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June 7, 2018: EcoHealth
Hongying Li, Peter Daszak
The authors should be: Hongying Li and Peter Daszak.
June 6, 2018: EcoHealth
Terra R Kelly, David A Bunn, Nanda P Joshi, Daniel Grooms, Durga Devkota, Naba R Devkota, Lok Nath Paudel, Annette Roug, David J Wolking, Jonna A K Mazet
Increasing livestock production to meet growing demands has resulted in greater interactions at the livestock-wildlife-human interface and more opportunities for zoonotic disease spread. Zoonoses impose enormous burdens on low-income countries like Nepal, where populations are largely dependent on livestock production and access to shared grazing lands, often near protected areas, due to population pressures. Several livestock-associated zoonoses have been reported in Nepal; however, little is known regarding Nepali farmers' knowledge of zoonoses and opportunities for disease management...
June 4, 2018: EcoHealth
Ivan C Hanigan, Jacki Schirmer, Theophile Niyonsenga
Droughts may increase the risk of mental health problems, but evidence suggests a complex story with some groups being vulnerable while others are not. Previous studies from Australia have found associations with suicide, depression and distress that vary by age, gender and remoteness. Understanding the effects of drought on mental health is important because drought is predicted to be more intense in some areas in the future. We investigated the associations between drought and distress in a survey of rural Australians by age, gender and farming status...
May 24, 2018: EcoHealth
Valentina Tagliapietra, Roberto Rosà, Chiara Rossi, Fausta Rosso, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Michele Tommasini, Walter Versini, Attilio Fabio Cristallo, Annapaola Rizzoli
Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered 'low risk' for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002...
May 23, 2018: EcoHealth
Kevin Berry, Toph Allen, Richard D Horan, Jason F Shogren, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
The rapid urban spread of Ebola virus in West Africa in 2014 and consequent breakdown of control measures led to a significant economic impact as well as the burden on public health and wellbeing. The US government appropriated $5.4 Billion for FY2015 and WHO proposed a $100 Million emergency fund largely to curtail the threat of future outbreaks. Using epidemiological analyses and economic modeling, we propose that the best use of these and similar funds would be to serve as global insurance against the continued threat of emerging infectious diseases...
May 21, 2018: EcoHealth
Hongying Li, Peter Daszak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Gebbiena M Bron, Katherine L D Richgels, Michael D Samuel, Julia E Poje, Faye Lorenzsonn, Jonathan P Matteson, Jesse T Boulerice, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke
Oral vaccination is an emerging management strategy to reduce the prevalence of high impact infectious diseases within wild animal populations. Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis of rodents that often decimates prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies in the western USA. Recently, an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) was developed to protect prairie dogs from plague and aid recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Although oral vaccination programs are targeted toward specific species, field distribution of vaccine-laden baits can result in vaccine uptake by non-target animals and unintended indirect effects...
May 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Matthew T Milholland, Iván Castro-Arellano, Gerardo Suzán, Gabriel E Garcia-Peña, Thomas E Lee, Rodney E Rohde, A Alonso Aguirre, James N Mills
Rodents represent 42% of the world's mammalian biodiversity encompassing 2,277 species populating every continent (except Antarctica) and are reservoir hosts for a wide diversity of disease agents. Thus, knowing the identity, diversity, host-pathogen relationships, and geographic distribution of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens, is essential for predicting and mitigating zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hantaviruses are hosted by numerous rodent reservoirs. However, the diversity of rodents harboring hantaviruses is likely unknown because research is biased toward specific reservoir hosts and viruses...
April 30, 2018: EcoHealth
Mary Danforth, James Tucker, Mark Novak
It has long been theorized that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are a primary reservoir of Yersinia pestis in California. However, recent research from other parts of the western USA has implicated deer mice as spillover hosts during epizootic plague transmission. This retrospective study analyzed deer mouse data collected for plague surveillance by public health agencies in California from 1971 to 2016 to help elucidate the role of deer mice in plague transmission. The fleas most commonly found on deer mice were poor vectors of Y...
April 26, 2018: EcoHealth
Fengyi Guo, Timothy C Bonebrake, Luke Gibson
Land-use change has transformed most of the planet. Concurrently, recent outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases have raised great attention to the health consequences of anthropogenic environmental degradation. Here, we assessed the global impacts of habitat conversion and other land-use changes on community structures of infectious disease hosts and vectors, using a meta-analysis of 37 studies. From 331 pairwise comparisons of disease hosts/vectors in pristine (undisturbed) and disturbed areas, we found a decrease in species diversity but an increase in body size associated with land-use changes, potentially suggesting higher risk of infectious disease transmission in disturbed habitats...
