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Vanessa Bueno, Jocicléia Thums Konerat, Cláudio Henrique Zawadzki, Paulo Cesar Venere, Daniel Rodrigues Blanco, Vladimir Pavan Margarido
Hypostominae is the largest subfamily of Loricariidae, and is widely distributed throughout the Neotropic. In the present article, we analyze three Loricariidae species that were considered part of Hypostominae, from three different tribes, to discuss chromosome evolution in this fish group and to review the existent data for the subfamily. Rhinelepis aspera had 54 chromosomes (20m + 26sm+8st), whereas Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii and Megalancistrus parananus had 52 chromosomes, with 16m+24sm+8st+4a and 18m+24sm+10st, respectively...
June 29, 2018: Zebrafish
Julia Tandberg, Leidy Lagos, Erik Ropstad, Gro Smistad, Marianne Hiorth, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The introduction of fish vaccination has had a tremendous impact on the aquaculture industry by providing an important measurement in regard to disease control. Infectious diseases caused by intracellular pathogens do, however, remain an unsolved problem for the industry. This is in many cases directly connected to the inability of vaccines to evoke a cellular immunity needed for long-term protection. Thus, there is a need for new and improved vaccines and adjuvants able to induce a strong humoral and cellular immune response...
June 29, 2018: Zebrafish
Ricardo Utsunomia, Silvana Melo, Priscilla Cardim Scacchetti, Claudio Oliveira, Milla de Andrade Machado, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Fausto Foresti
Microsatellites show great abundance in eukaryotic genomes, although distinct chromosomal distribution patterns might be observed, from small dispersed signals to strong clustered motifs. In Neotropical fishes, the chromosome mapping of distinct microsatellites was employed several times to uncover the origin and evolution of sex and supernumerary chromosomes, whereas a detailed comparative analysis considering different motifs at the chromosomal level is scarce. Here, we report the chromosomal location of several simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in distinct electric knife fishes showing variable diploid chromosome numbers to unveil the structural organization of several microsatellite motifs in distinct Gymnotus species...
June 21, 2018: Zebrafish
Matteo Zarantoniello, Leonardo Bruni, Basilio Randazzo, Arturo Vargas, Giorgia Gioacchini, Cristina Truzzi, Anna Annibaldi, Paola Riolo, Giuliana Parisi, Gloriana Cardinaletti, Francesca Tulli, Ike Olivotto
Due to minimal environmental impact, compared to most conventional feed commodities, insects deserve a growing attention as candidate ingredients for aquafeeds. This study tested, for the first time during zebrafish larval rearing, the effects of an increasing replacement (0%-25%-50%) of fish meal by black soldier fly (BSF) full-fat prepupae meal. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isolipidic. A multidisciplinary approach, including biometrics, histology, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and molecular analyses, was applied to better understand the biological responses of larval zebrafish to the different partial inclusions of BSF in the feed...
June 18, 2018: Zebrafish
Yuvendran Muniandy
Anxiety is a widespread psychiatric disorder. The search for a cure is still continuing since many of the synthetic drugs were inefficient in completely treating anxiety, yet caused some dangerous side effects until many of the drugs were withdrawn from the market. One promising source of new anxiolytics could be herbal medicines. The challenge is to screen plant extracts. Rodent models can be used for this purpose but are expensive. Moreover, rodent tests are costly and consume relatively large quantities of sample...
May 31, 2018: Zebrafish
Katherine M Polednik, Abby C Koch, Lisa K Felzien
Innate immunity provides the initial response against pathogens and includes the inflammatory response. Regulation of the initiation and duration of neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx during inflammation determines both the successfulness of pathogen elimination and the level of resulting tissue damage. Zebrafish embryos provide excellent opportunities to visualize the inflammatory response. Neutrophil granules may be stained with Sudan black, and variation in neutrophil counts may be used to monitor the level of the response...
May 24, 2018: Zebrafish
Nolan J Tiersch, William M Childress, Terrence R Tiersch
Vitrification is a method of cryopreservation that freezes samples rapidly, while forming an amorphous solid ("glass"), typically in small (μL) volumes. The goal of this project was to create, by three-dimensional (3D) printing, open vitrification devices based on an elliptical loop that could be efficiently used and stored. Vitrification efforts can benefit from the application of 3D printing, and to begin integration of this technology, we addressed four main variables: thermoplastic filament type, loop length, loop height, and method of loading...
