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Journal of Neuroinflammation

Brian E Dawes, Junling Gao, Colm Atkins, Jacob T Nelson, Kendra Johnson, Ping Wu, Alexander N Freiberg
BACKGROUND: La Crosse virus (LACV) causes pediatric encephalitis in the USA. LACV induces severe inflammation in the central nervous system, but the recruitment of inflammatory cells is poorly understood. A deeper understanding of LACV-induced neural pathology is needed in order to develop treatment options. However, there is a severe limitation of relevant human neuronal cell models of LACV infection. METHODS: We utilized human neural stem cell (hNSC)-derived neuron/astrocyte co-cultures to study LACV infection in disease-relevant primary cells...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shalini Swaroop, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Yogita K Adlakha, Anirban Basu
Upon publication of the original article [1], it was noticed that there is an error in Fig. 10, the dialog box in panel (b) was missing. The correct Fig. 10 is shown below.
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ting Zhang, Nan Zhang, Run Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Yong Chen, Zilong Wang, Biao Xu, Mengna Zhang, Xuerui Shi, Qinqin Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Jian Xiao, Dan Chen, Quan Fang
BACKGROUND: Preemptive administration of analgesic drugs reduces perceived pain and prolongs duration of antinociceptive action. Whereas several lines of evidence suggest that endomorphins, the endogenous mu-opioid agonists, attenuate acute and chronic pain at the spinal level, their preemptive analgesic effects remain to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allodynic activities of endomorphins and explored their mechanisms of action after preemptive administration in a mouse model of inflammatory pain...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Slaven Pikija, Laszlo K Sztriha, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer, Friedrich Weymayr, Constantin Hecker, Christian Ramesmayer, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
BACKGROUND: The development of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in acute ischemic stroke is associated with a higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in peripheral blood. Here, we studied whether the predictive value of NLR at admission also translates into the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications and poor functional outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke who underwent EVT at a tertiary care center from 2012 to 2016...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zhihua Yu, Fangfang Dou, Yanxia Wang, Lina Hou, Hongzhuan Chen
BACKGROUND: The intermediate-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel KCa3.1 was recently shown to control the phenotype switch of reactive astrogliosis (RA) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: KCa3.1 channels expression and cell localization in the brains of AD patients and APP/PS1 mice model were measured by immunoblotting and immunostaining. APP/PS1 mice and KCa3.1-/- /APP/PS1 mice were subjected to Morris water maze test to evaluate the spatial memory deficits...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Andrew N Bubak, Christina N Como, Anna M Blackmon, Dallas Jones, Maria A Nagel
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella and zoster. VZV can infect multiple cell types in the spinal cord and brain, including astrocytes, producing myelopathy and encephalopathy. While studies of VZV-astrocyte interactions are sparse, a recent report showed that quiescent primary human spinal cord astrocytes (qHA-sps) did not appear activated morphologically during VZV infection. Since astrocytes play a critical role in host defenses during viral infections of the central nervous system, we examined the cytokine responses of qHA-sps and quiescent primary human hippocampal astrocytes (qHA-hps) to VZV infection in vitro, as well as the ability of conditioned supernatant to recruit immune cells...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid, Denise M Inman
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a chronic degenerative disease for which inflammation is considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression. In this study, we examined the impact of a ketogenic diet on the inflammation evident in glaucoma as a follow-up to a recent set of experiments in which we determined that a ketogenic diet protected retinal ganglion cell structure and function. METHODS: Both sexes of DBA/2J (D2) mice were placed on a ketogenic diet (keto) or standard rodent chow (untreated) for 8 weeks beginning at 9 months of age...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Marloes H J Hagens, Sandeep V Golla, Martijn T Wijburg, Maqsood Yaqub, Dennis Heijtel, Martijn D Steenwijk, Patrick Schober, John J P Brevé, Robert C Schuit, Tristan A Reekie, Michael Kassiou, Anne-Marie van Dam, Albert D Windhorst, Joep Killestein, Frederik Barkhof, Bart N M van Berckel, Adriaan A Lammertsma
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has become an increasingly useful research modality in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS) research, as PET can visualise molecular processes, such as neuroinflammation, in vivo. The second generation PET radioligand [18 F]DPA714 binds with high affinity to the 18-kDa translocator-protein (TSPO), which is mainly expressed on activated microglia. The aim of this proof of concept study was to evaluate this in vivo marker of neuroinflammation in primary and secondary progressive MS...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Jordi Pedragosa, Yuan Cheng Weng, Frédéric Calon, Anna Planas, Jasna Kriz
BACKGROUND: TDP-43 has been identified as a disease-associated protein in several chronic neurodegenerative disorders and increasing evidence suggests its potentially pathogenic role following brain injuries. Normally expressed in nucleus, under pathological conditions TDP-43 forms cytoplasmic ubiquitinated inclusions in which it is abnormally phosphorylated and cleaved to generate a 35 and a 25 kDa C-terminal fragments. In the present study, we investigated age-related expression patterns of TDP-43 in neurons and glia and its role as modulator of inflammation following ischemic injury...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rachel E Bennett, Annie Bryant, Miwei Hu, Ashley B Robbins, Sarah C Hopp, Bradley T Hyman
BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammation pathways in the brain occurs in Alzheimer's disease and may contribute to the accumulation and spread of pathological proteins including tau. The goal of this study was to identify how changes in microglia, a key inflammatory cell type, may contribute to tau protein accumulation and pathology-associated changes in immune and non-immune cell processes such as neuronal degeneration, astrocyte physiology, cytokine expression, and blood vessel morphology...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xiangrong Chen, Zhigang Pan, Zhongning Fang, Weibin Lin, Shukai Wu, Fuxing Yang, Yasong Li, Huangde Fu, Hongzhi Gao, Shun Li
