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Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

A Sullivan, J Watkinson, J Waddington, B K Park, D J Naisbitt
Type IV drug hypersensitivity remains an important clinical problem and an obstacle to the development of new drugs. Several forms of drug hypersensitivity are associated with expression of specific HLA alleles. Furthermore, drug-specific T-lymphocytes have been isolated from patients with reactions. Despite this, controversy remains as to how drugs interact with immune receptors to stimulate a T-cell response. Areas covered: This article reviews the pathways of T-cell activation by drugs and how the ever increasing number of associations between expression of HLA alleles and susceptibility to hypersensitivity is impacting on our research effort to understanding this form of iatrogenic disease...
February 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Sheila A Doggrell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, and in a glucose-dependent manner stimulates insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion, reduces appetite and energy intake, and delays gastric emptying. The GLP-1R agonist semaglutide has recently been registered for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Area covered: This review is of semaglutide in type 2 diabetes, and considers which properties of this GLP-1R agonist, may be responsible for its clinical outcome benefits in this condition...
February 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Cornelis Smit, Sjoerd De Hoogd, Roger J M Brüggemann, Catherijne A J Knibbe
The rising prevalence of obesity confronts clinicians with dosing problems in the (extreme) overweight population. Obesity has a great impact on key organs that play a role in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, however the ultimate impact of these changes on how to adapt the dose may not always be known. Areas covered: In this review, physiological changes associated with obesity are discussed. An overview is provided on the alterations in absorption, distribution, drug metabolism and clearance in (morbid) obesity focusing on general principles that can be extracted from pharmacokinetic studies...
February 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Jeong Hee Hong
Enzalutamide is the first approved second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with or without docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Over the past 5 years, a number of attempts were made to determine the efficacy of enzalutamide in the different clinical settings. Areas covered: A literature search was performed at the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science database to collect the most relevant and impactful studies, including basic science investigations, clinical trials, and reviews...
February 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Marco Falcone, Pierluigi Viale, Giusy Tiseo, Manjunath Pai
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor, recently approved for urinary tract infections and complicated abdominal infections. Moreover, it represents a treatment option for patients with hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: The review focuses on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CAZ-AVI in HAP and on preclinical and clinical studies evaluating PK/pharmacodynamics (PD) in this field...
January 31, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Elnaz Faghfuri, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive disease with a rapidly rising incidence due to neoplasm of melanocytes. Molecular targeted therapies have demonstrated lower toxicity and improved overall survival versus conventional therapies of MM. The revealing of mutations in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway has led to the development of BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib for the treatment of cutaneous MM. Though, progression of resistance to these agents has prompted attempts to target downstream proteins in this pathway...
January 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Tamara van Donge, Paola Mian, Dick Tibboel, John van den Anker, Karel Allegaert
Drug dosing in infants frequently depends on body weight as a crude indicator for maturation. Fentanyl (metabolized by Cytochrome P450 3A4) and morphine (glucuronidated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) served as model drugs to provide insight in maturation patterns of these enzymes and provide understanding of the impact of non-maturational factors to optimize dosing in infants. Areas covered: Systematic searches on metabolism and population pharmacokinetic (Pop-PK) models for fentanyl and morphine were performed...
January 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Francesco Patti, Clara G Chisari, Emanuele D'Amico, Mario Zappia
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Despite the availability of several disease-modifying therapies for relapsing MS, there is a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit-risk profile and a high level of treatment adherence. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the α subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, that reversibly modulates IL-2 signaling. Areas covered: Daclizumab blocks the activation and expansion of autoreactive T cells that plays a role in the immune pathogenesis of MS...
January 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Marina Svetel, Aleksandra Tomić, Nikola Kresojević, Vladimir Kostić
Opicapone (OPC) is a novel, potent, reversible, and purely peripheral third-generation COMT inhibitor, which provides an enhancement in levodopa (L-Dopa) availability. It represents adjunctive therapy for L-Dopa treated patients with PD and motor fluctuations. Areas covered: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic of OPC for the treatment of PD. Expert commentary: Oral OPC exhibits linear, dose-dependent absorption. However, following concomitant ingestion of a high-fat, high-calorie meal, the maximum plasma concentration will be decreased...
January 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Danny Kupka, Dirk Sibbing
P2Y12 inhibitors are a critical component of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), which is the superior strategy to prevent arterialthrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and undergoing stent implantation.. Areas covered: Basic science articles, clinical studies, and reviews from 1992-2017 were searched using Pubmed library to collet impactful literature. After an introduction to the purinergic receptor biology, this review summarizes current knowledge on P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. Furthermore, we describe the subsequent improvements of next-generation P2Y12 receptor inhibitors facing the ambivalent problem of bleeding events versus prevention of arterial thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings...
