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Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264613/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ceftobiprole-for-the-treatment-of-mrsa
#1
Karolyn S Horn, Larry H Danziger, Keith A Rodvold, Robert C Glowacki
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while decreasing in overall incidence, is still a prominent concern world-wide. New agents coming to market in the last 10 years allow practitioners to optimize treatment for MRSA infections. Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin agent with MRSA activity, currently approved in selected countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Areas covered: Relevant literature regarding spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trials will be discussed...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274165/erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165830/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-velpatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#3
Teresa Brieva, Antonio Rivero, Antonio Rivero-Juarez
The fixed-dose combination therapy of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is the first pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral (DAA), single-treatment regimen (STR) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be commercialized. It is approved for the treatment of HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Following approval in 2016, new pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data were reported, which led to important clinical applications. Areas covered: This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of SOF/VEL therapy for treatment of HCV infection...
February 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162002/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-bucindolol-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-heart-failure-patients
#4
Gian Marco Rosa, Giovanni Meliota, Claudio Brunelli, Simone Ferrero
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. When AF and HF are both present, they are associated with negative outcomes, increased hospitalizations and mortality. As β-blockade is effective inF and may be useful in presence of AF, bucindolol, a non-selective β-blocker with α-1 vasodilatory effect, may be used. Area covered: This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of bucindolol in HF patients with AF. The largest amount of data comes from BEST trial which evaluated the efficacy of bucindolol in HF patients...
February 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151695/pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-patients-with-a-history-of-bariatric-surgery
#5
Célia Lloret-Linares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150517/human-biology-based-drug-safety-evaluation-scientific-rationale-current-status-and-future-challenges
#6
J Gerry Kenna
Animal toxicity studies used to assess the safety of new candidate pharmaceuticals prior to their progression into human clinical trials are unable to assess the risk of non-pharmacologically mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the most frequent of which are drug-induced liver injury and cardiotoxicity. Idiosyncratic ADRs occur only infrequently and in certain susceptible humans, but are caused by many hundreds of different drugs and may lead to serious illness. Areas covered: Idiosyncratic ADRs are initiated by drug-related chemical insults, which cause toxicity due to susceptibility factors that manifest only in certain patients...
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141945/drug-induced-renal-injury-in-neonates-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-perspectives-in-drug-development
#7
Anna Girardi, Emanuel Raschi, Silvia Galletti, Karel Allegaert, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Fabrizio De Ponti
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently diagnosed in the neonatal population, especially in those admitted to intensive care units, and poses several challenges for clinicians mainly because of difficulties in timely identification of renal impairment and the need to administer drugs with potential nephrotoxicity. In this context, research on biomarkers is growing for their implication in the early detection of renal damage and their higher sensitivity in monitoring renal activity, but also as an important tool for drug development...
January 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140687/the-importance-of-drug-transporter-characterization-to-precision-medicine
#8
Pascale Fisel, Anne T Nies, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043170/impact-of-disease-drug-and-patient-adherence-on-the-effectiveness-of-antiviral-therapy-in-pediatric-hiv
#9
Chiara Piana, Meindert Danhof, Oscar Della Pasqua
Maintaining effective antiretroviral treatment for life is a major problem, in both resource-limited and resource-rich countries. Despite the progress observed in paediatric antiretroviral therapy, approximately 12% of children still experience treatment failure due to drug resistance, inadequate dosing and poor adherence. We explore the current status of antiretroviral therapy in children with focus on the interaction between disease, drug pharmacokinetics and patient behavior, all of which are strongly interconnected and determine treatment outcome...
January 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019118/the-mechanisms-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-testicular-toxicity-and-the-protective-agents
#10
Emad Ghobadi, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Mohammad Abdollahi
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating antineoplastic agent with known toxicity to the male reproductive system. Areas covered: This review summarizes the known mechanisms by which CP exerts its toxic effects on the male reproductive system and the methods utilized to prevent such effects so that it could be further investigated and applied in clinical use. Keywords including ['Cyclophosphamide' AND 'male reproductive' OR' sperm toxicity' OR 'spermatotoxicity' OR 'infertility] were searched through Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus databases based on PRISMA guidelines...
