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Journal of Neuroinflammation

Lei Yin, Fangping Bao, Jing Wu, Kuanyu Li
Wang Z et al. recently published a paper, titled "Critical role of NLRP3-caspase-1 pathway in age-dependent isoflurane-induced microglial inflammatory response and cognitive impairment". The finding in this paper is consistent with our previous study on NLRP3-caspase-1 pathway. Here, we propose that NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis may be involved in the mechanism of age-dependent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment and discuss that inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation with a novel inhibitor MCC950 may ameliorate age-dependent isoflurane-induced neuro-inflammation...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Elia Gil-Varea, Elena Urcelay, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Carme Costa, Luciana Midaglia, Fuencisla Matesanz, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Jorge Oksenberg, Laura Espino-Paisan, A Dessa Sadovnick, Albert Saiz, Luisa M Villar, Juan Antonio García-Merino, Lluís Ramió-Torrentà, Juan Carlos Triviño, Ester Quintana, René Robles, Antonio Sánchez-López, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Angela Vidal-Jordana, Sunny Malhotra, Nicolas Fissolo, Xavier Montalban, Manuel Comabella
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with benign and aggressive disease courses in MS patients. METHODS: MS patients were classified into benign and aggressive phenotypes according to clinical criteria. We performed exome sequencing in a discovery cohort, which included 20 MS patients, 10 with benign and 10 with aggressive disease course, and genotyping in 2 independent validation cohorts...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration; moreover, the damage to peripheral nerve can cause a loss of sensory function and produces a persistent neuropathic pain. N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) involve a family of lipid molecules existent in animal and plant, of which is N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) that arouses great attention owing to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and neuroprotective activities...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Abdur Rahman, Muddanna S Rao, Khalid M Khan
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb), a heavy metal, and quinolinic acid (QA), a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, are known neurotoxicants. Both Pb and QA impair spatial learning and memory. Pb activates astrocytes and microglia, which in turn induce the synthesis of QA. We hypothesized increased QA production in response to Pb exposure as a novel mechanism of Pb-neurotoxicity. METHODS: Two experimental paradigms were used. In experiment one, Wistar rat pups were exposed to Pb via their dams' drinking water from postnatal day 1 to 21...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zhiyi Zuo, Zhi Wang, Shiyu Meng, Shuling Peng
This is a response to readers' comments on our paper entitled "Critical role of NLRP3-caspase-1 pathway in age-dependent isoflurane-induced microglial inflammatory response and cognitive impairment" published in the Journal of Neuroinflammation this year.
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xingrui Gong, Yongmei Chen, Jing Chang, Yue Huang, Meihau Cai, Mazhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Infant nerve injury causes delayed adolescent neuropathic pain, but whether it also leads to psychiatric illness is unknown. Environmental enrichment (EE) increases social communication and activity. Thus, our goal was to test anxiety- and depression-like behaviors after infant peripheral nerve injury and evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on these models of affective disorders. METHODS: Open field, elevated plus maze, sucrose preference, and pain behaviors (paw withdrawal threshold, spontaneous guarding score, and cold response to acetone) were measured in rats that received infant spared nerve injury (SNI)...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Y X Li, O C M Sibon, P F Dijkers
BACKGROUND: Most neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation are hallmarked by activation of astrocytes. However, how astrocytes are activated or which signaling pathways in astrocytes contribute to pathogenesis is not clear. One long-standing question is whether the responses in astrocytes are due to stress or damage in astrocytes themselves, or because of astrocytic responses to cellular stress or damage in neurons. Here, we examine responses in astrocytes induced by expression of disease-associated, aggregation-prone proteins in other cells...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Svetlana Zonis, Joshua J Breunig, Adam Mamelak, Kolja Wawrowsky, Catherine Bresee, Nadiya Ginzburg, Vera Chesnokova
