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Leila Braga Ribeiro, Americo Moraes Neto, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Daniele Aparecida Matoso, Eliana Feldberg
Some species of Characiformes are known for their high economic value, such as Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus mesopotamicus, and are used in aquaculture programs to generate hybrid tambacu (interbreeding of C. macropomum females and P. mesopotamicus males). The present work aimed to investigate the location of the Rex3 and Rex6 transposable elements in the hybrid and in the species, in addition to checking the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA in tambacu. The diploid number found for the hybrid was equal to 54 chromosomes, with heterochromatic blocks distributed mainly in the centromeric portions...
January 9, 2017: Zebrafish
Daniel Rodrigues Blanco, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Josiane Baccarin Traldi, Vanessa Bueno, Juliana de Fátima Martinez, Heleno Brandão, Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa, Orlando Moreira Filho
Most species of the genus Harttia inhabits the headwaters of small tributaries, but some species are restricted to the main channel of some rivers. This feature, combined with limited dispersal ability, leads to the formation of small isolated populations with reduced gene flow. Currently, there are 23 taxonomically defined and recognized species, and 17 of these are found in Brazil, distributed in several hydrographic basins. Despite this diversity, few chromosomal data for the species belonging to this genus are found in the literature...
January 6, 2017: Zebrafish
Cassia Fernanda Yano, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Laureana Rebordinos, Manuel Alejandro Merlo, Thomas Liehr, Silvia Portela-Bens, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Multigene families correspond to a group of genes tandemly repeated, showing enormous diversity in both number of units and genomic organization. In fishes, unlike rDNAs that have been well explored in cytogenetic studies, U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes are poorly investigated concerning their chromosomal localization. All Triportheus species (Characiformes, Triportheidae) studied so far carry a ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes system, where the W chromosome contains a huge 18S rDNA cistron. In some species the syntenic organization of rDNAs on autosomes was also verified...
January 4, 2017: Zebrafish
Maria Toms, Dhani Tracey-White, Dhakshi Muhundhakumar, Lina Sprogyte, Adam M Dubis, Mariya Moosajee
The present study outlines a protocol for examining retinal structure in zebrafish, a popular model organism for ocular studies, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We demonstrate how this live imaging modality can be used to obtain high quality images of several retinal features, including the optic nerve, retinal vasculature, and the cone photoreceptor mosaic. Retinal histology sections were obtained from imaged fish for comparison with SD-OCT cross-sectional B-scans. Voronoi domain analysis was used to assess cone photoreceptor packing regularity at 3, 6, and 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Zebrafish
Cleberson C Primo, Larissa Glugoski, Mara C Almeida, Cláudio H Zawadzki, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo R Vicari, Viviane Nogaroto
Cytogenetic studies in fish of the Rineloricaria genus have already shown a high variation in diploid number (2n). Along with fusion/fission events for 2n alteration, inversions contribute to the diversification of chromosome formulae within this group. The present study assessed different populations/species of the Rineloricaria aiming to describe the karyotype organization of its members and understand the mechanisms that lead to the variation of chromosome numbers. Cytogenetic data showed distinct karyotype organization among Rineloricaria populations/species studied, ranging in diploid number from 46 to 64 chromosomes, syntopic species and two karyomorphs in Rineloricaria pentamaculata...
December 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Ryan B MacDonald, Nachiket D Kashikar, Leon Lagnado, William A Harris
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its release and eventual recycling are key to rapid sustained neural activity. We have paired the gfap promoter region with the glutamate reporter molecule, iGluSnFR, to drive expression in glial cells throughout the nervous system. Tg(gfap:iGluSnFR) is expressed on the glial membrane of Müller glia cells in the retina, which rapidly respond to stimulation and the release of extracellular glutamate. As glial cells are associated with most, if not all, synapses, Tg(gfap:iGluSnFR) is a novel and exciting tool to measure neuronal activity and extracellular glutamate dynamics in many regions of the nervous system...
December 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
Fernanda Moreira Lopes, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h...
December 1, 2016: Zebrafish
Seyed-Mohammadreza Samaee, Sahar Seyedin, Zoltan M Varga
Intraperitoneal (IP) injections are an effective and reproducible route of drug administration. However, current IP equipment can be either costly, inaccurate, or unsafe for zebrafish. We describe a simple, low-cost IP setup, which can be easily assembled from inexpensive and readily available parts, and which provides a safe, reproducible, and accurate IP-injection method for experimenters.
