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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Vivian Peirano, María Noel Bianco, Armando Navarro, Felipe Schelotto, Gustavo Varela
Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease still deserves worldwide attention due to its high morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. While etiologic determination is not mandatory for management of all individual cases, it is needed for generating useful epidemiologic knowledge. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are relevant enteropathogens, and their investigation requires specific procedures to which resources and training should be dedicated in reference laboratories...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mirela C M Prates, Edwin Tamashiro, José L Proenca-Modena, Miriã F Criado, Tamara H Saturno, Anibal S Oliveira, Guilherme P Buzatto, Bruna L S Jesus, Marcos G Jacob, Lucas R Carenzi, Ricardo C Demarco, Eduardo T Massuda, Davi Aragon, Fabiana C P Valera, Eurico Arruda, Wilma T Anselmo-Lima
We sought to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in secretions and tonsillar tissues of children with chronic adenotonsillitis hypertrophy compared to controls. Prospective case-control study comparing patients between 2 and 12 years old who underwent adenotonsillectomy due to chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy to children without disease. We compared detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Moraxella catarrhalis by real-time PCR in palatine tonsils, adenoids, and nasopharyngeal washes obtained from 37 children with and 14 without adenotonsillar hypertrophy...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Abeba Mengist, Yibeltal Aschale, Alemayehu Reta
Background: Food handlers with untrimmed finger nails could contribute or serve as a vehicle for the transmission of food poisoning pathogens. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: This laboratory-based cross-sectional study involved 220 food handlers working in food service establishments in Debre Markos University between 1st January 2015 to 31th June 2016...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Igor Dumic, Edson Severnini
Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis. The life cycle of the LD vector, I. scapularis , usually takes two to three years to complete and goes through three stages, all of which are dependent on environmental factors. Increases in daily average temperatures, a manifestation of climate change, might have contributed to an increase in tick abundance via higher rates of tick survival...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Markos Negash, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Demeke Geremew
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is implicated for the causation of gastrointestinal tract infections including gastric cancer. Although the infection is prevalent globally, the impact is immense in countries with poor environmental and socioeconomic status including Ethiopia. Epidemiological study on the magnitude of H. pylori and possible risk factors has priceless implication. Therefore, in this study, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in the resource-limited area of northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Marie-Claude Letellier, Rachid Amini, Vladimir Gilca, Gisele Trudeau, Chantal Sauvageau
Background: The main aim of this review was to assess incidence rates and trends of medically attended and death cases of herpes zoster in Canada. Methods: The search was conducted in five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, PsycNET, and Web of Science). Data on herpes zoster-related consultations and hospitalisations and deaths were also extracted from three Quebec provincial administrative databases (RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and ISQ). Results: The electronic search yielded 587 publications...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yun Cui, Yijun Shan, Rongxin Chen, Chunxia Wang, Yucai Zhang
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level in pediatric patients with sepsis-associated liver injury (SALI). Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with SALI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Shanghai Children's Hospital between December 2012 and December 2015. Serum TBIL concentration was determined within 72 h after PICU admission. Results: Seventy-two patients with SALI were included in this study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mahdiye Bayat, Alireza Khabiri, Behzad Hemati
Background: The conventional methods for diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae are time consuming, complicated, and expensive. Development of rapid detection tests is critical for prevention and management of cholera. This study aimed to introduce two sensitive sandwich ELISAs based on avian antibodies (IgY) targeting outer membrane protein W (OmpW) and cytotoxin B (CtxB) antigens of V. cholerae . Methods: The sequences of ompW and ctxB genes were cloned into pET28a vector...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Cláudia M Melo, Ana Carla F G Cruz, Antônio Fernando V A Lima, Luan R Silva, Rubens R Madi, Veronica de Lourdes S Jeraldo, Ruben Mercado
Updated information of the dispersion dynamics of Chagas disease (CD) and a systemic analysis of these data will aid the early identification of areas that are vulnerable to transmission and enable efficient intervention. This work synthesized spatiotemporal information regarding triatomine fauna and analyzed this information in combination with the results from serological tests to elucidate the epidemiological panorama of CD in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This is a retrospective analytical study that utilized information from the database of the National Chagas Disease Control Program...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Antonia S Stang, Melanie Trudeau, Otto G Vanderkooi, Bonita E Lee, Linda Chui, Xiao-Li Pang, Vanessa Allen, Carey-Ann D Burnham, David M Goldfarb, Judy MacDonald, Brendon Parsons, Astrid Petrich, Frank Pollari, Phillip I Tarr, Graham Tipples, Ran Zhuo, Stephen B Freedman
Background: We sought to develop diagnostic test guidance definitions for pediatric enteric infections to facilitate the interpretation of positive test results in the era of multianalyte molecular diagnostic test platforms. Methods: We employed a systematic, two-phase, modified Delphi consensus process consisting of three web-based surveys and an expert panel face-to-face meeting. In phase 1, we surveyed an advisory panel of North American experts to select pathogens requiring diagnostic test guidance definition development...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Shu-Ying Tseng, Po-Yu Liu, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Zong-Yen Wu, Chiu-Chen Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Kwong-Chung Tung
