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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497296/face-value-and-cheap-talk-how-smiles-can-increase-or-decrease-the-credibility-of-our-words
#1
Lawrence Ian Reed, Rachel Stratton, Jessica D Rambeas
How do our facial expressions affect the credibility of our words? We test whether smiles, either uninhibited or inhibited, affect the credibility of a written statement. Participants viewed a confederate partner displaying a neutral expression, non-Duchenne smile, Duchenne smile, or controlled smile, paired with a written statement. Participants then made a behavioral decision based on how credible they perceived the confederate's statement to be. Compared to a neutral expression, Experiment 1 found that participants were more likely to believe the confederate's statement when it was paired with a deliberate Duchenne smile and less likely to believe the confederate's statement when it was paired with a deliberate controlled smile...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486673/sensitivity-to-deviance-and-to-dissimilarity-basic-cognitive-processes-under-activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system
#2
Ravit Nussinson, Sari Mentser, Nurit Rosenberg
Throughout evolutionary history, pathogens have imposed strong selection pressures on humans. To minimize humans' exposure to pathogens, a behavioral immune system that promotes the detection and avoidance of disease-connoting cues has evolved. Although most pathogens cannot be discerned by our sensory organs, they produce discernable changes in their environment. As a result, a common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is morphological deviance-figurative disparity from what is normal, visual dissimilarity to the prototype stored in memory...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463438/mating-effort-predicts-human-menstrual-cycle-frequency
#3
Jeffrey Gassen, Hannah K Bradshaw, Sarah E Hill
The human menstrual cycle is characterized by substantial variability both within and between women. Here, we sought to account for such variability by examining whether human menstrual cycle frequency varies as a function of the projected fitness payoffs associated with investment in mating effort. We used structural equation modeling to test the prediction that women whose environmental conditions or life histories favor heavier investment in mating effort would have shorter, more regular cycles. Results supported our hypothesis, revealing that women who project more mating success and have faster life history strategies exhibit greater mating effort and shorter, more regular menstrual cycles...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30463433/sex-and-physiological-cycles-affect-the-automatic-perception-of-attractive-opposite-sex-faces-a-visual-mismatch-negativity-study
#4
Shu Zhang, Hailing Wang, Qingke Guo
Facial attractiveness plays important roles in social interaction. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies found several brain areas to be differentially responsive to attractive relative to unattractive faces. However, little is known about the time course of the information processing, especially under the unattended condition. Based on a "cross-modal delayed response" paradigm, the present study aimed to explore the automatic mechanism of facial attractiveness processing of females with different physiological cycles and males, respectively, through recording the event-related potentials in response to (un)attractive opposite-sex faces by two experiments...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458649/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-black-racial-groups-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age
#5
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley
An increasing body of research focusing on gender-related traits has utilized faciometrics in order to consider sexual dimorphism: Aspects as diverse as social heuristics, facial attractiveness, sexual orientation, aggression, and trustworthiness have all been investigated. However, the majority of these studies have tended to focus on White or Caucasian student populations and have paid little regard to either older populations or racial background. The current study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism in 450 participants (225 women) from a Black population across four age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s)...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428700/netflix-and-chill-what-sex-differences-can-tell-us-about-mate-preferences-in-hypothetical-booty-call-relationships
#6
Evita March, George Van Doorn, Rachel Grieve
The booty-call relationship is defined by both sexual characteristics and emotional involvement. In the current study, men's and women's preferences for a booty-call mate were explored. Men and women were predicted to exhibit different mate preferences depending on whether they considered a booty-call relationship a short- or long-term relationship. Participants ( N = 559, 74% women) completed an anonymous online questionnaire, designing their ideal booty-call mate using the mate dollars paradigm. Both sexes considered the physical attractiveness and kindness of a booty-call mate a necessity, expressing both short- and long-term mate preferences...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380919/testing-the-kundera-hypothesis-does-every-woman-but-not-every-man-prefer-her-child-to-her-mate
#7
Carlos Hernández Blasi, Laura Mondéjar
