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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Yongxiang Wu, Suhua Li, Yanting Luo, Yunyue Zhao, Jiarui Wang, Ruimin Dong, Xujing Xie, Jieming Zhu, Jinlai Liu
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections and poststreptococcal sequelae remain a health problem worldwide, which necessitates searching for an effective vaccine, while no licensed GAS vaccine is available. We have developed a divalent peptide vaccine composed of 84 amino acids to cover the main GAS serotypes (M1 and M12 streptococci) in China, and herein, we aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with the vaccine...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Donglai Xiao, Lu Ma, Chi Yang, Zhenghe Ying, Xiaoling Jiang, Yan-Quan Lin
Known to be rich in β- glucan, Sparassis latifolia ( S. latifolia ) is a valuable edible fungus cultivated in East Asia. A few studies have suggested that S. latifolia is effective on antidiabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, and antiallergen medications. However, it is still unclear genetically why the fungus has these medical effects, which has become a key bottleneck for its further applications. To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Wissam K Kabbara, Mohamad M Meski, Wijdan H Ramadan, Dina S Maaliki, Pascale Salameh
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate antibiotic-prescribing practices and adherence to IDSA guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Lebanon. Methods: This observational prospective study was conducted in 15 community pharmacies in Lebanon over 1 year in adult females. A regimen of nitrofurantoin 100 mg bid for 5 days or fosfomycin 3 grams single dose were considered appropriate. For the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Kristy J Walker, Young R Lee, Amanda R Klar
Purpose: Highly resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are associated with high mortality. Increasing resistance to standard therapy illustrates the need for alternatives when treating resistant organisms, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Enterobacteriaceae . Methods: A retrospective chart review at a community hospital was performed. Patients who developed ESBL-producing infections were included. Patients less than eighteen years old, who were pregnant, or who were incarcerated were excluded...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mei-Chun Lee, Chun-Ming Lee
Background/Purpose: Splenic abscess is rare with potentially life-threatening evolution. The aim of this study is to review the clinical features, microbiological etiologies, treatment, and outcomes of patients with splenic abscess. Methods: We reviewed the admitted patients with suspected splenic abscess and made the diagnosis of splenic abscess. The clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, treatment course, organism spectra, abscess number and size, therapeutic methods, and clinical outcome at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan over a period of 5 years were analyzed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
George G Zhanel, Michael A Zhanel, James A Karlowsky
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in outpatients is commonly treated with oral fluoroquinolones; however, the worldwide dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has resulted in therapeutic failures with fluoroquinolones. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin in the treatment of acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli . All English-language references on PubMed from 1986 to June 2017, inclusive, were reviewed from the search "fosfomycin prostatitis...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mohammed K Almaghrabi, Martin R P Joseph, Mohammed M Assiry, Mohamed E Hamid
Objective: The study aims to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of ninety-four ( n  = 94) clinical isolates of A. baumannii . The isolates were collected from the south region of Saudi Arabia, and notably Aseer Region, during the period from 15 October 2014 to 15 January 2015. The isolates were tentatively identified as A. baumannii by routine bench tests and were confirmed by using VITEK® 2 Compact...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Arezoo Saadatian Farivar, Jamileh Nowroozi, Gita Eslami, Azar Sabokbar
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitals shows the limitation of recent antibiotics used for bacterial eradication. In this study, 81 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from three hospitals in Tehran. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed the highest rates of resistance to cefotaxim (85.5%) and ceftazidime (78.3%), and the lowest rates of resistance were detected for colistin (16.9%), streptomycin (16.8%), and chloroamphenicol (21.7%). Eleven different resistance patterns were observed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Marco Brenciaglia, Trevor P Noël, Paul J Fields, Satesh Bidaisee, Todd E Myers, William M Nelson, Neeraja Venkateswaran, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Nishanth Parameswaran, Avi Bahadoor, Katherine Yearwood, Veronica Mapp-Alexander, George Mitchell, A Desiree LaBeaud, Calum N L Macpherson
This paper describes the spatial and temporal distribution of cases, demographic characteristics of patients, and clinical manifestations of Zika virus (ZIKV) during the 2016 outbreak in Grenada. The first reported case was recorded in St. Andrew Parish in April, and the last reported case was seen in November, with peak transmission occurring in the last week of June, based on test results. Data were collected from a total of 514 patients, of whom 207 (40%) tested positive for ZIKV. No evidence was found that testing positive for ZIKV infection was related to age, gender, or pregnancy status...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Chuck J Biddle, Beverly George-Gay, Praveen Prasanna, Emily M Hill, Thomas C Davis, Brad Verhulst
Background: Anesthesia machines are known reservoirs of bacterial species, potentially contributing to healthcare associated infections (HAIs). An inexpensive, disposable, nonpermeable, transparent anesthesia machine wrap (AMW) may reduce microbial contamination of the anesthesia machine. This study quantified the density and diversity of bacterial species found on anesthesia machines after terminal cleaning and between cases during actual anesthesia care to assess the impact of the AMW...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Xue-Min Wu, Qiu-Yong Chen, Ru-Jing Chen, Yong-Liang Che, Long-Bai Wang, Chen-Yan Wang, Shan Yan, Yu-Tao Liu, Jin-Sheng Xiu, Lun-Jiang Zhou