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the decline in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proinflammatory cytokines activate transcription of chemokine growth-regulated oncogene α (Gro1) in human and murine hippocampal neuronal progenitor cells (NPC). The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Gro1 on hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of inflammation. METHODS: Human hippocampal NPC were transfected with lentivirus expressing Gro1, and murine NPC and hippocampal neuronal HT-22 cells were treated with Gro1 protein...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ren-Hong Du, Yan Zhou, Mei-Ling Xia, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Gang Hu
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (α-Syn)-induced neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) has been regarded as a potential anti-inflammatory target in the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of astrocytic Drd2 in α-Syn-induced neuroinflammation remains unclear. METHODS: The effect of Drd2 on neuroinflammation was examined in mouse primary astrocyte in vitro and A53T transgenic mice in vivo...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Cinzia Dello Russo, Natalia Cappoli, Isabella Coletta, Daniele Mezzogori, Fabiola Paciello, Giacomo Pozzoli, Pierluigi Navarra, Alessandra Battaglia
Microglia, unique myeloid cells residing in the brain parenchyma, represent the first line of immune defense within the central nervous system. In addition to their immune functions, microglial cells play an important role in other cerebral processes, including the regulation of synaptic architecture and neurogenesis. Chronic microglial activation is regarded as detrimental, and it is considered a pathogenic mechanism common to several neurological disorders. Microglial activation and function have been extensively studied in rodent experimental models, whereas the characterization of human cells has been limited due to the restricted availability of primary sources of human microglia...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Merel M Koopmans, JooYeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs C Brouwer, Valery Jaspers, Wing Kit Man, Mercedes Vall Seron, Diederik van de Beek
BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a common cause of bacterial meningitis. We developed an animal model of listerial meningitis. METHODS: In survival studies, C57BL/6 mice received intracisternal injections with different L. monocytogenes sequence type 1 (ST1) colony forming units per milliliter (CFU; n = 48, 105 , 106 , 107 , 108 , and 109  CFU/ml). Second, mice were inoculated with 108  CFU/ml ST1 and sacrificed at 6 h and 24 h (n = 12/group). Outcome parameters were clinical score, CFUs, cyto- and chemokine levels, and brain histopathology...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sarah M Rothman, Keith Q Tanis, Pallavi Gandhi, Vladislav Malkov, Jacob Marcus, Michelle Pearson, Richard Stevens, Jason Gilliland, Christopher Ware, Veeravan Mahadomrongkul, Elaine O'Loughlin, Gonzalo Zeballos, Roger Smith, Bonnie J Howell, Joel Klappenbach, Matthew Kennedy, Christian Mirescu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with pathological hallmarks including the formation of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) known as plaques and intracellular tau tangles. Coincident with the formation of Aβ plaques is recruitment and activation of glial cells to the plaque forming a plaque niche. In addition to histological data showing the formation of the niche, AD genetic studies have added to the growing appreciation of how dysfunctional glia pathways drive neuropathology, with emphasis on microglia pathways...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yuri Nakamura, Laura Gaetano, Takuya Matsushita, Altermatt Anna, Till Sprenger, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Jens Wuerfel, Lorena Bauer, Michael Amann, Koji Shinoda, Noriko Isobe, Ryo Yamasaki, Takahiko Saida, Ludwig Kappos, Jun-Ichi Kira
BACKGROUND: We compared the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features between Japanese and Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and identified the relationships between MRI features and disability. METHODS: From the baseline data of phase II fingolimod trials, 95 Japanese and 246 Caucasian relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The number, volume, and distribution of brain MRI lesions were evaluated using T2-weighted (T2W) images. Cross-sectional total normalized brain volume (NBV), normalized cortical gray matter volume, normalized deep gray matter volume (NDGMV), normalized white matter volume (NWMV), and normalized thalamic volume were measured...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
David Martín-Hernández, Javier R Caso, J Javier Meana, Luis F Callado, José L M Madrigal, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
