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EcoHealth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582228/using-photovoice-to-promote-land-conservation-and-indigenous-well-being-in-oklahoma
#1
Clint Carroll, Eva Garroutte, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
Indigenous ancestral teachings commonly present individual and community health as dependent upon relationships between human and nonhuman worlds. But how do persons conversant with ancestral teachings effectively convey such perspectives in contemporary contexts, and to what extent does the general tribal citizenry share them? Can media technology provide knowledge keepers with opportunities to communicate their perspectives to larger audiences? What are the implications for tribal citizens' knowledge and views about tribal land use policies? Using a PhotoVoice approach, we collaborated with a formally constituted body of Cherokee elders who supply cultural guidance to the Cherokee Nation government in Oklahoma...
March 26, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572697/movement-patterns-of-small-rodents-in-lassa-fever-endemic-villages-in-guinea
#2
Joachim Mariën, Fodé Kourouma, N'Faly Magassouba, Herwig Leirs, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus, the etiological agent of Lassa fever in humans. Because there exists no vaccine for human use, rodent control and adjusting human behavior are currently considered to be the only options for Lassa fever control. In order to develop efficient rodent control programs, more information about the host's ecology is needed. In this study, we investigated the spatial behavior of M. natalensis and other small rodents in two capture-mark-recapture and four dyed bait (Rhodamine B) experiments in Lassa fever-endemic villages in Upper Guinea...
March 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569179/parasite-tolerance-and-host-competence-in-avian-host-defense-to-west-nile-virus
#3
Sarah C Burgan, Stephanie S Gervasi, Lynn B Martin
Competence, or the propensity of a host to transmit parasites, is partly underlain by host strategies to cope with infection (e.g., resistance and tolerance). Resistance represents the ability of hosts to prevent or clear infections, whereas tolerance captures the ability of individuals to cope with a given parasite burden. Here, we investigated (1) whether one easy-to-measure form of tolerance described well the dynamic relationships between host health and parasite burden, and (2) whether individual resistance and tolerance to West Nile virus (WNV) were predictable from single cytokine measures...
March 22, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556762/climate-change-could-increase-the-geographic-extent-of-hendra-virus-spillover-risk
#4
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Rebecca J Webb, Lee F Skerratt
Disease risk mapping is important for predicting and mitigating impacts of bat-borne viruses, including Hendra virus (Paramyxoviridae:Henipavirus), that can spillover to domestic animals and thence to humans. We produced two models to estimate areas at potential risk of HeV spillover explained by the climatic suitability for its flying fox reservoir hosts, Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus. We included additional climatic variables that might affect spillover risk through other biological processes (such as bat or horse behaviour, plant phenology and bat foraging habitat)...
March 19, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549591/managing-disease-risks-from-trade-strategic-behavior-with-many-choices-and-price-effects
#5
Piyayut Chitchumnong, Richard D Horan
An individual's infectious disease risks, and hence the individual's incentives for risk mitigation, may be influenced by others' risk management choices. If so, then there will be strategic interactions among individuals, whereby each makes his or her own risk management decisions based, at least in part, on the expected decisions of others. Prior work has shown that multiple equilibria could arise in this setting, with one equilibrium being a coordination failure in which individuals make too few investments in protection...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549590/increased-parasitic-load-in-captive-released-european-bison-bison-bonasus-has-important-implications-for-reintroduction-programs
#6
Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Aleksadner W Demiaszkiewicz, Anna M Pyziel, Rafał Kowalczyk
Captive-bred animals, widely used in reintroduction programmes, are often immunologically naïve and more susceptible to pathogens. We analysed infection of invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in captive-bred European bison (Bison bonasus) released to the wild in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Mean A. sidemi infection intensity of released bison (29,137 nematodes) was over threefold higher than in wild bison (8756). It indicates a rapid acquisition and increase in the infection intensity in previously dewormed bison released from captivity...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549589/mapping-potential-amplification-and-transmission-hotspots-for-mers-cov-kenya
#7
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541967/one-health-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-agroecosystems
#8
Lisa M Durso, Kimberly L Cook
Agriculture reflects One Health principals, with the job of the farmer being to sustainably balance human, animal, and soil health. It is imperative to include an agricultural perspective when addressing antibiotic resistance (AR) from a One Health perspective, as the farmers, ranchers, and agricultural professionals have an intimate working knowledge of these complex systems, and they will be on the front lines of implementing on-farm control measures. Currently, communication across the One Health triad (humans, animals, environment) regarding agricultural AR is hindered by ambiguous language, complicated by cultural and linguistic differences that can lead to the conclusion that the other participant is not aware of the facts, or has ulterior motives...
March 14, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536206/west-african-cattle-farmers-perception-of-tick-borne-diseases
#9
Safiou B Adehan, Hassane Adakal, Donald Gbinwoua, Daté Yokossi, Sébastien Zoungrana, Patrice Toé, Mathieu Ouedraogo, A Michel Gbaguidi, Camus Adoligbé, A Belarmin Fandohan, Gildas Hounmanou, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Souaïbou Farougou, Eva M De Clercq
Worldwide, cattle production is struggling to face the negative impacts caused by ticks and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful ticks for livestock. Most of the people in West Africa depend on cattle farming and subsistence agriculture. The presence of ticks on cattle is a major problem faced by smallholder farmers who fight for their livelihood. National and regional tick control programs could assist these rural communities in protecting their livelihoods against ticks and tick-borne diseases, but only if they take into account the targeted herders and their perception on cattle management and tick control...
