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Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012283/effect-of-exercise-training-on-signaling-of-interleukin-6-in-skeletal-muscles-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#1
Pattarawan Pattamaprapanont, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sunhapas Soodvilai, Chutima Srimaroeng, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes and exercise training have been shown to involve interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling in muscle. However, the relationship between the actions of these two stimuli on muscle IL-6 and their downstream components is still unknown. Thus, the effect of endurance training on the key components of muscle IL-6 signaling transduction was investigated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet, with normal rats acting as controls...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012282/low-levels-of-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-do-not-predict-the-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-iranian-high-risk-population-the-isfahan-diabetes-prevention-study
#2
Mohsen Janghorbani, Masoud Amini, Ashraf Aminorroaya
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of low-level fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) to predict the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Iranian high-risk population. METHODS: Seven-year follow-up data (n = 1,775) in non-diabetic first-degree relatives (FDR) of consecutive patients with T2D aged 30-70 years were analyzed. The primary outcome was the diagnosis of T2D based on repeated oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the incidence of T2D across quartiles of HDLC, and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012281/a-critical-evaluation-of-existing-diabetic-foot-screening-guidelines
#3
Cynthia Formosa, Alfred Gatt, Nachiappan Chockalingam
AIM: To evaluate critically the current guidelines for foot screening in patients with diabetes, and to examine their relevance in terms of advancement in clinical practice, improvement in technology, and change in socio-cultural structure. METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and Google between January 2011 and January 2015 using the keywords '(Diabetes) AND (Foot Screening) AND (Guidelines)'...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012280/whey-and-casein-proteins-and-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-from-milk-do-not-increase-low-grade-inflammation-in-abdominally-obese-adults
#4
Mette Bohl, Ann Bjørnshave, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012279/pancreas-volume-and-fat-deposition-in-diabetes-and-normal-physiology-consideration-of-the-interplay-between-endocrine-and-exocrine-pancreas
#5
Yoshifumi Saisho
The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012278/the-physiological-effects-of-dandelion-taraxacum-officinale-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Fonyuy E Wirngo, Max N Lambert, Per B Jeppesen
The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treatment of T2D. The anti-diabetic properties of dandelion are attributed to bioactive chemical components; these include chicoric acid, taraxasterol (TS), chlorogenic acid, and sesquiterpene lactones...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012277/chemical-and-biological-aspects-of-extracts-from-medicinal-plants-with-antidiabetic-effects
#7
Lucas F Gushiken, Fernando P Beserra, Ariane L Rozza, Patrícia L Bérgamo, Danilo A Bérgamo, Cláudia H Pellizzon
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plant species have been used in ethnopharmacology or to treat experimentally symptoms of this disease...
July 2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278310/first-trimester-maternal-serum-amino-acids-and-acylcarnitines-are-significant-predictors-of-gestational-diabetes
#8
Jaana Nevalainen, Mikko Sairanen, Heidi Appelblom, Mika Gissler, Susanna Timonen, Markku Ryynänen
BACKGROUND: Current screening methods for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are insufficient in detecting the risk of GDM in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Recent metabolomic studies have detected altered amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because of the similarities between T2D and GDM, the determination of these metabolites may be useful in early screening for GDM. AIM: To evaluate the association between GDM and first-trimester maternal serum concentrations of ten amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278309/mediterranean-diet-and-10-year-2002-2012-incidence-of-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-participants-with-prediabetes-the-attica-study
#9
Theodosios D Filippatos, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Evangelia Pitaraki, Georgia-Maria Kouli, Christina Chrysohoou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Christos Pitsavos
BACKGROUND: Prediabetes has been related to an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes and CVD risk in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG, i.e. fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dl). METHODS: During 2001-2002, 3042 men and women (>18y) were enrolled for the study. The participants showed no clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, and were living in the greater Athens (Greece) area...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278308/blood-ketones-measurement-interpretation-limitations-and-utility-in-the-management-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#10
Ketan Dhatariya
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a common medical emergency. Over the last few years, new national guidelines have changed the focus in managing the condition from being glucose-centered to ketone-centered. With the advent of advancing technology and the increasing use of hand-held, point-of-care ketone meters, greater emphasis is placed on making treatment decisions based on these readings. Furthermore, recent warnings about euglycemic DKA occurring in people with diabetes using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors urge clinicians to inform their patients of this condition and possible testing options...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278307/neck-circumference-as-a-simple-tool-for-assessing-central-obesity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-greece-a-descriptive-study
#11
Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, Konstantina Anagnostopoulou, Nikolaos Papanas, Konstantina Petropoulou, Andreas Melidonis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278306/benefits-of-rosuvastatin-in-cardiovascular-protection-remain-unclear-after-hope-3
#12
