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Body Image

J E Lemoine, H Konradsen, A Lunde Jensen, C Roland-Lévy, P Ny, A Khalaf, S Torres
In recent years, the study of body image shifted from focusing on the negative aspects to a more extensive view of body image. The present study seeks to validate a measure of positive body image, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) in Denmark, Portugal, and Sweden. Participants (N = 1012) were adolescents and young adults aged from 12 to 19. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-dimensional factor structure of the scale. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the scale was invariant across sex and country...
May 14, 2018: Body Image
Aaron J Blashill, Benjamin M Rooney, Christina M Luberto, Manuel Gonzales, Sarah Grogan
The current study was designed to test the efficacy of an appearance-based facial morphing program to reduce intentional UV exposure among individuals at risk for skin cancer. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was employed (N = 219) comparing facial morphing + health information to: (1) mindfulness + health information; and (2) health information only. Participants were young adults with a history of recent intentional tanning and future intentions to tan. Primary outcomes were indoor and outdoor tanning frequency and tanning intentions, with secondary outcomes of tanning attitudes, body image, and affect...
April 20, 2018: Body Image
Rebecca C Kamody, Idia B Thurston, Kristina M Decker, Caroline C Kaufman, Kendrin R Sonneville, Tracy K Richmond
Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health...
April 17, 2018: Body Image
Jake Linardon, Andrea Phillipou, David Castle, Richard Newton, Philippa Harrison, Leonardo L Cistullo, Scott Griffiths, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan
Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms...
April 10, 2018: Body Image
Kiruthiha Vimalakanthan, Allison C Kelly, Sarina Trac
This study used a novel intervention grounded in social mentalities theory to compare the effects of cultivating a caregiving versus competitive mentality when intervening with appearance comparisons. For 48 hours, 120 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to use one of three strategies whenever they made unfavorable appearance comparisons: cultivating compassion and loving-kindness toward the comparison target (Caregiving); comparing themselves favorably to the target in non-appearance domains of superiority (Competition); or distracting themselves (Control)...
April 7, 2018: Body Image
Janell L Mensinger, Tracy L Tylka, Margaret E Calamari
Studies show that women with high BMI are less likely than thinner women to seek healthcare. We aimed to determine the mechanisms linking women's weight status to their healthcare avoidance. Women (N = 313) were surveyed from a U.S. health-panel database. We tested a theory-driven model containing multiple stigma and body-related constructs linking BMI to healthcare avoidance. The model had a good fit to the data. Higher BMI was related to greater experienced and internalized weight stigma, which were linked to greater body-related shame...
March 22, 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Owen Churches, Lewis Mitchell, Zoe Brown
Thinspiration and fitspiration represent contemporary online trends designed to inspire viewers towards the thin ideal or towards health and fitness respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare thinspiration and fitspiration communities on Twitter. A total of 3289 English-language tweets with hashtags related to thinspiration (n = 1181) and fitspiration (n = 2578) were collected over a two-week period. Network analysis showed minimal overlap between the communities on Twitter, with the thinspiration community more closely-connected and having greater information flow than the fitspiration community...
June 2018: Body Image
Marika Tiggemann, Zoe Brown
The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush)...
June 2018: Body Image
Lisa R Jewett, Stephanie T Gumuchian, Mia Pepin, Danielle B Rice, Franziska Kolorz, Pamela Harrison, Brett D Thombs
People with visible differences are often confronted with negative observer responses, including stares, disgust, and avoidance. Characteristics of negative observer responses are well-documented, but less is known about associated factors. We conducted a scoping review to map what is known about factors associated with negative observer responses. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched, and 16 articles met inclusion criteria. Two general categories of factors were identified: (1) observer characteristics, including age, sex, and socioeconomic status, experiences with disfigurements, and personal beliefs or attitudes related to visible differences; and (2) evolved internal mechanisms, including threat-detection, disgust, and disease avoidance...
June 2018: Body Image
Jessica M Alleva, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Emma Halliwell, Carolien Martijn, Bobby G Stuijfzand, Georgia Treneman-Evans, Nichola Rumsey
Focusing on body functionality is a promising technique for improving women's body image. This study replicates prior research in a large novel sample, tests longer-term follow-up effects, and investigates underlying mechanisms of these effects (body complexity and body-self integration). British women (N = 261) aged 18-30 who wanted to improve their body image were randomised to Expand Your Horizon (three online body functionality writing exercises) or an active control. Trait body image was assessed at Pretest, Posttest, 1-week, and 1-month Follow-Up...
