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Maxwell Dalaba, Rex Alirigia, Elise Mesenbring, Evan Coffey, Zachary Brown, Michael Hannigan, Christine Wiedinmyer, Abraham Oduro, Katherine L Dickinson
Like many other countries, Ghana relies on biomass (mainly wood and charcoal) for most of its cooking needs. A national action plan aims to expand liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) access to 50% of the country's population by 2020. While the country's southern urban areas have made progress toward this goal, LPG use for cooking remains low in the north. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize the current state of the LPG market in this area and examine opportunities and barriers to scale up LPG adoption...
August 14, 2018: EcoHealth
Carolina Dourado Amaral, Galileu Barbosa Costa, William Marciel de Souza, Pedro Augusto Alves, Iara Apolinário Borges, Aline Lavado Tolardo, Marília Farignoli Romeiro, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Erna Geessien Kroon, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Giliane de Souza Trindade
New World orthohantaviruses are emerging RNA viruses that cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These viruses are a burden to public health around the world with a lethality rate of around 60%. In South America, rodents of Sigmodontinae subfamily are the main reservoirs of orthohantaviruses. We described a serosurvey for orthohantaviruses circulation in an apparently healthy human population and small mammals from rural areas in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 240 individuals and 50 small mammals (26 rodents belonging to 10 different species and 24 marsupials from 4 different species) were sampled during 2012-2013...
August 13, 2018: EcoHealth
Tess E Youker-Smith, Philipp H Boersch-Supan, Christopher M Whipps, Sadie J Ryan
Amphibian ranaviruses occur globally, but we are only beginning to understand mechanisms for emergence. Ranaviruses are aquatic pathogens which can cause > 90% mortality in larvae of many aquatic-breeding amphibians, making them important focal host taxa. Host susceptibilities and virulence of ranaviruses have been studied extensively in controlled laboratory settings, but research is needed to identify drivers of infection in natural environments. Constructed ponds, essential components of wetland restoration, have been associated with higher ranavirus prevalence than natural ponds, posing a conundrum for conservation efforts, and emphasizing the need to understand potential drivers...
August 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Harriet R Thatcher, Colleen T Downs, Nicola F Koyama
Vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, thrive in urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and present a suitable model to assess parasitic load as a measure of anthropogenic disturbance, such as urbanization. We collected vervet monkey faecal samples from four study sites representing a gradient of land use and urbanization. We assessed faecal parasites using the faecal flotation method calculating eggs per gram and parasite richness. Overall, the more urban vervet monkey populations had a significantly higher parasite richness and abundance...
August 8, 2018: EcoHealth
Michael J Adams, Reid N Harris, Evan H C Grant, Matthew J Gray, M Camille Hopkins, Samuel A Iverson, Robert Likens, Mark Mandica, Deanna H Olson, Alex Shepack, Hardin Waddle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: EcoHealth
C N Crockford, A J Dean, S Reid, J H Dean
Flying-foxes provide critical ecosystem services, but their role as hosts to zoonotic pathogens may undermine conservation support. We surveyed 214 residents of Cairns, Australia, regarding their perceptions about health risks associated with flying-foxes and support for flying-fox conservation. Greater likelihood of handling a flying-fox was associated with lower knowledge about risks, greater conservation support, and environmental organization membership. Respondents less likely to seek medical attention after a minor scratch tended to be younger, unemployed and perceive lower risk...
August 7, 2018: EcoHealth
Helen Petach, Kendra N Williams, Sumi Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: EcoHealth
Peter Daszak, Yasha Feferholtz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: EcoHealth
Charles Perrings, Simon Levin, Peter Daszak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: EcoHealth
Chandan Lall, Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar, Ratchagadasse Vimal Raj, Kumaresan Vedhagiri, Ittoop Pulikkottil Sunish, Paluru Vijayachari
Leptospirosis is an important global public health problem. Favourable environmental factors are influencing the survival of leptospires in soil, which is an important link in the transmission cycle. The present study was designed to understand the correlation between various soil nutrients and presence of Leptospira in soil samples of different regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The study revealed a significant positive relationship between presence of Leptospira and concentration of iron, manganese and copper in soil...
June 26, 2018: EcoHealth
F S Ferreira, S V Brito, H D M Coutinho, E P Souza, W O Almeida, R R N Alves
In Brazil, although a large number of animals are used in traditional medicine (at least 354 species), information about their biological activities is scarce. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal potential of zootherapeutic by-products from animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine and discuss the ecological and cultural consequences of such practices. The species analyzed were: Tupinambis merianae (skin), Iguana iguana (skin and body fat), Crotalus durissus (skin and body fat), Boa constrictor (skin), Euphractus sexcinctus (body fat) and Coendou prehensilis (quills)...
June 19, 2018: EcoHealth
Deanna M Chung, Elise Ferree, Dawn M Simon, Pamela J Yeh
Birds, with their broad geographic ranges and close association with humans, have historically played an important role as carriers of human disease and as reservoirs for drug-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine scientific literature over a 15-year timespan to identify reported avian-bacterial associations and factors that may impact zoonotic disease emergence by classifying traits of bird species and their bacteria. We find that the majority of wild birds studied were migratory, in temperate habitats, and in the order Passeriformes...
June 12, 2018: EcoHealth
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: EcoHealth
Hongying Li, Peter Daszak
The authors should be: Hongying Li and Peter Daszak.
June 6, 2018: EcoHealth
Terra R Kelly, David A Bunn, Nanda P Joshi, Daniel Grooms, Durga Devkota, Naba R Devkota, Lok Nath Paudel, Annette Roug, David J Wolking, Jonna A K Mazet
Increasing livestock production to meet growing demands has resulted in greater interactions at the livestock-wildlife-human interface and more opportunities for zoonotic disease spread. Zoonoses impose enormous burdens on low-income countries like Nepal, where populations are largely dependent on livestock production and access to shared grazing lands, often near protected areas, due to population pressures. Several livestock-associated zoonoses have been reported in Nepal; however, little is known regarding Nepali farmers' knowledge of zoonoses and opportunities for disease management...
June 4, 2018: EcoHealth
Ivan C Hanigan, Jacki Schirmer, Theophile Niyonsenga
Droughts may increase the risk of mental health problems, but evidence suggests a complex story with some groups being vulnerable while others are not. Previous studies from Australia have found associations with suicide, depression and distress that vary by age, gender and remoteness. Understanding the effects of drought on mental health is important because drought is predicted to be more intense in some areas in the future. We investigated the associations between drought and distress in a survey of rural Australians by age, gender and farming status...
May 24, 2018: EcoHealth
Valentina Tagliapietra, Roberto Rosà, Chiara Rossi, Fausta Rosso, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Michele Tommasini, Walter Versini, Attilio Fabio Cristallo, Annapaola Rizzoli
Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered 'low risk' for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002...
May 23, 2018: EcoHealth
Kevin Berry, Toph Allen, Richard D Horan, Jason F Shogren, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases...
May 21, 2018: EcoHealth
Hongying Li, Peter Daszak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Gebbiena M Bron, Katherine L D Richgels, Michael D Samuel, Julia E Poje, Faye Lorenzsonn, Jonathan P Matteson, Jesse T Boulerice, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke
Oral vaccination is an emerging management strategy to reduce the prevalence of high impact infectious diseases within wild animal populations. Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis of rodents that often decimates prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies in the western USA. Recently, an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) was developed to protect prairie dogs from plague and aid recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Although oral vaccination programs are targeted toward specific species, field distribution of vaccine-laden baits can result in vaccine uptake by non-target animals and unintended indirect effects...
May 9, 2018: EcoHealth
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