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AAPS Journal

Karen Liao, Stacy Derbyshire, Kai-Fen Wang, Cherilyn Caucci, Shuo Tang, Claire Holland, Amy Loercher, George R Gunn
Bridging immunoassays commonly used to detect and characterize immunogenicity during biologic development do not provide direct information on the presence or development of a memory anti-drug antibody (ADA) response. In this study, a B cell ELISPOT assay method was used to evaluate pre-existing ADA for anti-TNFR1 domain antibody, GSK1995057, an experimental biologic in treatment naive subjects. This assay utilized a 7-day activation of PBMCs by a combination of GSK1995057 (antigen) and polyclonal stimulator followed by GSK1995057-specific ELISPOT for the enumeration of memory B cells that have differentiated into antibody secreting cells (ASC) in vitro...
March 16, 2018: AAPS Journal
Christian Hove Rasmussen, Mike K Smith, Kaori Ito, Vijayakumar Sundararajan, Mats O Magnusson, E Niclas Jonsson, Luke Fostvedt, Paula Burger, Lynn McFadyen, Thomas G Tensfeldt, Timothy Nicholas
Every year, the pharmaceutical industry generates a large number of scientific reports related to drug research, development, and regulatory submissions. Many of these reports are created using text processing tools such as Microsoft Word. Given the large number of figures, tables, references, and other elements, this is often a tedious task involving hours of copying and pasting and substantial efforts in quality control (QC). In the present article, we present the LaTeX-based open-source reporting platform, PharmTeX, a community-based effort to make reporting simple, reproducible, and user-friendly...
March 16, 2018: AAPS Journal
Kyle I Mentkowski, Jonathan D Snitzer, Sarah Rusnak, Jennifer K Lang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of "cell-free, cell therapy" for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Nikunjkumar Patel, Oliver Hatley, Alexander Berg, Klaus Romero, Barbara Wisniowska, Debra Hanna, David Hermann, Sebastian Polak
Drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia, especially occurrence of torsade de pointes (TdP), has been a leading cause of attrition and post-approval re-labeling and withdrawal of many drugs. TdP is a multifactorial event, reflecting more than just drug-induced cardiac ion channel inhibition and QT interval prolongation. This presents a translational gap in extrapolating pre-clinical and clinical cardiac safety assessment to estimate TdP risk reliably, especially when the drug of interest is used in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs for treatment of diseases such as tuberculosis...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
Dongfen Yuan, Frederik Rode, Yanguang Cao
We proposed here a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model for a group of novel engineered antibodies in mice and humans. These antibodies are designed with altered binding properties of their Fc domain with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) or the Fab domain with their cognate targets (recycling antibodies) in acidic endosomes. To enable simulations of such binding features in the change of antibody pharmacokinetics and its target suppression, we nested an endothelial endosome compartment in parallel with plasma compartment based on our previously established mPBPK model...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
Yuling Wu, Ahmad Akhgar, Jia J Li, Binbing Yu, Cecil Chen, Nancy Lee, Wendy I White, Lorin K Roskos
Assessment of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) for neutralizing activity is important for the clinical development of biopharmaceuticals. Two types of neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays (competitive ligand-binding assay [CLBA] and cell-based assay [CBA]) are commonly used to characterize neutralizing activities. To support the clinical development of benralizumab, a humanized, anti-interleukin-5 receptor α, anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody, we developed and validated a CLBA and a CBA. The CLBA and CBA were compared for sensitivity, drug tolerance, and precision to detect NAbs in serum samples from clinical trials...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
Yuhong Xiang, Jean Donley, Elena Seletskaia, Sonal Shingare, John Kamerud, Boris Gorovits
In ligand binding assays (LBA), the concentration to response data is a nonlinear relationship driven by the law of mass action. Four parameter logistic (4PL) and five parameter logistic (5PL) curve fitting models are two widely accepted and validated models for LBA calibration curve data. Selection of the appropriate regression model and weighting function are key components of LBA development. Assessment of selected model and weighting function should be performed during assay development and confirmed later during validation...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Dolly A Parasrampuria, Leslie Z Benet, Amarnath Sharma
New drug development is both resource and time intensive, where later clinical stages result in significant costs. We analyze recent late-stage failures to identify drugs where failures result from inadequate scientific advances as well as drugs where we believe pitfalls could have been avoided. These can be broadly classified into two categories: 1) where science is mature and the failures can be avoided through rigorous and prospectively determined decision-making criteria, scientific curiosity, and discipline to follow up on emerging findings; and 2) where problems encountered in Phase 3 failures cannot be explained at this time, as the science is not sufficiently advanced and companies/investigators need to recognize the possibility of deficiency of our knowledge...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Kuppan Gokulan, Sangeeta Khare, Carl E Cerniglia, Steven L Foley, Kottayil I Varughese
The final step of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in all bacteria is the formation of cross-linkage between PG-stems. The cross-linking between amino acids in different PG chains gives the peptidoglycan cell wall a 3-dimensional structure and adds strength and rigidity to it. There are two distinct types of cross-linkages in bacterial cell walls. D,D-transpeptidase (D,D-TPs) generate the classical 4➔3 cross-linkages and the L,D-transpeptidase (L,D-TPs) generate the 3➔3 non-classical peptide cross-linkages...
March 9, 2018: AAPS Journal
Shimpei Watanabe, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparambil, Shanlin Fu
The number of new psychoactive substances keeps on rising despite the controlling efforts by law enforcement. Although metabolism of the newly emerging drugs is continuously studied to keep up with the new additions, the exact structures of the metabolites are often not identified due to the insufficient sample quantities for techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The aim of the study was to characterise several metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid (1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl) (2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone (UR-144) by NMR spectroscopy after the incubation with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans...
