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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038989/interactions-between-carnivores-in-madagascar-and-the-risk-of-disease-transmission
#1
Fidisoa Rasambainarivo, Zach J Farris, Hertz Andrianalizah, Patricia G Parker
Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Recent research shows that exotic carnivores negatively affect the distribution and abundance of the native and endangered carnivores of Madagascar. In this study, we provide information about the frequency and distribution of interactions between exotic (dogs and cats) and native carnivores (Eupleridae) in the Betampona Natural Reserve (BNR), Madagascar, using noninvasive camera trap surveys...
October 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030788/viral-richness-is-positively-related-to-group-size-but-not-mating-system-in-bats
#2
Quinn M R Webber, Quinn E Fletcher, Craig K R Willis
Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i...
October 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030787/armillifer-infected-snakes-sold-at-congolese-bushmeat-markets-represent-an-emerging-zoonotic-threat
#3
Richard Hardi, Gergely Babocsay, Dennis Tappe, Mihály Sulyok, Imre Bodó, Lajos Rózsa
African pythons (Pythonidae) and large vipers (Bitis spp.) act as definitive hosts for Armillifer armillatus and Armillifer grandis parasites (Crustacea: Pentastomida) in the Congo Basin. Since the proportion of snakes in bushmeat gradually increases, human pentastomiasis is an emerging zoonotic disease. To substantiate the significance of this threat, we surveyed snakes offered for human consumption at bushmeat markets in the Kole district, Democratic Republic of the Congo, for the presence of adult pentastomids...
October 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975577/miasma
#4
Mark Olival-Bartley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963686/economic-incentives-in-the-socially-optimal-management-of-infectious-disease-when-formula-see-text-is-not-enough
#5
B R Morin, A P Kinzig, S A Levin, C A Perrings
Does society benefit from encouraging or discouraging private infectious disease-risk mitigation? Private individuals routinely mitigate infectious disease risks through the adoption of a range of precautions, from vaccination to changes in their contact with others. Such precautions have epidemiological consequences. Private disease-risk mitigation generally reduces both peak prevalence of symptomatic infection and the number of people who fall ill. At the same time, however, it can prolong an epidemic. A reduction in prevalence is socially beneficial...
September 29, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905152/a-controlled-trial-to-reduce-the-risk-of-human-nipah-virus-exposure-in-bangladesh
#6
Nazmun Nahar, Repon C Paul, Rebeca Sultana, Shariful Amin Sumon, Kajal Chandra Banik, Jaynal Abedin, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Fernando Garcia, Susan Zimicki, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier ("only safe sap")...
September 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894977/varicella-coinfection-in-patients-with-active-monkeypox-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#7
Nicole A Hoff, Douglas S Morier, Neville K Kisalu, Sara C Johnston, Reena H Doshi, Lisa E Hensley, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, James O Lloyd-Smith, Anne W Rimoin
From 2006 to 2007, an active surveillance program for human monkeypox (MPX) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified 151 cases of coinfection with monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus from 1158 suspected cases of human MPX (13%). Using clinical and socio-demographic data collected with standardized instruments by trained, local nurse supervisors, we examined a variety of hypotheses to explain the unexpectedly high proportion of coinfections among the sample, including the hypothesis that the two viruses occur independently...
September 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879619/borrelia-miyamotoi-other-vector-borne-agents-in-cat-blood-and-ticks-in-eastern-maryland
#8
Avery B Shannon, Renee Rucinsky, Holly D Gaff, R Jory Brinkerhoff
We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879613/vaccines-for-conservation-plague-prairie-dogs-black-footed-ferrets-as-a-case-study
#9
Daniel J Salkeld
The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879516/the-influence-of-temperature-on-chytridiomycosis-in-vivo
#10
Julia M Sonn, Scott Berman, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an ideal system for studying the influence of temperature on host-pathogen relationships because both host and pathogen are ectothermic. Studies of Bd in culture suggest that optimal growth occurs between 17 and 23°C, and death of the fungus occurs above 29 or below 0°C. Amphibian immune systems, however, are also temperature dependent and often more effective at higher temperatures. We therefore hypothesized that pathogen load, probability of infection and mortality in Bd-exposed frogs would peak at a lower temperature than that at which Bd grows best in vitro...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831653/a-delphi-survey-and-analysis-of-expert-perspectives-on-one-health-in-australia
#11
Chris Degeling, Jane Johnson, Michael Ward, Andrew Wilson, Gwendolyn Gilbert
One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary approach aiming to achieve optimal health for humans, animals and their environments. Case reports and systematic reviews of success are emerging; however, discussion of barriers and enablers of cross-sectoral collaboration are rare. A four-phase mixed-method Delphi survey of Australian human and animal health practitioners and policymakers (n = 52) explored areas of consensus and disagreement over: (1) the operational definition of OH; (2) potential for cross-sectoral collaboration; and (3) key priorities for shaping the development of an OH response to significantly elevated zoonotic disease risk...