Yu-Hung Chang, Der-Wei Hwu, Wei-Pin Kao, Yau-Jiunn Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563696/esophageal-and-gastric-dysmotilities-are-associated-with-altered-glucose-homeostasis-and-plasma-levels-of-incretins-and-leptin
#13
Rebecka Hammersjö, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications in diabetes may affect glucose and endocrine homeostasis. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and leptin regulate glucose homeostasis, food intake, and gastric emptying. AIM: The aim was to investigate associations between diabetes complications and glucose homeostasis and plasma levels of GIP, GLP-1, and leptin. METHODS: Sixteen diabetes patients (seven men) were examined with gastric emptying scintigraphy and 72-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring, 14 with the deep-breathing test, and 12 with esophageal manometry...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563695/chronic-exposure-to-proline-causes-aminoacidotoxicity-and-impaired-beta-cell-function-studies-in-vitro
#14
Zhenping Liu, Per B Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen, Kjeld Hermansen
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet-cell dysfunction is a hallmark in the development of diabetes, but the reasons for the primary β-cell defect are still elusive. Elevated circulating proline levels have been found in subjects with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we assessed β-cell function, gene expressions, and cell death after long-term exposure of pancreatic β-cells to excess proline in vitro. METHODS: Isolated mouse islets and INS-1E cells were incubated with and without excess proline...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563694/understanding-genetic-heterogeneity-in-type-2-diabetes-by-delineating-physiological-phenotypes-sirt1-and-its-gene-network-in-impaired-insulin-secretion
#15
Shafat Ali, Shazia Nafis, Ponnusamy Kalaiarasan, Ekta Rai, Swarkar Sharma, Rameshwar N Bamezai
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease which shows an exponential increase in all parts of the world. However, the disease is controllable by early detection and modified lifestyle. A series of factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, and genes are considered to play a critical role. The individual risk of developing T2D is determined by an altered genetic background of the en-zymes involved in several metabolism-related biological mechanisms, including glucose homeostasis, insulin metab-olism, the glucose and ion transporters involved in glucose uptake, transcription factors, signaling intermediates of insulin signaling pathways, insulin production and secretion, pancreatic tissue development, and apoptosis...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563693/macronutrient-composition-and-management-of-non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus-niddm-a-new-paradigm-for-individualized-nutritional-therapy-in-diabetes-patients
#16
Efi Koloverou, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982345/pancreas-transplantation-of-us-and-non-us-cases-from-2005-to-2014-as-reported-to-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-unos-and-the-international-pancreas-transplant-registry-iptr
#17
Angelika C Gruessner, Rainer W G Gruessner
This report is an update of pancreas and kidney transplant activities in the US and non-US region in two periods, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. The aim of the report was to analyze transplant progress and success in the US compared to non-US countries, and to compare trends between the two periods. Between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, the number of US pancreas transplants declined by over 20%, while the overall number of pancreas transplants performed outside the US has increased. The decline in US numbers is predominantly due to the decline in primary and secondary pancreas after kidney transplants (PAK)...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859658/metformin-treatment-does-not-affect-testicular-size-in-offspring-born-to-mothers-with-gestational-diabetes
#18
Kristiina Tertti, Jorma Toppari, Helena E Virtanen, Sergey Sadov, Tapani Rönnemaa
OBJECTIVES: Studies in rodents suggest that metformin treatment during pregnancy may have harmful effects on testicular development in offspring. Our aim was to determine whether metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects testicular size in male offspring. METHODS: We compared the testicular size in prepubertal boys born to mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin with insulin in the treatment of GDM...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111121/pharmacogenetics-implications-for-modern-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#19
Harald Staiger, Elke Schaeffeler, Matthias Schwab, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Many clinical treatment studies have reported remarkable interindividual variability in the response to pharmaceutical drugs, and uncovered the existence of inadequate treatment response, non-response, and even adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics addresses the impact of genetic variants on treatment outcome including side-effects. In recent years, it has also entered the field of clinical diabetes research. In modern type 2 diabetes therapy, metformin is established as first-line drug. The latest pharmaceutical developments, including incretin mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (gliptins), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (gliflozins), are currently experiencing a marked increase in clinical use, while the prescriptions of α-glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, meglitinides (glinides), and thiazolidinediones (glitazones) are declining, predominantly because of reported side-effects...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111120/type-2-diabetes-prevention-implications-of-hemoglobin-a1c-genetics
#20
Aaron Leong, James B Meigs
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a biomarker used for population-level screening of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk stratification. Large-scale, genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci influencing HbA1c. We discuss the challenges of classifying these genomic loci as influencing HbA1c through glycemic or nonglycemic pathways, based on their probable biology and pleiotropic associations with erythrocyte traits. We show that putative nonglycemic genetic variants have a measurable, albeit small, impact on the classification of T2D status by HbA1c in white and Asian populations...
October 2015: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
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