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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071757/traveling-groups-stick-together-how-collective-directional-movement-influences-social-cohesion
#1
Stuart Wilson, Evangelia Bassiou, Aysel Denli, Lynsey C Dolan, Matthew Watson
We tested the hypothesis that the social act of moving through space with others-collective directional movement-is associated with greater levels of group cohesion compared to static activities. We asked participants to imagine participating in activities as part of a same-sex group and found that imagining going on a journey is associated with higher levels of expected cohesion compared to imagining attending a meeting (Study 1) or an event (Study 2). Study 3 replicates the main effect using different manipulations and finds that it persists regardless of whether the imagined group were friends or strangers...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071754/the-effects-of-tears-on-approach-avoidance-tendencies-in-observers
#2
Asmir Gračanin, Emiel Krahmer, Mike Rinck, Ad J J M Vingerhoets
Emotional tears have been proposed to represent a robust affiliative signal whose main function is to promote the willingness to help the crying individual. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms at the basis of such responses. To investigate whether tears facilitate approach relative to avoidance tendencies, we exposed participants ( N = 77) to pictures of faces with and without visible tears, in two different approach-avoidance tasks. In the first task, participants were instructed to either move toward tearful faces and away from nontearful faces, or the other way around, by using a joystick...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025466/adaptive-memory-survival-processing-and-social-isolation
#3
Juliana K Leding, Michael P Toglia
Social isolation was examined to assess its potential influence on the survival processing effect, which shows that individuals are more likely to remember something when it is processed with regard to their survival. Participants imagined being stranded in the grasslands, going on a space mission, or moving to a foreign land while alone or with a group of friends and rated a list of words for their relevance to the assigned scenario. An incidental memory test showed the typical survival processing effect on recall memory, with a significant interaction showing that the effect occurred in the isolated condition but not in the group condition...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911426/hypocrisy-and-corruption-how-disparities-in-power-shape-the-evolution-of-social-control
#4
Omar Tonsi Eldakar, J Oliver Kammeyer, Nikhil Nagabandi, Andrew C Gallup
Altruism presents an evolutionary paradox, as altruistic individuals are good for the group yet vulnerable to exploitation by selfish individuals. One mechanism that can effectively curtail selfishness within groups is punishment. Here, we show in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that punishment can effectively evolve and maintain high levels of altruism in the population, yet not all punishment strategies were equally virtuous. Unlike typical models of social evolution, we explicitly altered the extent to which individuals vary in their power over others, such that powerful individuals can more readily punish and escape the punishment of others...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911423/voting-for-a-male-warrior-or-female-peacekeeper-testing-the-evolutionary-contingency-hypothesis-in-the-2016-u-s-presidential-elections
#5
Allen Grabo, Mark van Vugt
The present research replicates and extends previous literature on the evolutionary contingency hypothesis of leadership emergence. Using artificially masculinized versus feminized versions of the faces of the candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, we demonstrated that different contextual cues produced systematic variation in both preferences for and personality impressions of leadership. We describe results of an online study ( N = 298), demonstrating that followers who perceived a match between the contextual prime ( intergroup conflict or cooperation) and a leader candidate's relevant physical cues ( masculinized or feminized versions of their faces) both (a) preferred them as leaders and (b) rated them more positively on personality attributes commonly associated with effective leadership such as trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and charisma...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911420/to-go-forward-we-must-look-back-the-importance-of-evolutionary-psychology-for-understanding-modern-politics
#6
Rose McDermott, Peter K Hatemi
As new waves of populism arise and cause disruption around the globe, there is both great interest in attempting to explain the origin of this dynamic as well as a need to ameliorate its potentially destructive impact. Perhaps the greatest signal of seismic change is the global dismantling of American institutional control of the postwar world following the election of Donald Trump in the United States. In the wake of such dramatic changes, it may seem odd to turn to evolutionary psychology which looks deeply into the past to try to understand current events, but, in fact, modern technology has dramatically changed the shape of political communication in just such a way as to make politics more personal once again, increasing the need to understand and interpret modern politics through an evolutionary lens...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911419/sexual-disgust-trumps-pathogen-disgust-in-predicting-voter-behavior-during-the-2016-u-s-presidential-election
#7
Joseph Billingsley, Debra Lieberman, Joshua M Tybur
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911417/public-reactions-to-male-versus-female-terrorism-experimental-evidence-for-the-male-warrior-hypothesis
#8
Miriam Lindner
One of the most consistent findings in the domain of criminal justice is that female and male offenders are perceived differently, often resulting in milder sentencing of women compared to men. Although previous studies have sought to identify factors that shape public reactions to terrorism and support for harsh interrogation techniques in its aftermath, empirical studies on differential reactions to female (vs. male) terrorist violence remain scarce. Here, it is argued that the often-violent evolutionary history of our species has shaped the way in which we perceive and react to female (vs...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911407/when-the-party-decides-the-effects-of-facial-competence-and-dominance-on-internal-nominations-of-political-candidates
#9
Lasse Laustsen, Michael Bang Petersen
The facial traits and appearance of political candidates have been found to predict election outcomes across countries with different electoral systems and institutions. Research over the last decade has provided two different versions of this overall conclusion. First and most thoroughly studied, candidates who from their mere faces are evaluated as more competent get more votes on Election Day. Second, recent research finds that the ideological leanings of candidates and the voters they cater to also matter: Right-wing and conservative candidates receive more votes if they look more dominant, while liberal candidates lose votes when looking dominant and masculine...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911406/speculations-on-the-evolutionary-origins-of-system-justification
