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Body Image

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917215/a-pilot-controlled-trial-of-a-cognitive-dissonance-based-body-dissatisfaction-intervention-with-young-british-men
#1
Glen S Jankowski, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Melissa J Atkinson, Helen Fawkner, Brendan Gough, Emma Halliwell
This pilot study evaluated a body image intervention for men, Body Project M. Seventy-four British undergraduate men took part in two 90-min intervention sessions, and completed standardised assessments of body image, bulimic pathology, and related outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Fifty-three other men completed the questionnaires as an assessment-only control group. Per-protocol analysis showed that Body Project M improved men's dissatisfaction with body fat and muscularity, body appreciation, muscularity enhancing behaviours, appearance comparisons, and internalization (ds=0...
September 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886394/challenging-fat-talk-an-experimental-investigation-of-reactions-to-body-disparaging-conversations
#2
Suman Ambwani, Megan Baumgardner, Cai Guo, Lea Simms, Emily Abromowitz
Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability...
September 5, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886393/body-checking-is-associated-with-weight-and-body-related-shame-and-weight-and-body-related-guilt-among-men-and-women
#3
Shauna Solomon-Krakus, Catherine M Sabiston
This study examined whether body checking was a correlate of weight- and body-related shame and guilt for men and women. Participants were 537 adults (386 women) between the ages of 17 and 74 (Mage=28.29, SD=14.63). Preliminary analyses showed women reported significantly more body-checking (p<.001), weight- and body-related shame (p<.001), and weight- and body-related guilt (p<.001) than men. In sex-stratified hierarchical linear regression models, body checking was significantly and positively associated with weight- and body-related shame (R(2)=...
September 5, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886392/how-do-you-define-body-image-exploring-conceptual-gaps-in-understandings-of-body-image-at-an-exercise-facility
#4
K Alysse Bailey, Kimberley L Gammage, Cathy van Ingen
The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e...
September 5, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863282/factor-structure-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-romanian-translation-of-the-body-appreciation-scale-2
#5
Viren Swami, Otilia Tudorel, Cosmin Goian, David Barron, Mona Vintila
We examined the psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2). A total of 453 university students from Romania completed the BAS-2, along with measures of disordered eating, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness. In addition, a separate sample of university students (N=109) completed only the BAS-2 at two time-points three weeks apart. Principal-axis factor analysis indicated that BAS-2 scores had a one-dimensional factor structure in both women and men...
August 29, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826046/a-multi-method-analysis-of-distress-tolerance-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#6
Natalie L Matheny, Berta J Summers, Richard J Macatee, Ashleigh M Harvey, Sarah A Okey, Jesse R Cougle
Distress tolerance (DT) is a transdiagnostic construct linked to multiple psychiatric disorders. We conducted three studies using different methods to investigate the relationship between DT and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Study 1 found a significant relationship between low DT and more severe BDD symptoms in an adult community sample (N=81). In Study 2, we found a similar relationship between lower DT and greater BDD symptoms in a student sample (N=192). Furthermore, we found a unique relationship between greater BDD symptoms and lower self-reported tolerance of anger and sadness mood induction tasks...
August 18, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826045/evaluating-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-polish-version-of-the-body-appreciation-scale-2
#7
Magdalena Razmus, Wiktor Razmus
This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of a Polish version of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015). Data were collected from 721 individuals residing in various regions of Poland. There were two subsamples (n=336, age M=34.95, SD=10.83; and n=385, age M=35.38, SD=10.83). Both principal-axis and confirmatory factor analyses supported the one-dimensional structure of BAS-2 scores. Moreover, full scalar invariance of the BAS-2 in Poland across sex was demonstrated...
August 18, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822275/the-functionality-appreciation-scale-fas-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-in-u-s-community-women-and-men
#8
Jessica M Alleva, Tracy L Tylka, Ashley M Kroon Van Diest
Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construct has yet to be developed. Therefore, we developed the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS) and examined its psychometric properties among three online community samples totalling 1042 women and men (ns=490 and 552, respectively)...
August 17, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818788/does-the-work-environment-matter-sexual-objectification-and-waitresses-body-dissatisfaction
#9
Dawn M Szymanski, Renee Mikorski
We investigated the relations between working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments and body dissatisfaction in a sample of 252 United States waitresses. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments was positively correlated with waitresses' body dissatisfaction. Our findings also supported a theorized serial three-chain mediation model in which working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments was related to body dissatisfaction through more thin ideal internalization and greater self-objectification/body surveillance...
August 14, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818787/socializing-girls-whose-bodies-may-not-align-with-contemporary-ideals-of-thinness-an-interpretive-study-of-us-mothers-accounts
#10
Jennifer Paff Ogle, Kelly Reddy-Best, Juyeon Park
We sought to understand how mothers of young adolescent girls who are perceived as overweight or at risk for becoming so and whose body mass indices are at the 70th percentile or higher socialize their daughters about body, weight, eating, and health. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 US mothers, and data were analyzed using constant comparison processes. Findings revealed that mothers adopted a variety of strategies - including teaching, modeling, managing, avoiding, and comforting - to achieve varied socialization goals for their daughters...
August 14, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818786/a-pilot-yoga-physical-education-curriculum-to-promote-positive-body-image
#11
Anne E Cox, Sarah Ullrich-French, Holly S Howe, Amy N Cole
We examined the effects of a pilot yoga-based physical education (PE) curriculum by testing for change in trait body surveillance, physical self-worth, and body appreciation. Further, we examined the relationships among change in body image variables and the role of state mindfulness in predicting state body surveillance during classes. Adolescents participated in 12 weeks of yoga-based (n=20; Mage=16.45, 90% female) or traditional (n=23;Mage=14.52, 57% female) PE. Results showed significant (p=.004), moderate decreases in trait body surveillance and minimal nonsignificant (p=...
