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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882059/intestinal-microbiota-as-an-alternative-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Jiaying Wu, Yuyu Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Yuefeng Rao, Jing Miao, Xiaoyang Lu
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread serious neurological disorders, and an aetiological explanation has not been fully identified. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the influential role of autoimmune mechanisms in the progression of epilepsy. The hygiene hypothesis draws people's attention to the association between gut microbes and the onset of multiple immune disorders. It is also believed that, in addition to influencing digestive system function, symbiotic microbiota can bidirectionally and reversibly impact the programming of extraintestinal pathogenic immune responses during autoimmunity...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872648/a-58-year-old-female-with-progressive-cough-and-right-shoulder-pain
#2
Sanket R Thakore, Faisal A Khasawneh
Cavitary pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is a challenging entity. Establishing accurate diagnosis and starting effective antibiotics are essential steps towards improving outcome. A 58-year-old stem cell transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with necrotizing pneumonia caused by nocardia. The disease progressed despite of aggrieve antimicrobial therapy. Nocardiosis continues to be a difficult disease to diagnose and treat.
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840650/management-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-2015-survey-of-members-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-infectious-diseases
#3
Elliott J Carande, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
In 1995, the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) carried out a survey of its members to assess the variation in management of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. The aim of the current study was to carry out a similar survey 20 years later to assess how the management had changed. An electronic, structured, English language survey, based on the United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis draft guideline, was sent to ESPID members in March 2015...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818694/high-throughput-analysis-of-the-t-cell-receptor-beta-chain-repertoire-in-pbmcs-from-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-hbeag-seroconversion
#4
Yachao Qu, Yong Huang, Di Liu, Yinuo Huang, Zhiyi Zhang, Zhiqiang Mi, Xiaoping An, Yigang Tong, Jun Lu
T lymphocytes are the most important immune cells that affect both the development and treatment of hepatitis B. We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the diversity in the V and J regions of the TCRβ chain in 4 chronic hepatitis B patients before and after HBeAg seroconversion. Here, we demonstrate that the 4 patients expressed Vβ12-4 at the highest frequencies of 10.6%, 9.2%, 17.5%, and 7.5%, and Vβ28 was the second most common, with frequencies of 7.8%, 6.7%, 5.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. No significant changes were observed following seroconversion...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656220/evaluation-of-risk-factors-for-antibiotic-resistance-in-patients-with-nosocomial-infections-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Meliha Cagla Sonmezer, Gunay Ertem, Fatma Sebnem Erdinc, Esra Kaya Kilic, Necla Tulek, Ali Adiloglu, Cigdem Hatipoglu
Background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is resistant to various antibiotics and can cause serious nosocomial infections with high morbidity and mortality. In this clinical study, we investigated the risk factors in patients who were diagnosed with P. aeruginosa-related nosocomial infection. Methods. A retrospective case control study including patients with P. aeruginosa-related nosocomial infection. Patients who were resistant to any of the six antibiotics (imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ceftazidime) constituted the study group...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642307/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-and-shigella-species-isolated-from-outpatients-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-southwest-ethiopia
#6
Tesfahun Lamboro, Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597875/transfusion-transmissible-infections-among-voluntary-blood-donors-at-wolaita-sodo-university-teaching-referral-hospital-south-ethiopia
#7
Fithamlak Solomon Bisetegen, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele, Temesgen Anjulo Ageru, Fiseha Wadilo Wada
Background. Transfusion-transmissible infections, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety and pose a serious public health problem. Objective. To determine the magnitude of blood borne infections among blood donors at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10/11/2015 up to 10/12/2015. 390 donors were consecutively included and data on donor's age, sex, blood type, and serum screening results were obtained by structured questionnaire and laboratory investigation...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597874/diversity-of-molecular-mechanisms-conferring-carbapenem-resistance-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-saudi-arabia
#8
Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Katy Jeannot, Taghrid S El-Mahdy, Hassan A Samaha, Atef M Shibl, Patrick Plésiat, Patrice Courvalin
Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597873/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-milk-and-milk-products-in-kaduna-nigeria
#9
U B Usman, J K P Kwaga, J Kabir, O S Olonitola, S Radu, F Bande
