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Zebrafish

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090985/an-unusual-accumulation-of-ribosomal-multigene-families-and-microsatellite-dnas-in-the-xx-xy-sex-chromosome-system-in-the-trans-andean-catfish-pimelodella-cf-chagresi-siluriformes-heptapteridae
#1
Cristhian Camilo Conde-Saldaña, Cynthia Aparecida Valiati Barreto, Francisco Antonio Villa-Navarro, Jorge Abdala Dergam
This work constitutes the first cytogenetic characterization of a trans-Andean species of Heptapteridae. The catfish Pimelodella cf. chagresi from the Upper Rio Magdalena was studied, applying standard cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region [Ag-NOR]) and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques using repetitive DNA probes: microsatellites (CA15 and GA15) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) multigene families (18S and 5S recombinant DNA [rDNA] probes). The species showed a unique diploid chromosome number 2n = 50 (32m [metacentrics] +14sm [submetacentrics] +4st [subtelocentrics]) and a XX/XY sex chromosomal system, where the heteromorphic Y-chromosome revealed a conspicuous accumulation of all the assayed domains of repetitive DNA...
November 1, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083959/screencube-a-3d-printed-system-for-rapid-and-cost-effective-chemical-screening-in-adult-zebrafish
#2
Adrian T Monstad-Rios, Claire J Watson, Ronald Y Kwon
Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish...
October 30, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058563/osmotic-concentration-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-body-fluids-is-lower-in-larvae-than-in-adults
#3
Tomasz M Kozłowski, Mikael Jönsson, Fredrik Ek, Roger Olsson, Ronald H H Kröger
We intended to perform optical and structural measurements on larval zebrafish eyes at 5 days post fertilization, that is, the earliest age at which zebrafish show visually guided behavior. However, excised larval crystalline lenses deteriorated quickly if immersed in a medium that gives good results with adult lenses from a variety of fish species. We suspected that the larvae have body fluids of lower osmolality and tested a medium with 240 mOsm, which is 75% of the established adult value of 320 mOsm...
October 23, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048998/transmission-of-pseudoloma-neurophilia-in-laboratory-zebrafish-danio-rerio-when-using-mass-spawning-chambers-and-recommendations-for-chamber-disinfection
#4
Samantha M Peneyra, Jose Cardona-Costa, Julie White, Christopher M Whipps, Elyn R Riedel, Neil S Lipman, Christine Lieggi
Pseudoloma neurophilia, a microsporidium that primarily infects neural tissues, is a common pathogen in laboratory zebrafish. The risk of parasite transmission with different spawning apparatuses and the effectiveness of disinfection are unknown. In this study, we spawned uninfected zebrafish with P. neurophilia-infected zebrafish in either 50 L mass spawning chambers (MSCs) or 1 L standard breeding tanks (BTs). Fish were spawned once or thrice, with and without chamber disinfection between uses, to evaluate risk of vertical and horizontal transmission...
October 19, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023226/contrasting-evolutionary-paths-among-indo-pacific-pomacentrus-species-promoted-by-extensive-pericentric-inversions-and-genome-organization-of-repetitive-sequences
#5
Nuntaporn Getlekha, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Nuntiya Maneechot, Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo, Weerayuth Supiwong, Alongklod Tanomtong, Wagner Franco Molina
Pomacentrus (damselfishes) is one of the most characteristic groups of fishes in the Indo-Pacific coral reef. Its 77 described species exhibit a complex taxonomy with cryptic lineages across their extensive distribution. Periods of evolutionary divergences between them are very variable, and the cytogenetic events that followed their evolutionary diversification are largely unknown. In this respect, analyses of chromosomal divergence, within a phylogenetic perspective, are particularly informative regarding karyoevolutionary trends...
October 12, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023224/zebrafish-a-premier-vertebrate-model-for-biomedical-research-in-indian-scenario
#6
Sreeja Sarasamma, Muhammed Muhsin Varikkodan, Sung-Tzu Liang, Yen-Chang Lin, Wen-Pin Wang, Chung-Der Hsiao
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a versatile model organism that has been used in biomedical research for several decades to study a wide range of biological phenomena. There are many technical advantages of using zebrafish over other vertebrate models. They are readily available, hardy, easy, and inexpensive to maintain in the laboratory, have a short life cycle, and have excellent fecundity. Due to its optical clarity and reproducible capabilities, it has become one of the predominant models of human genetic diseases...
