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Body Image

Kate Ablett, Andrew R Thompson
Childhood skin conditions can affect the quality of life of children, adolescents, and families. As such, paediatric dermatological conditions have been the focus of a number of qualitative studies and there is now a need to integrate the findings. A meta-ethnography was carried out with the existing 12 studies, which included nine studies examining parental experiences and three studies of child experiences. Meta-ethnographic analysis of the studies identified themes focused on the child's sense of stigmatisation and the challenges for families that arose from this...
October 18, 2016: Body Image
A M Shaw, K A Arditte Hall, E Rosenfield, K R Timpano
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with elevated suicidality. Little is known about why BDD patients are at increased risk. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) could clarify suicidality in BDD, and theorizes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness lead to suicidal desire, while an acquired capability for suicide is necessary to attempt suicide. No study has investigated how BDD symptoms relate to IPTS constructs or mediators of the relationship between BDD and suicidality...
October 16, 2016: Body Image
Joanna Myriam Moussally, Tobias Brosch, Martial Van der Linden
Using a dot-probe discrimination task and a between-subjects design, we examined the time course of attentional biases (facilitated attention, delayed disengagement, and avoidance) toward thin versus fat bodies and explored the influence of body dissatisfaction (BD) on attention allocation among a sample of 163 women from the general population. Three stimulus presentation times were used: 100ms, 500ms, and 1500ms. We also used neutral body-shape-related stimuli as neutral stimuli related to the concept of interest to overcome the limitations of previous studies...
October 14, 2016: Body Image
Michelle I Jongenelis, Simone Pettigrew, Susan M Byrne, Nicole Biagioni
Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup...
October 14, 2016: Body Image
Karlie Rice, Ivanka Prichard, Marika Tiggemann, Amy Slater
Barbie doll ownership is high among girls in early primary school. It has been suggested that exposure to Barbie impacts negatively on body image. The present study sought to investigate the effect of exposure to Barbie on young girls' thin-ideal internalisation, body esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 160 girls (aged 5-8 years) from Adelaide, South Australia. They were randomly allocated one of three Barbie conditions (physical engagement, physical observation, print observation) or to a control toy...
September 30, 2016: Body Image
Emma Halliwell, Zali Yager, Nicole Paraskeva, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Hilary Smith, Paul White
Body Image in the Primary School (Hutchinson & Calland, 2011) is a body image curriculum that is widely available but has not yet been evaluated. This study evaluates a set of 6 of the 49 available lessons from this curriculum. Seventy-four girls and 70 boys aged 9-10 were recruited from four primary schools in the UK. Schools were randomly allocated into the intervention condition, where students received 6hours of body image lessons, or to lessons as normal. Body esteem was significantly higher among girls in the intervention group, compared to the control group, immediately post intervention, and at 3-month follow-up...
September 28, 2016: Body Image
Patryk Łakuta, Kamil Marcinkiewicz, Beata Bergler-Czop, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
This study examined the relationship between psoriasis and depression, proposing a multiple mediation model to analyse the relationship. A total of 193 patients with psoriasis aged 20-67 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Stigmatization Scale, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, and the Body Emotions Scale. The Body Surface Area index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that experiences of stigmatization, maladaptive beliefs about appearance and its salience to one's self-evaluation, and negative emotional attitudes towards the body, jointly, sequentially mediated the relationship between the presence of skin lesions of psoriasis and depressive symptoms...
September 27, 2016: Body Image
Alexandra F Corning, Michaela M Bucchianeri
Two experiments tested the extent to which the believability of women's body statements (fat talk or self-affirming) depends on their body type (thin or overweight). Experiment 1 (N=130) revealed fat talk was more believable than self-affirming talk regardless of body type. Experiment 2's (N=125) results showed, as hypothesized, that overweight women's fat talk was significantly more believable than fat talk by thin women and self-affirming talk by either thin or overweight women. Consistent with Experiment 1, there was a trend in Experiment 2 toward thin women's fat talk being more believable than their self-affirming talk...
September 22, 2016: Body Image
Sonia Mele, Valentina Cazzato, Francesca Di Taranto, Sandra Maestro, Franco Fabbro, Filippo Muratori, Cosimo Urgesi
Several studies suggest a relation between repeated exposure to extremely thin bodies in media and the perceptual and emotional disturbances of body representation in anorexia nervosa (AN). In this study, we utilized an exposure paradigm to investigate how perceptual experience modulates body appreciation in adolescents with AN as compared to healthy adolescents. Twenty AN patients and 20 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of thin or round models and were then required to express liking judgments about bodies of variable weight...
