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Journal of Neuroinflammation

Natasa Kustrimovic, Cristoforo Comi, Luca Magistrelli, Emanuela Rasini, Massimiliano Legnaro, Raffaella Bombelli, Iva Aleksic, Fabio Blandini, Brigida Minafra, Giulio Riboldazzi, Andrea Sturchio, Marco Mauri, Giorgio Bono, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects an estimated 7 to 10 million people worldwide, and only symptomatic treatments are presently available to relieve the consequences of brain dopaminergic neurons loss. Neuronal degeneration in PD is the consequence of neuroinflammation in turn influenced by peripheral adaptive immunity, with CD4+ T lymphocytes playing a key role. CD4+ T cells may however acquire proinflammatory phenotypes, such as T helper (Th) 1 and Th17, as well as anti-inflammatory phenotypes, such as Th2 and the T regulatory (Treg) one, and to what extent the different CD4+ T cell subsets are imbalanced and their functions dysregulated in PD remains largely an unresolved issue...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Niketa A Patel, Lauren Daly Moss, Jea-Young Lee, Naoki Tajiri, Sandra Acosta, Charles Hudson, Sajan Parag, Denise R Cooper, Cesario V Borlongan, Paula C Bickford
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a common therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to its contribution to delayed secondary cell death and has the potential to occur for years after the initial insult. Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) containing the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 are a novel, cell-free regenerative approach to long-term recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have the potential to modulate inflammation at the genomic level. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 has been shown to be an important component of the secretome of hASCs...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zengli Zhang, Pei Qin, Youliang Deng, Zhi Ma, Hang Guo, Haiyun Guo, Yushu Hou, Shiquan Wang, Wangyuan Zou, Yanyuan Sun, Yulong Ma, Wugang Hou
BACKGROUND: The steroid hormone estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) provides neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury by activating estrogen receptors. The novel estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is highly expressed in the brain and provides acute neuroprotection against stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, ovariectomized female mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and E2, G1, and ICI182780 were administered immediately upon reperfusion...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Daniela M Magalhães, Noémia Pereira, Diogo M Rombo, Cláudia Beltrão-Cavacas, Ana M Sebastião, Cláudia A Valente
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder worldwide. It is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures and its development is accompanied by alterations in many cellular processes. Organotypic slice cultures represent a multicellular environment with the potential to assess biological mechanisms, and they are used as a starting point for refining molecules for in vivo studies. Here, we investigated organotypic slice cultures as a model of epilepsy...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bo Yang, Runting Li, C Michael Greenlief, Kevin L Fritsche, Zezong Gu, Jiankun Cui, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf, Grace Y Sun
BACKGROUND: Phospholipids in the central nervous system are enriched in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). These PUFA can undergo enzymatic reactions to produce lipid mediators, as well as reaction with oxygen free radicals to produce 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) from DHA and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) from ARA. Recent studies demonstrated pleiotropic properties of these peroxidation products through interaction with oxidative and anti-oxidant response pathways...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Nicole M Smith, Marcus K Giacci, Alexander Gough, Charlotte Bailey, Terence McGonigle, Anna M B Black, Thomas O Clarke, Carole A Bartlett, K Swaminathan Iyer, Sarah A Dunlop, Melinda Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Following injury to the central nervous system, increased microglia, secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and altered blood-brain barrier permeability, a hallmark of degeneration, are observed at and immediately adjacent to the injury site. However, few studies investigate how regions remote from the primary injury could also suffer from inflammation and secondary degeneration. METHODS: Adult female Piebald-Viral-Glaxo (PVG) rats underwent partial transection of the right optic nerve, with normal, age-matched, unoperated animals as controls...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yogesh K Dhuriya, Divakar Sharma
Programmed cell death has a vital role in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Necroptosis is an alternative mode of regulated cell death mimicking features of apoptosis and necrosis. Necroptosis requires protein RIPK3 (previously well recognized as regulator of inflammation, cell survival, and disease) and its substrate MLKL, the crucial players of this pathway. Necroptosis is induced by toll-like receptor, death receptor, interferon, and some other mediators. Shreds of evidence based on a mouse model reveals that deregulation of necroptosis has been found to be associated with pathological conditions like cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hao Wang, Melissa Blackall, Luba Sominsky, Sarah J Spencer, Ross Vlahos, Melissa Churchill, Steven Bozinovski
BACKGROUND: It is well established that lung pathology and inflammation are more severe during respiratory infections complicated by the presence of both bacteria and viruses. Whilst co-infection can result in invasive pneumococcal disease and systemic inflammation, the neuroinflammatory consequences of co-infection are poorly characterised. METHODS: In this study, we utilised a mouse co-infection model involving Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and influenza A virus (IAV) lung infection, and we also isolated microglia for ex vivo stimulation with pneumococcus or serum amyloid A (SAA)...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Di Ma, Liangshu Feng, Yingying Cheng, Meiying Xin, Jiulin You, Xiang Yin, Yulei Hao, Li Cui, Jiachun Feng
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the most common cause of adult-acquired disability in many nations. Thus, attenuating the damage after ischemic injury and improving patient prognosis are of great importance. We have indicated that ischemic preconditioning (IP) can effectively reduce the damage of ischemia reperfusion and that inhibition of gap junctions may further reduce this damage. Although we confirmed that the function of gap junctions is closely associated with glutamate, we did not investigate the mechanism...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kai Zhang, Haiping Wang, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation and microglial activation have been implicated in both alcohol use disorders (AUD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) are critical mediators of neuroinflammation and microglial activation. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation, and one of the most devastating outcomes of FASD is the loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Elizaveta B Boitsova, Andrey V Morgun, Elena D Osipova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Galina P Martinova, Olga V Frolova, Raissa Ya Olovannikova, Abolghasem Tohidpour, Yana V Gorina, Yulia A Panina, Alla B Salmina
