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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455569/repetition-is-the-feature-behind-the-attentional-bias-for-recognizing-threatening-patterns
#1
Maryam Shabbir, Adelynn M Y Zon, Vivek Thuppil
Animals attend to what is relevant in order to behave in an effective manner and succeed in their environments. In several nonhuman species, there is an evolved bias for attending to patterns indicative of threats in the natural environment such as dangerous animals. Because skins of many dangerous animals are typically repetitive, we propose that repetition is the key feature enabling recognition of evolutionarily important threats. The current study consists of two experiments where we measured participants' reactions to pictures of male and female models wearing clothing of various repeating (leopard skin, snakeskin, and floral print) and nonrepeating (camouflage, shiny, and plain) patterns...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433348/affection-deception-and-evolution-deceptive-affectionate-messages-as-mate-retention-behaviors
#2
Madeleine H Redlick, Anita L Vangelisti
This study explored how partner mate value (PMV) and factors indicative of the relational climate (i.e., commitment and satisfaction) might affect individuals' tendency to use deceptive affectionate messages (DAMs). Participants ( N = 203) responded to a survey including measures regarding these variables. Contrary to predictions, PMV and the tendency to engage in DAMs were significantly and negatively associated with one another. Analyses further indicated that commitment significantly moderated the negative association between PMV and DAMs...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361847/intrasexual-competition-and-height-in-adolescents-and-adults
#3
P Polo, A Fernandez, J A Muñoz-Reyes, M Dufey, A P Buunk
Intrasexual competition can be defined as the struggle between members of one sex to increase their access to members of the other sex as sexual partners. In our species, height is a sexually dimorphic trait probably involved in both intrasexual and intersexual selective processes. In the present research, we examined the relationship between height and individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness (i.e., the tendency to view same-sex interactions in general in competitive terms) in two populations of adolescents and adults of both sexes in Chile...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353493/exploring-the-great-schism-in-the-social-sciences-confirmation-bias-and-the-interpretation-of-results-relating-to-biological-influences-on-human-behavior-and-psychology
#4
Jeffrey Winking
The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347841/evolutionary-effect-on-the-embodied-beauty-of-landscape-architectures
#5
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Guangyao Chen
According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2)...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237298/passion-relational-mobility-and-proof-of-commitment-a-comparative-socio-ecological-analysis-of-an-adaptive-emotion-in-a-sexual-market
#6
Junko Yamada, Mie Kito, Masaki Yuki
Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#7
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179582/is-support-of-censoring-controversial-media-content-for-the-good-of-others-sexual-strategies-and-support-of-censoring-pro-alcohol-advertising
#8
Jinguang Zhang
At least in the United States, there are widespread concerns with advertising that encourages alcohol consumption, and previous research explains those concerns as aiming to protect others from the harm of excessive alcohol use.1 Drawing on sexual strategies theory, we hypothesized that support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising is ultimately self-benefiting regardless of its altruistic effect at a proximate level. Excessive drinking positively correlates with having casual sex, and casual sex threatens monogamy, one of the major means with which people adopting a long-term sexual strategy increase their inclusive fitness...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179581/hadza-men-with-lower-voice-pitch-have-a-better-hunting-reputation
#9
Kristopher M Smith, Yevgeniy M Olkhov, David A Puts, Coren L Apicella
Previous research with hunter-gatherers has found that women perceive men with voices manipulated to be lower in pitch to be better hunters, and men perceive women with lower pitch to be better gatherers. Here, we test if actual voice pitch is associated with hunting and gathering reputations in men and women, respectively. We find that voice pitch does relate to foraging reputation in men, but not in women, with better hunters having a lower voice pitch. In addition, we find that the previously documented relationship between voice pitch and reproductive success no longer holds when controlling for hunting reputation, but hunting reputation remains a significant predictor of reproductive success when controlling for voice pitch...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169264/adaptive-memory-remembering-potential-mates
#10
Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Marco Vasconcelos, James S Nairne
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and a short descriptor) would be in the context of a long-term mating relationship or in the context of a long-term work relationship. Then, after a short distractor task, participants performed a recognition task for the faces and a source memory task...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169263/the-development-of-conformity-among-chinese-children-aged-9-15-years-in-a-public-choice-task
#11
Peng Zhang, Yibin Zhang, Zhaoran Mu, Xiangping Liu
Both children and adults exhibit moderate conformity behaviors when facing group pressure. While some studies purport that children conform more with age, others have shown the opposite. The publicity of decision-making might be a major factor influencing the development of children's conformity behavior. In this study, we recruited 295 Chinese children aged 9-15 years. We observed no significant correlation between children's age and conformity behaviors when their answers were kept confidential. However, older children showed stronger conformity behaviors when their answers were made public...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152995/endorsement-of-social-and-personal-values-predicts-the-desirability-of-men-and-women-as-long-term-partners