August 14, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802199/precarious-manhood-and-muscularity-effects-of-threatening-men-s-masculinity-on-reported-strength-and-muscle-dissatisfaction
#12
David A Frederick, Lily M Shapiro, Tonicia R Williams, Christiana M Seoane, Rachel T McIntosh, Emily W Fischer
The precarious manhood perspective proposes that men respond with aggression when they experience threats to their masculinity. Consistent with this view, we hypothesized that men would represent themselves as stronger and more formidable after their masculinity was threatened. A recent study, however, found that men reported less physical strength when threatened (Hunt, Gonsalkorale, & Murray, 2013). In the current two studies (Ns=193; 450), men were given false feedback about whether they were substantially less masculine (masculinity threatened) or more masculine than average (masculinity reassured)...
August 9, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802198/body-image-in-emerging-adults-the-protective-role-of-self-compassion
#13
Rachel F Rodgers, Debra L Franko, Elizabeth Donovan, Tara Cousineau, Kayla Yates, Kayla McGowan, Elizabeth Cook, Alice S Lowy
Self-compassion is thought to protect from body image concerns. However, the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. This study examined three positive dimensions of self-compassion as moderators of the mediated relationship between perceived overweight status, appearance comparison, and appearance esteem. A sample of 232 youth aged 13-18 years, mean=18.36 (1.5) years, reported on appearance esteem, appearance comparison, perceived weight status, and self-compassion dimensions including self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness...
August 9, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777999/perceptions-of-plagiarisers-the-influence-of-target-physical-attractiveness-transgression-severity-and-sex-on-attributions-of-guilt-and-punishment
#14
Viren Swami, Elizabeth Arthey, Adrian Furnham
The attractiveness-leniency effect (ALE) suggests that physically attractive targets are less likely to be perceived as guilty compared to less attractive targets. Here, we tested the ALE in relation to attributions of students who have committed plagiarism. British adults (N=165) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings varying in target sex (female/male), physical attractiveness (high/low), and transgression severity (serious/minor), and provided attributions of guilt and severity of punishment...
August 1, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759771/body-appreciation-interest-in-cosmetic-enhancements-and-need-for-uniqueness-among-u-s-college-students
#15
Meghan M Gillen, Jamie Dunaev
The aim of the current study was to examine associations between body appreciation and putative correlates that focus on self-enhancement and self-expression. Students (N=261; mean age=20.16years, SD=3.68; 60.9% female) from a non-residential college in the northeastern United States completed a questionnaire measuring body appreciation, interest in cosmetic enhancements, and need for uniqueness. Individuals with higher body appreciation and African Americans/Blacks reported significantly higher self-attributed need for uniqueness and significantly higher investment in a distinctive appearance...
July 28, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759770/downward-dog-becomes-fit-body-inc-a-content-analysis-of-40-years-of-female-cover-images-of-yoga-journal
#16
Jennifer B Webb, Erin R Vinoski, Jan Warren-Findlow, Marlene I Burrell, Davina Y Putz
The present analysis investigated temporal trends in physical appearance attributes and attire worn by female cover models of Yoga Journal magazine between the years 1975-2015. Covers featuring a single female model (N=168) were coded for: pose activity, amount of body visibility, perceived body size, body shape, breast size, skin exposure, and revealing or form-fitting attire. When collapsed across all decades, the majority of cover models was actively posed with high body visibility, rated as at most low normal weight, possessed either a "thin/lean" or "skinny/boney" body shape, and were "flat-chested" or "small-breasted"...
July 28, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756298/physical-activity-and-body-image-among-men-and-boys-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Desmond McEwan, Aria Kamarhie
Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity...
July 27, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711486/assessment-of-english-french-differential-item-functioning-of-the-satisfaction-with-appearance-scale-swap-in-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Lisa R Jewett, Linda Kwakkenbos, Marie Hudson, Murray Baron, Brett D Thombs
The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of the SWAP among 856 Canadian English- or French-speaking SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the SWAP two-factor structure (Dissatisfaction with Appearance and Social Discomfort). The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause model was utilized to assess differential item functioning...
July 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711485/the-effects-of-female-thin-ideal-media-on-men-s-appearance-schema-cognitive-performance-and-self-evaluations-a-self-determination-theory-approach
#19
Amanda Baker, CĂ©line Blanchard
Research has primarily focused on the consequences of the female thin ideal on women and has largely ignored the effects on men. Two studies were designed to investigate the effects of a female thin ideal video on cognitive (Study 1: appearance schema, Study 2: visual-spatial processing) and self-evaluative measures in male viewers. Results revealed that the female thin ideal predicted men's increased appearance schema activation and poorer cognitive performance on a visual-spatial task. Constructs from self-determination theory (i...
July 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697410/the-effect-of-interpersonal-rejection-on-attentional-biases-regarding-thin-ideal-and-non-thin-images-the-moderating-role-of-body-weight-and-shape-based-self-worth
#20
Elizabeth Rieger, Ashleigh Dolan, Brittany Thomas, Jason Bell
Interpersonal dysfunction and weight/shape-based self-worth have been implicated as key constructs for eating disorders, although the relationship between these two concepts is under-researched. This study investigated the moderating role of weight/shape-based self-worth in terms of the impact of interpersonal rejection on attentional bias regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images. Participants were 94 females without an eating disorder, who were exposed to either interpersonal rejection or acceptance (using the Cyberball paradigm), and subsequently assessed in terms of their attentional biases regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images...
July 8, 2017: Body Image
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