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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566568/sexual-responses-are-facilitated-by-high-order-contextual-cues-in-females-but-not-in-males
#1
Jorge Ponseti, Kim Dähnke, Leona Fischermeier, Hannah Gerwinn, Amelie Kluth, Jens Müller, Susanne Vogel, Aglaja Stirn
Sexual responses are thought to be controlled by a brain module called the sexual module. Sexual strategies of males and females vary to a great extent, and sexual responses of males and females may be affected by their sexual strategies. However, the current view of the sexual module is that of a unisex module. This might be questionable since brain modules are defined as evolved cognitive mechanisms to solve adaptive problems which are different for males and females. We hypothesize that the sexual module responds differently in the presence of complex (high-order) contextual cues that are related to gender-dimorphic sexual strategies in males and females...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558828/parent-offspring-conflict-over-mating-in-chinese-families-comparisons-with-greek-cypriot-families
#2
Menelaos Apostolou, Yan Wang
Parents and their children are genetically related but not genetically identical, a fact that leads to conflict between the two. One such domain of conflict is mate choice, where in-law and mate preferences diverge. The current research examined this divergence in preferences in the Chinese culture and how it varied across cultural contexts. More specifically, we have employed an online sample of 356 Chinese families, and we asked parents to rate the importance of several traits in a prospective spouse for their children and their children to rate the importance of the same traits in a prospective spouse for themselves...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558827/choosing-fighting-competitors-among-men-testosterone-personality-and-motivations
#3
Javier I Borráz-León, Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina, Markus J Rantala, Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534596/self-perceived-mate-value-facial-attractiveness-and-mate-preferences-do-desirable-men-want-it-all
#4
Steven Arnocky
Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529867/social-effects-of-tears-and-small-pupils-are-mediated-by-felt-sadness-an-evolutionary-view
#5
Dennis Küster
Small pupils elicit empathic socioemotional responses comparable to those found for emotional tears. This might be understood in an evolutionary context. Intense emotional tearing increases tear film volume and disturbs tear layer uniformity, resulting in blurry vision. A constriction of the pupils may help to mitigate this handicap, which in turn may have resulted in a perceptual association of both signals. However, direct empirical evidence for a role of pupil size in tearful emotional crying is still lacking...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478337/do-men-produce-higher-quality-ejaculates-when-primed-with-thoughts-of-partner-infidelity
#6
Michael N Pham, Nicole Barbaro, Andrew M Holub, Christopher J Holden, Justin K Mogilski, Guilherme S Lopes, Sylis C A Nicolas, Yael Sela, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Lisa L M Welling
Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455569/repetition-is-the-feature-behind-the-attentional-bias-for-recognizing-threatening-patterns
#7
Maryam Shabbir, Adelynn M Y Zon, Vivek Thuppil
Animals attend to what is relevant in order to behave in an effective manner and succeed in their environments. In several nonhuman species, there is an evolved bias for attending to patterns indicative of threats in the natural environment such as dangerous animals. Because skins of many dangerous animals are typically repetitive, we propose that repetition is the key feature enabling recognition of evolutionarily important threats. The current study consists of two experiments where we measured participants' reactions to pictures of male and female models wearing clothing of various repeating (leopard skin, snakeskin, and floral print) and nonrepeating (camouflage, shiny, and plain) patterns...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433348/affection-deception-and-evolution-deceptive-affectionate-messages-as-mate-retention-behaviors
#8
Madeleine H Redlick, Anita L Vangelisti
This study explored how partner mate value (PMV) and factors indicative of the relational climate (i.e., commitment and satisfaction) might affect individuals' tendency to use deceptive affectionate messages (DAMs). Participants ( N = 203) responded to a survey including measures regarding these variables. Contrary to predictions, PMV and the tendency to engage in DAMs were significantly and negatively associated with one another. Analyses further indicated that commitment significantly moderated the negative association between PMV and DAMs...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361847/intrasexual-competition-and-height-in-adolescents-and-adults
#9
P Polo, A Fernandez, J A Muñoz-Reyes, M Dufey, A P Buunk
Intrasexual competition can be defined as the struggle between members of one sex to increase their access to members of the other sex as sexual partners. In our species, height is a sexually dimorphic trait probably involved in both intrasexual and intersexual selective processes. In the present research, we examined the relationship between height and individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness (i.e., the tendency to view same-sex interactions in general in competitive terms) in two populations of adolescents and adults of both sexes in Chile...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353493/exploring-the-great-schism-in-the-social-sciences-confirmation-bias-and-the-interpretation-of-results-relating-to-biological-influences-on-human-behavior-and-psychology
