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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210013/transactions-of-the-linnean
#1
Mark Olival-Bartley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196828/space-use-and-social-mating-system-of-the-hantavirus-host-oligoryzomys-longicaudatus
#2
Ernesto E Juan, Maria Cecilia Provensal, Andrea R Steinmann
The long-tailed mouse, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), is the major host of Andes hantavirus, the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the south of Argentina and Chile. Studying the ecology of this species is necessary to understand how Andes hantavirus is maintained in nature. In this study, we examine the home range size and intra- and intersexual overlap degree of male and female O. longicaudatus in order to elucidate the mating system of this species. To our knowledge, this research provides the first documentation, obtained from a specific design, of spacing and mating systems in this species in Argentina...
December 1, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192342/zoonotic-enterobacterial-pathogens-detected-in-wild-chimpanzees
#3
Matthew R McLennan, Hirotake Mori, Aongart Mahittikorn, Rapeepun Prasertbun, Katsuro Hagiwara, Michael A Huffman
Infectious diseases including those acquired through direct or indirect contact with people and livestock threaten the survival of wild great apes. Few studies have reported enterobacterial pathogens in chimpanzees. We used multiplex PCR to screen faeces of chimpanzees sharing a landscape with villagers and livestock in Bulindi, Uganda for Salmonella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli. All three potentially zoonotic pathogens were detected. Individual prevalence ranged between 7 and 20%, with most infections observed in mature male chimpanzees...
November 30, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192341/linking-time-use-data-to-explore-health-outcomes-choosing-to-vaccinate-against-influenza
#4
Kevin Berry, Julia E Anderson, Jude Bayham, Eli P Fenichel
To inform public health and medical decision makers concerning vaccination interventions, a methodology for merging and analyzing detailed activity data and health outcomes is presented. The objective is to investigate relationships between individual's activity choices and their decision to receive an influenza vaccination. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) are used to predict vaccination rates in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data between 2003 and 2013 by using combined socioeconomic and demographic characteristics...
November 30, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181612/hot-topics-in-ecohealth-research-a-joint-japanese-swiss-perspective
#5
Jakob Zinsstag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181611/human-wildlife-interactions-predict-febrile-illness-in-park-landscapes-of-western-uganda
#6
Jonathan Salerno, Noam Ross, Ria Ghai, Michael Mahero, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie, Joel Hartter
Fevers of unknown origin complicate treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and are a global health burden. We examined risk factors of self-reported fever-categorized as "malarial" and "nonmalarial"-in households adjacent to national parks across the Ugandan Albertine Rift, a biodiversity and emerging infectious disease hotspot. Statistical models fitted to these data suggest that perceived nonmalarial fevers of unknown origin were associated with more frequent direct contact with wildlife and with increased distance from parks where wildlife habitat is limited to small forest fragments...
November 27, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168050/using-gene-transcription-to-assess-ecological-and-anthropological-stressors-in-brown-bears
#7
Lizabeth Bowen, A Keith Miles, Shannon Waters, Dave Gustine, Kyle Joly, Grant Hilderbrand
Increasingly, population- and ecosystem-level health assessments are performed using sophisticated molecular tools. Advances in molecular technology enable the identification of synergistic effects of multiple stressors on the individual physiology of different species. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are an apex predator; thus, they are ideal candidates for detecting potentially ecosystem-level systemic perturbations using molecular-based tools. We used gene transcription to analyze 130 brown bear samples from three National Parks and Preserves in Alaska...
November 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168049/what-s-new
#8
Brian Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164472/rodent-borne-bartonella-infection-varies-according-to-host-species-within-and-among-cities
#9
Anna C Peterson, Bruno M Ghersi, Fernando Alda, Cadhla Firth, Matthew J Frye, Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Claudia Riegel, W Ian Lipkin, Michael Y Kosoy, Michael J Blum
It is becoming increasingly likely that rodents will drive future disease epidemics with the continued expansion of cities worldwide. Though transmission risk is a growing concern, relatively little is known about pathogens carried by urban rats. Here, we assess whether the diversity and prevalence of Bartonella bacteria differ according to the (co)occurrence of rat hosts across New Orleans, LA (NO), where both Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are found, relative to New York City (NYC) which only harbors Norway rats...
November 21, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164471/the-era-of-human-induced-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
Anne-Lise Chaber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164470/viral-communities-among-sympatric-vampire-bats-and-cattle
#11
Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Blanca Taboada, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Ulrike Löber, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Carlos F Arias, Alex D Greenwood
Vampire bats are the only mammals known to feed exclusively on blood from other animals, often from domestic cattle. We tested the hypothesis that the adaptation of vampire bats to hematophagy would have resulted in shared viral communities among vampire bats and cattle, as a direct result of historic spillover events occurring due to hematophagy. We analyzed the presence of different viruses in sample populations of sympatric bat and prey populations and searched for shared viruses between taxa. A limited number of DNA viral groups were detected within each species...
November 21, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159478/in-this-issue
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159477/factors-influencing-uptake-of-sylvatic-plague-vaccine-baits-by-prairie-dogs
#13
Rachel C Abbott, Robin E Russell, Katherine L D Richgels, Daniel W Tripp, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Tonie E Rocke
Sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) is a virally vectored bait-delivered vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis antigens that can protect prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from plague and has potential utility as a management tool. In a large-scale 3-year field trial, SPV-laden baits containing the biomarker rhodamine B (used to determine bait consumption) were distributed annually at a rate of approximately 100-125 baits/hectare along transects at 58 plots encompassing the geographic ranges of four species of prairie dogs...
November 20, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150827/implications-of-tourist-macaque-interactions-for-disease-transmission
#15
Charlotte Carne, Stuart Semple, Ann MacLarnon, Bonaventura Majolo, Laëtitia Maréchal
During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Measures of individual macaques' network centrality-an index of the strength and distribution of their social relationships and thus potentially their ability to spread disease-did not show clear and consistent relationships with their time spent in close proximity to, or rate of interacting with, tourists...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150826/rethinking-human-nonhuman-primate-contact-and-pathogenic-disease-spillover
#16
REVIEW
Victor Narat, Lys Alcayna-Stevens, Stephanie Rupp, Tamara Giles-Vernick
Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human-animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human-animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human-nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150825/correction-to-phylogenetic-insight-into-zika-and-emerging-viruses-for-a-perspective-on-potential-hosts
#17
Diana S Weber, Karen A Alroy, Samuel M Scheiner
The article Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a Perspective on Potential Hosts, written by Diana S. Weber, Karen A. Alroy, and Samuel M. Scheiner, was originally published Online First without open access.
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#18
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
November 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134437/a-qualitative-stakeholder-analysis-of-avian-influenza-policy-in-bangladesh
#19
Kaushik Chattopadhyay, Guillaume Fournié, Md Abul Kalam, Paritosh K Biswas, Ahasanul Hoque, Nitish C Debnath, Mahmudur Rahman, Dirk U Pfeiffer, David Harper, David L Heymann
Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study specifically aimed to identify the future policy options to prevent and control avian influenza and other poultry-related zoonotic diseases in Bangladesh...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134436/common-cutaneous-bacteria-isolated-from-snakes-inhibit-growth-of-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola
#20
Aubree J Hill, Jacob E Leys, Danny Bryan, Fantasia M Erdman, Katherine S Malone, Gabrielle N Russell, Roger D Applegate, Heather Fenton, Kevin Niedringhaus, Andrew N Miller, Matthew C Allender, Donald M Walker
There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD...
November 13, 2017: EcoHealth
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