The outbreaks of pseudorabies have been frequently reported in Bartha-K61-vaccinated farms in China since 2011. To study the pathogenicity and evolution of the circulating pseudorabies viruses in Fujian Province, mainland China, we isolated and sequenced the whole genome of a wild-type pseudorabies virus strain named "FJ-2012." We then conducted a few downstream bioinformatics analyses including phylogenetic analysis and pathogenic analysis and used the virus to infect 6 pseudorabies virus-free piglets...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
David B Huang, Stephen Hawser, Curtis G Gemmell, Daniel F Sahm
Iclaprim is a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor in Phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin are commonly used antibiotics for these indications. With increased selective pressure to these antibiotics, outbreaks of bacterial resistance to these antibiotics have been reported. This in vitro pilot study evaluated the activity of iclaprim against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, which were also not susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, or vancomycin...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Menghua Xu, Niuniu Dong, Jin Xu
Background : Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epidemiology of HAdV in hospitalized children with viral diarrhea in Shanghai. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of HAdVs and describe their association with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children. Methods : A total of 674 fecal samples were subjected to PCR or RT-PCR to detect RVA, HuCV, HAstV, and HAdV. Results : HAdV infections were detected in 4...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Liliana Simões-Silva, Sara Silva, Carla Santos-Araujo, Joana Sousa, Manuel Pestana, Ricardo Araujo, Isabel Soares-Silva, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
M Kate Thomas, Regan Murray, Andrea Nesbitt, Frank Pollari
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is an important public health issue, with many pathogen sources and modes of transmission. A one-year telephone survey was conducted in Canada (2014-2015) to estimate the incidence of self-reported AGI in the previous 28 days and to describe health care seeking behaviour, using a symptom-based case definition. Excluding cases with respiratory symptoms, it is estimated that there are 0.57 self-reported AGI episodes per person-year, almost 19.5 million episodes in Canada each year...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Keshav Rai, Suman Rijal, Basudha Khanal
Leishmania parasite isolation from the human aspirates is always challenging due to most probability of the fungal contamination and the use of antifungal drug which could support the selective growth of the Leishmania parasite. In this study, we examine the effect of antifungal drug caspofungin on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani . Promastigote parasite was cultivated in M199 + 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum and plated in 96-well plates. Seven different concentrations of caspofungin (512  µ g/ml to 8  µ g/ml) were exposed to parasites, and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) was calculated...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Xiaopeng Li, Huan Ye
Objective: To investigate the risk factors underlying the occurrence and mortality of bloodstream infections (BSIs) with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Methods: Medical information was retrospectively analyzed from 148 cases of patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSIs at a medical center in China, between 2013 and 2015. Results: The 30-day mortality rate in the CRE group was 65.4%. Indwelling urethral catheterization, admission to the ICU, use of antibiotics within 30 days, and BSIs from the respiratory system were associated with CRE BSIs...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Sebastian Wawrocki, Magdalena Druszczynska
The development of effective innate and subsequent adaptive host immune responses is highly dependent on the production of proinflammatory cytokines that increase the activity of immune cells. The key role in this process is played by inflammasomes, multimeric protein complexes serving as a platform for caspase-1, an enzyme responsible for proteolytic cleavage of IL-1 β and IL-18 precursors. Inflammasome activation, which triggers the multifaceted activity of these two proinflammatory cytokines, is a prerequisite for developing an efficient inflammatory response against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Lawrence Lau, Beverly Wudel, Eugene Lee, Majid Darraj, Quinlan Richert, Adriana Trajtman, Kim Bresler, Jared Bullard, Ken Kasper, Marissa Becker, Yoav Keynan
Point-of-care (POC) HIV testing has been shown to be an acceptable method for increasing HIV testing uptake. To date, no studies have examined the use of POC testing for routine HIV screening on the medicine inpatient unit. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted over a three-month period in July, August, and October 2016 to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV and the attitudes towards routine POC HIV testing. Patients admitted directly to medicine inpatient teaching units at a tertiary hospital in Winnipeg, Canada, were approached for participation...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Eugene A Sheck, Mikhail V Edelstein, Marina V Sukhorukova, Natali V Ivanchik, Elena Yu Skleenova, Andrey V Dekhnich, Ilya S Azizov, Roman S Kozlov
A high level of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii strains severely limits therapeutic possibilities. Colistin is the last resort drug against such strains, although the cases of resistance to this drug have become more frequent. This article presents the epidemiological features and genetic diversity of colistin nonsusceptible A. baumannii strains collected as part of a national multicenter epidemiological study of the antibiotic resistance of pathogens of nosocomial infections (MARATHON), which was conducted in 2013-2014 in Russia...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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