#12
Guilherme S Lopes, Nicole Barbaro, Yael Sela, Austin J Jeffery, Michael N Pham, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2)...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073770/contrafreeloading-in-rats-is-adaptive-and-flexible-support-for-an-animal-model-of-compulsive-checking
#13
Michael J Frederick, Sarah E Cocuzzo
Contrafreeloading involves working unnecessarily to obtain a reward that is otherwise freely available. It has been observed in numerous species and can be adaptive when it provides an organism with updated information about available resources. Humans frequently update their knowledge of the environment through checking behaviors. Compulsive checking occurs when such actions are performed with excessive frequency. In a putative animal model of compulsive checking, rats treated chronically with the dopamine agonist quinpirole display exaggerated contrafreeloading for water...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946754/does-alcohol-catch-the-eye-investigating-young-adults-attention-to-alcohol-consumption
#14
Eveline Vincke, Patrick Vyncke
Many studies on young adults' motivations for drinking overlook the symbolic aspects of alcohol use. However, research indicates that young adults' alcohol consumption is also driven by signaling motivations. Although the interest of a receiver is a necessary prerequisite of a signal, no previous studies have verified whether drinking behavior indeed attracts young adults' attention. Therefore, we conducted two studies. A two-part eye-tracking study ( N1 = 135, N2 = 140) showed that both young men and young women pay special visual attention to male and female drinking behavior...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901197/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-humans-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age-dynamic-declining-and-differentiated
#15
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley, Gina C Ford
Faciometrics have widely been used in contemporary studies on gender-related behavioral traits, for example, perceived and actual aggression, co-operation and trustworthiness, prejudicial beliefs, unethical behavior, and achievement drive, as well as, but to a lesser degree, in nonhuman primates. For the large part, these studies have focused primarily on "student-aged" populations with little empirical scrutiny regarding the efficacy of applying these measures with older participants. This study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism across four age-groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) in 444 participants (225 men)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901196/in-law-and-mate-preferences-in-chinese-society-and-the-role-of-traditional-cultural-values
#16
Qingke Guo, Yujie Li, Shushuang Yu
Using 347 parent-child dyads as participants, this study directly examined in-law and mate preferences in a typical collectivist culture. The results showed (1) traits indicating social status and parental investment were more highly valued by the parents, while traits indicating genetic quality and traits related to romantic love were more highly valued by the children. (2) Parental preferences were moderated by gender of the in-laws. Good earning capacity was more preferred by parents in a son-in-law, traits connoting genetic quality and reproductive fitness were more preferred by parents in a daughter-in-law...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868895/in-law-preferences-in-china-and-in-cyprus-differences-and-similarities
#17
Yan Wang, Menelaos Apostolou
Across different times and cultures, parents exercise considerable influence over their children's mate choices. When they do so, parents are looking for specific traits in a prospective daughter- and son-in-law. Using a sample of 674 parents, the current research investigated in-law preferences in China. Participants rated 88 different traits, which were clustered in 10 different preference domains. In-law preferences were found to be contingent on the sex of the in-law and the sex of the parent. The data from the current study were compared with data from a different study which took place in the Republic of Cyprus...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851231/in-law-preferences-in-china-what-parents-look-for-in-the-parents-of-their-children-s-mates
#18
Menelaos Apostolou, Yan Wang
Across different times and cultures, parents play an important role in influencing their children's mating decisions. When they do so, they aim to forge useful alliances with other parents which raises the question of what parents look for in the latter. The current research aims to address this question. In particular, we employed an online sample of 925 Chinese parents who were asked to rate the desirability of 88 traits in the parents of prospective mates for their children. Principal components analysis classified these traits in eight factors for the mothers and 10 factors of interest for the fathers of their children's mates...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828887/mating-goals-moderate-power-s-effect-on-conspicuous-consumption-among-women
#19
Taiyang Zhao, Xiaotong Jin, Wei Xu, Xiaomeng Zuo, Hongjing Cui
This study aimed to use evolutionary psychology to explain conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women. We used experiments to show that power moderates conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women through an underlying relationship with women's social comparison tendencies. In Study 1, the participants read a passage describing a young woman wearing a coat made by a conspicuous brand (vs. an ordinary brand) who aimed to attract a desired man (vs. aiming to guard against potential competitors' attempts to disrupt her established intimate relationship)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783973/conditional-reasoning-in-schizophrenic-patients
#20
Charles Kornreich, Dyna Delle-Vigne, Damien Brevers, Juan Tecco, Salvatore Campanella, Xavier Noël, Paul Verbanck, Elsa Ermer
Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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