The context of a famous novel by Milan Kundera ( Immortality) suggests that when faced with a life-or-death situation, every woman would prefer to save her child than her husband, left hanging whether every man would do the same. We labeled this as the Kundera hypothesis, and the purpose of this study was to test it empirically as we believe it raises a thought-provoking question in evolutionary terms. Specifically, 197 college students (92 women) were presented a questionnaire where they had to make different decisions about four dilemmas about who to save (their mate or their offspring) in two hypothetical life-or-death situations: a home fire and a car crash...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296849/do-the-low-whrs-and-bmis-judged-most-attractive-indicate-better-health
#8
William D Lassek, Steven J C Gaulin
It is widely claimed that in well-nourished populations, very low female waist-hip ratios (WHRs) together with low body mass indices (BMIs) are judged attractive by men because these features reliably indicate superior health and fertility. However, studies show that mortality rates are higher in women with low BMIs than in women with average BMIs and are inversely related to BMI in subsistence populations. Measures of current health in women of reproductive age have not been similarly studied. We analyze large U...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296846/do-the-low-whrs-and-bmis-judged-most-attractive-indicate-higher-fertility
#9
William D Lassek, Steven J C Gaulin
We examine the widely accepted view that very low waist-hip ratios and low body mass indices (BMIs) in women in well-nourished populations are judged attractive by men because these features reliably indicate superior fertility. In both subsistence and well-nourished populations, relevant studies of fertility do not support this view. Rather studies indicate lower fertility in women with anthropometric values associated with high attractiveness. Moreover, low maternal BMI predisposes to conditions that compromise infant survival...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282470/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-red-on-perceived-attractiveness
#10
Gabrielle K Lehmann, Andrew J Elliot, Robert J Calin-Jageman
We conducted meta-analyses of studies that test the red-romance hypothesis, which is that the color red enhances heterosexual attraction in romantic contexts. For men rating women, we found a small, statistically significant effect ( d = 0.26 [0.12, 0.40], p = .0004, N = 2,961), with substantial heterogeneity, Q(44) = 172.5, pQ < .0001, I2 = 89% [82, 94], and equivocal results regarding the possibility of upward bias in the estimate. For women rating men, we found a very small effect ( d = 0.13 [0.01, 0...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235947/facial-attractiveness-as-a-function-of-athletic-prowess
#11
Richard P Bagozzi, Willem J M I Verbeke, Frank Belschak, Marloes van Poele
We investigate the relationship between facial attractiveness and athletic prowess. We study the connection between subjective facial attractiveness (measured on a 5-point scale of judged facial attractiveness) and athletes by gender and age of respondents. Five age classes were investigated in Studies 1-5: preadolescents (average age: 8.85 years: n = 92), adolescents (average age: 15.8 years; n = 82), young adults (average age: 21.6 years; n = 181), middle-aged adults (average age: 47.5 years; n = 189), and older adults (65 years old; n = 183)...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231640/celebrity-opinion-influences-public-acceptance-of-human-evolution
#12
Steven Arnocky, Emma Bozek, Caroline Dufort, Samantha Rybka, Robyn Hebert
The present research examined the influence of celebrity opinion upon individuals' acceptance of the theory of evolution. Priming stimuli were developed purveying pro-evolution, anti-evolution, or neutral opinion (Study 1). When paired with a male celebrity or expert source (Study 2), the male celebrity, but not the male expert, influenced undergraduates' acceptance of evolution. The influence of the male celebrity on acceptance of evolution was replicated in a community sample (Study 3). When paired with a female celebrity source, undergraduates' acceptance of evolution was similarly influenced (Study 4)...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231639/life-history-fertility-and-short-term-mating-motivation
#13
Aekyoung Kim, Hannah Bradshaw, Kristina M Durante, Sarah E Hill
The current research examines the impact of women's early-life socioeconomic status (SES; used as a proxy measure of life history strategy), relationship status, and ovulatory cycle phase on their desire for short-term mating. Results revealed that during the periovulatory phase (i.e., the high-fertility phase of the monthly ovulatory cycle), single women from low SES environments expressed an increased desire for short-term mating, whereas the opposite was found for single women from high SES environments...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153743/reciprocity-among-preschoolers-in-relation-to-resource-allocation-toward-siblings-friends-and-strangers
#14
Hui Jing Lu, Lei Chang
