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Body Image

Viren Swami, David Barron
Body image research has grown rapidly to include new cultural and linguistic populations, but this gives rise to a need for measurement instruments that are sensitive to local contextual variations while remaining equivalent across groups. Test adaptation, or the translation and validation of a source instrument for use in a new cultural group, is an important part of this process. Here, we offer an operational framework for conducting effective test adaptation. We cover good-practice guidelines for instrument translation and suggest effective strategies for achieving semantic equivalence of translated instruments...
September 13, 2018: Body Image
Sara M Stasik-O'Brien, Jeremy Schmidt
The relationship between disgust and symptoms of disorders characterized by body image disturbance (BID) is increasingly being examined. In cognitive-behavioral models of psychopathology, disgust may function as a negative emotional response to perceived body defects, leading to avoidance and compulsive behavior. Little research has examined the role of self-disgust - a form of disgust that may be particularly relevant to the body. The present study is a descriptive analysis of the association between BID and self-disgust, controlling for other related variables...
September 12, 2018: Body Image
Rachel Kornhaber, Denis Visentin, Deependra Kaji Thapa, Sancia West, Andrea McKittrick, Josef Haik, Michelle Cleary
This study systematically reviewed the impact of cosmetic camouflage use on different psychosocial outcomes in patients with disfiguring skin disorders. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in February 2018 for studies reporting the impact of cosmetic camouflage on different quality of life (QoL) outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria: six randomized controlled trials, two quasi-experimental studies, nine single group 'before and after' interventions, and one comparative study with single post-intervention measurement...
September 10, 2018: Body Image
Alyssa Saiphoo, Stephen C Want
Mental processes that are conducted frequently can become highly cognitively efficient, meaning they can be carried out while we are doing other tasks (i.e., under high cognitive load). Given that young women report frequently comparing their appearance to models in media images, we examined whether such social comparisons are cognitively efficient. Our sample (N = 227) consisted of young women who felt above-average pressure from the media regarding appearance. Cognitive load was manipulated by memorizing either a simple (low load) or complex (high load) sequence of colours from attractive-model or control images...
August 30, 2018: Body Image
Jennifer S Mills, Sarah Musto, Lindsay Williams, Marika Tiggemann
"Selfies" (self-taken photos) are a common self-presentation strategy on social media. This study experimentally tested whether taking and posting selfies, with and without photo-retouching, elicits changes to mood and body image among young women. Female undergraduate students (N = 110) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: taking and uploading either an untouched selfie, taking and posting a preferred and retouched selfie to social media, or a control group. State mood and body image were measured pre- and post-manipulation...
August 24, 2018: Body Image
Jenna D Gilchrist, Eva Pila, Andree Castonguay, Catherine M Sabiston, Diane E Mack
Body-related pride has been associated with health behaviors such as physical activity; however, researchers have overlooked distinctions between different domains of pride (appearance/fitness) and the two facets of pride (authentic/hubristic). The objective of the present research was to examine relationships between fitness- and appearance-related authentic and hubristic pride and physical activity. In Study 1, participants (N = 115) completed measures of fitness-related pride and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)...
August 23, 2018: Body Image
Robyn L Moffitt, David L Neumann, Shannon P Williamson
This study explored the efficacy of reflective writing tasks for reducing state body dissatisfaction and improving self-improvement motivation. Participants (N = 153) were exposed to a threatening body image scenario, after which they reported their state body dissatisfaction. Following randomisation to one of three interventions (self-esteem, self-compassion, or positive distraction control), participants completed the state body dissatisfaction measures again along with a measure of self-improvement motivation...
August 22, 2018: Body Image
Courtney B Rogers, Jennifer B Webb, Nadia Jafari
The emergence of body image flexibility into the positive body image nomenclature has innovatively expanded the conceptualization of how individuals may adaptively respond to body image threats. Given the notable growth of interest in researching this construct over nearly the past decade, the present analysis provides a systematic and critical review of evidence examining the roles of body image flexibility as correlate, mediator, moderator, and in intervention research. Results indicated that body image flexibility tended to demonstrate a pattern of relationships with correlates in directions predicted by its conceptualization and showed promise in functioning as both effect modifier and as an explanatory variable in the associations evaluated...
August 22, 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Isabella Barbato
Instagram is an increasingly popular social networking site where users post and share photos. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the effect of viewing appearance-related comments accompanying Instagram images on women's body image. Participants were 128 female undergraduate students who viewed a set of attractive images paired with a brief positive comment. For half the participants, comments were related to appearance; the other half viewed the same images with place-related comments...
August 20, 2018: Body Image
Nicholas David Sharratt, Elizabeth Jenkinson, Timothy Moss, Alexandra Clarke, Nichola Rumsey
The association between disfigurement ('visible difference') and romantic relationships has received relatively little consideration in the research literature. This qualitative research, conducted in the United Kingdom, explored participants' accounts of their visible difference and romantic life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants who had a variety of visible differences. Inductive thematic analysis demonstrated that participants understood their difference as having a pervasive and enduring impact...
