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Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982344/whey-and-casein-proteins-and-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-from-milk-do-not-increase-low-grade-inflammation-in-abdominally-obese-adults
#1
Mette Bohl, Ann Bjørnshave, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation...
March 14, 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563696/esophageal-and-gastric-dysmotilities-are-associated-with-altered-glucose-homeostasis-and-plasma-levels-of-incretins-and-leptin
#2
Rebecka Hammersjö, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications in diabetes may affect glucose and endocrine homeostasis. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and leptin regulate glucose homeostasis, food intake, and gastric emptying. AIM: The aim was to investigate associations between diabetes complications and glucose homeostasis and plasma levels of GIP, GLP-1, and leptin. METHODS: Sixteen diabetes patients (seven men) were examined with gastric emptying scintigraphy and 72-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring, 14 with the deep-breathing test, and 12 with esophageal manometry...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563695/chronic-exposure-to-proline-causes-aminoacidotoxicity-and-impaired-beta-cell-function-studies-in-vitro
#3
Zhenping Liu, Per B Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet-cell dysfunction is a hallmark in the development of diabetes, but the reasons for the primary β-cell defect are still elusive. Elevated circulating proline levels have been found in subjects with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we assessed β-cell function, gene expressions, and cell death after long-term exposure of pancreatic β-cells to excess proline in vitro. METHODS: Isolated mouse islets and INS-1E cells were incubated with and without excess proline...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563694/understanding-genetic-heterogeneity-in-type-2-diabetes-by-delineating-physiological-phenotypes-sirt1-and-its-gene-network-in-impaired-insulin-secretion
#4
Shafat Ali, Shazia Nafis, Ponnusamy Kalaiarasan, Ekta Rai, Swarkar Sharma, Rameshwar N Bamezai
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease which shows an exponential increase in all parts of the world. However, the disease is controllable by early detection and modified lifestyle. A series of factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, and genes are considered to play a critical role. The individual risk of developing T2D is determined by an altered genetic background of the en-zymes involved in several metabolism-related biological mechanisms, including glucose homeostasis, insulin metab-olism, the glucose and ion transporters involved in glucose uptake, transcription factors, signaling intermediates of insulin signaling pathways, insulin production and secretion, pancreatic tissue development, and apoptosis...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563693/macronutrient-composition-and-management-of-non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus-niddm-a-new-paradigm-for-individualized-nutritional-therapy-in-diabetes-patients
#5
Efi Koloverou, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982345/pancreas-transplantation-of-us-and-non-us-cases-from-2005-to-2014-as-reported-to-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-unos-and-the-international-pancreas-transplant-registry-iptr
#6
Angelika C Gruessner, Rainer W G Gruessner
This report is an update of pancreas and kidney transplant activities in the US and non-US region in two periods, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. The aim of the report was to analyze transplant progress and success in the US compared to non-US countries, and to compare trends between the two periods. Between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, the number of US pancreas transplants declined by over 20%, while the overall number of pancreas transplants performed outside the US has increased. The decline in US numbers is predominantly due to the decline in primary and secondary pancreas after kidney transplants (PAK)...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859658/metformin-treatment-does-not-affect-testicular-size-in-offspring-born-to-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes
#7
Kristiina Tertti, Jorma Toppari, Helena E Virtanen, Sergey Sadov, Tapani Rönnemaa
OBJECTIVES: Studies in rodents suggest that metformin treatment during pregnancy may have harmful effects on testicular development in offspring. Our aim was to determine whether metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects testicular size in male offspring. METHODS: We compared the testicular size in prepubertal boys born to mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin with insulin in the treatment of GDM...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111121/pharmacogenetics-implications-for-modern-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#8
Harald Staiger, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Many clinical treatment studies have reported remarkable interindividual variability in the response to pharmaceutical drugs, and uncovered the existence of inadequate treatment response, non-response, and even adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics addresses the impact of genetic variants on treatment outcome including side-effects. In recent years, it has also entered the field of clinical diabetes research. In modern type 2 diabetes therapy, metformin is established as first-line drug. The latest pharmaceutical developments, including incretin mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (gliptins), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (gliflozins), are currently experiencing a marked increase in clinical use, while the prescriptions of α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, meglitinides (glinides), and thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are declining, predominantly because of reported side-effects...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111120/type-2-diabetes-prevention-implications-of-hemoglobin-a1c-genetics
#9
Aaron Leong, James B Meigs
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a biomarker used for population-level screening of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk stratification. Large-scale, genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci influencing HbA1c. We discuss the challenges of classifying these genomic loci as influencing HbA1c through glycemic or nonglycemic pathways, based on their probable biology and pleiotropic associations with erythrocyte traits. We show that putative nonglycemic genetic variants have a measurable, albeit small, impact on the classification of T2D status by HbA1c in white and Asian populations...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111119/when-is-it-mody-challenges-in-the-interpretation-of-sequence-variants-in-mody-genes
#10
Sara Althari, Anna L Gloyn
The genomics revolution has raised more questions than it has provided answers. Big data from large population-scale resequencing studies are increasingly deconstructing classic notions of Mendelian disease genetics, which support a simplistic correlation between mutational severity and phenotypic outcome. The boundaries are being blurred as the body of evidence showing monogenic disease-causing alleles in healthy genomes, and in the genomes of individu-als with increased common complex disease risk, continues to grow...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111118/diabetes-in-population-isolates-lessons-from-greenland