June 2018: Body Image
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Alvaro Sicilia
This study examined the psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES; Castonguay et al., 2014) in a sample of university Spanish students. A total of 815 participants enrolled in two public universities located in Almería and Elche, Spain, completed the BASES along with measures of social physique anxiety and positive/negative affect. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that one item failed to load clearly on the hypothesized factor (guilt)...
June 2018: Body Image
Shaina J Sowles, Monique McLeary, Allison Optican, Elizabeth Cahn, Melissa J Krauss, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Denise E Wilfley, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
Pro-eating disorder communities provide a refuge for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who are ambivalent about seeking treatment. We investigated a pro-ED community on Reddit, an anonymous social networking platform with topical forums, to identify expression of behaviors aligned with ED symptoms and support for these behaviors. A content analysis on four weeks of topic-specific discussion threads (N=125 comments, 115 replies to comments) was conducted to identify behaviors consistent with ED psychopathology and support for these behaviors (informational, tangible assistance, esteem/emotional support)...
March 2018: Body Image
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Nicola Marie Stock
Satisfaction with appearance is of central importance for psychological well-being and health. For individuals with an unusual appearance, such as congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFA), appearance evaluations could be especially important. However, few, if any papers have presented a comprehensive synthesis of the factors found to affect subjective satisfaction with appearance among children, adolescents, and adults born with a CFA. Further, only a handful of craniofacial studies have applied psychological theories or models to their findings, resulting in an overall lack of guidance for researchers in the field...
March 2018: Body Image
Piers L Cornelissen, Katri K Cornelissen, Victoria Groves, Kristofor McCarty, Martin J Tovée
A fundamental issue in testing body image perception is how to present the test stimuli. Previous studies have almost exclusively used images of bodies viewed in front-view, but this potentially obscures key visual cues used to judge adiposity reducing the ability to make accurate judgements. A potential solution is to use a three-quarter view, which combines visual cues to body fat that can be observed in front and profile. To test this hypothesis, 20 female observers completed a 2-alternative forced choice paradigm to determine the smallest difference in body fat detectable in female bodies in front, three-quarter, and profile view...
March 2018: Body Image
Tracy L Tylka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Body Image
Gina Williamson, Bryan T Karazsia
Research demonstrates that exposure to appearance-focused images of models depicting societal standards of beauty negatively affect women's state-oriented body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this research was to extend this experimental research to women's state-oriented body appreciation. The 374 women participants were randomly assigned to view images that were either depicting a model who was representative or not representative of the thin ideal (body size), while this model was in either an appearance-focused pose or a function-oriented pose (pose type)...
March 2018: Body Image
Adrienne Mehak, Aliza Friedman, Stephanie E Cassin
Self-objectification and weight bias internalization are two internalization processes that are positively correlated with binge eating among young women. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are understudied. Consistent with objectification theory, this study examined appearance anxiety and body shame as mediators between self-objectification, weight bias internalization and binge eating. Female undergraduates (N=102) completed self-report measures of self-objectification, weight bias internalization, appearance anxiety, body shame, and binge eating...
March 2018: Body Image
Johanna Kling, Maria Wängqvist, Ann Frisén
Although previous research has revealed associations between negative body image and identity problems, there are sound theoretical reasons to assume much greater diversity in relations between body image and identity. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore the ways people find the body salient to their identities. Young adults (N=121; 51% women) were interviewed, and four main themes were found: identification with the body, body functionality in identity-relevant tasks, appearance and identity in social interactions, and identity-relevant bodily engagement...
March 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, David Barron, Adrian Furnham
Five studies were conducted to understand the impact of nature exposure on body image. In three studies using different designs and outcome measures, British university students were exposed to photographs of natural or built environments. Results indicated that exposure to images of natural, but not built, environments resulted in improved state body image. In Study 4, British community participants went on a walk in a natural or built environment, with results indicating that the walk in a natural environment resulted in significantly higher state body appreciation, whereas the walk in a built environment resulted in significantly lower scores...
March 2018: Body Image
Viren Swami, Adrian Furnham
Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change...
March 2018: Body Image
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