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Fetal and Pediatric Pathology

Svetlana Milenković, Borisav Jankovic, Ljiljana Mirković, Miljana Z Jovandaric, Dušan Milenković, Biljana Otašević
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for developing metabolic syndrome later in life. We explored whether adipokine concentrations in cord blood (CB) and on day 3 (D3) were related to impaired fetal growth and lipids in IUGR twins. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six discordant (birth weight [BW] discordance ≥20% calculated in relation to the heavier co-twins) and 42 concordant (BW discordance ≤ 10%) twin pairs were included. RESULTS: In IUGR twins, both adiponectin/BW and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher, while total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in CB...
November 14, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Ana Luísa Areia, Pedro Rodrigues, Ana Alarcão, Ana Ladeirinha, Paulo Moura, Lina Carvalho
Preterm labor (PTL) accounts for almost 11% of deliveries, and is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. T regulatory (Treg) cells may prevent fetal rejection by the maternal immune system under the influence of progesterone. Case control study was conducted to determine Treg cells, IL-10, TGF-β, and membrane progesterone receptorα (mPRα) in the maternal-fetal interface (placenta), including eight pregnant women with threatened PTL (study group) and 16 normal-delivery women (control group). Comparing study group versus control, mean gestational age of delivery differed significantly (p = 0...
November 9, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Ahmad Tavakoli, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Hamidreza Mollaei, Bahman Abedi-Kiasari, Fatemeh Hoda Fallah, Helya Sadat Mortazavi
This study aims to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection among pregnant women as well as congenital infection of their newborns in Tehran. One hundred samples of blood sera from pregnant women were analyzed for the presence of HSV specific antibodies. Umbilical cord blood samples from the newborns were analyzed for the presence of HSV DNA using real-time PCR. HSV IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 97% and 2% of pregnant women, respectively. Of all the 100 cord blood samples, 6 were positive for HSV DNA in which 2 cases were from mothers who had detectable IgM...
October 20, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Tayyeb Bahrami, Samaneh Soltani, Kasra Moazzami, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Arash Salmaninejad, Ehsan Soltaninejad, Vahid Ziaee, Nima Rezaei
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common cause of chronic arthritis in children, is a complex immune-mediated disease with considerable long-term morbidity and mortality. According to previous studies, PTPN22 gene has been associated with JIA in several populations. In the present study, we attempted to determine the association of PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to JIA in Iranian population. Using the Real-time PCR allelic discrimination method, samples consisting of 55 unrelated patients and 93 healthy controls were genotyped...
October 12, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Shanna Burke, Peter Maramaldi
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the complexity and myriad clinical manifestations and expressions of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). It aimed to determine if VCFS invariably met the three disability criteria for the Compassionate Allowance List (CAL) program administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA). METHODS: A systematic evaluative review of the literature found in 10 academic databases was completed. Inclusion criteria of the search terms yielded 1,383 initial manuscripts...
October 12, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Nisha A Lakhi, Gerald J Mizejewski
Elevations of serum alpha-fetoprotein (sAFP) have been reported in fetal and infant states of anemia. Fanconi anemia (FA) belongs to a family of genetic instability disorders which lack the capability to repair DNA breaks. The lesion occurs at a checkpoint regulatory step of the G2 to mitotic transition, allowing FA cells to override cell-cycle arrest. FA DNA repair pathways contain complementation groups known as FANC proteins. FANC proteins form multi-protein complexes with BRCA proteins and are involved in homologous DNA repair...
October 3, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Yasser Gamal, Ahlam Badawy, Salwa Swelam, Mostafa S K Tawfeek, Eman Fathalla Gad
Glucocorticoids are primary therapy of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, not all children respond to steroid therapy. We assessed glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in fifty-one children with INS and its relation to response to steroid therapy and to histopathological type. Clinical, laboratory and glomerular expression of glucocorticoid receptors were compared between groups with different steroid response. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was slightly higher in controls than in minimal change early responders, which in turn was significantly higher than in minimal change late responders...
October 3, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Gratiana Hermann, Basel Jabarin, Tal Marom, Bernard Barzilay, Arnon Elizur, Ephraim Eviatar, Jacob Pitaro
We describe a congenital mass in the nasopharynx of an infant presenting with dyspnea and feeding difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated 2 separate polypoid nasal cavity masses that were endoscopically resected. Histologically, both lesions were composed of mature adipose tissue with broad fibrous bands and several foci of brown fat. PLAG-1 and HMGA-2 were negative by immunostains. The best diagnosis was a fibrolipomatous hamartoma.
September 14, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Sibel Ozler, Efser Oztas, Ozcan Erel, Basak Gumus Guler, Merve Ergin, Dilek Uygur, Nuri Danisman
AIM: Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on cord blood dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was carried out in 125 pregnant women (27 GDM, 30 obese, 68 controls). Cord blood samples were collected from all participants and native thiol-disulfide exchanges were examined with automated method enabling the measurement of both sides of thiol-disulfide balance...
September 14, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Mustafa Kara, Zerrin Orbak, Hakan Döneray, Behzat Ozkan, Fatih Akcay
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between skinfold thickness and serum leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in infants of diabetic mothers. Biochemical parameters were also similar for the two groups (infants of diabetic mothers and controls) (p > 0.05). We confirmed that there was a negative correlation between birth weight and serum ghrelin level (p < 0.05) in the two groups. When it was evaluated for control newborns, a positive correlation between abdominal circumference and serum resistin level was found in the controls (p < 0...
