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Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012283/effect-of-exercise-training-on-signaling-of-interleukin-6-in-skeletal-muscles-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#1
Pattarawan Pattamaprapanont, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sunhapas Soodvilai, Chutima Srimaroeng, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes and exercise training have been shown to involve interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling in muscle. However, the relationship between the actions of these two stimuli on muscle IL-6 and their downstream components is still unknown. Thus, the effect of endurance training on the key components of muscle IL-6 signaling transduction was investigated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet, with normal rats acting as controls...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012282/low-levels-of-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-do-not-predict-the-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-iranian-high-risk-population-the-isfahan-diabetes-prevention-study
#2
Mohsen Janghorbani, Masoud Amini, Ashraf Aminorroaya
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of low-level fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Iranian high-risk population. METHODS: Seven-year follow-up data (n = 1,775) in non-diabetic first-degree relatives (FDR) of consecutive patients with T2D aged 30-70 years were analyzed. The primary outcome was the diagnosis of T2D based on repeated oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the incidence of T2D across quartiles of HDLC, and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012281/a-critical-evaluation-of-existing-diabetic-foot-screening-guidelines
#3
Cynthia Formosa, Alfred Gatt, Nachiappan Chockalingam
AIM: To evaluate critically the current guidelines for foot screening in patients with diabetes, and to examine their relevance in terms of advancement in clinical practice, improvement in technology, and change in socio-cultural structure. METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and Google between January 2011 and January 2015 using the keywords '(Diabetes) AND (Foot Screening) AND (Guidelines)'...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012280/whey-and-casein-proteins-and-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-from-milk-do-not-increase-low-grade-inflammation-in-abdominally-obese-adults
#4
Mette Bohl, Ann Bjørnshave, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012279/pancreas-volume-and-fat-deposition-in-diabetes-and-normal-physiology-consideration-of-the-interplay-between-endocrine-and-exocrine-pancreas
#5
Yoshifumi Saisho
The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012278/the-physiological-effects-of-dandelion-taraxacum-officinale-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Fonyuy E Wirngo, Max N Lambert, Per B Jeppesen
The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treatment of T2D. The anti-diabetic properties of dandelion are attributed to bioactive chemical components; these include chicoric acid, taraxasterol (TS), chlorogenic acid, and sesquiterpene lactones...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012277/chemical-and-biological-aspects-of-extracts-from-medicinal-plants-with-antidiabetic-effects
#7
Lucas F Gushiken, Fernando P Beserra, Ariane L Rozza, Patrícia L Bérgamo, Danilo A Bérgamo, Cláudia H Pellizzon
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563696/esophageal-and-gastric-dysmotilities-are-associated-with-altered-glucose-homeostasis-and-plasma-levels-of-incretins-and-leptin
#8
Rebecka Hammersjö, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications in diabetes may affect glucose and endocrine homeostasis. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and leptin regulate glucose homeostasis, food intake, and gastric emptying. AIM: The aim was to investigate associations between diabetes complications and glucose homeostasis and plasma levels of GIP, GLP-1, and leptin. METHODS: Sixteen diabetes patients (seven men) were examined with gastric emptying scintigraphy and 72-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring, 14 with the deep-breathing test, and 12 with esophageal manometry...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563695/chronic-exposure-to-proline-causes-aminoacidotoxicity-and-impaired-beta-cell-function-studies-in-vitro
#9
Zhenping Liu, Per B Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet-cell dysfunction is a hallmark in the development of diabetes, but the reasons for the primary β-cell defect are still elusive. Elevated circulating proline levels have been found in subjects with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we assessed β-cell function, gene expressions, and cell death after long-term exposure of pancreatic β-cells to excess proline in vitro. METHODS: Isolated mouse islets and INS-1E cells were incubated with and without excess proline...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563694/understanding-genetic-heterogeneity-in-type-2-diabetes-by-delineating-physiological-phenotypes-sirt1-and-its-gene-network-in-impaired-insulin-secretion
#10
Shafat Ali, Shazia Nafis, Ponnusamy Kalaiarasan, Ekta Rai, Swarkar Sharma, Rameshwar N Bamezai
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease which shows an exponential increase in all parts of the world. However, the disease is controllable by early detection and modified lifestyle. A series of factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, and genes are considered to play a critical role. The individual risk of developing T2D is determined by an altered genetic background of the en-zymes involved in several metabolism-related biological mechanisms, including glucose homeostasis, insulin metab-olism, the glucose and ion transporters involved in glucose uptake, transcription factors, signaling intermediates of insulin signaling pathways, insulin production and secretion, pancreatic tissue development, and apoptosis...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563693/macronutrient-composition-and-management-of-non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus-niddm-a-new-paradigm-for-individualized-nutritional-therapy-in-diabetes-patients
#11
Efi Koloverou, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982345/pancreas-transplantation-of-us-and-non-us-cases-from-2005-to-2014-as-reported-to-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-unos-and-the-international-pancreas-transplant-registry-iptr
#12
Angelika C Gruessner, Rainer W G Gruessner