May 16, 2018: Zebrafish
Hiroko Nakayama, Kan Katayama, Yukimasa Onabe, Atsushi Sato, Norihio Nishimura, Yasuhito Shimada
Rotifers are now becoming a standard live feed for first-feeding larvae, because of their easy rearing protocol and improved growth and survival rate, compared with other fish feed, paramecia, and processed powder fish feeds. In a group of rotifers, bdelloid rotifer, a freshwater plankton, exerts cryptobiosis (an ametabolic state of life) in response to desiccation and survived for a long time. Here, we created "dried rotifer sheet" for rearing larvae in their early developmental stage. More than 80% rotifers could survive after 18-month desiccation in the filter paper...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Xiao-Yu Zhu, Si-Qi Wu, Sheng-Ya Guo, Hua Yang, Bo Xia, Ping Li, Chun-Qi Li
Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Himanshu Gaur, Narasimha Pullaguri, Shubham Nema, Srinithi Purushothaman, Yogesh Bhargava, Anamika Bhargava
For the assessment of cardiac function, heartbeat represents one key parameter. Current methods of heartbeat measurements in the zebrafish larvae usually require larval immobilization, fluorescent transgenic strains and a confocal microscope, costly commercial software for analysis, or strong programming skills if the software is open-source. Here, we present a simple yet powerful method of heartbeat analysis using untethered, unlabeled zebrafish larva using ImageJ (open-source software), which does not require programming skills...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Lucas Baumgärtner, Leonardo Marcel Paiz, Fabio Hiroshi Takagui, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro, Vladimir Pavan Margarido
Doradidae has been a target of phylogenetic studies over the last few years, but chromosomal information about the family is still scarce. Therefore, new cytogenetic data are provided herein and they are correlated with phylogenetic proposals to contribute to the knowledge of chromosomal evolution within doradids. Cytogenetic studies were performed on Trachydoras paraguayensis, Anadoras sp. "araguaia," Ossancora eigenmanni, Platydoras armatulus, and Rhinodoras dorbignyi. O. eigenmanni, P. armatulus, and R...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Konrad Dabrowski, Mackenzie Miller
The current body of work on rearing larval/juvenile zebrafish is based on (1) utilization of freshwater and (2) diurnal light/dark cycle, (3) provision of live feed at modest density, and (4) culture in high visibility environment. We challenged these rearing approaches by maintaining zebrafish under constant light for 46-48 days (days postfertilization [dpf]), while securing continuous feeding in high turbidity and saline (1.8-2.1 parts per thousand) environment for the experiment's duration, allowing 24 h feeding/growth of fish from first exogenous feeding to maturation...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Sebastien Andrew Rider, Finnius Austin Bruton, Richard George Collins, Bryan Ronald Conway, John James Mullins
Defects in the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) play a major role in the onset of human renal diseases. Highly ramified glomerular cells named podocytes are a critical component of the GFB. Injury to podocytes results in abnormal excretion of plasma proteins, which can lead to chronic kidney disease. The conserved paired nephron of larval zebrafish is an excellent model for assessing glomerular function and injury. The efficacy of two known podocyte toxins was tested to refine models of acute podocyte injury in larval zebrafish...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Tyrone J Tolbert, Shinnosuke Nakayama, Maurizio Porfiri
The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Ananda Marques Pety, Adauto Lima Cardoso, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Julio Cesar Pieczarka, Leandro Melo de Sousa, Renata Coelho Rodrigues Noronha
Loricariidae is a diverse group of fish from the neotropical region, occupying a wide variety of freshwater environments. Cytogenetic data have brought important insights into Loricariidae diversity because they help validate undescribed species as well as our understanding of inter- and intraspecific diversity. However, conventional cytogenetic approaches are limited in their ability to detect variability in some lineages, as seen in the Peckoltia clade, owing to their apparent conserved karyotype. Thus, the aim of this work was to map 5S and 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sites in five species of Peckoltia and one species of Ancistomus from the Amazon basin, and discusses the mechanisms of organization and diversification of these clusters...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Murilo S Abreu, Thiago A Oliveira, Gessi Koakoski, Rodrigo E Barreto, Leonardo J G Barcellos
Studies regarding predator-prey relationships have often focused on prey assessment and the responses to predation risk, but few have verified the relationship in the presence or absence of visual contact with a predator (e.g., tiger oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) or a nonpredator (e.g., goldfish, Carassius auratus) during the developmental phase, which could alter several physiological and neuroendocrine mechanisms in adulthood. Herein, we determined responses to physical (chasing with a net) and biological stressors (visualization to predator) in adult zebrafish raised in visual contact with a predator or nonpredator fish...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Clay Patton, Gist H Farr, Ding An, Paolo G V Martini, Lisa Maves
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are an attractive platform for the delivery of therapeutic RNA molecules because LNPs are versatile, have been validated in clinical trials, and are well tolerated. Here, we test whether LNPs can be used to deliver a reporter green fluorescent protein (gfp) mRNA to different tissues in zebrafish embryos. We show that LNP-packaged gfp mRNA can be delivered, through injection, and taken up by cells in multiple tissues in zebrafish embryos without any apparent detrimental effects on embryonic health or survival...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Jennifer L Matthews, Joy M Murphy, Carrie Carmichael, Huiping Yang, Terrence Tiersch, Monte Westerfield, Zoltan M Varga
Sperm cryopreservation is a highly efficient method for preserving genetic resources. It extends the reproductive period of males and significantly reduces costs normally associated with maintenance of live animal colonies. However, previous zebrafish (Danio rerio) cryopreservation methods have produced variable outcomes and low post-thaw fertilization rates. To improve post-thaw fertilization rates after cryopreservation, we developed a new extender and cryoprotective medium (CPM), introduced quality assessment (QA), determined the optimal cooling rate, and improved the post-thaw in vitro fertilization process...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Máté Varga
The history of science offers multiple examples of how the perseverance of a single visionary person could open the floodgates for a whole new area of research. Zebrafish research is one of these fields with an exciting founding story, as it was the dogged persistence of one man, George Streisinger, that ultimately lifted this little fish out of the obscurity of pet shops into the pantheon of genetic model organisms. The Hungarian born Streisinger was one of the most gifted geneticists of his era and his network of mentors and friends really reads like a who-is-who of 20th century genetics...
June 2018: Zebrafish
John C Achenbach, Jessica Hill, Joseph P M Hui, Michael G Morash, Fabrice Berrue, Lee D Ellis
The Cannabis sativa plant contains numerous phytocannabinoids and terpenes with known or potential biological activity. For decades, plant breeders have been breeding the Cannabis plant to control for a desired ratio of the major cannabinoids. A high-throughput in vivo model to understand the relationship between the chemical composition of different strains and their therapeutic potential then becomes of value. Measuring changes in the behavioral patterns of zebrafish larvae is an established model with which to test the biological activity of neuroactive compounds...
April 10, 2018: Zebrafish
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