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EcoHealth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435773/livestock-disease-management-for-trading-across-different-regulatory-regimes
#1
Andrew M Bate, Glyn Jones, Adam Kleczkowski, Rebecca Naylor, Jon Timmis, Piran C L White, Julia Touza
The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers' alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms...
February 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427247/environmental-factors-associated-with-the-carriage-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-norway-rats
#2
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea G Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Worldwide, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Many studies have identified rat-level risk factors for pathogen carriage. The objective of this study was to examine associations between abundance, microenvironmental and weather features and Clostridium difficile, antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in urban rats. We assessed city blocks for rat abundance and 48 microenvironmental variables during a trap-removal study, then constructed 32 time-lagged temperature and precipitation variables and fitted multivariable logistic regression models...
February 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362965/using-a-harm-reduction-approach-in-an-environmental-case-study-of-fish-and-wildlife-health
#3
Craig Stephen, Julie Wittrock, Joy Wade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362964/pathogen-transmission-from-humans-to-great-apes-is-a-growing-threat-to-primate-conservation
#4
REVIEW
Emily Dunay, Kathleen Apakupakul, Stephen Leard, Jamie L Palmer, Sharon L Deem
All six great ape species are listed as endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN and experiencing decreasing population trends. One of the threats to these non-human primates is the transmission of pathogens from humans. We conducted a literature review on occurrences of pathogen transmission from humans to great apes to highlight this often underappreciated issue. In total, we found 33 individual occurrences of probable or confirmed pathogen transmission from humans to great apes: 23 involved both pathogen and disease transmission, 7 pathogen transmission only, 2 positive antibody titers to zoonotic pathogens, and 1 pathogen transmission with probable disease...
January 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349533/hendra-virus-spillover-is-a-bimodal-system-driven-by-climatic-factors
#5
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Raina K Plowright, Carla Chen, Billie Roberts, Lee F Skerratt
Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude - 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015...
January 18, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344824/brucellosis-risk-in-urban-and-agro-pastoral-areas-in-tanzania
#6
Shingo Asakura, George Makingi, Rudovick Kazwala, Kohei Makita
Epidemiology of human and animal brucellosis may depend on ecological conditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare prevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis, and risky behaviours for the human infection between urban and agro-pastoral areas in Morogoro region, Tanzania. Cattle blood sampling and interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted with farmers. Rose-Bengal test was conducted for the cattle sera, and positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. Farm-level sero-prevalences were 0...
January 17, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330677/evaluating-efficacy-of-landsat-derived-environmental-covariates-for-predicting-malaria-distribution-in-rural-villages-of-vhembe-district-south-africa
#7
Oupa E Malahlela, Jane M Olwoch, Clement Adjorlolo
Malaria in South Africa is still a problem despite existing efforts to eradicate the disease. In the Vhembe District Municipality, malaria prevalence is still high, with a mean incidence rate of 328.2 per 100,0000 persons/year. This study aimed at evaluating environmental covariates, such as vegetation moisture and vegetation greenness, associated with malaria vector distribution for better predictability towards rapid and efficient disease management and control. The 2005 malaria incidence data combined with Landsat 5 ETM were used in this study...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330676/quantitative-outcomes-of-a-one-health-approach-to-study-global-health-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Laura C Falzon, Isabel Lechner, Ilias Chantziaras, Lucie Collineau, Aurélie Courcoul, Maria-Eleni Filippitzi, Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios, Carole Peroz, Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Merel Postma, Pia G Prestmo, Clare J Phythian, Eleonora Sarno, Gerty Vanantwerpen, Timothée Vergne, Douglas J C Grindlay, Marnie L Brennan
Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238900/forecasting-the-2001-foot-and-mouth-disease-epidemic-in-the-uk
#9
David W Shanafelt, Glyn Jones, Mauricio Lima, Charles Perrings, Gerardo Chowell
Near real-time epidemic forecasting approaches are needed to respond to the increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks. In this paper, we retrospectively assess the performance of simple phenomenological models that incorporate early sub-exponential growth dynamics to generate short-term forecasts of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the UK. For this purpose, we employed the generalized-growth model (GGM) for pre-peak predictions and the generalized-Richards model (GRM) for post-peak predictions...
