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Rafael Opazo, Karen Fuenzalida, Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Jaime Romero
The zebrafish larval stage is a critical moment due to high mortality rates associated with inadequate supplies of nutritional requirements. Larval feeding has important challenges associated with such factors as small mouth gape (≈100 μm), the low activity of digestive enzymes, and the intake of live food. A common zebrafish live food at the onset of exogenous feeding is rotifers, mainly Brachionus plicatilis. These rotifers should be fed with other microorganisms such as microalgae or yeast, mostly from the Saccharomyces genus...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
Laura E Schultz, Staci L Solin, Wesley A Wierson, Janna M Lovan, Judith Syrkin-Nikolau, Deborah E Lincow, Andrew J Severin, Donald S Sakaguchi, Maura McGrail
In the central nervous system injury induces cellular reprogramming and progenitor proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms that limit regeneration and prevent tumorigenesis are not completely understood. We previously described a zebrafish optic pathway tumor model in which transgenic Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ adults develop nonmalignant retinal tumors. Key pathways driving injury-induced glial reprogramming and regeneration contributed to tumor formation. In this study, we examine a time course of proliferation and present new analyses of the Tg(flk1:RFP)is18/+ dysplastic retina and tumor transcriptomes...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
Fábio Hiroshi Takagui, Lucas Ferreira de Moura, Daniela Cristina Ferreira, Liano Centofante, Carla de Andrade Vitorino, Vanessa Bueno, Vladimir Pavan Margarido, Paulo Cesar Venere
Karyotypes and other chromosomal markers as revealed by conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols in four species of the catfish family Doradidae from the Araguaia-Tocantins river basin, namely Hassar wilderi, Leptodoras cataniae, Tenellus leporhinus and Tenellus trimaculatus were examined. All species had diploid chromosome number 2n = 58 and karyotypes dominated by biarmed chromosomes, simple NOR phenotype, that is, one chromosome pair bearing this site in terminal position, but some differences in karyotypes and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, position of rDNA sites...
February 13, 2017: Zebrafish
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February 10, 2017: Zebrafish
Tatiane Pires de Sousa, Débora Karla Silvestre Marques, Carla de Andrade Vitorino, Karina de Cassia Faria, Gisele da Silva Ferreira Braga, Daniela Cristina Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Venere
In the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, electric fish (Gymnotus spp.) are the primary source of live bait, accounting for more than three-quarters of total sales. Based on chromosomal and molecular markers, the present study attempted to identify the Gymnotus species used as bait in the region of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Three species were detected, based on their distinct karyotypes: G. paraguensis (2n = 54), G. sylvius (2n = 40), and G. pantanal (2n = 39-40, X1X2Y/X1X1X2X2), with no evidence being found of interspecific hybrids...
February 2, 2017: Zebrafish
Felix Ellett, Daniel Irimia
Microinjection of zebrafish larvae is an essential technique for delivery of treatments, dyes, microbes, and xenotransplantation into various tissues. Although a number of casts are available to orient embryos at the single-cell stage, no device has been specifically designed to position hatching-stage larvae for microinjection of different tissues. In this study, we present a reusable silicone device consisting of arrayed microstructures, designed to immobilize 2 days postfertilization larvae in lateral, ventral, and dorsal orientations, while providing maximal access to target sites for microinjection...
February 2, 2017: Zebrafish
Nicola Lockwood, Jennifer Parker, Carole Wilson, Paul Frankel
With many live imaging techniques, it is crucial that a deep level of anesthesia is reached and maintained throughout image acquisition without reducing zebrafish viability. This is particularly true for three-dimensional tomographic imaging modalities. Currently, the most commonly used anesthetic in the zebrafish community, MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), does not allow this. We show, using a combination of both MS-222 and isoflurane, that we can significantly improve the anesthetic regime required for motionless image acquisition of live adult zebrafish...
January 30, 2017: Zebrafish
Bart Weijts, Eugene Tkachenko, David Traver, Alex Groisman
We describe the design, fabrication, and applications of a four-well dish for imaging of the trunk of larval zebrafish. The dish facilitates immobilization of anesthetized zebrafish larvae, with their tails gently pushed against a microscope cover glass, enabling longitudinal imaging at 24-72 h postfertilization using high-resolution objective lenses.
January 24, 2017: Zebrafish
Steven Tran, Hayden Chow, Benjamin Tsang, Amanda Facciol, Prabhlene Gandhi, Priyanka Desai, Robert Gerlai
Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying the development of alcohol addiction. Several behavioral paradigms for studying alcohol addiction have been developed for zebrafish, including conditioned place preference, alcohol-induced tolerance, and withdrawal. However, alcohol choice preference tasks have not been established in zebrafish as of yet. The ability of zebrafish to detect alcohol in their environment is required in alcohol choice or preference tasks. To our knowledge, it is currently unknown whether zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following bath immersion...
January 16, 2017: Zebrafish
Leila Braga Ribeiro, Americo Moraes Neto, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Daniele Aparecida Matoso, Eliana Feldberg
Some species of Characiformes are known for their high economic value, such as Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus mesopotamicus, and are used in aquaculture programs to generate hybrid tambacu (interbreeding of C. macropomum females and P. mesopotamicus males). The present work aimed to investigate the location of the Rex3 and Rex6 transposable elements in the hybrid and in the species, in addition to checking the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA in tambacu. The diploid number found for the hybrid was equal to 54 chromosomes, with heterochromatic blocks distributed mainly in the centromeric portions...