#10
John T Jost, Robert M Sapolsky, H Hannah Nam
For centuries, philosophers and social theorists have wondered why people submit voluntarily to tyrannical leaders and oppressive regimes. In this article, we speculate on the evolutionary origins of system justification, that is, the ways in which people are motivated (often nonconsciously) to defend and justify existing social, economic, and political systems. After briefly recounting the logic of system justification theory and some of the most pertinent empirical evidence, we consider parallels between the social behaviors of humans and other animals concerning the acceptance versus rejection of hierarchy and dominance...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911405/presidential-but-not-prime-minister-candidates-with-lower-pitched-voices-stand-a-better-chance-of-winning-the-election-in-conservative-countries
#11
Benjamin Banai, Lasse Laustsen, Irena Pavela Banai, Kosta Bovan
Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860865/does-adult-sex-ratio-predict-regional-variation-in-facial-dominance-perceptions-evidence-from-an-analysis-of-u-s-states
#12
Jaimie S Torrance, Michal Kandrik, Anthony J Lee, Lisa M DeBruine, Benedict C Jones
When the adult sex ratio of the local population is biased toward women, men face greater costs due to increased direct intrasexual competition. In order to mitigate these costs, men may be more attuned to cues of other men's physical dominance under these conditions. Consequently, we investigated the relationships between the extent to which people ( N = 3,586) ascribed high dominance to masculinized versus feminized faces and variation in adult sex ratio across U.S. states. Linear mixed models showed that masculinized faces were perceived as more dominant than feminized faces, particularly for judgments of men's facial dominance...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759017/aggression-and-helping-as-responses-to-same-sex-and-opposite-sex-rejection-in-men-and-women
#13
Joanna Rajchert, Karolina Konopka, Paweł Boguszewski
Research shows that interpersonal rejection increases aggression and decreases helping toward the rejecter. Based on the assumptions of the evolutionary approach, it was hypothesized that aggression would be higher and helping would be lower after rejection by a same-sex rather than an opposite-sex other. Moreover, it was predicted that the effect for aggression would be stronger in men, and the effect for helping would be stronger in women. Participants ( N = 100) were rejected or accepted by a same- or opposite-sex person, and later aggression and helping were measured using the tangram Help-Hurt task...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759010/the-associations-between-social-rank-uncertainty-machiavellianism-and-dominance-from-a-life-history-perspective
#14
Bin-Bin Chen
This study used the life history (LH) theory to investigate how environmental cues are associated with Machiavellianism. A total of 252 undergraduate students completed self-report measures of social rank uncertainty, Machiavellianism, fast LH strategy, and dominance. The results indicated that Machiavellianism was related to a fast LH strategy. Furthermore, a fast LH strategy mediated an association between social rank uncertainty and Machiavellianism. Finally, Machiavellianism was positively associated with dominance...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759008/thin-slices-of-athletes-nonverbal-behavior-give-away-game-location-testing-the-territoriality-hypothesis-of-the-home-game-advantage
#15
Philip Furley, Geoffrey Schweizer, Daniel Memmert
The present research investigated whether perceivers could detect who is playing at home or away in soccer matches based on thin slices of professional (Experiment 1) and amateur (Experiment 3) athletes' nonverbal behavior prior to the match and whether perceivers rated athletes playing at home relatively higher on behavioral dimensions (Experiments 2 and 3) linked to territoriality. In Experiment 1 ( N = 80), participants watched short videos depicting soccer players prior to a UEFA Champions League match and rated whether athletes were more likely to be playing at home or away...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716400/corrigendum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685080/displaying-red-and-black-on-a-first-date-a-field-study-using-the-first-dates-television-series
#17
Robin S S Kramer, Jerrica Mulgrew
Previous research has shown that displaying the color red can increase attractiveness. As a result, women display red more often when expecting to meet more attractive men in a laboratory context. Here, we carried out a field study by analyzing 546 daters from the "First Dates" television series. Each participant was filmed in a pre-date interview and during a real first date, allowing direct comparison of the clothing worn by each person in these two contexts. Analysis of ratings of the amount of red displayed showed that both men and women wore more red clothing during their dates...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566568/sexual-responses-are-facilitated-by-high-order-contextual-cues-in-females-but-not-in-males
#18
Jorge Ponseti, Kim Dähnke, Leona Fischermeier, Hannah Gerwinn, Amelie Kluth, Jens Müller, Susanne Vogel, Aglaja Stirn
Sexual responses are thought to be controlled by a brain module called the sexual module. Sexual strategies of males and females vary to a great extent, and sexual responses of males and females may be affected by their sexual strategies. However, the current view of the sexual module is that of a unisex module. This might be questionable since brain modules are defined as evolved cognitive mechanisms to solve adaptive problems which are different for males and females. We hypothesize that the sexual module responds differently in the presence of complex (high-order) contextual cues that are related to gender-dimorphic sexual strategies in males and females...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558828/parent-offspring-conflict-over-mating-in-chinese-families-comparisons-with-greek-cypriot-families
#19
Menelaos Apostolou, Yan Wang
Parents and their children are genetically related but not genetically identical, a fact that leads to conflict between the two. One such domain of conflict is mate choice, where in-law and mate preferences diverge. The current research examined this divergence in preferences in the Chinese culture and how it varied across cultural contexts. More specifically, we have employed an online sample of 356 Chinese families, and we asked parents to rate the importance of several traits in a prospective spouse for their children and their children to rate the importance of the same traits in a prospective spouse for themselves...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558827/choosing-fighting-competitors-among-men-testosterone-personality-and-motivations
#20
Javier I Borráz-León, Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina, Markus J Rantala, Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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