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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779439/large-scale-removal-of-invasive-honeysuckle-decreases-mosquito-and-avian-host-abundance
#1
Allison M Gardner, Ephantus J Muturi, Leah D Overmier, Brian F Allan
Invasive species rank second only to habitat destruction as a threat to native biodiversity. One consequence of biological invasions is altered risk of exposure to infectious diseases in human and animal populations. The distribution and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases depend on the complex interactions between the vector, the pathogen, and the human or wildlife reservoir host. These interactions are highly susceptible to disturbance by invasive species, including terrestrial plants. We conducted a 2-year field experiment using a Before-After/Control-Impact design to examine how removal of invasive Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) in a forest fragment embedded within a residential neighborhood affects the abundance of mosquitoes, including two of the most important vectors of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens and Cx...
August 4, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766064/a-severe-ranavirus-outbreak-in-captive-wild-caught-box-turtles
#2
Steven J A Kimble, April J Johnson, Rod N Williams, Jason T Hoverman
A Ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time PCR in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. During the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. Wide variation in infection rate (7-94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect detection using noninvasive samples...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766063/host-responses-to-pathogen-priming-in-a-natural-songbird-host
#3
Ariel E Leon, Dana M Hawley
Hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. In the house finch-Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of MG while foraging. Here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to MG influence host responses and protection from secondary high-dose challenge...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766062/what-s-new
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#5
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643091/sylvatic-plague-vaccine-partially-protects-prairie-dogs-cynomys-spp-in-field-trials
#6
Tonie E Rocke, Daniel W Tripp, Robin E Russell, Rachel C Abbott, Katherine L D Richgels, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M Grassel, David R Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse Boulerice, Michael W Miller
Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1-59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643090/burrow-dusting-or-oral-vaccination-prevents-plague-associated-prairie-dog-colony-collapse
#7
Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Jonathan P Runge, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634781/infectious-disease-surveillance-in-the-woylie-bettongia-penicillata
#8
Kim Skogvold, Kristin S Warren, Bethany Jackson, Carly S Holyoake, Kathryn Stalder, Joanne M Devlin, Simone D Vitali, Adrian F Wayne, Alistair Legione, Ian Robertson, Rebecca J Vaughan-Higgins
Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii...
June 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631117/multi-criteria-decision-analysis-to-model-ixodes-ricinus-habitat-suitability
#9
Raphaël Rousseau, Guy McGrath, Barry J McMahon, Sophie O Vanwambeke
Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them)...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631116/environmental-factors-and-zoonotic-pathogen-ecology-in-urban-exploiter-species
#10
REVIEW
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea H Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620680/landscape-climate-and-hantavirus-cardiopulmonary-syndrome-outbreaks
#11
REVIEW
Paula Ribeiro Prist, Paulo Sérgio D Andrea, Jean Paul Metzger
We performed a literature review in order to improve our understanding of how landscape and climate drivers affect HCPS outbreaks. Anthropogenic landscape changes such as forest loss, fragmentation and agricultural land uses are related with a boost in hantavirus reservoir species abundance and hantavirus prevalence in tropical areas, increasing HCPS risk. Additionally, higher precipitation, especially in arid regions, favors an increase in vegetational biomass, which augments the resources for reservoir rodents, also increasing HCPS risk...
June 15, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620679/are-poultry-or-wild-birds-the-main-reservoirs-for-avian-influenza-in-bangladesh
#12
Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Md Ahasanul Hoque, Nitish Chandra Debnath, Mat Yamage, Marcel Klaassen
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great socioeconomic and health concern, notably in Southeast Asia where highly pathogenic strains, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and other H5 and H7 AIVs, continue to occur. Wild bird migrants are often implicated in the maintenance and spread of AIV. However, little systematic surveillance of wild birds has been conducted in Southeast Asia to evaluate whether the prevalence of AIV in wild birds is higher than in other parts of the world where HPAI outbreaks occur less frequently...