October 12, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023202/transplantation-of-zebrafish-cells-by-conventional-pneumatic-microinjector
#7
Ming Shao, Xiao-Ning Cheng, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Ji-Tong Li, De-Li Shi
Generating chimeric zebrafish by transplantation is extremely useful for live imaging in developmental, stem cell, and cancer biology, and to answer the questions of how cells acquire, keep, and/or change their fate. However, as it is technically challenging, the use of transplantation approach remains very limited by the zebrafish community. In this study, we show that this cell grafting operation can be easily achieved by using a conventional pneumatic microinjector normally used for microinjections. Compared with previously published protocols, which need additional transplantation apparatus, this alternative transplantation method works well, but needs a simpler experimental setup, and is more accessible to all investigators...
October 12, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023201/zebrafish-ride-the-danube-s-wave-for-the-10th-european-zebrafish-meeting
#8
Éric Samarut, Margo Dona, Prusothman Yoganantharjah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968196/report-of-workshop-on-euthanasia-for-zebrafish-a-matter-of-welfare-and-science
#9
Almut Köhler, Chereen Collymore, Karin Finger-Baier, Robert Geisler, Larissa Kaufmann, Kieran C Pounder, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Ana Valentim, Zoltan M Varga, Jürgen Weiss, Uwe Strähle
The increasing importance of zebrafish as a biomedical model organism is reflected by the steadily growing number of publications and laboratories working with this species. Regulatory recommendations for euthanasia as issued in Directive 2010/63/EU are, however, based on experience with fish species used for food production and do not take the small size and specific physiology of zebrafish into account. Consequently, the currently recommended methods of euthanasia in the Directive 2010/63/EU are either not applicable or may interfere with research goals...
October 2, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968184/effects-of-neuroactive-drugs-in-the-discharge-patterns-of-microsternarchus-hypopomidae-gymnotiformes-electric-organ
#10
Isac Silva de Jesus, Milena Ferreira, Urbano Lopes Silva-Júnior, José Antônio Alves-Gomes
Considering the conserved nature of synaptic physiology among vertebrates, we tested the effects of three psychotropics (diazepam, doxapram, and nicotine) on Microsternarchus cf. bilineatus, measuring 10 parameters associated to the electric organ discharges rhythm and waveform before and after the administration of each drug and a control group. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.005) among all the experimental groups, F (70, 22619.25) = 77.7, between the two experimental phases within their respective drug treatment, F (80, 24604...
October 2, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933679/thyroid-hormone-stimulates-the-onset-of-adult-feeding-kinematics-in-zebrafish
#11
Sarah McMenamin, Casey Carter, Wiliam James Cooper
The physical demands for swimming and feeding change dramatically over the course of development for many aquatic animals. Indeed, in teleosts, the transition from larva to adult involves major shifts in both trophic morphology and feeding behavior. A spike in thyroid hormone (TH) coordinates many developmental processes that occur during this adult transition in numerous vertebrate species. Using mutant and transgenic zebrafish, we tested the hypothesis that TH is essential for the transition from larval to adult feeding kinematic profiles...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#12
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910236/quantitative-responses-of-adult-zebrafish-to-changes-in-ambient-illumination
#13
Enhua Shao, Qing Bai, Yangzhong Zhou, Edward A Burton
The use of zebrafish models to study central nervous system aging and late-onset neurological diseases will be facilitated by assays allowing rapid evaluation of neurological phenotypes in adult zebrafish. We analyzed groups of 12 adult zebrafish swimming simultaneously in single-animal arenas, and quantified their responses to changes in ambient illumination. Under these conditions, stereotypical locomotor patterns were observed and readily quantified using open source software. Continuous, low-velocity movements were observed during 10-min periods of darkness, whereas intermittent high-velocity movements occurred in bright light...