September 21, 2016: Body Image
Aubrey M Toole, Linda W Craighead
Self-compassion interventions may be uniquely suited to address body image distress (BID), as change-based strategies may have limited utility in a cultural context that so highly values appearance. The current study evaluated a version of an Internet-based self-compassion training, which had previously shown promising results, but was limited by high attrition. The intervention period was reduced from three weeks to one week in the present study to improve retention. Eighty undergraduate women endorsing body image concerns were randomized to either self-compassion meditation training or a waitlist control group...
September 21, 2016: Body Image
Lenny R Vartanian, Franzisca V Froreich, Joshua M Smyth
This study examined the associations among early family adversity (e.g., family violence, neglect), self-concept clarity (i.e., having a clear and coherent sense of one's own personal identity), thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction. Female university students in Australia (n=323) and adult female community members in the United States (n=371) completed self-report measures of the relevant constructs. In both samples, serial mediation analysis revealed that early family adversity was negatively associated with self-concept clarity, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with thin-ideal internalization, and thin-ideal internalization was positively associated with body dissatisfaction...
September 16, 2016: Body Image
Y Yamamiya, S Shimai, L M Schaefer, J K Thompson, H Shroff, R Sharma, D L Ordaz
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4) is a 22-item five-factor measure that assesses thin- and muscular-ideal internalization as well as appearance-related pressures from peers, family, and media. The scale has been validated in Western cultures, but has not yet been examined in Eastern samples. Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-4 among 946 Japanese adolescent girls. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the SATAQ-4 indicated that the five-factor structure was largely replicated with the exception of two cross-loading items...
September 13, 2016: Body Image
Mark S Allen, Emma E Walter
This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion...
September 13, 2016: Body Image
Janet M Liechty, Samantha Clarke, Julie P Birky, Kristen Harrison
: This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image...
September 12, 2016: Body Image
Elizabeth A Daniels, Marlee C Layh, Linda K Porzelius
Extensive research shows a strong body focus in media aimed at teen girls and adult women; less is known about the content of media aimed at preteen girls. The present study investigated differences in the content of preteen versus teen girl magazines. Additionally, the content of independent compared to mainstream magazines was examined. Media frames, which are dominant themes present in media stories, used in content about the body were examined. Finally, the prevalence of appearance-focused versus non-appearance-focused content was assessed...
September 9, 2016: Body Image
Renee Grenon, Giorgio A Tasca, Hilary Maxwell, Louise Balfour, Genevieve Proulx, Hany Bissada
We evaluated an attachment theory model in which mother and father care were hypothesized to be indirectly related to body dissatisfaction mediated by attachment anxiety and media internalization. Participants were 232 women diagnosed with an eating disorder who completed a retrospective measure of parental bonds, and measures of attachment anxiety, media internalization, and body image. Mother care was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction, suggesting that recollection of mothers as less caring was directly related to poorer body image...
September 7, 2016: Body Image
Jessica M Alleva, Carolien Martijn, Jolanda Veldhuis, Tracy L Tylka
This paper describes a Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a), an instrument for assessing key components of positive body image. Dutch-speaking female university students (N=310, Mage=21.31, SD=3.04) completed the Dutch BAS-2. To assess its construct validity, participants also completed measures of appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, self-objectification, self-esteem, and optimistic life orientation. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-dimensional factor structure of the Dutch BAS-2, substantiating the BAS-2 factor structure found in samples of U...
September 3, 2016: Body Image
Zoe Brown, Marika Tiggemann
A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles...
September 3, 2016: Body Image
Trisha L Raque-Bogdan, Sarah Piontkowski, Kayi Hui, Kathryn Schaefer Ziemer, Patton O Garriott
Body appreciation has been found to be linked to interpersonal and intrapersonal factors, with attachment styles and self-compassion separately identified as important correlates. The present study examined these variables together in a model, and we hypothesized that maternal attachment anxiety was related to peer and romantic attachment anxiety, which, in turn, was associated with self-compassion and body appreciation. Using structural equation modeling, this cross-sectional study with a sample of 1306 incoming first year college women found that the proposed model explained 40% of the variance in body appreciation...
September 2, 2016: Body Image
Kirsty M Garbett, Phillippa C Diedrichs
Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions...
August 28, 2016: Body Image
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