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Body Image

Marika Tiggemann, Zoe Brown
The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush)...
March 8, 2018: Body Image
Lisa R Jewett, Stephanie T Gumuchian, Mia Pepin, Danielle B Rice, Franziska Kolorz, Pamela Harrison, Brett D Thombs
People with visible differences are often confronted with negative observer responses, including stares, disgust, and avoidance. Characteristics of negative observer responses are well-documented, but less is known about associated factors. We conducted a scoping review to map what is known about factors associated with negative observer responses. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched, and 16 articles met inclusion criteria. Two general categories of factors were identified: (1) observer characteristics, including age, sex, and socioeconomic status, experiences with disfigurements, and personal beliefs or attitudes related to visible differences; and (2) evolved internal mechanisms, including threat-detection, disgust, and disease avoidance...
March 8, 2018: Body Image
Jessica M Alleva, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Emma Halliwell, Carolien Martijn, Bobby G Stuijfzand, Georgia Treneman-Evans, Nichola Rumsey
Focusing on body functionality is a promising technique for improving women's body image. This study replicates prior research in a large novel sample, tests longer-term follow-up effects, and investigates underlying mechanisms of these effects (body complexity and body-self integration). British women (N = 261) aged 18-30 who wanted to improve their body image were randomised to Expand Your Horizon (three online body functionality writing exercises) or an active control. Trait body image was assessed at Pretest, Posttest, 1-week, and 1-month Follow-Up...
March 6, 2018: Body Image
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Alvaro Sicilia
This study examined the psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES; Castonguay et al., 2014) in a sample of university Spanish students. A total of 815 participants enrolled in two public universities located in Almería and Elche, Spain, completed the BASES along with measures of social physique anxiety and positive/negative affect. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that one item failed to load clearly on the hypothesized factor (guilt)...
February 26, 2018: Body Image
Michael R Sladek, Rachel H Salk, Renee Engeln
Negative body talk measures have been developed with predominantly White, female samples. We tested measurement invariance (equivalence) of two available negative body talk scales for Asian, Latina(o), and White college women and men in the U.S. In Study 1 (n = 1501 women; n = 1436 men), multiple group confirmatory factor analyses indicated scalar (strong) invariance across groups for the Negative Body Talk (Engeln-Maddox, Salk, & Miller, 2012) and Male Body Talk (Sladek, Engeln, & Miller, 2014) scales, suggesting these measures can be used to test mean group differences...
February 24, 2018: Body Image
Anna Zuba, Petra Warschburger
Anti-fat bias is widespread and is linked to the internalization of weight bias and psychosocial problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the internalization of weight bias among children across weight categories and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Children (WBIS-C). Data were collected from 1484 primary school children and their parents. WBIS-C demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .86) after exclusion of Item 1. The unitary factor structure was supported using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (factorial validity)...
February 22, 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, Mona Vintila, Otilia Tudorel, Cosmin Goian, David Barron
We examined the psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the 15-item Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS). Male university students from Romania (N = 343) completed the DMS, as well as measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that DMS scores reduced to two factors that related to muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviours, with both first-order factors loading onto a higher-order factor. However, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a model with two first-order factors and a higher-order factor had poor fit...
February 20, 2018: Body Image
Ana García Dantas, Diana Amado Alonso, Pedro Antonio Sánchez-Miguel, Carmen Del Río Sánchez
Body dissatisfaction constitutes an important factor in the development of eating pathologies, particularly among dancers. The aim of this research was to test the factors that dancers identified as relevant to their body dissatisfaction using an exploratory mixed method design. Participants were 369 dancers from two Spanish dance conservatories. Questionnaires assessed body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors, and risk factors to eating disorders in the dance domain. Nine factors were found; the "teacher", the "uniform", and the "mirrors" were the most common...
February 20, 2018: Body Image
Diana Harcourt, Claire Hamlet, Kristin Billaud Feragen, Luis-Joaquin Garcia-Lopez, Ornella Masnari, Jose Mendes, Francesca Nobile, Jolanda Okkerse, Anna Pittermann, Saskia Spillekom-van Koulil, Nicola Marie Stock, Heidi Williamson
A substantial body of research has demonstrated the challenges commonly facing people with visible differences (disfigurements) and explored the potential benefits offered by specialist psychosocial support and intervention for those who are negatively affected. However, little is known about the availability of such support in Europe for people whose appearance is in any way different to 'the norm'. This survey of 116 psychosocial specialists from 15 European countries, working with a range of patient groups, has shown a tendency for specialists to prioritise Cognitive-behavioural-based approaches, amongst a wide range of other approaches and interventional techniques...
February 14, 2018: Body Image
Patrycja Klimek, Kalina M Lamb, Kelsey A Nogg, Benjamin M Rooney, Aaron J Blashill
Sexual minority men have high rates of skin cancer, yet little is known about skin cancer risk behaviors in this population. It was hypothesized that current skin tone would moderate the association between darker ideals and tanning behaviors. Data were collected online from 231 sexual minority men in San Diego, United States of America, with a mean age of 24.66 (SD = 5.44). Ideal and current skin tone ratings and indoor and outdoor tanning behaviors were assessed. Darker ideals were significantly associated with increased indoor and outdoor tanning...
