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Body Image

Kristina M Decker, Idia B Thurston, Rebecca C Kamody
The current study examined internalized weight stigma as a mediator of the association between self-perceived weight and depressive symptoms. University students (N = 317) aged 18-25 years completed measures of self-perceived weight, internalized stigma, and depressive symptoms. Multigroup path analyses were used to examine the indirect effect of self-perceived weight on depression through self-stigma. Findings revealed that among persons of size, internalized stigma mediated the effect of higher self-perceived weight on higher depressive symptoms...
October 29, 2018: Body Image
Emma Halliwell, Hannah Jarman, Tracy L Tylka, Amy Slater
Yoga is an embodying activity that promotes body awareness, body connection, body responsiveness, and appreciation of body functionality, and it therefore may be a beneficial school-based intervention for children's body image. The present study examined the impact of a 4-week yoga intervention on pre-adolescent girls' and boys' body image (body appreciation, body esteem, and body surveillance) and mood (positive and negative affect) 1-week post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. British children (N = 344; 54...
October 22, 2018: Body Image
Scott Griffiths, David Castle, Mitchell Cunningham, Stuart B Murray, Brock Bastian, Fiona Kate Barlow
Thinspiration and fitspiration are classes of social media content characterised by idealised depictions of excessively thin and overtly fit/lean bodies, respectively. It is currently unknown whether and how exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relates to symptom severity within high-risk clinical populations. Thus, in a clinical sample of individuals with eating disorders, we evaluated a model explaining how exposure to thinspiration and fitspiration relates to eating disorder symptoms. Individuals with self-reported eating disorders (N = 228, 47% with anorexia, 93% female) completed measures of image-centric social media use, thinspiration and fitspiration exposure, physical appearance comparisons, and symptom severity...
October 22, 2018: Body Image
Elvira Prusaczyk, Becky L Choma
Consistent with objectification theory, many studies have shown that self-objectification (and body surveillance) is associated with depression and dissatisfaction with life. Critically, however, much of this research has been conducted with White women attending university in North America. To extend this literature, we investigated whether greater skin tone surveillance - a group-specific manifestation of self-objectification among women of colour - is linked to higher depression and lower life satisfaction among Indian women...
October 10, 2018: Body Image
Jessica M Alleva, Nicole Paraskeva, Nadia Craddock, Phillippa C Diedrichs
Investigations of positive body image among men and across various social identities are lacking, and could contribute to a more complete understanding of the construct, including how positive body image can be improved. This study addressed this gap by investigating correlates of body appreciation - a key facet of positive body image - in men, and testing whether levels of body appreciation vary across sexual orientation. Data from a British community sample of 439 men (Mage  = 39.13) showed that body appreciation inversely correlated with conformity to masculine norms and upward appearance-based social comparisons, and positively correlated with physical activity...
October 4, 2018: Body Image
Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Allison W Watts, Sarah Rydell
This study explored the perceived impact of yoga on body image. Young adults (n = 34 female, 12 male; Mage  = 30.6 [SD = 1.6]) practicing yoga were interviewed and data were analyzed for emerging themes across weight status. In general, participants discussed the positive impact of yoga on their body image, but some described both a positive and negative impact. Yoga was perceived as having a positive impact on body image via perceived physical changes, gratitude for one's body, a sense of accomplishment within one's yoga practice, self-confidence, and witnessing different types of bodies practicing yoga...
October 3, 2018: Body Image
Jeffrey M Hunger, Alison Blodorn, Carol T Miller, Brenda Major
This experiment tested whether interacting with a peer who holds explicitly anti-fat attitudes leads to cognitive performance deficits and poorer psychological and cardiovascular outcomes among higher body weight women by increasing anticipated rejection. One hundred and forty six higher body weight women were randomly assigned to interact in a non-romantic context with a same-sex peer who endorsed explicit anti-fat or unbiased attitudes. All women showed greater heart rate reactivity and anger when interacting with an anti-fat peer...
September 26, 2018: Body Image
Petal Grower, L Monique Ward
Although numerous studies demonstrate links between negative body image and sexual well-being, recent research has emphasized studying the positive aspects of these constructs. The current study built upon this prior research by examining the association between body appreciation and sexual agency among a US community sample of 355 heterosexual women aged 18-40. This study also examined whether body appreciation is uniquely associated with sexual agency above and beyond levels of self-objectification. Regression analyses demonstrated that women who reported greater body appreciation also reported greater condom use self-efficacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual assertiveness, and feelings of entitlement to sexual pleasure, and lower levels of body self-consciousness during intimacy...
September 21, 2018: Body Image
Megan A Vendemia, David C DeAndrea
This experiment examined how features of images shared on social media sites, such as Instagram, impact and are evaluated by young adult female users. Specifically, we examined conditions under which female viewers (N = 360, Mage  = 20.34, SD = 2.74) were more or less likely to internalize the thin ideal after viewing other women's selfies (i.e., images taken of oneself by oneself) posted on Instagram that depicted the thin ideal. We also examined how female viewers evaluated women who posted these selfies...
