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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Roni Y Kraut, Kate G Snedeker, Oksana Babenko, Lance Honish
Factors affecting the seasonal distribution of norovirus outbreaks are not well understood. This study examined whether grade school settings at the start of the school year may be a factor. We searched Ovid Medline from January 2002 to June 2014 for studies that provided all reported norovirus outbreaks in a developed country by month for a minimum of three years. Historical school years were obtained from verifiable sources. The start of the norovirus seasonal outbreak peak and peak outbreak month were determined for each study and compared to the start month of school...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Raghabendra Adhikari, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Mukesh Neupane, Roshan Bhattarai, Sabita Bhatta, Raina Chaudhary, Binod Lekhak
The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Haixiang Qiu, Patrick John Kelly, Jilei Zhang, Qinghua Luo, Yi Yang, Yongjiang Mao, Zhangping Yang, Jing Li, Hongzhuan Wu, Chengming Wang
Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Jan Clement, Piet Maes, Veroniek Saegeman, Katrien Lagrou, Marc Van Ranst, Åke Lundkvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Eric Monroy-Pérez, Gloria Luz Paniagua-Contreras, Pamela Rodríguez-Purata, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Marco Vázquez-Villaseñor, Clara Díaz-Velásquez, Alina Uribe-García, Sergio Vaca
Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes and azole resistance genes MDR1 and CDR1 were performed using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Jiaying Wu, Yuyu Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Yuefeng Rao, Jing Miao, Xiaoyang Lu
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread serious neurological disorders, and an aetiological explanation has not been fully identified. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the influential role of autoimmune mechanisms in the progression of epilepsy. The hygiene hypothesis draws people's attention to the association between gut microbes and the onset of multiple immune disorders. It is also believed that, in addition to influencing digestive system function, symbiotic microbiota can bidirectionally and reversibly impact the programming of extraintestinal pathogenic immune responses during autoimmunity...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Sanket R Thakore, Faisal A Khasawneh
Cavitary pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is a challenging entity. Establishing accurate diagnosis and starting effective antibiotics are essential steps towards improving outcome. A 58-year-old stem cell transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with necrotizing pneumonia caused by nocardia. The disease progressed despite of aggrieve antimicrobial therapy. Nocardiosis continues to be a difficult disease to diagnose and treat.
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Elliott J Carande, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
In 1995, the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) carried out a survey of its members to assess the variation in management of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. The aim of the current study was to carry out a similar survey 20 years later to assess how the management had changed. An electronic, structured, English language survey, based on the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis draft guideline, was sent to ESPID members in March 2015...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yachao Qu, Yong Huang, Di Liu, Yinuo Huang, Zhiyi Zhang, Zhiqiang Mi, Xiaoping An, Yigang Tong, Jun Lu
T lymphocytes are the most important immune cells that affect both the development and treatment of hepatitis B. We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the diversity in the V and J regions of the TCRβ chain in 4 chronic hepatitis B patients before and after HBeAg seroconversion. Here, we demonstrate that the 4 patients expressed Vβ12-4 at the highest frequencies of 10.6%, 9.2%, 17.5%, and 7.5%, and Vβ28 was the second most common, with frequencies of 7.8%, 6.7%, 5.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. No significant changes were observed following seroconversion...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Meliha Cagla Sonmezer, Gunay Ertem, Fatma Sebnem Erdinc, Esra Kaya Kilic, Necla Tulek, Ali Adiloglu, Cigdem Hatipoglu
Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is resistant to various antibiotics and can cause serious nosocomial infections with high morbidity and mortality. In this clinical study, we investigated the risk factors in patients who were diagnosed with P. aeruginosa-related nosocomial infection. Methods. A retrospective case control study including patients with P. aeruginosa-related nosocomial infection. Patients who were resistant to any of the six antibiotics (imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ceftazidime) constituted the study group...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tesfahun Lamboro, Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegen, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele, Temesgen Anjulo Ageru, Fiseha Wadilo Wada
Background. Transfusion-transmissible infections, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety and pose a serious public health problem. Objective. To determine the magnitude of blood borne infections among blood donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10/11/2015 up to 10/12/2015. 390 donors were consecutively included and data on donor's age, sex, blood type, and serum screening results were obtained by structured questionnaire and laboratory investigation...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Katy Jeannot, Taghrid S El-Mahdy, Hassan A Samaha, Atef M Shibl, Patrick Plésiat, Patrice Courvalin
Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
U B Usman, J K P Kwaga, J Kabir, O S Olonitola, S Radu, F Bande
In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from "Manshanu," and 1 (2.8%) from "Kindrimo." Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Carla Penney, Robert Porter, Mary O'Brien, Peter Daley
Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Layli Sanaee, Monica Taljaard, Tim Karnauchow, Jeffrey J Perry
Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Sarah Teatero, Samir N Patel, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva, Gilberto Fontes, Célia Dias Dos Santos, Rafael Vital Dos Santos, Eliana Maria Mauricio da Rocha
Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Sarah Buchan, Katherine A Muldoon, Johanna N Spaans, Louise Balfour, Lindy Samson, Mark Walker, D William Cameron
Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990-2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tracy Chin, Barry Kushner, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Danny J Zuege
This retrospective cohort study describes the patterns of antibiotic use for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services. Timing, appropriateness, and duration of antibiotics were evaluated in two hundred consecutive cases of VAP derived from 4 adult intensive care units (ICU). Antibiotic therapy was initiated in less than 24 hours from VAP diagnosis in 83% of cases. Although most patients (89%) received empiric therapy that demonstrated in vitro sensitivity to the identified pathogens, only 24% of cases were congruent with the 2008 Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (AMMI) guidelines...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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