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Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425772/prediction-of-successful-dose-reduction-or-discontinuation-of-adalimumab-etanercept-or-infliximab-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-using-serum-drug-levels-and-antidrug-antibody-measurement
#1
Cam Bouman, N van Herwaarden, Fhj van den Hoogen, A van der Maas, Bjf van den Bemt, A A den Broeder
BACKGROUND: To evaluate if TNF inhibitor serum drug levels (DL) or anti-drug antibodies (ADAb) can predict successful dose reduction (in patients with high DL) or discontinuation (in patients with no/low DL or ADAb) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: RA patients that were using adalimumab (n = 42), etanercept (n = 76) or infliximab (n = 51) and were doing well, were tapered until discontinuation or flare (1-1.5 year follow up)...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375027/characterisation-of-data-resources-for-in-silico-modelling-benchmark-datasets-for-adme-properties
#2
K R Przybylak, J C Madden, E Covey-Crump, L Gibson, C Barber, M Patel, M T D Cronin
The cost of in vivo and in vitro screening of ADME properties of compounds has motivated efforts to develop a range of in silico models. At the heart of the development of any computational model are the data; high quality data are essential for developing robust and accurate models. The characteristics of a dataset, such as its availability, size, format and type of chemical identifiers used, influence the modelability of the data. Areas covered: This review explores the usefulness of publicly available ADME datasets for researchers to use in the development of predictive models...
April 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359183/changes-in-drug-transport-and-metabolism-and-their-clinical-implications-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#3
Christoph G Dietrich, Monika Rau, Daniel Jahn, Andreas Geier
The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, especially in Western countries. Drug treatment in patients with NAFLD is common since it is linked to other conditions like diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, changes in drug metabolism may have serious clinical implications. Areas covered: A literature search for studies in animal models or patients with obesity, fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH cirrhosis published before November 2016 was performed...
March 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343423/management-of-precipitated-opiate-withdrawal-syndrome-induced-by-nalmefene-mistakenly-prescribed-in-opiate-dependent-patients-a-review-for-clinicians
#4
Nicolas Franchitto, Benedicte Jullian, Juliette Salles, Fanny Pelissier, Benjamin Rolland
Nalmefene, a long-acting µ-opioid antagonist approved to treat alcohol use disorder, is occasionally mistakenly prescribed to opiate-dependent or opioid-treated patients. We review recent literature on drug-drug interactions between nalmefene and opioids that lead to precipitated opioid withdrawal, and focus on its management and planning for care at discharge. Areas covered: This article provides a brief and comprehensive review of management of precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome when nalmefene is associated with an opioid, whether misused or legally prescribed...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335648/inflammation-and-pharmacokinetics-potential-implications-for-hiv-infection
#5
Sharon M Seifert, Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Kristine M Erlandson, Peter L Anderson
The physiological changes accompanying inflammation may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of certain medications. Individuals infected with HIV have chronically elevated inflammatory markers despite viral suppression following effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as age-related inflammation. Understanding the potential clinical implications of inflammation on the PK of medications is important for understanding dose-response relationships and necessitates future research. Areas covered: An extensive literature search was carried out using PubMed and associated bibliographies to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding altered PK in response to inflammation and its application to the field of HIV...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274165/erratum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140687/the-importance-of-drug-transporter-characterization-to-precision-medicine
#7
Pascale Fisel, Anne T Nies, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395543/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ribociclib-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-hormone-positive-breast-cancer
#8
Giuseppe Curigliano, Carmen Criscitiello, Angela Esposito, Mattia Intra, Saverio Minucci
Cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4/6-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway hyperactivation is associated with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC). Ribociclib is an orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of CDK4/6 that induces G1 arrest at sub-micromolar concentrations in a variety of pRb-positive cancer cells in vitro. Ribociclib is a new standard of care for metastatic HR+/HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer. Area covered: In this article, we review the preclinical and clinical development of ribociclib as well as discussing the role for novel applications of these agents outside the arena of HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374622/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-saxagliptin-plus-dapagliflozin-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#9
André J Scheen
Combining a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor is an attractive option to treat hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Areas covered: The saxagliptin plus dapagliflozin combination is carefully analysed, focusing on: 1) pharmacokinetic properties, 2) pharmacodynamics data, and 3) results of randomised controlled trials (dual combination versus either monotherapy, sequential therapy saxagliptin added to dapagliflozin or dapagliflozin added to saxagliptin). Expert opinion: Pharmacokinetic findings demonstrate the absence of drug-drug interaction and the bioequivalence of the FDC compared with separated tablets...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151695/pharmacokinetic-considerations-for-patients-with-a-history-of-bariatric-surgery
#10
Célia Lloret-Linares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150517/human-biology-based-drug-safety-evaluation-scientific-rationale-current-status-and-future-challenges
#11
J Gerry Kenna
Animal toxicity studies used to assess the safety of new candidate pharmaceuticals prior to their progression into human clinical trials are unable to assess the risk of non-pharmacologically mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the most frequent of which are drug-induced liver injury and cardiotoxicity. Idiosyncratic ADRs occur only infrequently and in certain susceptible humans, but are caused by many hundreds of different drugs and may lead to serious illness. Areas covered: Idiosyncratic ADRs are initiated by drug-related chemical insults, which cause toxicity due to susceptibility factors that manifest only in certain patients...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141945/drug-induced-renal-injury-in-neonates-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-perspectives-in-drug-development
