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Expert Review of Proteomics

Thomas A Guerrero-Garcia, Sara Gandolfi, Jacob P Laubach, Teru Hideshima, Dharminder Chauhan, Constantine Mitsiades, Kenneth C Anderson, Paul G Richardson
Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are therapeutic backbones of multiple myeloma treatment, with PI-based therapies being standards of care throughout the treatment algorithm. Proteasome inhibition affects multiple critical signaling pathways in myeloma cells and interacts synergistically with mechanisms of action of other conventional and novel agents, resulting in substantial anti-myeloma activity and at least additive effects. Areas covered: This review summarizes the biologic effects of proteasome inhibition in myeloma and provides an overview of the importance of proteasome inhibition to the current treatment algorithm...
November 14, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Annie Rathore, Thomas F Martinez, Qian Chu, Alan Saghatelian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Maria Frantzi, Agnieszka Latosinska, Iwona Belczacka, Harald Mischak
Biomarkers are expected to improve the management of cancer patients by enabling early detection and prediction of therapeutic response. Proteins reflect a molecular phenotype, have high potential as biomarkers, and also are key targets for intervention. Given the ease of collection and proximity to certain tumors, the urinary proteome is a rich source of biomarkers and several proteins have been already implemented. Areas covered: We examined the literature on urine proteins and proteome analysis in oncology from reports published during the last 5 years to generate an overview on the status of urine protein and peptide biomarkers, with emphasis on their actual clinical value...
November 9, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ana Belén Sanz, Adrian Mario Ramos, Maria Jose Soler, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Marta Ruiz Ortega, Gloria Alvarez-Llamas, Alberto Ortiz
Renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers are in clinical use to treat high blood pressure and proteinuric chronic kidney disease. However, RAS blockade is limited by the risk of hyperkalemia, angiotensin receptor blockers are not clinically superior to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and dual RAS blockade is formally contraindicated. Areas covered: We review the regulation of protein expression and activation by angiotensin II and RAS blockers as it contributes to kidney disease. Specifically excluded are direct renin actions as well as aldosterone actions...
November 9, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Eric A Wilson, Karen S Anderson
The recent development of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy for cancer has led to impressive clinical results across multiple tumor types. There is mounting evidence that immune recognition of tumor derived MHC class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes bearing cancer specific mutations and alterations is a crucial mechanism in successfully triggering immune mediated tumor rejection. Therapeutic targeting of these cancer specific epitopes (neoepitopes) is emerging as a promising opportunity for the generation of personalized cancer vaccines and adoptive T cell therapies...
November 8, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ahmed Mohamed, Harley Robinson, Pablo Joaquin Erramouspe, Michelle M Hill
Phase separation as a biophysical principle drives the formation of liquid-ordered 'lipid raft' membrane microdomains in cellular membranes, including organelles. Given the critical role of cellular membranes in both compartmentalization and signaling, clarifying the roles of membrane microdomains and their mutual regulation of/by membrane proteins is important in understanding the fundamentals of biology, and has implications for health. Areas covered: This article will consider the evidence for lateral membrane phase separation in model membranes and organellar membranes, critically evaluate the current methods for lipid raft proteomics and discuss the biomedical implications of lipid rafts...
November 7, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Dario Aspesi, Graziano Pinna
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two complex and debilitating psychiatric disorders that result in poor life and destructive behaviors against self and others. Currently, diagnosis is based on subjective rather than objective determinations leading to misdiagnose and ineffective treatments. Advances in novel neurobiological methods have allowed assessment of promising biomarkers to diagnose depression and PTSD, which offers a new means of appropriately treating patients. Areas covered: Biomarkers discovery in blood represents a fundamental tool to predict, diagnose and monitor treatment efficacy in depression and PTSD...
November 5, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Wenjing Peng, Jingfu Zhao, Xue Dong, Alireza Banazadeh, Yifan Huang, Ahmed Hussien, Yehia Mechref
Aberrant glycosylation has been associated with many diseases. Decades of research activities have reported many reliable glycan biomarkers of different diseases which enable effective disease diagnostics and prognostics. However, none of the glycan markers have been approved for clinical diagnosis. Thus, a review of these studies is needed to guide the successful clinical translation. Area covered: In this review, we describe and discuss advances in analytical methods enabling clinical glycan biomarker discovery, focusing only on studies of released glycans...
October 31, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Cristina Herrera, Teresa Escalante, Alexandra Rucavado, Jay W Fox, José María Gutiérrez
Metalloproteinases play key roles in health and disease, by generating novel proteoforms with variable structure and function. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of endogenous [a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAMs), ADAMs with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)] and exogenous metalloproteinases in various disease conditions, and describes the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to detect qualitative and quantitative changes in protein profiles in tissues and body fluids in disease...