March 13, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524059/vaccination-against-porcine-circovirus-2-reduces-severity-of-tuberculosis-in-wild-boar
#10
David Risco, María Bravo, Remigio Martínez, Almudena Torres, Pilar Gonçalves, Jesús Cuesta, Waldo García-Jiménez, Rosario Cerrato, Rocío Iglesias, Javier Galapero, Emmanuel Serrano, Luis Gómez, Pedro Fernández-Llario, Javier Hermoso de Mendoza
Tuberculosis (TB) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) may be affected by coinfections with other pathogens, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Therefore, sanitary measures focused on controlling PCV2 could be useful in reducing the impact of TB in this wild suid. The aim of this study was to explore whether vaccination against PCV2 targeting young animals affects TB prevalence and TB severity in wild boar. The study was conducted on a game estate in mid-western Spain. Seventy animals of ages ranging from 4 to 8 months were captured, individually identified, vaccinated against PCV2 and released, forming a vaccinated group...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524057/antibiotic-resistant-genes-and-pathogens-shed-by-wild-deer-correlate-with-land-application-of-residuals
#11
Shane W Rogers, Carrie E Shaffer, Tom A Langen, Michael Jahne, Rick Welsh
The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic biomarkers of zoonotic enteric pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) in the feces of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as related to proximity of deer to land that receives livestock manure or human waste biosolid fertilizers. Deer feces were collected in the St. Lawrence River Valley and Adirondack State Park of New York. Campylobacter spp. 16S rDNA was detected in 12 of 232 fecal samples (8 of 33 sites). Salmonellae were cultivated from 2 of 182 fecal samples (2 of 29 sites)...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524056/prioritizing-a-one-health-approach-in-the-immediate-fight-against-antimicrobial-resistance
#12
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511903/how-temperature-pond-drying-and-nutrients-influence-parasite-infection-and-pathology
#13
Sara H Paull, Pieter T J Johnson
The rapid pace of environmental change is driving multi-faceted shifts in abiotic factors that influence parasite transmission. However, cumulative effects of these factors on wildlife diseases remain poorly understood. Here we used an information-theoretic approach to compare the relative influence of abiotic factors (temperature, diurnal temperature range, nutrients and pond-drying), on infection of snail and amphibian hosts by two trematode parasites (Ribeiroia ondatrae and Echinostoma spp.). A temperature shift from 20 to 25 °C was associated with an increase in infected snail prevalence of 10-20%, while overall snail densities declined by a factor of 6...
March 6, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497880/trypanosoma-cruzi-transmission-among-captive-nonhuman-primates-wildlife-and-vectors
#14
Carolyn L Hodo, Gregory K Wilkerson, Elise C Birkner, Stanton B Gray, Sarah A Hamer
Natural infection of captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) with Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease) is an increasingly recognized problem in facilities across the southern USA, with negative consequences for NHP health and biomedical research. We explored a central Texas NHP facility as a nidus of transmission by characterizing parasite discrete typing units (DTU) in seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), identifying the wildlife reservoirs, and characterizing vector infection. In seropositive NHPs, we documented low and intermittent concentrations of circulating T...
March 1, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488117/the-effect-of-the-post-2001-reforms-on-fmd-risks-of-the-international-live-animal-trade
#15
David W Shanafelt, C Perrings
The 2001 UK foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic marked a change in global FMD management, focusing less on trade isolation than on biosecurity within countries where FMD is endemic. Post 2001 policy calls for the isolation of disease-free zones in FMD-endemic countries, while increasing the opportunities for trade. The impact of the change on disease risk has yet to be tested. In this paper, we estimate an empirical model of disease risk that tests for the impact of trade volumes before and after 2001, controlling for biosecurity measures...
February 27, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488115/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-wild-bonobos
#16
Kim S Grützmacher, Verena Keil, Sonja Metzger, Livia Wittiger, Ilka Herbinger, Sebastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Olivia Haggis, Laurent Savary, Sophie Köndgen, Fabian H Leendertz
Despite being important conservation tools, tourism and research may cause transmission of pathogens to wild great apes. Investigating respiratory disease outbreaks in wild bonobos, we identified human respiratory syncytial virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae as causative agents. A One Health approach to disease control should become part of great ape programs.
February 27, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435773/livestock-disease-management-for-trading-across-different-regulatory-regimes
#17
Andrew M Bate, Glyn Jones, Adam Kleczkowski, Rebecca Naylor, Jon Timmis, Piran C L White, Julia Touza
The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers' alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms...
February 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427247/environmental-factors-associated-with-the-carriage-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-norway-rats
#18
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea G Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Worldwide, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Many studies have identified rat-level risk factors for pathogen carriage. The objective of this study was to examine associations between abundance, microenvironmental and weather features and Clostridium difficile, antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in urban rats. We assessed city blocks for rat abundance and 48 microenvironmental variables during a trap-removal study, then constructed 32 time-lagged temperature and precipitation variables and fitted multivariable logistic regression models...
February 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362965/using-a-harm-reduction-approach-in-an-environmental-case-study-of-fish-and-wildlife-health
#19
Craig Stephen, Julie Wittrock, Joy Wade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362964/pathogen-transmission-from-humans-to-great-apes-is-a-growing-threat-to-primate-conservation
#20
REVIEW
Emily Dunay, Kathleen Apakupakul, Stephen Leard, Jamie L Palmer, Sharon L Deem
All six great ape species are listed as endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN and experiencing decreasing population trends. One of the threats to these non-human primates is the transmission of pathogens from humans. We conducted a literature review on occurrences of pathogen transmission from humans to great apes to highlight this often underappreciated issue. In total, we found 33 individual occurrences of probable or confirmed pathogen transmission from humans to great apes: 23 involved both pathogen and disease transmission, 7 pathogen transmission only, 2 positive antibody titers to zoonotic pathogens, and 1 pathogen transmission with probable disease...
January 23, 2018: EcoHealth
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