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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

Huseyin Bilgin, Murat Haliloglu, Ali Yaman, Pinar Ay, Beliz Bilgili, Mustafa Kemal Arslantas, Filiz Ture Ozdemir, Goncagul Haklar, Ismail Cinel, Lutfiye Mulazimoglu
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) compared with procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with suspicion of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Materials and Methods: We designed a nested case-control study. This study was performed in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care academic university and teaching hospital. Ninety-one adults who were mechanically ventilated for >48 hours were enrolled in the study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Oyelola A Adegboye, Faiz Elfaki
Contact history is crucial during an infectious disease outbreak and vital when seeking to understand and predict the spread of infectious diseases in human populations. The transmission connectivity networks of people infected with highly contagious Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia were assessed to identify super-spreading events among the infected patients between 2012 and 2016. Of the 1379 MERS cases recorded during the study period, 321 (23.3%) cases were linked to hospital infection, out of which 203 (14...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tanja Artelt, Martin Kaase, Ivonne Bley, Helmut Eiffert, Alexander Mellmann, Helmut Küster, Martina Lange, Simone Scheithauer
Isolation precautions required for neonatal intensive care units are part of a bundle with the aim to prevent transmission, colonization, and infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens as neonates face an increased risk of mortality and morbidity in case of infection. The following short report describes a transmission of 3MDRGN Klebsiella pneumoniae on a neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital in Germany. This transmission occurred even though intensified infection control measures were in place, which impressively shows the importance of surveillance, outbreak management, and awareness of contributing factors regarding outbreak situations...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yi-Hsuan Lee, Chao-Min Wang, Po-Yu Liu, Ching-Chang Cheng, Zong-Yen Wu, Shu-Ying Tseng, Kwong-Chung Tung
Essential oils from the dried spikes of Nepeta tenuifolia (Benth) are obtained by steam distillation. Pulegone was identified as the main component in the spikes of N. tenuifolia through analysis, with greater than 85% purity obtained in this study. The essential oils are extremely active against all Gram-positive and some Gram-negative reference bacteria, particularly Salmonella enterica , Citrobacter freundii , and Escherichia coli . The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be between 0.08 and 0...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Talel Badri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Bo Gao, Jianming Zhang, Lianhui Xie
The history of Chinese herb research can be traced back to thousands of years ago, and the abundant knowledge accumulated for these herbs makes them good candidates for developing new natural drugs. Isatis tinctoria is probably the most well-studied Chinese herb, which has been identified to be effective against dengue fever. However, the underlying biological mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we adopt combined methods of bioactive trace technology and phytochemical extraction and separation, to guide the isolation and purification of the effective chemical constituents on the water-soluble components of aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria ...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Akira Endo, Hiroshi Nishiura
Background: Migratory waterfowl annually migrate over the continents along the routes known as flyways, serving as carriers of avian influenza virus across distant locations. Prevalence of influenza varies with species, and there are also geographical and temporal variations. However, the role of long-distance migration in multispecies transmission dynamics has yet to be understood. We constructed a mathematical model to capture the global dynamics of avian influenza, identifying species and locations that contribute to sustaining transmission...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Sarah Susanne Übleis, Claudia Cuk, Michaela Nawratil, Julia Butter, Ellen Schoener, Adelheid G Obwaller, Thomas Zechmeister, Georg G Duscher, Franz Rubel, Karin Lebl, Carina Zittra, Hans-Peter Fuehrer
Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens , Setaria tundra , and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Luping Zheng, Jie He, Zuomei Ding, Chenlong Zhang, Ruoxue Meng
p2 of Rice stripe virus may promote virus systemic infection by interacting with the full length of fibrillarin from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbFib2) in the nucleolus and cajal body (CB). NbFib2 contains three functional domains. We used yeast two-hybrid, colocalization, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays to study the interactions between p2 and the three domains of NbFib2, namely, the N-terminal fragment containing a glycine and arginine-rich (GAR) domain, the central RNA-binding domain, and the C-terminal fragment containing an α -helical domain...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Sombo Fwoloshi, Lottie M Hachaambwa, Kaseya O Chiyeñu, Lameck Chirwa, Thijs W Hoffman, Owen Ngalamika, Sarah Lou Bailey
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be associated with active tuberculosis (TB). Zambia is a low-income sub-Saharan African country with a high TB burden and increasing numbers of newly diagnosed DM patients. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study conducted at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, from October 2014 to February 2016. Adult patients with active TB were screened for DM. Results: A total of 127 individuals were enrolled in the study...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yongxiang Wu, Suhua Li, Yanting Luo, Yunyue Zhao, Jiarui Wang, Ruimin Dong, Xujing Xie, Jieming Zhu, Jinlai Liu
Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections and poststreptococcal sequelae remain a health problem worldwide, which necessitates searching for an effective vaccine, while no licensed GAS vaccine is available. We have developed a divalent peptide vaccine composed of 84 amino acids to cover the main GAS serotypes (M1 and M12 streptococci) in China, and herein, we aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine. Methods: Mice were immunized with the vaccine...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Donglai Xiao, Lu Ma, Chi Yang, Zhenghe Ying, Xiaoling Jiang, Yan-Quan Lin
Known to be rich in β- glucan, Sparassis latifolia ( S. latifolia ) is a valuable edible fungus cultivated in East Asia. A few studies have suggested that S. latifolia is effective on antidiabetic, antihypertension, antitumor, and antiallergen medications. However, it is still unclear genetically why the fungus has these medical effects, which has become a key bottleneck for its further applications. To provide a better understanding of this fungus, we sequenced its whole genome, which has a total size of 48...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Wissam K Kabbara, Mohamad M Meski, Wijdan H Ramadan, Dina S Maaliki, Pascale Salameh
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate antibiotic-prescribing practices and adherence to IDSA guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Lebanon. Methods: This observational prospective study was conducted in 15 community pharmacies in Lebanon over 1 year in adult females. A regimen of nitrofurantoin 100 mg bid for 5 days or fosfomycin 3 grams single dose were considered appropriate. For the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Kristy J Walker, Young R Lee, Amanda R Klar
Purpose: Highly resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are associated with high mortality. Increasing resistance to standard therapy illustrates the need for alternatives when treating resistant organisms, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Enterobacteriaceae . Methods: A retrospective chart review at a community hospital was performed. Patients who developed ESBL-producing infections were included. Patients less than eighteen years old, who were pregnant, or who were incarcerated were excluded...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mei-Chun Lee, Chun-Ming Lee
Background/Purpose: Splenic abscess is rare with potentially life-threatening evolution. The aim of this study is to review the clinical features, microbiological etiologies, treatment, and outcomes of patients with splenic abscess. Methods: We reviewed the admitted patients with suspected splenic abscess and made the diagnosis of splenic abscess. The clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, treatment course, organism spectra, abscess number and size, therapeutic methods, and clinical outcome at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan over a period of 5 years were analyzed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
George G Zhanel, Michael A Zhanel, James A Karlowsky
Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis in outpatients is commonly treated with oral fluoroquinolones; however, the worldwide dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has resulted in therapeutic failures with fluoroquinolones. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin in the treatment of acute and chronic prostatitis caused by MDR E. coli . All English-language references on PubMed from 1986 to June 2017, inclusive, were reviewed from the search "fosfomycin prostatitis...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Mohammed K Almaghrabi, Martin R P Joseph, Mohammed M Assiry, Mohamed E Hamid
Objective: The study aims to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of ninety-four ( n  = 94) clinical isolates of A. baumannii . The isolates were collected from the south region of Saudi Arabia, and notably Aseer Region, during the period from 15 October 2014 to 15 January 2015. The isolates were tentatively identified as A. baumannii by routine bench tests and were confirmed by using VITEK® 2 Compact...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Arezoo Saadatian Farivar, Jamileh Nowroozi, Gita Eslami, Azar Sabokbar
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitals shows the limitation of recent antibiotics used for bacterial eradication. In this study, 81 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from three hospitals in Tehran. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed the highest rates of resistance to cefotaxim (85.5%) and ceftazidime (78.3%), and the lowest rates of resistance were detected for colistin (16.9%), streptomycin (16.8%), and chloroamphenicol (21.7%). Eleven different resistance patterns were observed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Marco Brenciaglia, Trevor P Noël, Paul J Fields, Satesh Bidaisee, Todd E Myers, William M Nelson, Neeraja Venkateswaran, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Nishanth Parameswaran, Avi Bahadoor, Katherine Yearwood, Veronica Mapp-Alexander, George Mitchell, A Desiree LaBeaud, Calum N L Macpherson
This paper describes the spatial and temporal distribution of cases, demographic characteristics of patients, and clinical manifestations of Zika virus (ZIKV) during the 2016 outbreak in Grenada. The first reported case was recorded in St. Andrew Parish in April, and the last reported case was seen in November, with peak transmission occurring in the last week of June, based on test results. Data were collected from a total of 514 patients, of whom 207 (40%) tested positive for ZIKV. No evidence was found that testing positive for ZIKV infection was related to age, gender, or pregnancy status...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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