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the main constituents of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. As an endotoxin, LPS induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with the blood-brain barrier impairment. Lactate is a metabolite with some significant physiological functions within the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier (BBB). Accumulation of extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid lactate is a specific feature of bacterial meningitis. However, the role of lactate production, transport, and sensing by lactate receptors GPR81 in the pathogenesis of bacterial neuroinflammation is still unknown...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hilary A Seifert, Halina Offner
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the USA, costing $40.2 billion in direct and indirect costs. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death and has a higher prevalence in lower- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries. The role of the spleen in stroke has been studied in rodent models of stroke and is seen as a major contributor to increased secondary neural injury after stroke. Splenectomy 2 weeks prior to ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in mice and rats shows decreased infarct volumes...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Janos Groh, Michaela Hörner, Rudolf Martini
BACKGROUND: Genetically caused neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are mostly characterized by poor or even fatal clinical outcome and few or no causative treatments are available. Often, these disorders are associated with low-grade, disease-promoting inflammation, another feature shared by progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). We previously generated two mouse lines carrying distinct mutations in the oligodendrocytic PLP1 gene that have initially been identified in patients diagnosed with MS...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chen Qiao, Qian Zhang, Qingling Jiang, Ting Zhang, Miaomiao Chen, Yi Fan, Jianhua Ding, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Systemic inflammation is shown to initiate and exacerbate DA neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. The infiltration and transformation of immune cells from the peripheral tissues are detected in and around the affected brain regions of PD patients. Our previous studies demonstrated the crucial role that microglial Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP) 3 inflammasome plays in the pathogenesis of PD...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jane A Lindborg, Jon P Niemi, Madeline A Howarth, Kevin W Liu, Christian Z Moore, Deepti Mahajan, Richard E Zigmond
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation accompanies neural trauma and most neurological diseases. Axotomy in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) leads to dramatic changes in the injured neuron: the cell body expresses a distinct set of genes known as regeneration-associated genes, the distal axonal segment degenerates and its debris is cleared, and the axons in the proximal segment form growth cones and extend neurites. These processes are orchestrated in part by immune and other non-neuronal cells...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Afrânio Ferreira Evangelista, Marcos André Vannier-Santos, Gessica Sabrina de Assis Silva, Daniela Nascimento Silva, Paulo José Lima Juiz, Carolina Kymie Vasques Nonaka, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Cristiane Flora Villarreal
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a frequent and debilitating manifestation of diabetes mellitus, to which there are no effective therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have a great potential for the treatment of this syndrome, possibly through regenerative actions on peripheral nerves. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of MSC on spinal neuroinflammation, as well as on ultrastructural aspects of the peripheral nerve in DN-associated sensorial dysfunction...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Anna Bajnok, László Berta, Csaba Orbán, Tivadar Tulassay, Gergely Toldi
BACKGROUND: The perinatal period carries the highest risk for stroke in childhood; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood and preventive, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies are not available. A new pathophysiological model describes the development of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) as the combined result of prenatal inflammation and hypoxic-ischemic insult. Neuroinflammation and a systemic inflammatory response are also important features of NAIS. Identifying key players of the inflammatory system is in the limelight of current research...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bo Cui, Donghong Su, Wenlong Li, Xiaojun She, Ming Zhang, Rui Wang, Qingfeng Zhai
BACKGROUND: Chronic noise exposure is associated with neuroinflammation and gut microbiota dysregulation and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental hazards are also thought to be associated with genetic susceptibility factors that increase AD pathogenesis. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding the link between chronic noise stress and microbiome-gut-brain axis alterations, which may be closely related to AD development. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the effects of chronic noise exposure on the microbiome-gut-brain axis in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Cailong Pan, Chaoyu Wang, Li Zhang, Ling Song, Yuan Chen, Bingqian Liu, Wen-Tao Liu, Liang Hu, Yinbing Pan
BACKGROUND: Management of neuropathic pain is a real clinical challenge. Despite intense investigation, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain substantially unidentified. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Therefore, inhibition of MMP-9/2 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of procyanidins (PC), clinically used health product, on MMP-9/2 in neuropathic pain...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jianping Wang, Di Zhang, Xiaojie Fu, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Xuemei Chen, Michael Hong, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: At low levels, carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on multiple organs and tissues through its potential anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative properties. However, the effect of CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3, a water-soluble CORM, on ischemic stroke and its mechanism of action are still unclear. METHODS: We investigated the role of CORM-3 in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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