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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Catia A Almeida, Mariana M B Azevedo, Francisco C M Chaves, Marcelo Roseo de Oliveira, Igor A Rodrigues, Humberto R Bizzo, Paola E Gama, Daniela S Alviano, Celuta S Alviano
Piper is the largest genus of the Piperaceae family. The species of this genus have diverse biological activities and are used in pharmacopeia throughout the world. They are also used in folk medicine for treatment of many diseases in several countries including Brazil, China, India, Jamaica, and Mexico. In Brazil, Piper species are distributed throughout the national territory, making this genus a good candidate for biological activity screening. During our studies with Piper essential oils, we evaluated its activity against Rhizopus oryzae , the main agent of mucormycosis...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Daniel W Gunda, Simon C Maganga, Igembe Nkandala, Semvua B Kilonzo, Bonaventura C Mpondo, Elichilia R Shao, Samwel E Kalluvya
Introduction: Although ART has improved the outcome of people living with HIV/AIDS, still some patients develop TB while receiving ART. The literature on the magnitude of this problem is still scarce in our setting especially northwestern Tanzania. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active TB among HIV patients on ART and assess its potential risk factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done among adult HIV-positive patients initiated on ART at Bugando Medical Centre...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tonny Loho, Ninik Sukartini, Dalima A W Astrawinata, Suzanna Immanuel, Diana Aulia, Ika Priatni
Evaluation of the in vitro interaction of doripenem and amikacin against Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae was done by classifying them into four groups: doripenem and amikacin sensitive (DOR-S/AMK-S), doripenem sensitive and amikacin resistant (DOR-S/AMK-R), doripenem resistant and amikacin sensitive (DOR-R/AMK-S), and both doripenem and amikacin resistant (DOR-R/AMK-R). The MIC of each antibiotic and their combination was obtained using the Etest method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated to classify the results as synergistic, additive, indifferent, or antagonistic interaction...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
George G Zhanel, Michael A Zhanel, James A Karlowsky
Fosfomycin is a bactericidal agent that inhibits cell wall synthesis using a mechanism of action distinct from β -lactams or other antimicrobial agents. It is a broad-spectrum agent that is frequently active against antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, and some isolates of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Intravenous fosfomycin has been prescribed for a wide variety of infections in many countries for >40 years...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Bai Jun Sun, Hui Jie Chen, Ye Chen, Xiang Dong An, Bao Sen Zhou
Objectives: The incidence of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is not low, especially in mainland China in almost every year recently. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to generate large-scale evidence on the risk factors of severe HFMD to provide suggestions on prevention and controlling. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese) were searched to identify relevant articles...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Suntorn Pimnon, Adisak Bhumiratana
Anthropogenic activity such as the establishment of Anopheles -infested rubber plantations can influence local malaria transmission dynamics to which the population dynamics and insecticide susceptibility of local Anopheles vectors are related. Using human landing catch collections at a house protected by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the periodic assessment of species composition, abundance, and blood-feeding behaviors was done in pre-IRS, during IRS, and post-IRS at 3, 6, and 12 months in a malaria-associated rubber plantation (MRP) ecotope of the Bo Rai district, Trat Province, Thailand, after malaria outbreak occurred...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Dharm Raj Bhatta, Deependra Hamal, Rajani Shrestha, Ranjana Parajuli, Nisha Baral, Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Niranjan Nayak, Shishir Gokhale
Background: Upper respiratory tract is one of the commonest sites for microbial colonization. The colonized individuals are at risk of infections and can be a source of transmission of pathogens. Medical students are frequently exposed to a variety of infectious agents and more likely to get colonized by them. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and to compare the colonization rates of nasal and pharyngeal bacterial pathogens among preclinical and clinical sciences medical students...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Zhiming Chen, Jun Chen, Xiang Zhang, Youming Hou, Guihua Wang
The nipa palm hispid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important invasive pest on palm plants in southern China. Based on existing transcriptome data, polymorphism simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified. In total, 1274 SSR loci were identified from 49919 unigenes. The majority of them contained mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide motifs (43.56%, 26.14%, and 28.18%), in which A/T (41.21%) and AT/TA (15.86%) were the most abundant motifs. 104 pairs of the SSR primers produced amplification bands of expected sizes in O...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Nabil A Nimer
The review aims to examine the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in Jordan, in parallel with the Syrian refugee crisis. Qualitative approach has been adopted for systematically examining the outcomes of the Syrian crisis, which resulted in emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. It has adhered that infectious diseases, including measles, tuberculosis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis, have hazardous effects on Syrian refugees along with the local population in Jordan. The threat of major infectious diseases is higher and alarming in Jordan...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Elbrus Zarbaliyev, Sebahattin Celik