December 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230614/translating-predictions-of-zoonotic-viruses-for-policymakers
#10
Seth D Judson, Matthew LeBreton, Trevon Fuller, Risa M Hoffman, Kevin Njabo, Timothy F Brewer, Elsa Dibongue, Joseph Diffo, Jean-Marc Feussom Kameni, Severin Loul, Godwin W Nchinda, Richard Njouom, Julius Nwobegahay, Jean Michel Takuo, Judith N Torimiro, Abel Wade, Thomas B Smith
Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease and Zika virus disease highlight the need for disseminating accurate predictions of emerging zoonotic viruses to national governments for disease surveillance and response. Although there are published maps for many emerging zoonotic viruses, it is unknown if there is agreement among different models or if they are concordant with national expert opinion. Therefore, we reviewed existing predictions for five high priority emerging zoonotic viruses with national experts in Cameroon to investigate these issues and determine how to make predictions more useful for national policymakers...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230613/impacts-of-pathogen-introduction-risk-on-importer-behavior-and-gains-from-trade-in-the-livestock-industry
#11
Katherine D Lee, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
Trade eliminates geographic barriers, allowing for novel exchange of goods and services, but also creates pathways for the unintentional spread of infectious pathogens such as foot and mouth disease. In the absence of trade regulation, a producer's choice of import origin depends on relative prices and costs associated with trading partners. This paper develops a framework for exploring importer behavior in a non-regulated economy, allowing for price and risk heterogeneity among potential import sources. In the model, importers determine the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease to home soil and choose import volumes using risk and market data...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230612/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-migratory-birds-inhabiting-remote-alaska
#12
Andrew M Ramey, Jorge Hernandez, Veronica Tyrlöv, Brian D Uher-Koch, Joel A Schmutz, Clara Atterby, Josef D Järhult, Jonas Bonnedahl
We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196828/space-use-and-social-mating-system-of-the-hantavirus-host-oligoryzomys-longicaudatus
#13
Ernesto E Juan, Maria Cecilia Provensal, Andrea R Steinmann
The long-tailed mouse, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), is the major host of Andes hantavirus, the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the south of Argentina and Chile. Studying the ecology of this species is necessary to understand how Andes hantavirus is maintained in nature. In this study, we examine the home range size and intra- and intersexual overlap degree of male and female O. longicaudatus in order to elucidate the mating system of this species. To our knowledge, this research provides the first documentation, obtained from a specific design, of spacing and mating systems in this species in Argentina...
December 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192342/zoonotic-enterobacterial-pathogens-detected-in-wild-chimpanzees
#14
Matthew R McLennan, Hirotake Mori, Aongart Mahittikorn, Rapeepun Prasertbun, Katsuro Hagiwara, Michael A Huffman
Infectious diseases including those acquired through direct or indirect contact with people and livestock threaten the survival of wild great apes. Few studies have reported enterobacterial pathogens in chimpanzees. We used multiplex PCR to screen faeces of chimpanzees sharing a landscape with villagers and livestock in Bulindi, Uganda for Salmonella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli. All three potentially zoonotic pathogens were detected. Individual prevalence ranged between 7 and 20%, with most infections observed in mature male chimpanzees...
November 30, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192341/linking-time-use-data-to-explore-health-outcomes-choosing-to-vaccinate-against-influenza
#15
Kevin Berry, Julia E Anderson, Jude Bayham, Eli P Fenichel
To inform public health and medical decision makers concerning vaccination interventions, a methodology for merging and analyzing detailed activity data and health outcomes is presented. The objective is to investigate relationships between individual's activity choices and their decision to receive an influenza vaccination. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) are used to predict vaccination rates in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data between 2003 and 2013 by using combined socioeconomic and demographic characteristics...
November 30, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210013/transactions-of-the-linnean
#16
Mark Olival-Bartley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181612/hot-topics-in-ecohealth-research-a-joint-japanese-swiss-perspective
#17
Jakob Zinsstag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181611/human-wildlife-interactions-predict-febrile-illness-in-park-landscapes-of-western-uganda
#18
Jonathan Salerno, Noam Ross, Ria Ghai, Michael Mahero, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie, Joel Hartter
Fevers of unknown origin complicate treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and are a global health burden. We examined risk factors of self-reported fever-categorized as "malarial" and "nonmalarial"-in households adjacent to national parks across the Ugandan Albertine Rift, a biodiversity and emerging infectious disease hotspot. Statistical models fitted to these data suggest that perceived nonmalarial fevers of unknown origin were associated with more frequent direct contact with wildlife and with increased distance from parks where wildlife habitat is limited to small forest fragments...
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164472/rodent-borne-bartonella-infection-varies-according-to-host-species-within-and-among-cities
#19
Anna C Peterson, Bruno M Ghersi, Fernando Alda, Cadhla Firth, Matthew J Frye, Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Claudia Riegel, W Ian Lipkin, Michael Y Kosoy, Michael J Blum
It is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. Though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. Here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of Bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across New Orleans, LA (NO), where both Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are found, relative to New York City (NYC) which only harbors Norway rats...
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#20
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
December 2017: EcoHealth
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