This report is an update of pancreas and kidney transplant activities in the US and non-US region in two periods, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. The aim of the report was to analyze transplant progress and success in the US compared to non-US countries, and to compare trends between the two periods. Between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, the number of US pancreas transplants declined by over 20%, while the overall number of pancreas transplants performed outside the US has increased. The decline in US numbers is predominantly due to the decline in primary and secondary pancreas after kidney transplants (PAK)...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859658/metformin-treatment-does-not-affect-testicular-size-in-offspring-born-to-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes
#13
Kristiina Tertti, Jorma Toppari, Helena E Virtanen, Sergey Sadov, Tapani Rönnemaa
OBJECTIVES: Studies in rodents suggest that metformin treatment during pregnancy may have harmful effects on testicular development in offspring. Our aim was to determine whether metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects testicular size in male offspring. METHODS: We compared the testicular size in prepubertal boys born to mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin with insulin in the treatment of GDM...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111121/pharmacogenetics-implications-for-modern-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#14
Harald Staiger, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Many clinical treatment studies have reported remarkable interindividual variability in the response to pharmaceutical drugs, and uncovered the existence of inadequate treatment response, non-response, and even adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics addresses the impact of genetic variants on treatment outcome including side-effects. In recent years, it has also entered the field of clinical diabetes research. In modern type 2 diabetes therapy, metformin is established as first-line drug. The latest pharmaceutical developments, including incretin mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (gliptins), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (gliflozins), are currently experiencing a marked increase in clinical use, while the prescriptions of α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, meglitinides (glinides), and thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are declining, predominantly because of reported side-effects...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111120/type-2-diabetes-prevention-implications-of-hemoglobin-a1c-genetics
#15
Aaron Leong, James B Meigs
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a biomarker used for population-level screening of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk stratification. Large-scale, genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci influencing HbA1c. We discuss the challenges of classifying these genomic loci as influencing HbA1c through glycemic or nonglycemic pathways, based on their probable biology and pleiotropic associations with erythrocyte traits. We show that putative nonglycemic genetic variants have a measurable, albeit small, impact on the classification of T2D status by HbA1c in white and Asian populations...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111119/when-is-it-mody-challenges-in-the-interpretation-of-sequence-variants-in-mody-genes
#16
Sara Althari, Anna L Gloyn
The genomics revolution has raised more questions than it has provided answers. Big data from large population-scale resequencing studies are increasingly deconstructing classic notions of Mendelian disease genetics, which support a simplistic correlation between mutational severity and phenotypic outcome. The boundaries are being blurred as the body of evidence showing monogenic disease-causing alleles in healthy genomes, and in the genomes of individu-als with increased common complex disease risk, continues to grow...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111118/diabetes-in-population-isolates-lessons-from-greenland
#17
Niels Grarup, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Torben Hansen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify the genetic determinants of T2D in large, open populations such as Europeans and Asians. However, studies of T2D in population isolates are gaining attention as they provide several advantages over open populations in genetic disease studies, including increased linkage disequilibrium, homogeneous environmental exposure, and increased allele frequency...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111117/complex-genetics-of-type-2-diabetes-and-effect-size-what-have-we-learned-from-isolated-populations
#18
Anup K Nair, Leslie J Baier
Genetic studies in large outbred populations have documented a complex, highly polygenic basis for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most of the variants currently known to be associated with T2D risk have been identified in large studies that included tens of thousands of individuals who are representative of a single major ethnic group such as European, Asian, or African. However, most of these variants have only modest effects on the risk for T2D; identification of definitive 'causal variant' or 'causative loci' is typically lacking...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111116/genetics-of-type-2-diabetes-it-matters-from-which-parent-we-inherit-the-risk
#19
Valeriya Lyssenko, Leif Groop, Rashmi B Prasad
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a co-occurrence of genes and environmental factors. There are more than 120 genetic loci suggested to be associated with T2D, or with glucose and insulin levels in European and multi-ethnic populations. Risk of T2D is higher in the offspring if the mother rather than the father has T2D. Genetically, this can be associated with a unique parent-of-origin (PoO) transmission of risk alleles, and it relates to genetic programming during the intrauterine period, resulting in the inability to increase insulin secretion in response to increased demands imposed by insulin resistance later in life...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859657/genetic-determination-of-serum-levels-of-diabetes-associated-adipokines
#20
Dorit Schleinitz
Adipose tissue secretes an abundance of proteins. Some of these proteins are known as adipokines and adipose-derived hormones which have been linked with metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, and even with cancer. Variance in serum adipokine concentration is often closely associated with an increase (obesity) or decrease (lipodystrophy) in fat tissue mass, and it is affected by age, gender, and localization of the adipose tissue. However, there may be genetic variants which, in consequence, influence the serum concentration of a certain adipokine, and thereby promote metabolic disturbances or, with regard to the "protective" allele, exert beneficial effects...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
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