#11
Niels Grarup, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Torben Hansen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify the genetic determinants of T2D in large, open populations such as Europeans and Asians. However, studies of T2D in population isolates are gaining attention as they provide several advantages over open populations in genetic disease studies, including increased linkage disequilibrium, homogeneous environmental exposure, and increased allele frequency...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111117/complex-genetics-of-type-2-diabetes-and-effect-size-what-have-we-learned-from-isolated-populations
#12
Anup K Nair, Leslie J Baier
Genetic studies in large outbred populations have documented a complex, highly polygenic basis for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most of the variants currently known to be associated with T2D risk have been identified in large studies that included tens of thousands of individuals who are representative of a single major ethnic group such as European, Asian, or African. However, most of these variants have only modest effects on the risk for T2D; identification of definitive 'causal variant' or 'causative loci' is typically lacking...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111116/genetics-of-type-2-diabetes-it-matters-from-which-parent-we-inherit-the-risk
#13
Valeriya Lyssenko, Leif Groop, Rashmi B Prasad
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a co-occurrence of genes and environmental factors. There are more than 120 genetic loci suggested to be associated with T2D, or with glucose and insulin levels in European and multi-ethnic populations. Risk of T2D is higher in the offspring if the mother rather than the father has T2D. Genetically, this can be associated with a unique parent-of-origin (PoO) transmission of risk alleles, and it relates to genetic programming during the intrauterine period, resulting in the inability to increase insulin secretion in response to increased demands imposed by insulin resistance later in life...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859657/genetic-determination-of-serum-levels-of-diabetes-associated-adipokines
#14
Dorit Schleinitz
Adipose tissue secretes an abundance of proteins. Some of these proteins are known as adipokines and adipose-derived hormones which have been linked with metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, and even with cancer. Variance in serum adipokine concentration is often closely associated with an increase (obesity) or decrease (lipodystrophy) in fat tissue mass, and it is affected by age, gender, and localization of the adipose tissue. However, there may be genetic variants which, in consequence, influence the serum concentration of a certain adipokine, and thereby promote metabolic disturbances or, with regard to the "protective" allele, exert beneficial effects...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859656/novel-genetic-actors-of-diabetes-associated-microvascular-complications-retinopathy-kidney-disease-and-neuropathy
#15
Samaneh Davoudi, Lucia Sobrin
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus can lead to the common microvascular complications of diabetic retinopathy, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Diabetic patients do not universally develop these complications. Long duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control explain a lot of the variability in the development of microvascular complications, but not all. Genetic factors account for some of the remaining variability because of the heritability and familial clustering of these complications. There have been a large number of investigations, including linkage studies, candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies, all of which have sought to identify the specific variants that increase susceptibility...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859655/beyond-the-protein-coding-sequence-noncoding-rnas-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Johanna K DiStefano
Diabetes mellitus results from a deficiency or failure to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. The most common form of the disease is type 2 diabetes (T2D), a progressive metabolic disorder characterized by elevated glucose levels that develops in response to either multi-organ insulin resistance or insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Although the etiology of T2D is complex, many factors are known to contribute to defects of glucose homeostasis, including obesity, unhealthy lifestyle choices, genetic susceptibility, and environmental exposures...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676669/simplified-diagnosis-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-using-ewing-s-battery
#17
Kalliopi Pafili, Grigorios Trypsianis, Dimitrios Papazoglou, Efstratios Maltezos, Nikolaos Papanas
AIM: To find a potential simplification of the established Ewing's battery for the diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We included 152 patients (92 men) with mean age 64.51 ± 7.85 years and median diabetes duration of 12 years. Ewing's battery was used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of CAN. Against this, we compared the results from each test and their combinations. RESULTS: The 30:15 ratio exhibited the best diagnostic performance (AUC = 0...
April 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676668/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#18
REVIEW
Kamyar Vaziri, Stephen G Schwartz, Nidhi Relhan, Krishna S Kishor, Harry W Flynn
Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It affects a substantial proportion of US adults over age 40. The condition is a leading cause of visual loss. Much attention has been given to expanding the role of current treatments along with investigating various novel therapies and drug delivery methods. In the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), intravitreal pharmacotherapies, especially anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, have gained popularity...
April 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676667/biomarkers-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
REVIEW
Alicia J Jenkins, Mugdha V Joglekar, Anandwardhan A Hardikar, Anthony C Keech, David N O'Neal, Andrzej S Januszewski
There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients...
April 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676666/targeting-mitochondria-and-reactive-oxygen-species-driven-pathogenesis-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
REVIEW
Runa Lindblom, Gavin Higgins, Melinda Coughlan, Judy B de Haan
Diabetic kidney disease is one of the major microvascular complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approximately 30% of patients with diabetes experience renal complications. Current clinical therapies can only mitigate the symptoms and delay the progression to end-stage renal disease, but not prevent or reverse it. Oxidative stress is an important player in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/NS), which are by-products of the diabetic milieu, has been found to correlate with pathological changes observed in the diabetic kidney...
April 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
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