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Journal of Neuroinflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446241/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-receptors-gpr40-and-gpr120-are-expressed-in-the-hypothalamus-and-control-energy-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#1
Nathalia R V Dragano, Carina Solon, Albina F Ramalho, Rodrigo F de Moura, Daniela S Razolli, Elisabeth Christiansen, Carlos Azevedo, Trond Ulven, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: Male Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446186/fingolimod-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-and-contributes-to-schwann-cell-mediated-axonal-protection
#2
Björn Ambrosius, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Lisa Schrewe, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Jeremias Motte, Ralf Gold
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator with well-described immunomodulatory properties involving peripheral immune cell trafficking, was the first oral agent approved for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Analogous immunomodulatory treatment options for chronic peripheral autoimmune neuropathies are lacking. METHODS: We tested fingolimod in the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rat. Six to eight-week-old female rats were immunized with P2 peptide and from this day on treated with fingolimod...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446179/glycam1-negatively-regulates-monocyte-entry-into-the-optic-nerve-head-and-contributes-to-radiation-based-protection-in-glaucoma
#3
Pete A Williams, Catherine E Braine, Nicole E Foxworth, Kelly E Cochran, Simon W M John
BACKGROUND: We previously reported a profound long-term neuroprotection subsequent to a single radiation-therapy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. This neuroprotection prevents entry of monocyte-like immune cells into the optic nerve head during glaucoma. Gene expression studies in radiation-treated mice implicated Glycam1 in this protection. Glycam1 encodes a proteoglycan ligand for L-selectin and is an excellent candidate to modulate immune cell entry into the eye. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that radiation-induced over-expression of Glycam1 is a key component of the neuroprotection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438224/early-strong-intrathecal-inflammation-in-cerebellar-type-multiple-system-atrophy-by-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokine-chemokine-profiles-a-case-control-study
#4
Ryo Yamasaki, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Takuya Matsushita, Takayuki Fujii, Akio Hiwatashi, Jun-Ichi Kira
BACKGROUND: The pathology of multiple system atrophy cerebellar-type (MSA-C) includes glial inflammation; however, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokine profiles have not been investigated. In this study, we determined CSF cytokine/chemokine/growth factor profiles in MSA-C and compared them with those in hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). METHODS: We collected clinical data and CSF from 20 MSA-C patients, 12 hereditary SCA patients, and 15 patients with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND), and measured 27 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors using a multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438174/exercise-attenuates-neurological-deficits-by-stimulating-a-critical-hsp70-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-6-synapsin-i-axis-in-traumatic-brain-injury-rats
#5
Chung-Ching Chio, Hung-Jung Lin, Yu-Feng Tian, Yu-Chieh Chen, Mao-Tsun Lin, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Chien-Chin Hsu
BACKGROUND: Despite previous evidence for a potent inflammatory response after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether exercise preconditioning (EP) improves outcomes after a TBI by modulating inflammatory responses. METHODS: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify the genes encoding 84 cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood and used ELISA to determine both the cerebral and blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also performed the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to evaluate the extent of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) binding to the DNA elements in the IL-6 promoter regions...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427412/lack-of-interleukin-13-receptor-%C3%AE-1-delays-the-loss-of-dopaminergic-neurons-during-chronic-stress
#6
Simone Mori, Shuei Sugama, William Nguyen, Tatiana Michel, M Germana Sanna, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Rigo Cintron-Colon, Gianluca Moroncini, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Pamela Maher, Bruno Conti
BACKGROUND: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are sporadic and idiopathic suggesting that this neurodegenerative disorder is the result of both environmental and genetic factors. Stress and neuroinflammation are among the factors being investigated for their possible contributions to PD. Experiments in rodents showed that severe chronic stress can reduce the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc); the same cells that are lost in PD. These actions are at least in part mediated by increased oxidative stress...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427424/microglial-depletion-alters-the-brain-neuroimmune-response-to-acute-binge-ethanol-withdrawal
#7
T Jordan Walter, Fulton T Crews
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#8
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427413/adiponectin-levels-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-possible-influence-on-neuroinflammation
#9
Patrizia Bossolasco, Raffaella Cancello, Alberto Doretti, Claudia Morelli, Vincenzo Silani, Lidia Cova
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (APN) is a key player in energy homeostasis strictly associated with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Since APN also belongs to anti-inflammatory-acting adipokines and may influence both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes, we decided to study the APN levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We assessed APN levels by ELISA immunoassay in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients, characterized by normal body mass index and absence of dysautonomic symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410596/toll-like-receptor-4-in-glial-inflammatory-responses-to-air-pollution-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Nicholas C Woodward, Morgan C Levine, Amin Haghani, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with accelerated cognitive aging and higher dementia risk in human populations. Rodent brains respond to TRAP with activation of astrocytes and microglia, increased inflammatory cytokines, and neurite atrophy. A role for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was suggested in mouse TLR4-knockouts, which had attenuated lung macrophage responses to air pollution. METHODS: To further analyze these mechanisms, we examined mixed glial cultures (astrocytes and microglia) for RNA responses to nanoscale particulate matter (nPM; diameter <0...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407740/mu-opioid-receptor-and-delta-opioid-receptor-differentially-regulate-microglial-inflammatory-response-to-control-proopiomelanocortin-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-hypothalamus-effects-of-neonatal-alcohol
#11
