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Body Image

Beth T Bell, Jennifer A Cassarly, Lucy Dunbar
The present study is the first to examine the extent to which young adult women post objectifying self-images on social media, and whether the frequency of posting such content can be predicted by self-objectification and positive feedback (likes). Eighty-six young adult women from the UK (Age M = 19.88; SD = 1.34, Range = 18-24) completed self-report measures of self-objectification and social media use. The 20 most recent images they had posted on their personal Instagram accounts were downloaded (Image N = 1720) and content analysed for self-objectifying content...
July 10, 2018: Body Image
Jennifer A Harriger, Kelsey N Serier, Madeline Luedke, Sienna Robertson, Ashley Bojorquez
Research suggests that children demonstrate an awareness of cultural messages regarding appearance; specifically, that thinness is desirable and fatness is objectionable. In 2004, Herbozo and colleagues published research examining the content of popular children's movies. This widely cited study has provided the foundation for various studies examining the impact of media on children. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Herbozo et al.'s (2004) research to include more recent movies...
June 26, 2018: Body Image
Camilla Matera, Amanda Nerini, Cristina Stefanile
The present research examined the roles of different forms of peer influence, internalization, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction in men's interest in cosmetic surgery. Participants were 204 Italian men (Mage  = 34.02, SD = 11.21). Regression analyses showed that appearance conversations with friends and peer attribution were associated with consideration of cosmetic surgery for social reasons, while teasing on muscularity (but not teasing on general body and shape) was linked to interest in cosmetic surgery for intrapersonal motives...
June 16, 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, Mark Pickering, David Barron, Shreepali Patel
Previous work has shown that exposure to images of nature results in elevated state body appreciation, but static images may lack ecological validity. Here, we examined the impact of exposure to short films of simulated, first-person walks in natural or built environments. Thirty-six university students completed a measure of state body appreciation before and after watching films of either a walk in a natural or a built environment created specifically for the present study. Two weeks later, they completed the same task but watched the other film type...
June 12, 2018: Body Image
Laurens Vangeel, Laura Vandenbosch, Steven Eggermont
This longitudinal study (N = 400, 54.5% female) explores the relationships between three components of self-objectification: the internalization of the media's appearance ideals, the valuing of appearance over competence, and body surveillance. The study adds to the self-objectification literature by taking a long-term, developmental approach. The relationships are examined over 6-month intervals during adolescence and a 5-year interval from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Furthermore, this study is the first to examine relationships between different components of self-objectification at the within-person level and, thus, study personal changes over time...
June 7, 2018: Body Image
Ann Rousseau, Steven Eggermont
The present study combines selective exposure theory with body image coping literature to study effects of media internalization in early adolescence. The main objective was to explore how early adolescents selectively internalize media body ideals to manage their body image. To examine the role of media internalization in early adolescents' body image management, we used two-wave panel data (NWave1  = 1986) gathered among 9- to 14-year-olds. Structural equation analyses indicated that media internalization (Wave 1) positively related to body surveillance (Wave 2)...
June 5, 2018: Body Image
Jacqueline Mills, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
The current study used ecological momentary assessment to explore the frequency, trait predictors, and momentary consequences of positively-intended fat talk, a specific sub-type of fat talk that involves making negative comments about one's own appearance with the view to making someone else feel better. A total of 135 women aged 18-40 completed trait measures of appearance-based comparisons, thin-ideal internalisation, body shame, and body surveillance, before completing a state-based component, involving six short surveys delivered via a smartphone app at random points during the day for seven days...
June 5, 2018: Body Image
Natalie C Tamplin, Siân A McLean, Susan J Paxton
Frequent exposure to appearance ideal social media is associated with body dissatisfaction. We hypothesised that commercial and peer social media literacy would protect against the negative impact of exposure to social media appearance ideal images on young adults' body image. The study was presented as an investigation of alcohol promotion on social media. Participants were 187 women (Mage  = 24.6, SD = 3.7) and 187 men (Mage  = 22.8, SD = 3.9) who viewed gender-matched alcohol-related appearance ideal social media images or control images containing alcohol only...
May 25, 2018: Body Image
Anat Talmon, Karni Ginzburg
Women's experiences of their bodies during pregnancy may reflect their reactions to concrete physical changes as well as self-representations during the transition to motherhood. However, adequate measures of the body experience during pregnancy are lacking. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Body Experience during Pregnancy Scale (BEPS). In Study 1, the BEPS was administered to 423 pregnant women. In Study 2, 373 pregnant women completed the BEPS, as well as questionnaires assessing body shame, disrupted body boundaries, and well-being...