August 25, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Marie Nguyen, Benjamin Addicott, Julia Chu, David Parham, Eugene Kim
Umbilical cord cysts warrant evaluation for structural defects and chromosomal anomalies such as trisomy 18, depending on the type of cyst. The appearance of an enlarged or "gigantic" cord has particular association with a patent urachus, often requiring operative exploration to repair the associated urachal remnant. We describe the unusual case of an umbilical cord cyst-measuring 9 cm in maximal diameter and comprising histopathological features of an urachalcyst-presenting in a healthy ex-36 week newborn with no associated anomalies...
August 5, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Shi Zeng, Qichang Zhou, Leiqi Tian, Jiawei Zhou, Ming Zhang, Danming Cao
We report two cases of prenatally diagnosed isolated coronary artery fistula. The first fetus had a fistulous communication between the left circumflex coronary artery and the right atrium. The second fetus had right coronary artery to left ventricle fistula. In addition, we have also reviewed previously published reports on prenatally diagnosed coronary artery fistulae, focusing on their clinical profiles, outcome and postnatal treatment.
June 30, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Seyed Mohammad Seyedhassani, Feyzollah Hashemi-Gorji, Mahdieh Yavari, Fahimeh Harazi, Vahid Reza Yassaee
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a set of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with autosomal dominant, recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns. The aim of this study was to describe a novel genetic abnormality in a case of OI type XI with mild joint contractures, kyphoscoliosis, muscular atrophy, progressively deforming and multiple bone fractures in a consanguineous Iranian family. Based on the phenotype, investigation of two candidate genes, CRTAP (OI type VII) and FKBP10 (OI type XI) detected a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the FKBP10 gene...
June 30, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Guven Kaya, Mehmet Saldir, Adem Polat, M Kursat Fidanci, Aysegul Erdem, Galip Edrem, Yasemin Gulcan Kurt, Merih Cetinkaya, Ferhat Cekmez, Onder Onguru, Turan Tunc
BACKGROUND: Many factors contribute to the development of BPD basically by increasing inflammation in preterm lungs. However, premature neonates have insufficient anti-inflammatory capacity. We aimed to evaluate the effect of etanercept, an anti-TNF agent, on BPD development in newborn rat model with hyperoxia-induced lung injury. METHODS: Thirty-two newborn rats were divided into 3 groups as control group (Group 1, n = 11), hyperoxia + placebo group (Group 2, n = 10), and hyperoxia + etanercept group (Group 3, n = 11)...
June 16, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Cihan Inan, N Cenk Sayın, Emine Atlı, Selma Ulusal, Selen Erzincan, Isil Uzun, Hakan Gurkan, Füsun G Varol
Tetrasomy 18p, characterized by the presence of four copies of the short arm of chromosome 18, is considered to occur with the nondisjunction in meiosis II after the errors in the meiotic and early postmeiotic mitotic division in the centromere. It is accompanied by various abnormalities including congenital heart defects, lower extremity abnormalities, micrognathia, high arched palate, kyphoscoliosis, microcephaly, myelomeningocele, hernia and renal anomalies. We present the first case of a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy in which both fetuses were affected by tetrasomy 18p, but with discordant morphology, detected in one twin in the first but in the other in the second trimester...
June 16, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Luca Roncati, Teresa Pusiol, Francesco Piscioli, Giuseppe Barbolini, Antonio Maiorana, Anna Lavezzi
PURPOSE: Sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) represents one of the main open issues in the scientific and social setting of the modern medicine, and our efforts have aimed to understand its possible causes and risk factors. METHODS: A 43-case series of consecutive unexplained fetal deaths coming from Northeast Italy, collected in a 5-year period (2011-2015), has been submitted to an in-depth investigation, based on neuropathological and cardiopathological examinations, immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), genetic characterization for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms, and toxicological environmental analyses...
June 16, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Jinhua Hu, Guochang Liu, Zhang Zhao, Wei Jia, Huimin Xia
MiR-197 is frequently upregulated to induce a series of oncogenic effects, which is closely associated with poor survival and prognosis of multiple malignancies. However, the roles of miR-197 in tumorigenesis and the detailed molecular mechanism in Wilms tumor (WT) have rarely been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of miR-197 in WT in vivo and the potential effects of miR-197 on the proliferation and apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. A total of 15 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of WT and 15 paraneoplastic controls were enrolled...
May 25, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Rita P Verma, Yuan Zhao, Ram Niwas, Cynthia Kaplan
: The predictive values of placental histopathologies are compromised by a non-segregation of common anomalies. The effects of isolated pure placental inflammation (PI) and vasculopathy-coagulopathy (PV) were compared with normal (NL) placentas in extremely premature infants (ELBW, birth weight < 1000 g). PI infants required lower peak inspiratory pressure on day 3. More infants in PV were oxygen dependence on day 28. PV had an increased risk of intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH, OR 4...
May 25, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
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2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Heron Werner, Carolina Mocarzel, Renato Augusto Sá, Gabriele Tonni, Victoria Arruga Novoa Y Novoa, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Paola Bonasoni, Edward Araujo Júnior
We describe the first case of prenatally detected teratoma of the fetal abdomen wall using ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A heterogeneous mass, partly solid and cystic, originating from the anterior abdominal wall of the fetus close to an omphalocele sac was detected by means of 2D/3D ultrasound and MRI. Amniodrainage was performed and due to sign of impending fetal risk, an emergency Cesarean section was performed. A bulky, crumbly and bleeding tumoral mass was confirmed at delivery...
2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
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