BACKGROUND: Studies show that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), members of the innate immune system, might participate in the pathogenesis of the major depressive disorder (MDD). However, evidence of this participation in the brain of patients with MDD has been elusive. METHODS: This work explores whether the protein expression by immunodetection assays (Western blot) of elements of TLR-4 pathways controlling inflammation and the oxidative/nitrosative stress are altered in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with MDD...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hong Gong, Wen-Jun Su, Zhi-Yong Cao, Yong-Jie Lian, Wei Peng, Yun-Zi Liu, Yi Zhang, Lin-Lin Liu, Ran Wu, Bo Wang, Ting Zhang, Yun-Xia Wang, Chun-Lei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders characterized mainly by low mood and loss of interest or pleasure. About a third of patients with depression do not respond to classic antidepressant treatments. Recent evidence suggests that Mrp8/14 (myeloid-related protein 8/14) plays a crucial role in cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammatory diseases, yet its role in mood regulation remains largely uninvestigated. In the present work, we explored the potential role of Mrp8/14 in the progression of depression...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chao Xiong, Jinhu Liu, Dandan Lin, Juxia Zhang, Niccolò Terrando, Anshi Wu
BACKGROUND: The complement system plays an important role in many neurological disorders. Complement modulation, including C3/C3a receptor signaling, shows promising therapeutic effects on cognition and neurodegeneration. Yet, the implications for this pathway in perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) are not well established. Here, we evaluated the possible role for C3/C3a receptor signaling after orthopedic surgery using an established mouse model of PND. METHODS: A stabilized tibial fracture surgery was performed in adult male C57BL/6 mice under general anesthesia and analgesia to induce PND-like behavior...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yue Zhou, Wei Guo, Zhenjie Zhu, Yuming Hu, Yingjie Wang, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Nan Du, Tiancheng Song, Kaini Yang, Zongyu Guan, Yongjun Wang, Aisong Guo
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes act as immune effector cells with the ability to produce a wide array of chemokines and cytokines in response to various stimuli. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is inducibly expressed in injured spinal cord contributing to excessive inflammation that affects motor functional recovery. Unknown is whether MIF can facilitate inflammatory responses through stimulating release of chemokines from astrocytes following spinal cord injury. METHODS: Following the establishment of the contusion spinal cord injury rat model, the correlation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) expression with that of MIF was assayed by Western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xiao-Qian Li, Qian Yu, Feng-Shou Chen, Wen-Fei Tan, Zai-Li Zhang, Hong Ma
BACKGROUND: Ischaemia reperfusion (IR) induces multiple pathophysiological changes. In addition to its classical role in regulating tumourigenesis, the feedback loop formed by p53 and its driven target p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was recently demonstrated to be the common node tightly controlling various cellular responses during myocardial IR. However, the roles of the p53-PUMA feedback loop in the spinal cord remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of p53-PUMA feedback interactions in the spinal cord after IR, specifically investigating their regulation of caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-mediated cytokine release...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ludmila A R Lima, Maria Janice P Lopes, Roberta O Costa, Francisco Arnaldo V Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Iana B F Calou, Geanne M Andrade, Glauce S B Viana
BACKGROUND: The deficiency in 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) seems to increase the risk for neurodegenerative pathologies, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of its actions are mediated by the transcription factor, VD3 receptor (VD3R). METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of VD3 were investigated on a PD model. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sham-operated (SO), 6-OHDA-lesioned (non-treated), and 6-OHDA-lesioned and treated with VD3 (7 days before the lesion, pre-treatment or for 14 days after the 6-OHDA striatal lesion, post-treatment)...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ana Rubio-Araiz, Orla M Finucane, Samuel Keogh, Marina A Lynch
BACKGROUND: Microglia are multifunctional cells that are primarily neuroprotective and a deficit in their functional integrity is likely to be a contributory factor in the deteriorating neuronal function that occurs with age and neurodegeneration. One aspect of microglial dysfunction is reduced phagocytosis, and this is believed to contribute to the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, improving phagocytosis should be beneficial in limiting the amyloidosis that characterises AD...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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