May 25, 2018: Body Image
Nikos Ntoumanis, Michelle D Guerrero, Courtney Gadeke, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
We examined how fitness professionals' perceptions of a hypothetical exerciser's motivation and weight status impacted the professionals' motivation to instruct, perceived effectiveness of different interpersonal behaviors toward the exerciser, and beliefs about the exerciser's efficacy to overcome barriers to exercise. Results of a 2 (autonomous vs. controlled exerciser motivation) x 2 (normal weight vs. overweight exerciser) between-subjects experimental design showed that fitness professionals (N = 134) were more autonomously motivated to instruct, perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors as more effective, and had stronger beliefs regarding the exerciser's efficacy when the exerciser was portrayed as having autonomous motivation, compared to controlled motivation...
May 24, 2018: Body Image
J E Lemoine, H Konradsen, A Lunde Jensen, C Roland-Lévy, P Ny, A Khalaf, S Torres
In recent years, the study of body image shifted from focusing on the negative aspects to a more extensive view of body image. The present study seeks to validate a measure of positive body image, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) in Denmark, Portugal, and Sweden. Participants (N = 1012) were adolescents and young adults aged from 12 to 19. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-dimensional factor structure of the scale. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the scale was invariant across sex and country...
May 14, 2018: Body Image
Aaron J Blashill, Benjamin M Rooney, Christina M Luberto, Manuel Gonzales, Sarah Grogan
The current study was designed to test the efficacy of an appearance-based facial morphing program to reduce intentional UV exposure among individuals at risk for skin cancer. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was employed (N = 219) comparing facial morphing + health information to: (1) mindfulness + health information; and (2) health information only. Participants were young adults with a history of recent intentional tanning and future intentions to tan. Primary outcomes were indoor and outdoor tanning frequency and tanning intentions, with secondary outcomes of tanning attitudes, body image, and affect...
June 2018: Body Image
Rebecca C Kamody, Idia B Thurston, Kristina M Decker, Caroline C Kaufman, Kendrin R Sonneville, Tracy K Richmond
Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health...
June 2018: Body Image
Jake Linardon, Andrea Phillipou, David Castle, Richard Newton, Philippa Harrison, Leonardo L Cistullo, Scott Griffiths, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan
Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms...
June 2018: Body Image
Kiruthiha Vimalakanthan, Allison C Kelly, Sarina Trac
This study used a novel intervention grounded in social mentalities theory to compare the effects of cultivating a caregiving versus competitive mentality when intervening with appearance comparisons. For 48 hours, 120 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to use one of three strategies whenever they made unfavorable appearance comparisons: cultivating compassion and loving-kindness toward the comparison target (Caregiving); comparing themselves favorably to the target in non-appearance domains of superiority (Competition); or distracting themselves (Control)...
June 2018: Body Image
Janell L Mensinger, Tracy L Tylka, Margaret E Calamari
Studies show that women with high BMI are less likely than thinner women to seek healthcare. We aimed to determine the mechanisms linking women's weight status to their healthcare avoidance. Women (N = 313) were surveyed from a U.S. health-panel database. We tested a theory-driven model containing multiple stigma and body-related constructs linking BMI to healthcare avoidance. The model had a good fit to the data. Higher BMI was related to greater experienced and internalized weight stigma, which were linked to greater body-related shame...
June 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Owen Churches, Lewis Mitchell, Zoe Brown
Thinspiration and fitspiration represent contemporary online trends designed to inspire viewers towards the thin ideal or towards health and fitness respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare thinspiration and fitspiration communities on Twitter. A total of 3289 English-language tweets with hashtags related to thinspiration (n = 1181) and fitspiration (n = 2578) were collected over a two-week period. Network analysis showed minimal overlap between the communities on Twitter, with the thinspiration community more closely-connected and having greater information flow than the fitspiration community...
June 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Zoe Brown
The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush)...
June 2018: Body Image
Lisa R Jewett, Stephanie T Gumuchian, Mia Pepin, Danielle B Rice, Franziska Kolorz, Pamela Harrison, Brett D Thombs
People with visible differences are often confronted with negative observer responses, including stares, disgust, and avoidance. Characteristics of negative observer responses are well-documented, but less is known about associated factors. We conducted a scoping review to map what is known about factors associated with negative observer responses. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched, and 16 articles met inclusion criteria. Two general categories of factors were identified: (1) observer characteristics, including age, sex, and socioeconomic status, experiences with disfigurements, and personal beliefs or attitudes related to visible differences; and (2) evolved internal mechanisms, including threat-detection, disgust, and disease avoidance...
June 2018: Body Image
Jessica M Alleva, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Emma Halliwell, Carolien Martijn, Bobby G Stuijfzand, Georgia Treneman-Evans, Nichola Rumsey
Focusing on body functionality is a promising technique for improving women's body image. This study replicates prior research in a large novel sample, tests longer-term follow-up effects, and investigates underlying mechanisms of these effects (body complexity and body-self integration). British women (N = 261) aged 18-30 who wanted to improve their body image were randomised to Expand Your Horizon (three online body functionality writing exercises) or an active control. Trait body image was assessed at Pretest, Posttest, 1-week, and 1-month Follow-Up...
June 2018: Body Image
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