January 23, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren
Possible negative effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in pregnancy relate to congenital anomalies, negative perinatal events and neurodevelopmental outcome. Many studies are confounded by the underlying maternal disease and by pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic differences of these drugs. Areas covered: The possible interactions of SSRIs and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with other drugs and the known effects of SSRIs on congenital anomalies, perinatal and neurodevelopmental outcome...
January 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
E Papaseit, M Torrens, C Pérez-Mañá, R Muga, M Farré
MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics...
January 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ashly Maughan, Onyema Ogbuagu
Treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have advanced rapidly in the last decade. Pegylated interferon alpha 2a (PEG-IFN alpha 2a) alone, in combination with ribavirin and with or without direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is modestly effective in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. Areas covered: The review describes the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties, clinical efficacy, safety and drug-drug interaction profiles of PEG-IFN alpha 2a. Expert opinion: Despite the availability of DAAs and its formidable toxicity profile, PEG-IFN alpha 2a retains a role for the treatment of acute HCV and chronic HCV infection in resource limited settings and for end-stage renal disease patients and others who cannot access DAAs or are DAA-ineligible...
December 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Allergic asthma is a Th2-driven inflammatory process characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways. IL-5 is a key trigger for eosinophil expansion and release from the bone marrow and plays a crucial role in the entire life span of eosinophils from differentiation to maturation and survival. IL-5 can be considered among the most obvious targets to selectively inhibit eosinophilic airway inflammation. Areas covered: The preclinical and clinical development of reslizumab, a humanized mAb against IL-5 that has been developed to block IL-5 bioactivity and reduce biologically available IL-5, are described with a particular focus on its pharmacodynamics (PK)/pharmacokinetic (PD) profile...
December 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Chrisna Gouws, Josias H Hamman
The use of traditional herbal medicines has become increasingly popular globally, but in some countries, it is the main or sometimes even the only healthcare service available in the most rural areas. This is especially true for Africa where herbal medicines form a key component of traditional medicinal practices and there is access to a diversity of medicinal plants. Although many benefits have been derived from the use of traditional herbal medicines, many concerns are associated with their use of which herb-drug interactions have been identified to have a rising impact on patient treatment outcome...
December 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Feng Chen, Bo Zhang, Robert B Parker, S Casey Laizure
Mammalian carboxylesterase enzymes are a highly conserved metabolic pathway involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds including many widely prescribed therapeutic agents. Recent advances in our understanding of genetic polymorphisms affecting enzyme activity have exposed potential therapeutic implications. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to provide an overview of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) gene structure, to summarize the known polymorphism affecting substrate-drug metabolism, and to assess the potential therapeutic implications of genetic variations affecting enzyme function...
December 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
M Galluzzo, S D'Adamio, L Bianchi, M Talamonti
Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSIs), defined as a bacterial infection of the skin with a lesion size area of at least 75 cm, are a leading cause of hospital admission and ambulatory care visits worldwide. Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by European Medicines Agency (EMA) for ABSSSIs. The authors review and provide updates of efficacy and safety by several studies on dalbavancin. Areas covered: A PubMed search was performed for relevant literature...
December 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Giancarlo Castaman, Silvia Linari
The prevention of bleeding by prophylactic factor replacement is the recommended approach for the treatment of severe hemophilia. Prophylaxis should be individualized to provide the best clinical benefit to each patient. Therefore, a pharmacokinetic approach is crucial. Areas covered: This review aims to concisely describe the basic principles of pharmacokinetics of FVIII, the role of population pharmacokinetic, the available different recombinant FVIII concentrates and the new extended half-life FVIII molecules with possible improvement in hemophilia A treatment...
December 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Christos V Rizos, Theodosios D Filippatos, Moses S Elisaf
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a growing epidemic and therefore efficient treatment strategies that target its management are needed. The treatment of diabetic patients often requires the combination of antidiabetic drug classes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) block glucose reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) improve glucose metabolism by blocking the enzyme that degrades incretins leading to increased insulin secretion. Areas covered: The aim of the review is to present the available data on pharmacokinetic properties/pharmacodynamics, metabolic and cardiovascular effects of empagliflozin plus linagliptin combination...
December 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Sang Hoon Lee, Hyeon Young Kim, Seung Yun Back, Hyo-Kyung Han
Piperine has various pharmacological effects and can modulate the functional activity of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. Consequently, there is a great interest in the application of piperine as an alternative medicine or bioavailability enhancer. Areas covered: This review deals with the effects of piperine on metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. It provides the readers with an update on transporter-mediated and also metabolic enzyme-mediated piperine-drug interactions, with emphasis on its in vivo implications...
December 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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