#12
Anna Girardi, Emanuel Raschi, Silvia Galletti, Karel Allegaert, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Fabrizio De Ponti
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently diagnosed in the neonatal population, especially in those admitted to intensive care units, and poses several challenges for clinicians mainly because of difficulties in timely identification of renal impairment and the need to administer drugs with potential nephrotoxicity. In this context, research on biomarkers is growing for their implication in the early detection of renal damage and their higher sensitivity in monitoring renal activity, but also as an important tool for drug development...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043170/impact-of-disease-drug-and-patient-adherence-on-the-effectiveness-of-antiviral-therapy-in-pediatric-hiv
#13
Chiara Piana, Meindert Danhof, Oscar Della Pasqua
Maintaining effective antiretroviral treatment for life is a major problem in both resource-limited and resource-rich countries. Despite the progress observed in paediatric antiretroviral therapy, approximately 12% of children still experience treatment failure due to drug resistance, inadequate dosing and poor adherence. We explore the current status of antiretroviral therapy in children with focus on the interaction between disease, drug pharmacokinetics and patient behavior, all of which are strongly interconnected and determine treatment outcome...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019118/the-mechanisms-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-testicular-toxicity-and-the-protective-agents
#14
Emad Ghobadi, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Mohammad Abdollahi
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating antineoplastic agent with known toxicity to the male reproductive system. Areas covered: This review summarizes the known mechanisms by which CP exerts its toxic effects on the male reproductive system and the methods utilized to prevent such effects so that it could be further investigated and applied in clinical use. Keywords including ['Cyclophosphamide' AND 'male reproductive' OR' sperm toxicity' OR 'spermatotoxicity' OR 'infertility] were searched through Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus databases based on PRISMA guidelines...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936967/potential-roles-of-myeloperoxidase-and-hypochlorous-acid-in-metabolism-and-toxicity-of-alkene-hydrocarbons-and-drug-molecules-containing-olefinic-moieties
#15
Xin-Yu Zhang, Adnan A Elfarra
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) pose a significant health problem and are generally attributed to reactive metabolites. Olefinic moieties in drugs can undergo cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation to produce reactive metabolites but myeloperoxidase (MPO)-mediated bioactivation of these moieties has not been reported. Thus, small molecules of alkene hydrocarbons are used as model compounds to characterize the MPO-mediated metabolism. Areas covered: The authors focus on MPO-mediated metabolism of alkene hydrocarbons to form chlorohydrins and the potential role of chlorohydrins in alkene toxicity and carcinogenicity...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696906/the-role-of-fulvestrant-in-endometrial-cancer
#16
Stefano Bogliolo, Chiara Cassani, Mattia Dominoni, Anna Orlandini, Simone Ferrero, Anna Daniela Iacobone, Franco Viazzo, Pier Luigi Venturini, Arsenio Spinillo, Barbara Gardella
Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in industrialized countries. The traditional treatment of endometrial cancer is based on a surgical approach. In recent years, systemic endocrine therapy has demonstrated good efficacy in recurrent or metastatic setting, delaying progression, ameliorating quality of life and palliating symptoms. Areas covered: Phase I and II studies on selective estrogen receptor down-regulators used for the treatment of endometrial cancer treatment have been reviewed...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434705/a-review-of-the-protective-effect-of-melatonin-in-pesticide-induced-toxicity
#17
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Milad Moloudizargari, Haji Bahadar, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pesticides are among the most important chemicals used in agriculture sector. However, their extensive use has polluted the environment and increased human vulnerability to various chronic diseases. Pesticide exposure causes genetic and epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Areas covered: This review is based on the literature studies currently reported on pesticide-induced toxicity and the protective role of melatonin. Scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using keywords 'pesticide' and 'melatonin' up to January 2016...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264613/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ceftobiprole-for-the-treatment-of-mrsa
#18
REVIEW
Karolyn S Horn, Larry H Danziger, Keith A Rodvold, Robert C Glowacki
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while decreasing in overall incidence, is still a prominent concern world-wide. New agents coming to market in the last 10 years allow practitioners to optimize treatment for MRSA infections. Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin agent with MRSA activity, currently approved in selected countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Areas covered: Relevant literature regarding spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trials will be discussed...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165830/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-velpatasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Teresa Brieva, Antonio Rivero, Antonio Rivero-Juarez
The fixed-dose combination therapy of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus velpatasvir (VEL) is the first pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral (DAA), single-treatment regimen (STR) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to be commercialized. It is approved for the treatment of HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Following approval in 2016, new pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data were reported, which led to important clinical applications. Areas covered: This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of SOF/VEL therapy for treatment of HCV infection...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162002/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-bucindolol-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-heart-failure-patients
#20
REVIEW
Gian Marco Rosa, Giovanni Meliota, Claudio Brunelli, Simone Ferrero
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. When AF and HF are both present, they are associated with negative outcomes, increased hospitalizations and mortality. As β-blockade is effective inF and may be useful in presence of AF, bucindolol, a non-selective β-blocker with α-1 vasodilatory effect, may be used. Area covered: This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of bucindolol in HF patients with AF. The largest amount of data comes from BEST trial which evaluated the efficacy of bucindolol in HF patients...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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