Read by QxMD icon Read

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
The efficacy of platinum based chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by chemoresistance. Platinum drugs damage DNA by introducing intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks which result in cell death. Excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) is a member of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which erases such defects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ERCC1 impair this activity and have been suggested to predict the response to chemotherapy. Area covered...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Thomas Müller
The ABCB1 (P-gp, MDR1, CD243) transporters system plays an eminent role in brain detoxification. It protects against endogenous and exogenous toxin transport into the brain parenchyma by supporting toxin efflux over the blood brain barrier. Areas covered: This editorial discusses the role and pro's and con's of ABCB1 modulation in the drug treatment of Parkinson's disease patients. Expert commentary: Experimental findings suggest that drug induced impairment of ABCB1 transporters function may improve symptomatic drug effects...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ilaria Motta, Andrea Calcagno, Stefano Bonora
Introduction WHO global strategy is to end tuberculosis epidemic by 2035. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic studies are increasingly performed and might confirm their potential role in optimizing treatment outcome in specific settings and populations. Insufficient drug exposure seems to be a relevant factor in tuberculosis outcome and for the risk of phenotypic resistance. Areas Covered This review discusses available pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data of first and second-line antitubercular agents in relation to efficacy and toxicity...
December 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Abimael González-Hernández, Bruno A Marichal-Cancino, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink, Carlos M Villalón
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder. Current acute specific antimigraine pharmacotherapies target trigeminovascular 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT1F and CGRP receptors but, unfortunately, they induce some cardiovascular and central side effects that lead to poor treatment adherence/compliance. Therefore, new antimigraine drugs are being explored. Areas covered. This review considers the adverse (or potential) side effects produced by current and prospective antimigraine drugs, including medication overuse headache (MOH) produced by ergots and triptans, the side effects observed in clinical trials for the new gepants and CGRP antibodies, and a section discussing the potential effects resulting from disruption of the cardiovascular CGRPergic neurotransmission...
December 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Michael W Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Sofie Velghe, Rani De Troyer, Christophe Stove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Jose de Leon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Lakshmi Kallur, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada, Frank Eidelman, Ves Dimov
Mepolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates IL-5. It is available as a subcutaneous preparation. The practical application of mepolizumab is as an add-on therapy in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Areas covered: This article was created from a comprehensive literature search with information taken from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical trials of adults. The articles that have been selected evaluate the use of mepolizumab and its role in eosinophilic asthma...
November 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Charles F Polotti, Christopher J Kim, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alyssa B Polotti, Eric A Singer, Sammy Elsamra
Medical therapy has undergone many changes as our understanding of prostate cancer cell biology has improved. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of therapy for metastatic disease. Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an important concern since we are unable to stop progression with currently available agents. Areas covered: Pharmacologic ADT is the most commonly used treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Multiple agents are available for both first-line and second-line use: antiandrogens, estrogens, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists, and CYP17 inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Magdalena Edington, Julie Connolly, Ngaihang Victor Chong
Introduction The review aims to discuss effects of vitrectomy on pharmacokinetics of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, and attempt to provide treatment guidance. Areas Covered An Embase search was conducted using the terms 'anti-VEGF', 'pegaptanib', 'ranibizumab', 'bevacizumab', 'aflibercept', 'pharmacokinetics', 'half-life', 'clearance', 'metabolism', 'vitrectomy', 'vitrectomized'. Published data regarding the pharmacokinetic properties of the above drugs and the effect of vitrectomy in animal and human eyes was reviewed...
November 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Antonio Rossi, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Concetta Di Micco, Cristiano Carbonelli, Vito D'alessandro, Stefano Notarangelo, Giuseppe Palomba, Gerardo Sanpaolo, Marco Taurchini, Paolo Graziano, Evaristo Maiello
First- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib, erlotinib, icotinib, and afatinib are the standard-of-care for first-line therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations. Unfortunately, after initial activity of an average 9-13 months, disease progression has been reported in the majority of patients. In about 50% of cases the progression is due to the onset of the T790M mutation in exon 20 of the EGFR gene...