BACKGROUND: Enhancing autophagy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may decrease the expression of neuronal apoptosis-related molecules. Autophagy-mediated neuronal survival is regulated by the sirtuin family of proteins (SIRT). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are known to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We previously demonstrated that ω-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated neuronal apoptosis by modulating the neuroinflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway, leading to neuroprotective effects following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tanja Blume, Carola Focke, Finn Peters, Maximilian Deussing, Nathalie L Albert, Simon Lindner, Franz-Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Laurence Ozmen, Karlheinz Baumann, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger, Jochen Herms, Matthias Brendel
BACKGROUND: Causal associations between microglia activation and β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain a matter of controversy. Therefore, we used longitudinal dual tracer in vivo small animal positron emission tomography (μPET) imaging to resolve the progression of the association between Aβ deposition and microglial responses during aging of an Aβ mouse model. METHODS: APP-SL70 mice (N = 17; baseline age 3...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chin Wai Hui, Xuan Song, Fulin Ma, Xuting Shen, Karl Herrup
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a critical role in accelerating the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). In A-T mouse models, LPS-induced neuroinflammation advances the degenerative changes found in cerebellar Purkinje neurons both in vivo and in vitro. In the current study, we ask whether ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can have the opposite effect and delay the symptoms of the disease. METHODS: We tested the beneficial effects of ibuprofen in both in vitro and in vivo models...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yuan Tang, Fariborz Soroush, Shuang Sun, Elisabetta Liverani, Jordan C Langston, Qingliang Yang, Laurie E Kilpatrick, Mohammad F Kiani
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation often develops in sepsis leading to activation of cerebral endothelium, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and neutrophil infiltration. We have identified protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ) as a critical regulator of the inflammatory response and demonstrated that pharmacologic inhibition of PKCδ by a peptide inhibitor (PKCδ-i) protected endothelial cells, decreased sepsis-mediated neutrophil influx into the lung, and prevented tissue damage...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
V Alexandra Moser, Mariana F Uchoa, Christian J Pike
BACKGROUND: Obesity exerts negative effects on brain health, including decreased neurogenesis, impaired learning and memory, and increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Because obesity promotes glial activation, chronic neuroinflammation, and neural injury, microglia are implicated in the deleterious effects of obesity. One pathway that is particularly important in mediating the effects of obesity in peripheral tissues is toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. The potential contribution of TLR4 pathways in mediating adverse neural outcomes of obesity has not been well addressed...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kristi Henjum, Else Quist-Paulsen, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Lars N G Nilsson, Leiv Otto Watne
BACKGROUND: Delirium and dementia share symptoms of cognitive dysfunctions, and mechanisms of neuroinflammation appear involved in both conditions. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is linked to dementia and neurodegenerative disease. It encodes expression of an innate immune receptor in the brain expressed by microglia. The level of the soluble fragment of TREM2 (sTREM2) is reported to increase in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) already in prodromal and asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
C Starhof, K Winge, N H H Heegaard, K Skogstrand, S Friis, A Hejl
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation has been established to be part of the neuropathological changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism (APD). Activated microglia play a key role in neuroinflammation by release of cytokines. Evidence of the disparity, if any, in the neuroinflammatory response between PD and APD is sparse. In this study, we investigated CSF cytokine profiles in patients with PD, multiple system atrophy (MSA), or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: On a sensitive electrochemiluminescence-based platform (Quickplex, Meso Scale Discovery®), we examined a panel of C-reactive protein (CRP) and eight selected cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, TGF-β1, and TNF-α, among patients with PD (n = 46), MSA (n = 35), and PSP (n = 39) or controls (n = 31)...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Feng Zhou, Xiaomei Liu, Dongjiao Zuo, Min Xue, Lin Gao, Ying Yang, Jing Wang, Liping Niu, Qianwen Cao, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Bo Zhang, Minmin Hu, Dianshuai Gao, Kuiyang Zheng, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Renxian Tang
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with persistent neuroinflammation and subsequent neuron damage. Pro-inflammatory factors and neurotoxins from activated astrocytes by HIV-1 itself and its encoded proteins, including the negative factor (Nef), are involved in the pathogenesis of HAND. This study was designed to find potential lncRNAs that regulate astrocyte functions and inflammation process. METHODS: We performed microarray analysis of lncRNAs from primary mouse astrocytes treated with Nef protein...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Haeng-Jin Lee, Boram Kim, Patrick Waters, Mark Woodhall, Sarosh Irani, Sohyun Ahn, Seong-Joon Kim, Sung-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Key clinical features of chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) include relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (ON) and steroid dependency, both of which have been reported among patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs). We investigated the relevance of the presence of serum MOG-IgG with the current diagnostic criteria for CRION among patients with idiopathic inflammatory optic neuritis (iON). METHODS: Retrospective reviews of a database prospectively collated between 2011 and 2017 from the tertiary referral center for multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica were performed...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Peter L P Smith, Amin Mottahedin, Pernilla Svedin, Carl-Johan Mohn, Henrik Hagberg, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
BACKGROUND: Neonatal brain injury is increasingly understood to be linked to inflammatory processes that involve specialised CNS and peripheral immune interactions. However, the role of peripheral myeloid cells in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury remains to be fully investigated. METHODS: We employed the Lys-EGFP-ki mouse that allows enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive mature myeloid cells of peripheral origin to be easily identified in the CNS...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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