadvantaged communities are typically disproportionately exposed to air pollutants, and therefore climate policy could also potentially reduce these environmental inequities. We sought to explore potential social disparities in GHG and co-pollutant emissions under an existing carbon trading program-the dominant approach to GHG regulation in the US and globally...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Cecilia Sorensen, Virginia Murray, Jay Lemery, John Balbus
In a Policy Forum, Cecilia Sorensen and colleagues discuss the implications of climate change for women's health.
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Jacqueline K Olive, Peter J Hotez, Ashish Damania, Melissa S Nolan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002578.].
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Narges Alipanah, Leah Jarlsberg, Cecily Miller, Nguyen Nhat Linh, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Payam Nahid
BACKGROUND: Incomplete adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment increases the risk of delayed culture conversion with continued transmission in the community, as well as treatment failure, relapse, and development or amplification of drug resistance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adherence interventions, including directly observed therapy (DOT), to determine which approaches lead to improved TB treatment outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically reviewed Medline as well as the references of published review articles for relevant studies of adherence to multidrug treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB through February 3, 2018...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
David W Abel, Tracey Holloway, Monica Harkey, Paul Meier, Doug Ahl, Vijay S Limaye, Jonathan A Patz
BACKGROUND: Climate change negatively impacts human health through heat stress and exposure to worsened air pollution, amongst other pathways. Indoor use of air conditioning can be an effective strategy to reduce heat exposure. However, increased air conditioning use increases emissions of air pollutants from power plants, in turn worsening air quality and human health impacts. We used an interdisciplinary linked model system to quantify the impacts of heat-driven adaptation through building cooling demand on air-quality-related health outcomes in a representative mid-century climate scenario...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ryota Nakamura, Andrew J Mirelman, Cristóbal Cuadrado, Nicolas Silva-Illanes, Jocelyn Dunstan, Marc Suhrcke
BACKGROUND: In October 2014, Chile implemented a tax modification on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) called the Impuesto Adicional a las Bebidas Analcohólicas (IABA). The design of the tax was unique, increasing the tax on soft drinks above 6.25 grams of added sugar per 100 mL and decreasing the tax for those below this threshold. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study evaluates Chile's SSB tax, which was announced in March 2014 and implemented in October 2014. We used household-level grocery-purchasing data from 2011 to 2015 for 2,836 households living in cities representative of the urban population of Chile...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Kristie L Ebi, Lewis H Ziska
In a Perspective, Kristie Ebi and Lewis Ziska discuss Weyant and colleagues' accompanying study on the projected effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on nutrition and disease.
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Kai Chen, Arlene M Fiore, Renjie Chen, Leiwen Jiang, Bryan Jones, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters, Jun Bi, Haidong Kan, Patrick L Kinney
BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to further worsen ozone pollution in already heavily polluted areas, leading to increased ozone-related health burdens. However, little evidence exists in China, the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter and most populated country. As China is embracing an aging population with changing population size and falling age-standardized mortality rates, the potential impact of population change on ozone-related health burdens is unclear. Moreover, little is known about the seasonal variation of ozone-related health burdens under climate change...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Juan Carlos Caro, Camila Corvalán, Marcela Reyes, Andres Silva, Barry Popkin, Lindsey Smith Taillie
BACKGROUND: On October 1, 2014, the Chilean government modified its previous sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, increasing the tax rate from 13% to 18% on industrialized beverages with high levels of sugar (H-SSBs) (greater than 6.25 grams [g] sugar/100 milliliters [mL]) and decreasing the tax rate from 13% to 10% on industrialized beverages with low or no sugar (L-SSBs) (less than 6.25 g sugar/100 mL). This study examines changes in beverage prices and household beverage purchases following the implementation of the tax reform...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Christopher Weyant, Margaret L Brandeau, Marshall Burke, David B Lobell, Eran Bendavid, Sanjay Basu
BACKGROUND: Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are anticipated to decrease the zinc and iron concentrations of crops. The associated disease burden and optimal mitigation strategies remain unknown. We sought to understand where and to what extent increasing carbon dioxide concentrations may increase the global burden of nutritional deficiencies through changes in crop nutrient concentrations, and the effects of potential mitigation strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each of 137 countries, we incorporated estimates of climate change, crop nutrient concentrations, dietary patterns, and disease risk into a microsimulation model of zinc and iron deficiency...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
Elizabeth A Torrone, Charles S Morrison, Pai-Lien Chen, Cynthia Kwok, Suzanna C Francis, Richard J Hayes, Katharine J Looker, Sheena McCormack, Nuala McGrath, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Deborah Watson-Jones, Nicola Low, Sami L Gottlieb
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002511.].
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Amit Kumar, Momotazur Rahman, Amal N Trivedi, Linda Resnik, Pedro Gozalo, Vincent Mor
BACKGROUND: Medicare Advantage (MA) and Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) plans have different financial incentives. Medicare pays predetermined rates per beneficiary to MA plans for providing care throughout the year, while providers serving FFS patients are reimbursed per utilization event. It is unknown how these incentives affect post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). The objective of this study was to examine differences in rehabilitation service use, length of stay, and outcomes for patients following hip fracture between FFS and MA enrollees...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Pepita Barlow, Ronald Labonte, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: It has long been contested that trade rules and agreements are used to dispute regulations aimed at preventing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Yet most analyses of trade rules and agreements focus on trade disputes, potentially overlooking how a challenge to a regulation's consistency with trade rules may lead to 'policy or regulatory chill' effects whereby countries delay, alter, or repeal regulations in order to avoid the costs of a dispute. Systematic empirical analysis of this pathway to impact was previously prevented by a dearth of systematically coded data...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Matthew E Coldiron, Bachir Assao, Anne-Laure Page, Matt D T Hitchings, Gabriel Alcoba, Iza Ciglenecki, Céline Langendorf, Christopher Mambula, Eric Adehossi, Fati Sidikou, Elhadji Ibrahim Tassiou, Victoire De Lastours, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis for contacts of meningitis cases is not recommended during outbreaks in the African meningitis belt. We assessed the effectiveness of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin administered to household contacts and in village-wide distributions on the overall attack rate (AR) in an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this 3-arm, open-label, cluster-randomized trial during a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Madarounfa District, Niger, villages notifying a suspected case were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to standard care (the control arm), single-dose oral ciprofloxacin for household contacts within 24 hours of case notification, or village-wide distribution of ciprofloxacin within 72 hours of first case notification...
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
Keith P Klugman, Rasa Izadnegahdar
In a Perspective, Keith P. Klugman and Rasa Izadnegahdar from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation discuss the potentials and risks of antibiotic prophylaxis interventions for infectious disease outbreaks in rural regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa with very high mortality rates, when primary prophylactic vaccination programs are not yet available.
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
David Peiris, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
In a Perspective, David Peiris and Dorairaj Prabhakaran discuss implications and challenges of cardiovascular disease risk assessments in the population of India.
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
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