September 19, 2018: Body Image
Nicolas Burden, Jane Simpson, Craig Murray, Paul G Overton, Philip A Powell
Self-disgust is an emotion schema negatively affecting people's body image and is triggered by bodily imperfections and deviations from the "normal" body envelope. In this study, we explore the idea that "normalising" the body in those with limb amputations via the prosthesis would be linked to reduced self-directed disgust. An international clinical community sample (N = 83) with mostly lower limb amputations completed measures about their demographics, prosthesis, adjustment, body image disturbance, psychological distress, and self-directed disgust in a survey design...
September 19, 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, David Barron
Body image research has grown rapidly to include new cultural and linguistic populations, but this gives rise to a need for measurement instruments that are sensitive to local contextual variations while remaining equivalent across groups. Test adaptation, or the translation and validation of a source instrument for use in a new cultural group, is an important part of this process. Here, we offer an operational framework for conducting effective test adaptation. We cover good-practice guidelines for instrument translation and suggest effective strategies for achieving semantic equivalence of translated instruments...
September 13, 2018: Body Image
Sara M Stasik-O'Brien, Jeremy Schmidt
The relationship between disgust and symptoms of disorders characterized by body image disturbance (BID) is increasingly being examined. In cognitive-behavioral models of psychopathology, disgust may function as a negative emotional response to perceived body defects, leading to avoidance and compulsive behavior. Little research has examined the role of self-disgust - a form of disgust that may be particularly relevant to the body. The present study is a descriptive analysis of the association between BID and self-disgust, controlling for other related variables...
September 12, 2018: Body Image
Rachel Kornhaber, Denis Visentin, Deependra Kaji Thapa, Sancia West, Andrea McKittrick, Josef Haik, Michelle Cleary
This study systematically reviewed the impact of cosmetic camouflage use on different psychosocial outcomes in patients with disfiguring skin disorders. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in February 2018 for studies reporting the impact of cosmetic camouflage on different quality of life (QoL) outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria: six randomized controlled trials, two quasi-experimental studies, nine single group 'before and after' interventions, and one comparative study with single post-intervention measurement...
September 10, 2018: Body Image
Alyssa Saiphoo, Stephen C Want
Mental processes that are conducted frequently can become highly cognitively efficient, meaning they can be carried out while we are doing other tasks (i.e., under high cognitive load). Given that young women report frequently comparing their appearance to models in media images, we examined whether such social comparisons are cognitively efficient. Our sample (N = 227) consisted of young women who felt above-average pressure from the media regarding appearance. Cognitive load was manipulated by memorizing either a simple (low load) or complex (high load) sequence of colours from attractive-model or control images...
August 30, 2018: Body Image
Jennifer S Mills, Sarah Musto, Lindsay Williams, Marika Tiggemann
"Selfies" (self-taken photos) are a common self-presentation strategy on social media. This study experimentally tested whether taking and posting selfies, with and without photo-retouching, elicits changes to mood and body image among young women. Female undergraduate students (N = 110) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: taking and uploading either an untouched selfie, taking and posting a preferred and retouched selfie to social media, or a control group. State mood and body image were measured pre- and post-manipulation...
August 24, 2018: Body Image
Jenna D Gilchrist, Eva Pila, Andree Castonguay, Catherine M Sabiston, Diane E Mack
Body-related pride has been associated with health behaviors such as physical activity; however, researchers have overlooked distinctions between different domains of pride (appearance/fitness) and the two facets of pride (authentic/hubristic). The objective of the present research was to examine relationships between fitness- and appearance-related authentic and hubristic pride and physical activity. In Study 1, participants (N = 115) completed measures of fitness-related pride and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
August 23, 2018: Body Image
Robyn L Moffitt, David L Neumann, Shannon P Williamson
This study explored the efficacy of reflective writing tasks for reducing state body dissatisfaction and improving self-improvement motivation. Participants (N = 153) were exposed to a threatening body image scenario, after which they reported their state body dissatisfaction. Following randomisation to one of three interventions (self-esteem, self-compassion, or positive distraction control), participants completed the state body dissatisfaction measures again along with a measure of self-improvement motivation...
August 22, 2018: Body Image
Courtney B Rogers, Jennifer B Webb, Nadia Jafari
The emergence of body image flexibility into the positive body image nomenclature has innovatively expanded the conceptualization of how individuals may adaptively respond to body image threats. Given the notable growth of interest in researching this construct over nearly the past decade, the present analysis provides a systematic and critical review of evidence examining the roles of body image flexibility as correlate, mediator, moderator, and in intervention research. Results indicated that body image flexibility tended to demonstrate a pattern of relationships with correlates in directions predicted by its conceptualization and showed promise in functioning as both effect modifier and as an explanatory variable in the associations evaluated...
August 22, 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Isabella Barbato
Instagram is an increasingly popular social networking site where users post and share photos. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing appearance-related comments accompanying Instagram images on women's body image. Participants were 128 female undergraduate students who viewed a set of attractive images paired with a brief positive comment. For half the participants, comments were related to appearance; the other half viewed the same images with place-related comments...
August 20, 2018: Body Image
Siân A McLean, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
Body dissatisfaction emerges at an early age in childhood. However, the unique experiences of young boys regarding muscularity have not been examined. Interview responses were collected from 101 6-year-old boys to examine muscularity- and thinness-oriented body dissatisfaction. Both muscularity- and thinness-oriented body dissatisfaction were evident; boys on average selected ideal figure sizes significantly more muscular and significantly thinner than current figures. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of boys wanted to be more muscular (32...
September 2018: Body Image
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