June 15, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616660/arenavirus-dynamics-in-experimentally-and-naturally-infected-rodents
#13
Joachim Mariën, Benny Borremans, Sophie Gryseels, Bram Vanden Broecke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Rhodes Makundi, Apia Massawe, Jonas Reijniers, Herwig Leirs
Infectious diseases of wildlife are typically studied using data on antibody and pathogen levels. In order to interpret these data, it is necessary to know the course of antibodies and pathogen levels after infection. Such data are typically collected using experimental infection studies in which host individuals are inoculated in the laboratory and sampled over an extended period, but because laboratory conditions are controlled and much less variable than natural conditions, the immune response and pathogen dynamics may differ...
June 14, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584951/an-integrative-eco-epidemiological-analysis-of-west-nile-virus-transmission
#14
Annelise Tran, Grégory L'Ambert, Gilles Balança, Sophie Pradier, Vladimir Grosbois, Thomas Balenghien, Thierry Baldet, Sylvie Lecollinet, Agnès Leblond, Nicolas Gaidet-Drapier
West Nile disease, caused by the West Nile virus (WNV), is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting humans and horses that involves wild birds as amplifying hosts. The mechanisms of WNV transmission remain unclear in Europe where the occurrence of outbreaks has dramatically increased in recent years. We used a dataset on the competence, distribution, abundance, diversity and dispersal of wild bird hosts and mosquito vectors to test alternative hypotheses concerning the transmission of WNV in Southern France...
June 5, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584950/how-program-monitoring-drives-innovation
#15
Helen Petach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508154/estimating-loss-of-brucella-abortus-antibodies-from-age-specific-serological-data-in-elk
#16
J A Benavides, D Caillaud, B M Scurlock, E J Maichak, W H Edwards, P C Cross
Serological data are one of the primary sources of information for disease monitoring in wildlife. However, the duration of the seropositive status of exposed individuals is almost always unknown for many free-ranging host species. Directly estimating rates of antibody loss typically requires difficult longitudinal sampling of individuals following seroconversion. Instead, we propose a Bayesian statistical approach linking age and serological data to a mechanistic epidemiological model to infer brucellosis infection, the probability of antibody loss, and recovery rates of elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem...
June 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405850/retrospective-study-of-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#17
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani-Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans and animals by direct or indirect contact with urine or body fluids from infected animals especially rodents. Infection can be associated with wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe multi-organ syndrome with life-threatening consequences. We conducted a review of published studies on incidences, case reports, sero-epidemiological surveys from year 2000 to 2015 using different electronic data bases. Our study revealed that majority of the studies were conducted in Peninsular Malaysia and predominantly among high-risk human groups...
June 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332127/a-review-of-zoonotic-infection-risks-associated-with-the-wild-meat-trade-in-malaysia
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer Caroline Cantlay, Daniel J Ingram, Anna L Meredith
The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission...
June 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796674/ecosystem-approaches-to-community-health-and-wellbeing-towards-an-integrated-australian-governance-framework-in-response-to-global-environmental-change
#19
Jonathan Kingsley, Sebastian Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709310/survey-of-pathogenic-chytrid-fungi-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-b-salamandrivorans-in-salamanders-from-three-mountain-ranges-in-europe-and-the-americas
#20
Joshua Curtis Parrott, Alexander Shepack, David Burkart, Brandon LaBumbard, Patrick Scimè, Ethan Baruch, Alessandro Catenazzi
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a virulent fungal pathogen that infects salamanders. It is implicated in the recent collapse of several populations of fire salamanders in Europe. This pathogen seems much like that of its sister species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the agent responsible for anuran extinctions and extirpations worldwide, and is considered to be an emerging global threat to salamander communities. Bsal thrives at temperatures found in many mountainous regions rich in salamander species; because of this, we have screened specimens of salamanders representing 17 species inhabiting mountain ranges in three continents: The Smoky Mountains, the Swiss Alps, and the Peruvian Andes...
June 2017: EcoHealth
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