August 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831639/human-exposure-to-wild-animals-in-the-sankuru-province-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#12
Anne W Rimoin, Vivian Helena Alfonso, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Prime Mulembakani, Nevile K Kisalu, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Emile W Okitolonda, Linda L Wright
Due to the high level of biological diversity in the Congo Basin and human population dependence on bushmeat, the DRC represents an ideal location for expanding knowledge on wild animal exposures and thus the potential for transmission of zoonotic pathogens. However, limited information exists on patterns and extent of contact with wildlife in such communities. Using a cross-sectional study, 14 villages in the Sankuru Province of the DRC were surveyed between August and September 2007. Villagers ≥ 1 year of age and at home of the time of the survey were eligible and enrolled to describe and assess factors associated with animal exposures (both activity and type of animal)...
August 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779439/large-scale-removal-of-invasive-honeysuckle-decreases-mosquito-and-avian-host-abundance
#13
Allison M Gardner, Ephantus J Muturi, Leah D Overmier, Brian F Allan
Invasive species rank second only to habitat destruction as a threat to native biodiversity. One consequence of biological invasions is altered risk of exposure to infectious diseases in human and animal populations. The distribution and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases depend on the complex interactions between the vector, the pathogen, and the human or wildlife reservoir host. These interactions are highly susceptible to disturbance by invasive species, including terrestrial plants. We conducted a 2-year field experiment using a Before-After/Control-Impact design to examine how removal of invasive Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) in a forest fragment embedded within a residential neighborhood affects the abundance of mosquitoes, including two of the most important vectors of West Nile virus, Culex pipiens and Cx...
August 4, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766064/a-severe-ranavirus-outbreak-in-captive-wild-caught-box-turtles
#14
Steven J A Kimble, April J Johnson, Rod N Williams, Jason T Hoverman
A Ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time PCR in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. During the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. Wide variation in infection rate (7-94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect detection using noninvasive samples...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766063/host-responses-to-pathogen-priming-in-a-natural-songbird-host
#15
Ariel E Leon, Dana M Hawley
Hosts in free-living populations can experience substantial variation in the frequency and dose of pathogen exposure, which can alter disease progression and protection from future exposures. In the house finch-Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) system, the pathogen is primarily transmitted via bird feeders, and some birds may be exposed to frequent low doses of MG while foraging. Here we experimentally determined how low dose, repeated exposures of house finches to MG influence host responses and protection from secondary high-dose challenge...
August 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707044/seasonal-bushmeat-hunger-in-the-congo-basin
#16
Edmond Dounias, Mitsuo Ichikawa
Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being...
July 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643091/sylvatic-plague-vaccine-partially-protects-prairie-dogs-cynomys-spp-in-field-trials
#17
Tonie E Rocke, Daniel W Tripp, Robin E Russell, Rachel C Abbott, Katherine L D Richgels, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M Grassel, David R Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse Boulerice, Michael W Miller
Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1-59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643090/burrow-dusting-or-oral-vaccination-prevents-plague-associated-prairie-dog-colony-collapse
#18
Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Jonathan P Runge, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634781/infectious-disease-surveillance-in-the-woylie-bettongia-penicillata
#19
Kim Skogvold, Kristin S Warren, Bethany Jackson, Carly S Holyoake, Kathryn Stalder, Joanne M Devlin, Simone D Vitali, Adrian F Wayne, Alistair Legione, Ian Robertson, Rebecca J Vaughan-Higgins
Wild populations of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata) recently declined by 90% in southwest Western Australia. Increased predation is the leading hypothesis for decline, but disease may be playing a role increasing susceptibility to predation. To explore this possibility, we surveyed woylie populations in the wild, in captivity and in a predator-free sanctuary for exposure to, and infection with, four known pathogens of macropods: herpesviruses, Wallal and Warrego orbiviruses, and Toxoplasma gondii...
June 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631117/multi-criteria-decision-analysis-to-model-ixodes-ricinus-habitat-suitability
#20
Raphaël Rousseau, Guy McGrath, Barry J McMahon, Sophie O Vanwambeke
Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them)...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
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