In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from "Manshanu," and 1 (2.8%) from "Kindrimo." Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579047/operator-influence-on-blinded-diagnostic-accuracy-of-point-of-care-antigen-testing-for-group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#10
Carla Penney, Robert Porter, Mary O'Brien, Peter Daley
Background. Acute pharyngitis caused by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common presentation to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Diagnosis with conventional throat culture requires 18-24 hours, which prevents point-of-care treatment decisions. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are faster, but previous reports demonstrate significant operator influence on performance. Objective. To measure operator influence on the diagnostic accuracy of a RADT when performed by pediatric ED nurses and clinical microbiology laboratory technologists, using conventional culture as the reference standard...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563314/clinical-and-laboratory-findings-that-differentiate-herpes-simplex-virus-central-nervous-system-disease-from-enteroviral-meningitis
#11
Layli Sanaee, Monica Taljaard, Tim Karnauchow, Jeffrey J Perry
Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559344/fluoroquinolone-resistance-among-clonal-complex-1-group-b-streptococcus-strains
#12
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Sarah Teatero, Samir N Patel, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528878/factors-associated-with-gastrointestinal-parasitic-infections-among-young-population-in-northeast-brazil
#13
Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva, Gilberto Fontes, Célia Dias Dos Santos, Rafael Vital Dos Santos, Eliana Maria Mauricio da Rocha
Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil)...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528877/increasing-number-and-proportion-of-adverse-obstetrical-outcomes-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-ottawa-area-a-20-year-clinical-case-series
#14
Sarah Buchan, Katherine A Muldoon, Johanna N Spaans, Louise Balfour, Lindy Samson, Mark Walker, D William Cameron
Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990-2010) clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH). General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525016/antibiotic-utilization-patterns-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-canadian-context
#15
Tracy Chin, Barry Kushner, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Danny J Zuege
This retrospective cohort study describes the patterns of antibiotic use for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services. Timing, appropriateness, and duration of antibiotics were evaluated in two hundred consecutive cases of VAP derived from 4 adult intensive care units (ICU). Antibiotic therapy was initiated in less than 24 hours from VAP diagnosis in 83% of cases. Although most patients (89%) received empiric therapy that demonstrated in vitro sensitivity to the identified pathogens, only 24% of cases were congruent with the 2008 Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (AMMI) guidelines...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525015/prevalence-of-blood-borne-viruses-in-health-care-workers-of-a-northern-district-in-pakistan-risk-factors-and-preventive-behaviors
#16
Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Shahab Saqib, Sayed Irtiza Hussain Shah Gardyzi, Javaria Qazi
Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs) are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516778/bone-and-joint-infections-due-to-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Conar R O'Neil, Evan Wilson, Bayan Missaghi
Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a normal inhabitant of the human respiratory tract. However it is an increasingly recognized pathogen in invasive infections, particularly in the immunocompromised host and where there is disruption of the normal skin or mucosal barriers. We present a case of a 56-year-old female with a history of asplenia who developed H. parainfluenzae septic arthritis of the hip following an intra-articular steroid injection. We also summarize previously reported cases of bone and joint infections caused by H...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478446/first-report-of-clostridium-lavalense-isolated-in-human-blood-cultures
#18
Richard Garceau, Christine Bourque, Louise Thibault, Jean-Charles Côté, Jean Longtin, Marc-Christian Domingo
An 88-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with worsening malaise, fever, and weakness. Anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, Gram-positive sporulated bacillus. Empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. The patient defervesced after four days and was switched to oral amoxicillin on his 6th day of antibiotic therapy and later discharged from the hospital. Four months later, he had recovered. The bacterium was initially identified as Clostridium butyricum using anaerobic manual identification panel...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471521/cihr-canadian-hiv-trials-network-coinfection-and-concurrent-diseases-core-research-group-2016-updated-canadian-hiv-hepatitis-c-adult-guidelines-for-management-and-treatment
#19
Mark Hull, Stephen Shafran, Alex Wong, Alice Tseng, Pierre Giguère, Lisa Barrett, Shariq Haider, Brian Conway, Marina Klein, Curtis Cooper
Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20-30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446220/factors-affecting-microbial-load-and-profile-of-potential-pathogens-and-food-spoilage-bacteria-from-household-kitchen-tables
#20
Susheela Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Melissa Cathleen Latouche
The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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