January 9, 2017: Zebrafish
Daniel Rodrigues Blanco, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Josiane Baccarin Traldi, Vanessa Bueno, Juliana de Fátima Martinez, Heleno Brandão, Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa, Orlando Moreira Filho
Most species of the genus Harttia inhabits the headwaters of small tributaries, but some species are restricted to the main channel of some rivers. This feature, combined with limited dispersal ability, leads to the formation of small isolated populations with reduced gene flow. Currently, there are 23 taxonomically defined and recognized species, and 17 of these are found in Brazil, distributed in several hydrographic basins. Despite this diversity, few chromosomal data for the species belonging to this genus are found in the literature...
January 6, 2017: Zebrafish
Cassia Fernanda Yano, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Laureana Rebordinos, Manuel Alejandro Merlo, Thomas Liehr, Silvia Portela-Bens, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
Multigene families correspond to a group of genes tandemly repeated, showing enormous diversity in both number of units and genomic organization. In fishes, unlike rDNAs that have been well explored in cytogenetic studies, U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes are poorly investigated concerning their chromosomal localization. All Triportheus species (Characiformes, Triportheidae) studied so far carry a ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes system, where the W chromosome contains a huge 18S rDNA cistron. In some species the syntenic organization of rDNAs on autosomes was also verified...
January 4, 2017: Zebrafish
Maria Toms, Dhani Tracey-White, Dhakshi Muhundhakumar, Lina Sprogyte, Adam M Dubis, Mariya Moosajee
The present study outlines a protocol for examining retinal structure in zebrafish, a popular model organism for ocular studies, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We demonstrate how this live imaging modality can be used to obtain high quality images of several retinal features, including the optic nerve, retinal vasculature, and the cone photoreceptor mosaic. Retinal histology sections were obtained from imaged fish for comparison with SD-OCT cross-sectional B-scans. Voronoi domain analysis was used to assess cone photoreceptor packing regularity at 3, 6, and 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Zebrafish
Cleberson C Primo, Larissa Glugoski, Mara C Almeida, Cláudio H Zawadzki, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo R Vicari, Viviane Nogaroto
Cytogenetic studies in fish of the Rineloricaria genus have already shown a high variation in diploid number (2n). Along with fusion/fission events for 2n alteration, inversions contribute to the diversification of chromosome formulae within this group. The present study assessed different populations/species of the Rineloricaria aiming to describe the karyotype organization of its members and understand the mechanisms that lead to the variation of chromosome numbers. Cytogenetic data showed distinct karyotype organization among Rineloricaria populations/species studied, ranging in diploid number from 46 to 64 chromosomes, syntopic species and two karyomorphs in Rineloricaria pentamaculata...
December 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Ryan B MacDonald, Nachiket D Kashikar, Leon Lagnado, William A Harris
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its release and eventual recycling are key to rapid sustained neural activity. We have paired the gfap promoter region with the glutamate reporter molecule, iGluSnFR, to drive expression in glial cells throughout the nervous system. Tg(gfap:iGluSnFR) is expressed on the glial membrane of Müller glia cells in the retina, which rapidly respond to stimulation and the release of extracellular glutamate. As glial cells are associated with most, if not all, synapses, Tg(gfap:iGluSnFR) is a novel and exciting tool to measure neuronal activity and extracellular glutamate dynamics in many regions of the nervous system...
December 27, 2016: Zebrafish
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
Fernanda Moreira Lopes, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h...
December 1, 2016: Zebrafish
Erika Milena Corrêa Guimarães, Natália Dayane Moura Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Schneider, Eliana Feldberg, Maria Claudia Gross
Hoplias malabaricus comprises seven karyomorphs (A-G) and evolutionary units have been described in some of them. In this study, the karyotypic composition and genomic organization of individual H. malabaricus from Central Amazon are described and to verify whether they can be classified according to known karyomorphs. Individuals from the Ducke Reserve have 2n = 42 chromosomes, similar to karyomorph A. Individuals from Catalão Lake and Marchantaria Island exhibit 2n = 40 chromosomes, similar to karyomorph C...
February 2017: Zebrafish
Seyed-Mohammadreza Samaee, Sahar Seyedin, Zoltan M Varga
Intraperitoneal (IP) injections are an effective and reproducible route of drug administration. However, current IP equipment can be either costly, inaccurate, or unsafe for zebrafish. We describe a simple, low-cost IP setup, which can be easily assembled from inexpensive and readily available parts, and which provides a safe, reproducible, and accurate IP-injection method for experimenters.
February 2017: Zebrafish
Fei Tieng Lim, Satoshi Ogawa, A Ian Smith, Ishwar S Parhar
The central nervous system (CNS) of the non-mammalian vertebrates has better neuroregenerative capability as compared with the mammalian CNS. Regeneration of habenula was observed 40 days after damage in zebrafish. During the early stage of regeneration, we found a significant increase of apoptotic cells on day-1 post-damage and of proliferative cells on day-3 post-damage. To identify the molecular factor(s) involved in the early stages of neuroregeneration, differentially expressed proteins during sham, 20- and 40-h post-habenula damage were investigated by proteomic approach by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-ToF) and tandem mass spectrometry...
February 2017: Zebrafish
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