Children at age 6 years differentially treat kin, friends, and strangers in resource allocation games by being more altruistic toward kin. However, it is unknown how previous allocation experience as a recipient influences the potential kinship effect in subsequent resource allocations. The present study investigated how 4- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and a sibling, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks after the recipient had previously shared or nonshared with the participant...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122066/interpersonal-insecurity-and-risk-taking-propensity-across-domains-and-around-the-globe
#15
Jingyi Lu, Yi Zhang, Jiayi Liu
During social interactions, individuals frequently experience interpersonal insecurity, including feelings of not being loved, protected, trusted, or cared for; these feelings cause numerous behavioral consequences. The present research explores the relationship between interpersonal insecurity and risk-taking propensity in multiple risk domains and around the globe based on risk-sensitivity theory and research on group identity. In Study 1, participants ( N = 209) reported their interpersonal insecurity and risk-taking propensity across seven risk domains...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071757/traveling-groups-stick-together-how-collective-directional-movement-influences-social-cohesion
#16
Stuart Wilson, Evangelia Bassiou, Aysel Denli, Lynsey C Dolan, Matthew Watson
We tested the hypothesis that the social act of moving through space with others-collective directional movement-is associated with greater levels of group cohesion compared to static activities. We asked participants to imagine participating in activities as part of a same-sex group and found that imagining going on a journey is associated with higher levels of expected cohesion compared to imagining attending a meeting (Study 1) or an event (Study 2). Study 3 replicates the main effect using different manipulations and finds that it persists regardless of whether the imagined group were friends or strangers...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071754/the-effects-of-tears-on-approach-avoidance-tendencies-in-observers
#17
Asmir Gračanin, Emiel Krahmer, Mike Rinck, Ad J J M Vingerhoets
Emotional tears have been proposed to represent a robust affiliative signal whose main function is to promote the willingness to help the crying individual. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms at the basis of such responses. To investigate whether tears facilitate approach relative to avoidance tendencies, we exposed participants ( N = 77) to pictures of faces with and without visible tears, in two different approach-avoidance tasks. In the first task, participants were instructed to either move toward tearful faces and away from nontearful faces, or the other way around, by using a joystick...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025466/adaptive-memory-survival-processing-and-social-isolation
#18
Juliana K Leding, Michael P Toglia
Social isolation was examined to assess its potential influence on the survival processing effect, which shows that individuals are more likely to remember something when it is processed with regard to their survival. Participants imagined being stranded in the grasslands, going on a space mission, or moving to a foreign land while alone or with a group of friends and rated a list of words for their relevance to the assigned scenario. An incidental memory test showed the typical survival processing effect on recall memory, with a significant interaction showing that the effect occurred in the isolated condition but not in the group condition...
July 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911426/hypocrisy-and-corruption-how-disparities-in-power-shape-the-evolution-of-social-control
#19
Omar Tonsi Eldakar, J Oliver Kammeyer, Nikhil Nagabandi, Andrew C Gallup
Altruism presents an evolutionary paradox, as altruistic individuals are good for the group yet vulnerable to exploitation by selfish individuals. One mechanism that can effectively curtail selfishness within groups is punishment. Here, we show in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that punishment can effectively evolve and maintain high levels of altruism in the population, yet not all punishment strategies were equally virtuous. Unlike typical models of social evolution, we explicitly altered the extent to which individuals vary in their power over others, such that powerful individuals can more readily punish and escape the punishment of others...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911423/voting-for-a-male-warrior-or-female-peacekeeper-testing-the-evolutionary-contingency-hypothesis-in-the-2016-u-s-presidential-elections
#20
Allen Grabo, Mark van Vugt
The present research replicates and extends previous literature on the evolutionary contingency hypothesis of leadership emergence. Using artificially masculinized versus feminized versions of the faces of the candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, we demonstrated that different contextual cues produced systematic variation in both preferences for and personality impressions of leadership. We describe results of an online study ( N = 298), demonstrating that followers who perceived a match between the contextual prime ( intergroup conflict or cooperation) and a leader candidate's relevant physical cues ( masculinized or feminized versions of their faces) both (a) preferred them as leaders and (b) rated them more positively on personality attributes commonly associated with effective leadership such as trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and charisma...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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