December 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140693/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-tedizolid-for-the-treatment-of-skin-infections
#11
REVIEW
Darrell McBride, Tamara Krekel, Kevin Hsueh, Michael J Durkin
Tedizolid is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Although tedizolid shares many similar properties with linezolid, another oxazolidinone used to treat ABSSSI, the two antibiotics have several key differences. Areas covered: This review provides a detailed summary of the overall pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of tedizolid for the treatment of ABSSSI. Expert opinion: Compared to other antibiotics used for ABSSSI, tedizolid has several advantages...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135897/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-vorapaxar-for-secondary-prevention-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Jose-Angel Perez-Rivera, Jairo Monedero-Campo, Clara Cieza-Borrella, Pablo Ruiz-Perez
Vorapaxar is the first protease-activated receptor-1 inhibitor approved for clinical use. Its main indication is the reduction in thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction or symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Areas covered: This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of vorapaxar and its potential use in secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome. Expert opinion: Vorapaxar inhibits platelet aggregation mediated by thrombin. This effect is carried out without affecting to coagulation parameters and bleeding times...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075650/pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Massimiliano Buoli, Alice Caldiroli, Marta Serati
Pregabalin is an alternative compound to SSRIs and SNRIs for the first-line treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Areas covered: We describe the pharmacokinetic properties of pregabalin and their implications for the treatment of GAD. A search in the main database sources (Medline, ISI, Web of Knowledge and Medscape) was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive and balanced evaluation about the clinical implications of the pharmacokinetic properties of pregabalin in the treatment of GAD. The word "pregabalin" was associated with "pharmacokinetics", "interactions"', "GAD", "anxiety" and "tolerability"...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819147/chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity-outcome-measures-the-issue
#14
Paola Alberti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776453/individualized-patient-centered-use-of-lixisenatide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
Markolf Hanefeld, Denis Raccah, Louis Monnier
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia, which can lead to serious vascular complications. Current treatment guidelines place particular emphasis on personalization of therapy. Within this guidance, the use of various second-line therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), is recommended under certain circumstances. Areas covered: Factors influencing glucose homeostasis, including gastric emptying and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk when homeostasis is not maintained, are reviewed...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766914/n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-current-status-and-future-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766890/pharmacokinetic-properties-and-drug-interactions-of-apigenin-a-natural-flavone
#17
REVIEW
Ding Tang, Keli Chen, Luqi Huang, Juan Li
Apigenin, a natural flavone, is widely distributed in plants such as celery, parsley and chamomile. It is present principally as glycosylated in nature. Higher intake of apigenin could reduce the risk of chronic diseases. It has gained particular interest in recent years as a beneficial, health-promoting agent with low intrinsic toxicity. Areas covered: This review summarizes and the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of apigenin, and drug-drug interaction of apigenin. Expert opinion: Since apigenin is a bioactive plant flavone and is widely distributed in common food, its consumption through the diet is recommended...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764576/multidrug-efflux-pumps-and-their-role-in-antibiotic-and-antiseptic-resistance-a-pharmacodynamic-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Sandrine Alibert, Joannah N'gompaza Diarra, Jessica Hernandez, Aurélien Stutzmann, Marwa Fouad, Gérard Boyer, Jean-Marie Pagès
Worrying levels of bacterial resistance have been reported worldwide involving the failure of many available antibiotic treatments. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria is often ascribed to the presence of multiple and different resistance mechanisms in the same strain. RND efflux pumps play a major role and are an attractive target to discover new antibacterial drugs. Areas covered: This review discusses the prevalence of efflux pumps, their overexpression in clinical scenarios, their polyselectivity, their effect on the intracellular concentrations of various antibiotics associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability and their involvement in pathogenicity are discussed...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759434/drug-induced-eruptive-melanocytic-nevi
#19
REVIEW
Gino A Vena, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Nicoletta Cassano, Giuseppe Argenziano
The sudden eruption of melanocytic nevi has been associated with a number of conditions, such as bullous skin diseases, immunodeficiency and immunosuppression. The exact mechanisms leading to the development of eruptive melanocytic nevi are unknown. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning eruptive melanocytic nevi following the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and other medications. Expert opinion: The literature regarding the development of eruptive nevi in association with pharmacological therapies includes a relatively low number of reports...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758143/pharmacogenomics-of-genes-involved-in-antifolate-drug-response-and-toxicity-in-osteosarcoma
#20
REVIEW
Claudia Maria Hattinger, Elisa Tavanti, Marilù Fanelli, Serena Vella, Piero Picci, Massimo Serra
Antifolates are structural analogs of folates, which have been used as antitumor drugs for more than 60 years. The antifolate drug most commonly used for treating human tumors is methotrexate (MTX), which is utilized widely in first-line treatment protocols of high-grade osteosarcoma (HGOS). In addition to MTX, two other antifolates, trimetrexate and pemetrexed, have been tested in clinical settings for second-line treatment of recurrent HGOS with patients unfortunately showing modest activity. Areas covered: There is clinical evidence which suggsest that, like other chemotherapeutic agents, not all HGOS patients are equally responsive to antifolates and do not have the same susceptibility to experience adverse drug-related toxicities...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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