April 24, 2018: EcoHealth
Clint Carroll, Eva Garroutte, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
Indigenous ancestral teachings commonly present individual and community health as dependent upon relationships between human and nonhuman worlds. But how do persons conversant with ancestral teachings effectively convey such perspectives in contemporary contexts, and to what extent does the general tribal citizenry share them? Can media technology provide knowledge keepers with opportunities to communicate their perspectives to larger audiences? What are the implications for tribal citizens' knowledge and views about tribal land use policies? Using a PhotoVoice approach, we collaborated with a formally constituted body of Cherokee elders who supply cultural guidance to the Cherokee Nation government in Oklahoma...
March 26, 2018: EcoHealth
Joachim Mariën, Fodé Kourouma, N'Faly Magassouba, Herwig Leirs, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus, the etiological agent of Lassa fever in humans. Because there exists no vaccine for human use, rodent control and adjusting human behavior are currently considered to be the only options for Lassa fever control. In order to develop efficient rodent control programs, more information about the host's ecology is needed. In this study, we investigated the spatial behavior of M. natalensis and other small rodents in two capture-mark-recapture and four dyed bait (Rhodamine B) experiments in Lassa fever-endemic villages in Upper Guinea...
March 23, 2018: EcoHealth
Sarah C Burgan, Stephanie S Gervasi, Lynn B Martin
Competence, or the propensity of a host to transmit parasites, is partly underlain by host strategies to cope with infection (e.g., resistance and tolerance). Resistance represents the ability of hosts to prevent or clear infections, whereas tolerance captures the ability of individuals to cope with a given parasite burden. Here, we investigated (1) whether one easy-to-measure form of tolerance described well the dynamic relationships between host health and parasite burden, and (2) whether individual resistance and tolerance to West Nile virus (WNV) were predictable from single cytokine measures...
March 22, 2018: EcoHealth
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Rebecca J Webb, Lee F Skerratt
Disease risk mapping is important for predicting and mitigating impacts of bat-borne viruses, including Hendra virus (Paramyxoviridae:Henipavirus), that can spillover to domestic animals and thence to humans. We produced two models to estimate areas at potential risk of HeV spillover explained by the climatic suitability for its flying fox reservoir hosts, Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus. We included additional climatic variables that might affect spillover risk through other biological processes (such as bat or horse behaviour, plant phenology and bat foraging habitat)...
March 19, 2018: EcoHealth
Piyayut Chitchumnong, Richard D Horan
An individual's infectious disease risks, and hence the individual's incentives for risk mitigation, may be influenced by others' risk management choices. If so, then there will be strategic interactions among individuals, whereby each makes his or her own risk management decisions based, at least in part, on the expected decisions of others. Prior work has shown that multiple equilibria could arise in this setting, with one equilibrium being a coordination failure in which individuals make too few investments in protection...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Aleksadner W Demiaszkiewicz, Anna M Pyziel, Rafał Kowalczyk
Captive-bred animals, widely used in reintroduction programmes, are often immunologically naïve and more susceptible to pathogens. We analysed infection of invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in captive-bred European bison (Bison bonasus) released to the wild in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Mean A. sidemi infection intensity of released bison (29,137 nematodes) was over threefold higher than in wild bison (8756). It indicates a rapid acquisition and increase in the infection intensity in previously dewormed bison released from captivity...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Lisa M Durso, Kimberly L Cook
Agriculture reflects One Health principals, with the job of the farmer being to sustainably balance human, animal, and soil health. It is imperative to include an agricultural perspective when addressing antibiotic resistance (AR) from a One Health perspective, as the farmers, ranchers, and agricultural professionals have an intimate working knowledge of these complex systems, and they will be on the front lines of implementing on-farm control measures. Currently, communication across the One Health triad (humans, animals, environment) regarding agricultural AR is hindered by ambiguous language, complicated by cultural and linguistic differences that can lead to the conclusion that the other participant is not aware of the facts, or has ulterior motives...
March 14, 2018: EcoHealth
Safiou B Adehan, Hassane Adakal, Donald Gbinwoua, Daté Yokossi, Sébastien Zoungrana, Patrice Toé, Mathieu Ouedraogo, A Michel Gbaguidi, Camus Adoligbé, A Belarmin Fandohan, Gildas Hounmanou, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Souaïbou Farougou, Eva M De Clercq
Worldwide, cattle production is struggling to face the negative impacts caused by ticks and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful ticks for livestock. Most of the people in West Africa depend on cattle farming and subsistence agriculture. The presence of ticks on cattle is a major problem faced by smallholder farmers who fight for their livelihood. National and regional tick control programs could assist these rural communities in protecting their livelihoods against ticks and tick-borne diseases, but only if they take into account the targeted herders and their perception on cattle management and tick control...
March 13, 2018: EcoHealth
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