November 14, 2016: Zebrafish
Stephanie Grainger, Brianna Lonquich, Chet Huan Oon, Nicole Nguyen, Karl Willert, David Traver
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 has been applied to edit genomes in a wide variety of model systems. Although this process can be quite efficient, editing at precise locations in the genome remains difficult without a suitable single guide RNA (sgRNA). We have developed a method for screening sgRNA function in vitro, using reagents that most zebrafish laboratories are already using. The results from our in vitro assay correlate with function in vivo in every sgRNA that we have examined so far...
November 9, 2016: Zebrafish
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, A Ian Smith, Ishwar S Parhar
The central nervous system (CNS) of the non-mammalian vertebrates has better neuroregenerative capability as compared with the mammalian CNS. Regeneration of habenula was observed 40 days after damage in zebrafish. During the early stage of regeneration, we found a significant increase of apoptotic cells on day-1 post-damage and of proliferative cells on day-3 post-damage. To identify the molecular factor(s) involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration, differentially expressed proteins during sham, 20- and 40-h post-habenula damage were investigated by proteomic approach by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-ToF) and tandem mass spectrometry...
October 31, 2016: Zebrafish
Carl Breacker, Iain Barber, William H J Norton, Jonathan R McDearmid, Ceinwen A Tilley
Fin clipping of live fish under anesthesia is widely used to collect samples for DNA extraction. An alternative, potentially less invasive, approach involves obtaining samples by swabbing the skin of nonanesthetized fish. However, this method has yet to be widely adopted for use in laboratory studies in the biological and biomedical sciences. Here, we compare DNA samples from zebrafish Danio rerio and three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus collected via fin clipping and skin swabbing techniques, and test a range of DNA extraction methods, including commercially available kits and a lower-cost, in-house method...
October 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Matthew D Keefe, Joshua L Bonkowsky
There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of trans-interactions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.
October 25, 2016: Zebrafish
Lisa A Schimmenti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Zebrafish
Umur Önal, Chris Langdon
To optimize diet particle size for ingestion by zebrafish larvae, Danio rerio, a series of diet selection experiments were carried out using two different length classes: 5-day-old, first feeding larvae with a mean standard length (MLs) of 3.8 mm and 15-day-old larvae with MLs of 5.2 mm. For this purpose, crosslinked protein-walled capsules with five different size classes (≤20, 21-45, 46-75, 76-106, and 107-212 μm) were used in selection experiments. A particle size selection model was then developed after accounting for both rate of loss of capsules in the water column and their ingestion by larvae...
December 2016: Zebrafish
Doreen H Bartlett, Susan B Silk
In support of the new column in Zebrafish dedicated to initiating conversations about animal care policies and compliance for the zebrafish, the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) has offered the following clarification and guidance.
December 2016: Zebrafish
Lloyd Hamilton, Katy R Astell, Gergana Velikova, Dirk Sieger
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastomas are infiltrated by a high number of microglia, which promote tumor growth and surrounding tissue invasion. However, it is unclear how microglia and glioma cells physically interact and if there are differences, depending on glioma cell type. Hence, we have developed a novel live imaging assay to study microglia-glioma interactions in vivo in the zebrafish brain. We transplanted well-established human glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U251, into transgenic zebrafish lines with labelled macrophages/microglia...
December 2016: Zebrafish
Louis W Wang, Inken G Huttner, Celine F Santiago, Diane Fatkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Zebrafish
Amina Lebcir, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Constantin Yanicostas, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Zebrafish
Helena Fernandes, Helena Peres, António Paulo Carvalho
A standard diet for zebrafish, based on their specific nutritional requirements, is of primary importance to improve experimental outcomes with this model organism and optimize its large-scale production. However, the main basic nutritional requirements of zebrafish are yet to be determined. This study aimed at contributing to fill this gap by evaluating the dietary protein requirement of zebrafish juvenile. Ten isoenergetic fishmeal-based diets with increasing protein levels (15%-60%) were formulated, and each diet was assigned to duplicated groups of zebrafish (53...
December 2016: Zebrafish
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