November 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Beth Williamson, Robert J Riley
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) continue to account for 5% of hospital admissions and therefore remain a major regulatory concern. Effective, quantitative prediction of DDIs will reduce unexpected clinical findings and encourage projects to frontload DDI investigations rather than concentrating on risk management ("manage the baggage") later in drug development. A key challenge in DDI prediction is the discrepancies between reported models. Areas covered: The current synopsis focuses on four recent influential publications on hepatic drug transporter DDIs using static models that tackle interactions with individual transporters and in combination with other drug transporters and metabolising enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Gil Awada, Evandro de Azambuja, Ahmad Awada
Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is an infrequent but significant side effect of certain molecular-targeted cancer therapies and may lead to treatment modification and impact on disease prognosis. There may be a role for beta blockers (BB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in the prevention of LVD. Areas covered: There are multiple definitions for LVD based on clinical and/or imaging features. Molecular-targeted therapies cause reversible LVD. Therapies with well-reported LVD are inhibitors of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), angiogenesis, Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ABL) and the proteasome...
November 1, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Yanli Zhang, Junrong Wu, Xiaoli Feng, Ruolan Wang, Aijie Chen, Longquan Shao
With the broad use of nanotechnology, the number and variety of nanoparticles that humans can be exposed to has further increased. Consequently, there is growing concern about the potential effect of maternal exposure to various nanoparticles during pregnancy on a fetus. However, the nature of this risk is not fully known. Areas covered: In this review, materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles through the placenta is described. Both prenatal and postnatal adverse effects, such as fetal resorption, malformation and injury to various organs in mice exposed to nanoparticles are reviewed...
October 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Louise M Andrews, Yi Li, Brenda C M De Winter, Yun-Ying Shi, Carla C Baan, Teun Van Gelder, Dennis A Hesselink
Tacrolimus (Tac) is the cornerstone of immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation and will probably remain so. Excluding belatacept, no new immunosuppressive drugs were registered for the prevention of acute rejection during the last decade. For several immunosuppressive drugs, clinical development halted because they weren't sufficiently effective or more toxic. Areas covered: Current methods of monitoring Tac treatment, focusing on traditional therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), controversies surrounding TDM, novel matrices, pharmacogenetic and pharmacodynamic monitoring are discussed...
October 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Anastasia Spartinou, Vasileia Nyktari, Alexandra Papaioannou
Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major side effects of chemotherapy and a great burden to patients' quality of life. Serotonin and substance P are the major neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of CINV, but in spite of new antiemetics no completely effective regime exists for its prevention or treatment. Areas covered: In this review the authors provide a detailed description of granisetron's chemistry pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicity and a brief review of clinical trials involving granisetron and the management of CINV...
October 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Sri Riyati Sugiarto, Timothy M E Davis, Sam Salman
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their efficacy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t½β) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine)...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Jarrett R Amsden, Paul O Gubbins
Triazole antifungal agents are prescribed to treat invasive fungal infections in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. These antifungal agents are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP). Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 can lead to large population-specific variations in drug efficacy and safety, optimal dosing, or contribute to drug interactions associated with this class. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews the pharmacogenomics (i.e. the influence of genetics on drug disposition) of triazole antifungal agents related to their CYP-mediated metabolism and summarizes their implications on triazole efficacy, safety, and tolerability...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
M Neary, A Owen
Variations in the human genome sequence sometimes play an important role in pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated a high degree of variation both between and within different ethnic populations. Areas covered: This review sought to summarize key SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP3A enzymes, CYP2C enzymes, UGT2 enzymes, ABCB1, ABCC2, SLCO1B1, NR1I2, and NR1I3 that have previously been associated with variability in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics. Additionally, the impact of ethnicity in these pharmacogenetics studies is discussed, and variation in findings between different ethnic groups is reviewed...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Maria Gabriella Matera, Barbara Rinaldi, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola
Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic approaches are already utilized in some areas, such as oncology and cardiovascular disease, for selecting appropriate patients and/or establishing treatment and dosing guidelines. This is not true in asthma although many patients have different responses to drug treatment due to genetic factors. Areas covered: Several genetic factors that affect the pharmacotherapeutic responses to asthma medications, such as β2-AR agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers and could contribute to significant between-person variability in response are described...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"