March 8, 2018: AAPS Journal
Chang Liu, Yunchen Yang, Yun Wu
Current cancer diagnostic methods are challenged by low sensitivity, high false positive rate, limited tumor information, uncomfortable or invasive procedures, and high cost. Liquid biopsy that analyzes circulating biomarkers in body fluids represents a promising solution to these challenges. Exosomes are one of the promising cancer biomarkers for liquid biopsy because they are cell-secreted, nano-sized, extracellular vesicles that stably exist in all types of body fluids. Exosomes transfer DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and lipids from parent cells to recipient cells for intercellular communication and play important roles in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis...
March 8, 2018: AAPS Journal
Ingrid J G Burvenich, Sagun Parakh, Adam C Parslow, Sze Ting Lee, Hui K Gan, Andrew M Scott
The selection of therapeutic dose for the most effective treatment of tumours is an intricate interplay of factors. Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can address questions central to this selection: Does the drug reach its target? Does the drug engage with the target of interest? Is the drug dose sufficient to elicit the desired pharmacological effect? Does the dose saturate available target sites? Combining functional PET and SPECT imaging with anatomical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) allows drug occupancy at the target to be related directly to anatomical or physiological changes in a tissue resulting from therapy...
March 8, 2018: AAPS Journal
Peijuan Zhu, Sherwin K B Sy, Andrej Skerjanec
This article provides an overview of four case studies to demonstrate the utility of pharmacometric analysis in biosimilar development to help design sensitive clinical pharmacology studies for the demonstration of biosimilarity. The two major factors that determine the sensitivity of a clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study to demonstrate biosimilarity are the size of the potential difference to be detected (signal) and the inter-subject variability (noise), both of which can be characterized and predicted using pharmacometric approaches...
March 7, 2018: AAPS Journal
Philippe B Pierrillas, Sylvain Fouliard, Marylore Chenel, Andrew C Hooker, Lena F Friberg, Mats O Karlsson
Design of phase 1 combination therapy trials is complex compared to single therapy trials. In this work, model-based adaptive optimal design (MBAOD) was exemplified and evaluated for a combination of paclitaxel and a hypothetical new compound in a phase 1 study to determine the best dosing regimen for a phase 2 trial. Neutropenia was assumed as the main toxicity and the dose optimization process targeted a 33% probability of grade 4 neutropenia and maximal efficacy (based on preclinical studies) by changing the dose amount of both drugs and the dosing schedule for the new drug...
March 7, 2018: AAPS Journal
D Gouty, C C Cai, X Y Cai, A Kasinath, V Kumar, S Alvandkouhi, J Yang, S Pederson, B Babbitt, D Peritt, A Rudy, V Koppenburg, A Dasilva, M Ullmann, S Liu, C Satterwhite
In the published article, the author B. Babbitt was cited as affiliation 9, but should have been cited as affiliation 2. In addition, there are 2 errors in the affiliations. The correct affiliations are shown in this erratum.
February 27, 2018: AAPS Journal
Sihan Wang, Xinyue Dong, Jin Gao, Zhenjia Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell membrane-derived compartments that regulate physiology and pathology in the body. Naturally secreted EVs have been well studied in their biogenesis and have been exploited in targeted drug delivery. Due to the limitations on production of EVs, nitrogen cavitation has been utilized to efficiently generate EV-like drug delivery systems used in treating inflammatory disorders. In this short review, we will discuss the production and purification of EVs, and we will summarize what technologies are needed to improve their production for translation...
February 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
Chaitali Passey, Satyendra Suryawanshi, Kinjal Sanghavi, Manish Gupta
The rapidly increasing number of therapeutic biologics in development has led to a growing recognition of the need for improvements in immunogenicity assessment. Published data are often inadequate to assess the impact of an antidrug antibody (ADA) on pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy, and enable a fully informed decision about patient management in the event of ADA development. The recent introduction of detailed regulatory guidance for industry should help address many past inadequacies in immunogenicity assessment...
February 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
Roger Jelliffe, David Bayard
The healing professions have only about four main therapeutic tools at their disposal-surgery, drugs, physical therapy, and psychotherapy. For the general profession of internal medicine, drug therapy is its primary tool. Providing an understanding of the state-of-the-art in therapeutic methods, grounded in solid scientific and mathematical rigor, is therefore of the utmost clinical importance for both physicians and clinical pharmacists. This is particularly true where rapidly evolving scientific changes require an up-to-date education upon which students can rely...
February 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
Chenxi Qu, Jizhao Li, Yejuan Zhou, Shudi Yang, Weiliang Chen, Fang Li, Bengang You, Yang Liu, Xuenong Zhang
Low accumulation in tumor sites and slow intracellular drug release remain as the obstacles for nanoparticles to achieve effective delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, multifunctional micelles were designed to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) to tumor sites to provide more efficient therapy against hepatic carcinoma. The micelles were based on pH-responsive carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) modified with a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive segment phenylboronic acid pinacol ester (BAPE) and an active targeted ligand CD147 monoclonal antibody...
February 23, 2018: AAPS Journal
Janneke Keemink, Neel Deferm, Tom De Bruyn, Patrick Augustijns, Thomas Bouillon, Pieter Annaert
Freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes are commonly used as tools for hepatic drug disposition. From an ethical point of view, it is important to maximize the use of isolated hepatocytes by cryopreservation. The present study compared overall hepatocyte functionality as well as activity of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (Ugt1), in in vitro models established with cryopreserved and freshly-isolated hepatocytes. A similar culture time-dependent decline in cellular functionality, as assessed by urea production, was observed in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) obtained from freshly-isolated and cryopreserved cells...
February 21, 2018: AAPS Journal
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