October 22, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ravichandran Ramasamy, Richard A Friedman, Alexander Shekhtman, Ann Marie Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Natalia V Zakharova, Anna E Bugrova, Alexey S Kononikhin, Maria I Indeykina, Igor A Popov, Eugene N Nikolaev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Rikke Kruse, Kurt Højlund
Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and imparts the beneficial effects of exercise, and hence is an important site of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite extensive molecular biology-oriented research the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remain to be established. Areas covered: The proteomic capabilities have greatly improved over the last decades. This review summarizes the technical challenges in skeletal muscle proteomics studies as well as the results of quantitative proteomic studies of skeletal muscle in relation to obesity, T2D, and exercise...
September 25, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Claudia Landi, Alfonso Carleo, Giuseppe Cillis, Paola Rottoli
Through synergistic approaches integrating biomedical data from omics sciences to the clinical practice, precision medicine aims at more accurate identification of risk factors, characterization of endotypes, patient stratification, establishment of individualized therapy, and prediction of outcomes. Areas covered: This review evaluates the potential role of different omics approaches for the development and application of precision medicine to sarcoidosis patients. This systemic and heterogeneous inflammatory disease is of unknown etiology, affects people of any age, and requires genotypic and phenotypic characterization...
September 25, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Bhargab Kalita, Stephen P Mackessy, Ashis K Mukherjee
The Russell's Viper (RV) (Daboia russelii), a category I medically important snake, is responsible for a significant level of morbidity and mortality in the Indian sub-continent. Areas covered: The current review highlights the variation in RV venom (RVV) composition from different geographical locales on the Indian sub-continent, as revealed by biochemical and proteomic analyses. A comparison of these RVV proteomes revealed significant differences in the number of toxin isoforms and relative toxin abundances, highlighting the impact of geographic location on RVV composition...
September 24, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Jenny Leopold, Yulia Popkova, Kathrin M Engel, Jürgen Schiller
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques are nowadays widely used to obtain spatially resolved metabolite information from biological tissues. Since (phospho)lipids occur in all animal tissues and are very sensitively detectable, they are often in the focus of such studies. This particularly applies for phosphatidylcholines (PC) which are very sensitively detectable as positive ions due to the permanent positive charge of their choline headgroup. Areas covered: After a short introduction of lipid species occurring in biological systems and approaches normally used to obtain spatially resolved mass spectra (with the focus on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MSI) a survey will be given which diseases have so far been characterized by changes of the PC composition...
September 21, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ewa Parfieniuk, Monika Zbucka-Kretowska, Michal Ciborowski, Adam Kretowski, Coral Barbas
Metabolomics opens up new avenues for biomarker discovery in different branches of medicine, including perinatology. Chromosomal aberration, preterm delivery (PTD), congenital heart defects, spina bifida, chorioamnionitis, and low birth weight are the main perinatal pathologies. Investigations using untargeted metabolomics have found the candidate metabolites for diagnostic biomarkers. Areas covered: This review describes areas of prenatal diagnosis in which untargeted metabolomics has been used. Data on the disease, type of sample, techniques used, number of samples used in the study, and metabolites obtained including the sign of their regulation are summarized...
September 21, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Huafeng Lin, Qing-Yu He, Lei Shi, Mark Sleeman, Mark S Baker, Edouard C Nice
Human symbiotic microbiota are now known to play important roles in human health and disease. Significant progress in our understanding of the human microbiome has been driven by recent technological advances in the fields of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. As a complementary method to metagenomics, proteomics is enabling detailed protein profiling of the microbiome to decipher its structure and function and to analyze its relationship with the human body. Fecal proteomics is being increasingly applied to discover and validate potential health and disease biomarkers, and Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)-approved instrumentation and a range of clinical assays are being developed that will collectively play key roles in advancing personalized medicine...
September 18, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Spencer Chiang, Wenpeng Zhang, Zheng Ouyang
Paper spray mass spectrometry has provided a rapid, quantitative ambient ionization method for xenobiotic and biomolecule analysis. As an alternative to traditional sample preparation and chromatography, paper spray demonstrates the sampling ionization of a wide range of molecules and significant sensitivity from complex biofluids. The amenability of paper spray with dried blood spots and other sampling types shows strong potential for rapid, point-of-care (POC) analysis without time-consuming separation procedures...
September 18, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Tadashi Kondo
The mass spectrometry society of Japan, Japanese proteomics society, and Asia-Oceania human proteome organization held the conference 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics 2018' in Osaka, Japan, on May 15-18, 2018. This international conference focused on cutting edge technologies and their applications in a variety of research fields such as agriculture, material science, environmental factors, and clinical applications. An overview of the conference and a summary of the major lectures are reported here. Expert commentary: The meeting will facilitate the development of fundamental technologies and the multi-disciplinary applications of proteomics...
September 18, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ying Zhu, Paul D Piehowski, Ryan T Kelly, Wei-Jun Qian
Nanoproteomics, which is defined as quantitative proteome profiling of small populations of cells (<5000 cells), can reveal critical information related to rare cell populations, hard-to-obtain clinical specimens, and the cellular heterogeneity of pathological tissues. Areas covered: We present a brief review of the recent technological advances in nanoproteomics. These advances include new technologies or approaches covering major areas of proteomics workflow ranging from sample isolation, sample processing, high-resolution separations, to MS instrumentation...
November 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
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