Shewanella algae is a rod-shaped Gram-negative marine bacterium frequently found in nonhuman sources such as aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be the pathogenic agent in various clinical cases due to the ingestion of raw seafood. The results of this study showed that S. algae was present in approximately one in four samples, including water and shellfish samples. Positive reactions (API systems) in S. algae strains were seen for gelatinase (gelatin); however, negative reactions were found for indole production (tryptophan)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Gideon Kofi Helegbe, Paul Armah Aryee, Baba Sulemana Mohammed, Anthony Wemakor, David Kolbila, Abdul-Wahid Abubakari, Salam Askanda, Rashid Alhassan, Collins Barnie, Afua Aboagyewaa Donkoh, Ernest Ofosu
Background: Coinfections are becoming common risk factors that may contribute to the increased burden of morbidity in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of coinfections of malaria, hepatitis B (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in the Tamale Metropolis. Methods: By means of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), pregnant women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) were screened for malaria, HBV infection, HIV infection, and syphilis from March 2013 to February 2015...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Orsolya Szabo, Bela Kocsis, Nikolett Szabo, Katalin Kristof, Dora Szabo
The role of OqxAB efflux pump in Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated in correlation with ciprofloxacin exposure. K. pneumoniae SE23 and K. pneumoniae SE191 were isolated from urinary tract infections and were analyzed in this study. Each carried oqxAB resistance determinant and exhibited ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Tested strains were initially exposed to their ciprofloxacin MIC values for 24 hours. Later on, the ciprofloxacin exposition has been increased to a daily 1, 2, 4, and to a final 8 mg/L...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Giovanni Bruno, Giulia Rocco, Piera Zaccari, Barbara Porowska, Maria Teresa Mascellino, Carola Severi
Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) is responsible for one of the most common infections in the world. The prevalence exceeds 50% of the population in developing countries, and approximately one-third of the adults are colonized in North Europe and North America. It is considered a major pathogenic agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT). Hp colonization modifies the composition of gastric microbiota that could drive the development of gastric disorders...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Kamal Dumaidi, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Fekri Samarah, Maha Rabayaa
Background: HCV and HBV present a great challenge in the management of β -thalassemia patients. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of both HBV and HCV in multitransfused-dependent β -thalassemia patients in northern West Bank, Palestine, using sero-molecular markers. Methods: Serum sample from 139 multitransfused β -thalassemia patients were tested for HBV and HCV markers including HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBV-DNA, and anti-HCV and HCV-RNA...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Leidy Diana Piedrahita, Ivony Y Agudelo Salas, Katherine Marin, Andrea I Trujillo, Jorge E Osorio, Sair Orieta Arboleda-Sanchez, Berta Nelly Restrepo
Dengue fever is an increasing health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. During 2010 in Medellin, the younger population presented a particularly high dengue incidence rate. This study estimated dengue virus (DENV) transmission in schoolchildren (aged 5-19 years) in Medellin from 2010 to 2012. A longitudinal serological survey (IgG) and spatial analysis were conducted to determine the distribution of DENV seroprevalence. A total of 4,385 schoolchildren participated for at least one year. Dengue seroprevalence significantly increased during the studied period (53...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Ewa Trejnowska, Aleksander Deptuła, Magda Tarczyńska-Słomian, Piotr Knapik, Miłosz Jankowski, Agnieszka Misiewska-Kaczur, Barbara Tamowicz, Jakub Śmiechowicz, Remigiusz Antończyk, Paul Armatowicz, Wiktor Sułkowski, Grażyna Durek
Antibiotic use and microbial resistance in health care-associated infections are increasing globally and causing health care problems. Intensive Care Units (ICUs) represent the heaviest antibiotic burden within hospitals, and sepsis is the second noncardiac cause of mortality in ICUs. Optimizing appropriate antibiotic treatment in the management of the critically ill in ICUs became a major challenge for intensivists. We performed a surveillance study on the antibiotic consumption in 108 Polish ICUs. We determined which classes of antibiotics were most commonly consumed and whether they affected the length of ICU stay and the size and category of the hospital...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Govinda Maharjan, Priyatam Khadka, Gomik Siddhi Shilpakar, Ganesh Chapagain, Guna Raj Dhungana
Background: Biofilms, or colonies of uropathogen growing on the surface of indwelling medical devices, can inflict obstinate or recurring infection, thought-provoking antimicrobial therapy. Methods: This prospective analysis included 105 urine samples from catheterized patients receiving intensive care. Ensuing phenotypic identification, antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines; MDR isolates were identified according to the combined guidelines of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Won-Young Kim, Eun Suk Jeong, Insu Kim, Kwangha Lee
Purpose: The aim of this pre- and postintervention cohort study was evaluating how effectively rapid pathogen identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) detected the causative organisms in sepsis. Methods: All consecutive adult patients who had bacteremia within 72 h of intensive care unit admission and met ≥2 quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria at intensive care unit admission were analyzed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Ying Wang, Xinjie Liu, Qi Liu
Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is one of the most common disorders seen in clinical practice. It is believed that the brain tissue immune injury is caused by the expression of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) which can further induce the release of other cytokines and inflammatory cascades. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and inflammatory factors in rat brain tissues infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and its influence on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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