August 18, 2018: Body Image
Helena Lewis-Smith, Phillippa Claire Diedrichs, Diana Harcourt
Body image interventions for breast cancer survivors are lacking in empirical support. Examining existing research on effective body image interventions for women in midlife more broadly may provide useful insights. This pilot study assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effects of a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based intervention adapted from women in midlife to promote positive body image among breast cancer survivors. Twenty-two breast cancer survivors received the 7-week group intervention, co-facilitated by a clinical psychologist and peer...
August 16, 2018: Body Image
Tania E Nichols, Stephanie R Damiano, Karen Gregg, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
We aimed to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between psychological characteristics, body size, and body image outcomes in 6- to 7-year-old children. Participants were 202 children (91 boys, 111 girls) assessed when 6 and 7 years old. Body image-related variables, body mass index, and psychological characteristics were assessed. Cross-sectionally in the total sample, lower self-esteem was associated with greater body dissatisfaction, internalization of appearance ideals, and rewards of muscularity...
August 16, 2018: Body Image
Rachel F Rodgers, Russell DuBois, Madelyn R Frumkin, Donald J Robinaugh
This study used network analyses to test the hypotheses that desire for thinness and fear of gaining weight are related but distinct constructs that play a central role in disordered eating. Data from a sample of 251 college women were used. Sparse undirected eating disorder symptom networks were calculated. Bootstrapped difference tests for edge weights and centrality indices were used to compare the position of desire for thinness and fear of gaining weight. Desire for thinness and fear of gaining weight exhibited unique patterns of associations within the network...
August 4, 2018: Body Image
Siân A McLean, Eleanor H Wertheim, Susan J Paxton
Body dissatisfaction emerges at an early age in childhood. However, the unique experiences of young boys regarding muscularity have not been examined. Interview responses were collected from 101 6-year-old boys to examine muscularity- and thinness-oriented body dissatisfaction. Both muscularity- and thinness-oriented body dissatisfaction were evident; boys on average selected ideal figure sizes significantly more muscular and significantly thinner than current figures. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of boys wanted to be more muscular (32...
September 2018: Body Image
Marilou Girard, Rachel F Rodgers, Henri Chabrol
The aim of this study was to explore a prospective sociocultural model of the influence of media, peers, and partners on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and muscularity concerns in a sample of young women in France. A sample of 192 undergraduate women with a mean age of 20.97 years (SD = 2.69) completed a questionnaire at two time-points, 12 months apart, assessing media and interpersonal influences, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and muscularity concerns. The final model highlighted that media and interpersonal influences (from peers and romantic partners) were associated over time with increased body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and muscularity concerns one year later, via appearance comparison...
September 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Susannah Hayden, Zoe Brown, Jolanda Veldhuis
Photo-based activity on social networking sites has recently been identified as contributing to body image concerns. The present study aimed to investigate experimentally the effect of number of likes accompanying Instagram images on women's own body dissatisfaction. Participants were 220 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view a set of thin-ideal or average images paired with a low or high number of likes presented in an Instagram frame. Results showed that exposure to thin-ideal images led to greater body and facial dissatisfaction than average images...
September 2018: Body Image
Beth T Bell, Jennifer A Cassarly, Lucy Dunbar
The present study is the first to examine the extent to which young adult women post objectifying self-images on social media, and whether the frequency of posting such content can be predicted by self-objectification and positive feedback (likes). Eighty-six young adult women from the UK (Age M = 19.88; SD = 1.34, Range = 18-24) completed self-report measures of self-objectification and social media use. The 20 most recent images they had posted on their personal Instagram accounts were downloaded (Image N = 1720) and content analysed for self-objectifying content...
September 2018: Body Image
Jennifer A Harriger, Kelsey N Serier, Madeline Luedke, Sienna Robertson, Ashley Bojorquez
Research suggests that children demonstrate an awareness of cultural messages regarding appearance; specifically, that thinness is desirable and fatness is objectionable. In 2004, Herbozo and colleagues published research examining the content of popular children's movies. This widely cited study has provided the foundation for various studies examining the impact of media on children. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Herbozo et al.'s (2004) research to include more recent movies...
September 2018: Body Image
Camilla Matera, Amanda Nerini, Cristina Stefanile
The present research examined the roles of different forms of peer influence, internalization, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction in men's interest in cosmetic surgery. Participants were 204 Italian men (Mage  = 34.02, SD = 11.21). Regression analyses showed that appearance conversations with friends and peer attribution were associated with consideration of cosmetic surgery for social reasons, while teasing on muscularity (but not teasing on general body and shape) was linked to interest in cosmetic surgery for intrapersonal motives...
September 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, Mark Pickering, David Barron, Shreepali Patel
Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type...
September 2018: Body Image
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