#10
Jeffrey Winking
The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347841/evolutionary-effect-on-the-embodied-beauty-of-landscape-architectures
#11
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Guangyao Chen
According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2)...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237298/passion-relational-mobility-and-proof-of-commitment-a-comparative-socio-ecological-analysis-of-an-adaptive-emotion-in-a-sexual-market
#12
Junko Yamada, Mie Kito, Masaki Yuki
Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#13
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179582/is-support-of-censoring-controversial-media-content-for-the-good-of-others-sexual-strategies-and-support-of-censoring-pro-alcohol-advertising
#14
Jinguang Zhang
At least in the United States, there are widespread concerns with advertising that encourages alcohol consumption, and previous research explains those concerns as aiming to protect others from the harm of excessive alcohol use.1 Drawing on sexual strategies theory, we hypothesized that support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising is ultimately self-benefiting regardless of its altruistic effect at a proximate level. Excessive drinking positively correlates with having casual sex, and casual sex threatens monogamy, one of the major means with which people adopting a long-term sexual strategy increase their inclusive fitness...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179581/hadza-men-with-lower-voice-pitch-have-a-better-hunting-reputation
#15
Kristopher M Smith, Yevgeniy M Olkhov, David A Puts, Coren L Apicella
Previous research with hunter-gatherers has found that women perceive men with voices manipulated to be lower in pitch to be better hunters, and men perceive women with lower pitch to be better gatherers. Here, we test if actual voice pitch is associated with hunting and gathering reputations in men and women, respectively. We find that voice pitch does relate to foraging reputation in men, but not in women, with better hunters having a lower voice pitch. In addition, we find that the previously documented relationship between voice pitch and reproductive success no longer holds when controlling for hunting reputation, but hunting reputation remains a significant predictor of reproductive success when controlling for voice pitch...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169264/adaptive-memory-remembering-potential-mates
#16
Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Marco Vasconcelos, James S Nairne
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and a short descriptor) would be in the context of a long-term mating relationship or in the context of a long-term work relationship. Then, after a short distractor task, participants performed a recognition task for the faces and a source memory task...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169263/the-development-of-conformity-among-chinese-children-aged-9-15-years-in-a-public-choice-task
#17
Peng Zhang, Yibin Zhang, Zhaoran Mu, Xiangping Liu
Both children and adults exhibit moderate conformity behaviors when facing group pressure. While some studies purport that children conform more with age, others have shown the opposite. The publicity of decision-making might be a major factor influencing the development of children's conformity behavior. In this study, we recruited 295 Chinese children aged 9-15 years. We observed no significant correlation between children's age and conformity behaviors when their answers were kept confidential. However, older children showed stronger conformity behaviors when their answers were made public...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152995/endorsement-of-social-and-personal-values-predicts-the-desirability-of-men-and-women-as-long-term-partners
#18
Guilherme S Lopes, Nicole Barbaro, Yael Sela, Austin J Jeffery, Michael N Pham, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2)...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073770/contrafreeloading-in-rats-is-adaptive-and-flexible-support-for-an-animal-model-of-compulsive-checking
#19
Michael J Frederick, Sarah E Cocuzzo
Contrafreeloading involves working unnecessarily to obtain a reward that is otherwise freely available. It has been observed in numerous species and can be adaptive when it provides an organism with updated information about available resources. Humans frequently update their knowledge of the environment through checking behaviors. Compulsive checking occurs when such actions are performed with excessive frequency. In a putative animal model of compulsive checking, rats treated chronically with the dopamine agonist quinpirole display exaggerated contrafreeloading for water...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946754/does-alcohol-catch-the-eye-investigating-young-adults-attention-to-alcohol-consumption
#20
Eveline Vincke, Patrick Vyncke
Many studies on young adults' motivations for drinking overlook the symbolic aspects of alcohol use. However, research indicates that young adults' alcohol consumption is also driven by signaling motivations. Although the interest of a receiver is a necessary prerequisite of a signal, no previous studies have verified whether drinking behavior indeed attracts young adults' attention. Therefore, we conducted two studies. A two-part eye-tracking study ( N1 = 135, N2 = 140) showed that both young men and young women pay special visual attention to male and female drinking behavior...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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