Background/Aim: Although rare, parasitic infection can cause acute appendicitis and result in contamination of the peritonea during appendectomy. The goal of this study was to summarize our experiences with parasitic appendicitis and describe a novel laparoscopic technique to prevent contamination. Method: All patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis who underwent appendectomy between January 2016 and January 2017 were included in the study. All appendectomies were performed using the standard three-port laparoscopic method, and a video recording was made of each procedure...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Shuangshuang Yang, Jide Sun, Xianan Wu, Liping Zhang
Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the determinants of in-hospital mortality in Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) bacteremia and to assess impact of carbapenem resistance on mortality. Methods: A five-year case-control study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2015 in a tertiary teaching hospital with 3200 beds, Southwest China. Clinical outcomes and potential determinants of mortality in patients with nosocomial A. baumannii bacteremia and carbapenem-resistant A...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Nourchène Toukabri, Cyrine Dhieb, Dalenda El Euch, Mustapha Rouissi, Mourad Mokni, Najla Sadfi-Zouaoui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Huseyin Bilgin, Murat Haliloglu, Ali Yaman, Pinar Ay, Beliz Bilgili, Mustafa Kemal Arslantas, Filiz Ture Ozdemir, Goncagul Haklar, Ismail Cinel, Lutfiye Mulazimoglu
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) compared with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Materials and Methods: We designed a nested case-control study. This study was performed in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care academic university and teaching hospital. Ninety-one adults who were mechanically ventilated for >48 hours were enrolled in the study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Oyelola A Adegboye, Faiz Elfaki
Contact history is crucial during an infectious disease outbreak and vital when seeking to understand and predict the spread of infectious diseases in human populations. The transmission connectivity networks of people infected with highly contagious Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia were assessed to identify super-spreading events among the infected patients between 2012 and 2016. Of the 1379 MERS cases recorded during the study period, 321 (23.3%) cases were linked to hospital infection, out of which 203 (14...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tanja Artelt, Martin Kaase, Ivonne Bley, Helmut Eiffert, Alexander Mellmann, Helmut Küster, Martina Lange, Simone Scheithauer
Isolation precautions required for neonatal intensive care units are part of a bundle with the aim to prevent transmission, colonization, and infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens as neonates face an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in case of infection. The following short report describes a transmission of 3MDRGN Klebsiella pneumoniae on a neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital in Germany. This transmission occurred even though intensified infection control measures were in place, which impressively shows the importance of surveillance, outbreak management, and awareness of contributing factors regarding outbreak situations...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Chao-Min Wang, Po-Yu Liu, Ching-Chang Cheng, Zong-Yen Wu, Shu-Ying Tseng, Kwong-Chung Tung
Essential oils from the dried spikes of Nepeta tenuifolia (Benth) are obtained by steam distillation. Pulegone was identified as the main component in the spikes of N. tenuifolia through analysis, with greater than 85% purity obtained in this study. The essential oils are extremely active against all Gram-positive and some Gram-negative reference bacteria, particularly Salmonella enterica , Citrobacter freundii , and Escherichia coli . The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be between 0.08 and 0...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Talel Badri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Bo Gao, Jianming Zhang, Lianhui Xie
The history of Chinese herb research can be traced back to thousands of years ago, and the abundant knowledge accumulated for these herbs makes them good candidates for developing new natural drugs. Isatis tinctoria is probably the most well-studied Chinese herb, which has been identified to be effective against dengue fever. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we adopt combined methods of bioactive trace technology and phytochemical extraction and separation, to guide the isolation and purification of the effective chemical constituents on the water-soluble components of aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria ...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Akira Endo, Hiroshi Nishiura
Background: Migratory waterfowl annually migrate over the continents along the routes known as flyways, serving as carriers of avian influenza virus across distant locations. Prevalence of influenza varies with species, and there are also geographical and temporal variations. However, the role of long-distance migration in multispecies transmission dynamics has yet to be understood. We constructed a mathematical model to capture the global dynamics of avian influenza, identifying species and locations that contribute to sustaining transmission...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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