February 10, 2018: Body Image
Laura R Uhlmann, Caroline L Donovan, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Hayley S Bell, Robin A Ramme
Anecdotal testimony suggests the 'fit' female body ideal is 'healthier' than the thin ideal, because it simultaneously focuses on muscularity. However, statistical investigation into the outcomes associated with fit ideal internalisation is absent. This study used moderation analyses to investigate whether concurrent muscular internalisation mitigated the relationship between thin internalisation and; negative affect, body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, and dieting. Additional analyses investigated whether concurrent thin internalisation amplified the relationship between muscular internalisation, compulsive exercise, and supplement use...
February 8, 2018: Body Image
Kristin J Homan, Tracy L Tylka
Although researchers and clinicians recognize the importance of positive body image for women's well-being, development of theoretical frameworks for understanding positive body image has not kept pace with research documenting its many benefits. The present study proposed and tested a comprehensive model linking gratitude, contingent self-worth, social comparison, body appreciation, and intuitive eating. Path analysis indicated that this model fit the data for a sample of college and online community women (N = 263)...
February 8, 2018: Body Image
Jamie Dunaev, Charlotte H Markey, Paula M Brochu
Internalized weight bias and body dissatisfaction are associated with a number of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. The current study examined the effectiveness of body-focused gratitude, through a short writing exercise, as a strategy to reduce internalized weight bias and improve body image. Young adults (Mage = 22.71, SD = 2.08, 51.2% female) were randomly assigned to either a body gratitude condition (n = 185) or a control condition (n = 184). Results indicated that participants in the gratitude condition reported significantly lower weight bias internalization and significantly more favorable appearance evaluation and greater body satisfaction when compared to the control condition...
February 7, 2018: Body Image
Tracy L Tylka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Body Image
Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Ben Richardson, Vivienne Lewis, Josh Smyth, Isabel Krug
The present study evaluated the relation of key features of state body dissatisfaction experiences - inertia, instability from moment-to-moment, and average level across time-points - to trait body dissatisfaction and/or eating disorder risk. Participants included 161 women who completed measures of trait body dissatisfaction and disordered eating pathology, and then completed reported state body dissatisfaction and contextual influences (binge eating, dietary restraint, exercise, and appearance comparison behaviors) 6 times daily for 7 days...
February 1, 2018: Body Image
Piers L Cornelissen, Katri K Cornelissen, Victoria Groves, Kristofor McCarty, Martin J Tovée
A fundamental issue in testing body image perception is how to present the test stimuli. Previous studies have almost exclusively used images of bodies viewed in front-view, but this potentially obscures key visual cues used to judge adiposity reducing the ability to make accurate judgements. A potential solution is to use a three-quarter view, which combines visual cues to body fat that can be observed in front and profile. To test this hypothesis, 20 female observers completed a 2-alternative forced choice paradigm to determine the smallest difference in body fat detectable in female bodies in front, three-quarter, and profile view...
January 31, 2018: Body Image
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Nicola Marie Stock
Satisfaction with appearance is of central importance for psychological well-being and health. For individuals with an unusual appearance, such as congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFA), appearance evaluations could be especially important. However, few, if any papers have presented a comprehensive synthesis of the factors found to affect subjective satisfaction with appearance among children, adolescents, and adults born with a CFA. Further, only a handful of craniofacial studies have applied psychological theories or models to their findings, resulting in an overall lack of guidance for researchers in the field...
January 30, 2018: Body Image
Shaina J Sowles, Monique McLeary, Allison Optican, Elizabeth Cahn, Melissa J Krauss, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Denise E Wilfley, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
Pro-eating disorder communities provide a refuge for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who are ambivalent about seeking treatment. We investigated a pro-ED community on Reddit, an anonymous social networking platform with topical forums, to identify expression of behaviors aligned with ED symptoms and support for these behaviors. A content analysis on four weeks of topic-specific discussion threads (N = 125 comments, 115 replies to comments) was conducted to identify behaviors consistent with ED psychopathology and support for these behaviors (informational, tangible assistance, esteem/emotional support)...
January 27, 2018: Body Image
Gina Williamson, Bryan T Karazsia
Research demonstrates that exposure to appearance-focused images of models depicting societal standards of beauty negatively affect women's state-oriented body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this research was to extend this experimental research to women's state-oriented body appreciation. The 374 women participants were randomly assigned to view images that were either depicting a model who was representative or not representative of the thin ideal (body size), while this model was in either an appearance-focused pose or a function-oriented pose (pose type)...
January 20, 2018: Body Image
Adrienne Mehak, Aliza Friedman, Stephanie E Cassin
Self-objectification and weight bias internalization are two internalization processes that are positively correlated with binge eating among young women. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are understudied. Consistent with objectification theory, this study examined appearance anxiety and body shame as mediators between self-objectification, weight bias internalization and binge eating. Female undergraduates (N = 102) completed self-report measures of self-objectification, weight bias internalization, appearance anxiety, body shame, and binge eating...
January 18, 2018: Body Image
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