Pallavi Shrivastava, Miguel A Cabrera, Lucy G Chastain, Nadka I Boyadjieva, Shaima Jabbar, Tina Franklin, Dipak K Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Opioid receptors are known to control neurotransmission of various peptidergic neurons, but their potential role in regulation of microglia and neuronal cell communications is unknown. We investigated the role of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and delta-opioid receptors (DOR) on microglia in the regulation of apoptosis in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons induced by neonatal ethanol in the hypothalamus. METHODS: Neonatal rat pups were fed a milk formula containing ethanol or control diets between postnatal days 2-6...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407741/the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-promotes-development-of-brain-resident-memory-t-cells-following-acute-viral-encephalitis
#12
Sujata Prasad, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Priyanka Chauhan, Amar Singh, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that during acute viral brain infection, glial cells modulate antiviral T cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation. Here, we evaluated the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway in development of brain-resident memory T cells (bTRM) following murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. METHODS: Flow cytometric analysis of immune cells was performed at 7, 14, and 30 days post-infection (dpi) to assess the shift of brain-infiltrating CD8(+) T cell populations from short-lived effector cells (SLEC) to memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), as well as generation of bTRMs...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399892/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-white-matter-glial-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#13
Yoshiki Hase, Lucinda Craggs, Mai Hase, William Stevenson, Janet Slade, Dianne Lopez, Rubin Mehta, Aiqing Chen, Di Liang, Arthur Oakley, Masafumi Ihara, Karen Horsburgh, Raj N Kalaria
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on white matter glial changes in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). METHODS: A total of 74 wild-type male C57BL/6J mice underwent BCAS or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the mice were randomly assigned into three different groups having varied amounts of EE-standard housing with no EE conditions (std), limited exposure with 3 h EE a day (3 h) and full-time exposure to EE (full) for 12 weeks...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388962/the-involvement-of-mast-cells-in-the-irinotecan-induced-enteric-neurons-loss-and-reactive-gliosis
#14
Ludmila T Nogueira, Deiziane V S Costa, Antoniella S Gomes, Conceição S Martins, Angeline M H P Silva, Juliana M Coelho-Aguiar, Patrícia Castelucci, Roberto C P Lima-Júnior, Renata F C Leitão, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Gerly A C Brito
BACKGROUND: The irinotecan (CPT-11) causes intestinal mucositis and diarrhea that may be related to changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In inflammatory condition, mast cells release a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators that can interact with the ENS cells. It has not been explored whether CPT-11 is able to alter the enteric glial and neuronal cell, and the role of mast cells in this effect. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the enteric glial and neuronal cells, as well as to study the role of mast cells in the CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388927/exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-induces-neuroinflammation-derangement-of-hippocampal-neurons-and-cognitive-changes-in-rat-offspring
#15
Billy Vuong, Gary Odero, Stephanie Rozbacher, Mackenzie Stevenson, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Troy J Pereira, Vernon W Dolinsky, Tiina M Kauppinen
BACKGROUND: Birth cohort studies link gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with impaired cognitive performance in the offspring. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated GDM induces chronic neuroinflammation and disturbs the development of neuronal circuitry resulting in impaired cognitive abilities in the offspring. METHODS: In rats, GDM was induced by feeding dams a diet high in sucrose and fatty acids. Brains of neonatal (E20) and young adult (15-week-old) offspring of GDM and lean dams were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, cytokine assay, and western blotting...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388913/diffusion-mri-quantifies-early-axonal-loss-in-the-presence-of-nerve-swelling
#16
Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Chia-Wen Chiang, Carlos J Perez-Torres, Peng Sun, Michael Wallendorf, Robert E Schmidt, Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging markers have been widely used to detect and quantify white matter pathologies in multiple sclerosis. We have recently developed a diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to distinguish and quantify co-existing axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation in multiple sclerosis patients and animal models. It could serve as a longitudinal marker for axonal loss, a primary cause of permanent neurological impairments and disease progression. METHODS: Eight 10-week-old female C57BL/6 mice underwent optic nerve DBSI, followed by a week-long recuperation prior to active immunization for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385159/erratum-to-mannose-binding-lectin-associated-serine-protease-2-masp-2-contributes-to-poor-disease-outcome-in-humans-and-mice-with-pneumococcal-meningitis
#17
E Soemirien Kasanmoentalib, Mercedes Valls Seron, Bart Ferwerda, Michael W Tanck, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Frank Baas, Arie van der Ende, William J Schwaeble, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381303/retention-of-normal-glia-function-by-an-isoform-selective-protein-kinase-inhibitor-drug-candidate-that-modulates-cytokine-production-and-cognitive-outcomes
#18
Zhengqiu Zhou, Adam D Bachstetter, Claudia B Späni, Saktimayee M Roy, D Martin Watterson, Linda J Van Eldik
BACKGROUND: Brain p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a potential therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction based on the neuroinflammation-synaptic dysfunction cycle of pathophysiology progression, offers an innovative pharmacological strategy via inhibiting the same activated target in both glia and neurons, thereby enhancing the possibility for efficacy. The highly selective, brain-penetrant p38αMAPK inhibitor MW150 attenuates cognitive dysfunction in two distinct Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant models and avoids the problems encountered with previous mixed-kinase inhibitor drug candidates...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#19
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376889/grape-seed-derived-procyanidins-alleviate-gout-pain-via-nlrp3-inflammasome-suppression
#20
Hai-Jiao Liu, Xiu-Xiu Pan, Bing-Qian Liu, Xuan Gui, Liang Hu, Chun-Yi Jiang, Yuan Han, Yi-Xin Fan, Yu-Lin Tang, Wen-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Gout is one of the common inflammatory arthritis which affects many people for inflicting unbearable pain. Macrophage-mediated inflammation plays an important role in gout. The uptake of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals by macrophages can lead to activation of NOD-like receptors containing a PYD 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, thus accelerating interleukin (IL)-1β production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted development of the inflammatory process through NLRP3 inflammasome...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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