September 14, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880735/2017-midwest-zebrafish-meeting-report
#14
Elizabeth Sandquist, Sarah C Petersen, Cody J Smith
The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks...
September 7, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873037/breeding-zebrafish-a-review-of-different-methods-and-a-discussion-on-standardization
#15
Benjamin Tsang, Hifsa Zahid, Rida Ansari, Richard Chi-Yeung Lee, Aman Partap, Robert Gerlai
In recent years, a rapidly increasing number of scientific papers have been published that utilize zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an alternative model organism in the study of a wide range of biological phenomena from cancer to behavior. This is, in large part, due to the prolific nature, relative ease of maintenance, and sufficiently high genetic homology of zebrafish to humans. With the surge of zebrafish use in animal research, the variations in methodologies of breeding and husbandry of this species have also increased...
September 5, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873052/the-importance-of-holding-water-salinity-and-chemosensory-cues-affect-zebrafish-behavior
#16
Samantha Mahabir, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish is becoming a popular model organism for studying numerous biological phenomena. Among these are brain function and behavior, including social behavior. Although usually neglected, few studies have already demonstrated that even trivial factors, such as features of the holding water may alter zebrafish behavior. In this study, we employed a 2 × 2 between-subject experimental design, exposing zebrafish to water of either high or low salinity and with chemosensory/olfactory cues of conspecifics either present or absent (while maintaining pH, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia levels constant)...
October 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873048/gene-ontology-based-analysis-of-zebrafish-omics-data-using-the-web-tool-comparative-gene-ontology
#17
Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Mario Fruzangohar, Seyyed Hani Moussavi Nik, Morgan Newman
Gene Ontology (GO) analysis is a powerful tool in systems biology, which uses a defined nomenclature to annotate genes/proteins within three categories: "Molecular Function," "Biological Process," and "Cellular Component." GO analysis can assist in revealing functional mechanisms underlying observed patterns in transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic data. The already extensive and increasing use of zebrafish for modeling genetic and other diseases highlights the need to develop a GO analytical tool for this organism...
October 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829283/fragile-x-mental-retardation-1-knockout-zebrafish-shows-precocious-development-in-social-behavior
#18
Yao-Ju Wu, Mao-Ting Hsu, Ming-Chong Ng, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Maria A Tikhonova, Yi-Ling Yang, Kwok-Tung Lu
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a generally hereditary form of human mental retardation that is caused by triplet repeat expansion (CGG) mutation in fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene promoter and that results in the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The common symptoms of FXS patients include learning disabilities, anxiety, autistic behaviors, as well as other behavioral abnormalities. Our previous results demonstrated the behavioral abnormalities in fmr1 knockout (KO) zebrafish such as fear memory impairment and autism-like behavior...
October 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737485/risk-taking-during-feeding-between-and-within-population-variation-and-repeatability-across-contexts-among-wild-zebrafish
#19
Tamal Roy, Rohitashva Shukla, Anuradha Bhat
Behavioral responses are shaped by a complex interplay of extrinsic factors, such as predation and flow conditions, and intrinsic properties such as metabolic state. We investigated variations in boldness among four populations of zebrafish collected from widely varying habitat conditions across India. We measured feeding latencies of fish in four contexts: in a novel environment; in an environment with refuge and predators; in the presence of a shoal; and in the presence of a shoal and predators. The population from a high-flow and high-predation habitat was significantly bolder than populations from low-predation and low-flow/stagnant habitats...
October 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727940/intestinal-transit-time-and-cortisol-mediated-stress-in-zebrafish
#20
Clayton Brady, Maxwell Denora, Ian Shannon, Karl J Clark, Adam Rich
Intestinal motility, the spontaneous and rhythmic smooth muscle contraction, is a complex process that is regulated by overlapping and redundant regulatory mechanisms. Primary regulators intrinsic to the gastrointestinal tract include interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric neurons, and smooth muscle cells. Extrinsic primary regulators include the autonomic nervous system, immune system, and the endocrine system. Due to this complexity, a reductionist approach may be inappropriate if the ultimate goal is to understand motility regulation in vivo...
October 2017: Zebrafish
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