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Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179582/is-support-of-censoring-controversial-media-content-for-the-good-of-others-sexual-strategies-and-support-of-censoring-pro-alcohol-advertising
#1
Jinguang Zhang
At least in the United States, there are widespread concerns with advertising that encourages alcohol consumption, and previous research explains those concerns as aiming to protect others from the harm of excessive alcohol use.1 Drawing on sexual strategies theory, we hypothesized that support of censoring pro-alcohol advertising is ultimately self-benefiting regardless of its altruistic effect at a proximate level. Excessive drinking positively correlates with having casual sex, and casual sex threatens monogamy, one of the major means with which people adopting a long-term sexual strategy increase their inclusive fitness...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179581/hadza-men-with-lower-voice-pitch-have-a-better-hunting-reputation
#2
Kristopher M Smith, Yevgeniy M Olkhov, David A Puts, Coren L Apicella
Previous research with hunter-gatherers has found that women perceive men with voices manipulated to be lower in pitch to be better hunters, and men perceive women with lower pitch to be better gatherers. Here, we test if actual voice pitch is associated with hunting and gathering reputations in men and women, respectively. We find that voice pitch does relate to foraging reputation in men, but not in women, with better hunters having a lower voice pitch. In addition, we find that the previously documented relationship between voice pitch and reproductive success no longer holds when controlling for hunting reputation, but hunting reputation remains a significant predictor of reproductive success when controlling for voice pitch...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169264/adaptive-memory-remembering-potential-mates
#3
Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Marco Vasconcelos, James S Nairne
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and a short descriptor) would be in the context of a long-term mating relationship or in the context of a long-term work relationship. Then, after a short distractor task, participants performed a recognition task for the faces and a source memory task...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169263/the-development-of-conformity-among-chinese-children-aged-9-15-years-in-a-public-choice-task
#4
Peng Zhang, Yibin Zhang, Zhaoran Mu, Xiangping Liu
Both children and adults exhibit moderate conformity behaviors when facing group pressure. While some studies purport that children conform more with age, others have shown the opposite. The publicity of decision-making might be a major factor influencing the development of children's conformity behavior. In this study, we recruited 295 Chinese children aged 9-15 years. We observed no significant correlation between children's age and conformity behaviors when their answers were kept confidential. However, older children showed stronger conformity behaviors when their answers were made public...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152995/endorsement-of-social-and-personal-values-predicts-the-desirability-of-men-and-women-as-long-term-partners
#5
Guilherme S Lopes, Nicole Barbaro, Yael Sela, Austin J Jeffery, Michael N Pham, Todd K Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler-Hill
A prospective romantic partner's desirability as a long-term partner may be affected by the values that he or she endorses. However, few studies have examined the effects of "values" on a person's desirability as a long-term partner. We hypothesized that individuals who endorse social values (vs. personal values) will be perceived as more desirable long-term partners (Hypothesis 1) and that the endorsement of social values will be especially desirable in a male (vs. female) long-term partner (Hypothesis 2)...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073770/contrafreeloading-in-rats-is-adaptive-and-flexible-support-for-an-animal-model-of-compulsive-checking
#6
Michael J Frederick, Sarah E Cocuzzo
Contrafreeloading involves working unnecessarily to obtain a reward that is otherwise freely available. It has been observed in numerous species and can be adaptive when it provides an organism with updated information about available resources. Humans frequently update their knowledge of the environment through checking behaviors. Compulsive checking occurs when such actions are performed with excessive frequency. In a putative animal model of compulsive checking, rats treated chronically with the dopamine agonist quinpirole display exaggerated contrafreeloading for water...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946754/does-alcohol-catch-the-eye-investigating-young-adults-attention-to-alcohol-consumption
#7
Eveline Vincke, Patrick Vyncke
Many studies on young adults' motivations for drinking overlook the symbolic aspects of alcohol use. However, research indicates that young adults' alcohol consumption is also driven by signaling motivations. Although the interest of a receiver is a necessary prerequisite of a signal, no previous studies have verified whether drinking behavior indeed attracts young adults' attention. Therefore, we conducted two studies. A two-part eye-tracking study ( N1 = 135, N2 = 140) showed that both young men and young women pay special visual attention to male and female drinking behavior...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901197/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-humans-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age-dynamic-declining-and-differentiated
#8
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley, Gina C Ford
Faciometrics have widely been used in contemporary studies on gender-related behavioral traits, for example, perceived and actual aggression, co-operation and trustworthiness, prejudicial beliefs, unethical behavior, and achievement drive, as well as, but to a lesser degree, in nonhuman primates. For the large part, these studies have focused primarily on "student-aged" populations with little empirical scrutiny regarding the efficacy of applying these measures with older participants. This study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism across four age-groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) in 444 participants (225 men)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901196/in-law-and-mate-preferences-in-chinese-society-and-the-role-of-traditional-cultural-values
#9
Qingke Guo, Yujie Li, Shushuang Yu
Using 347 parent-child dyads as participants, this study directly examined in-law and mate preferences in a typical collectivist culture. The results showed (1) traits indicating social status and parental investment were more highly valued by the parents, while traits indicating genetic quality and traits related to romantic love were more highly valued by the children. (2) Parental preferences were moderated by gender of the in-laws. Good earning capacity was more preferred by parents in a son-in-law, traits connoting genetic quality and reproductive fitness were more preferred by parents in a daughter-in-law...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868895/in-law-preferences-in-china-and-in-cyprus-differences-and-similarities
#10
Yan Wang, Menelaos Apostolou
Across different times and cultures, parents exercise considerable influence over their children's mate choices. When they do so, parents are looking for specific traits in a prospective daughter- and son-in-law. Using a sample of 674 parents, the current research investigated in-law preferences in China. Participants rated 88 different traits, which were clustered in 10 different preference domains. In-law preferences were found to be contingent on the sex of the in-law and the sex of the parent. The data from the current study were compared with data from a different study which took place in the Republic of Cyprus...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851231/in-law-preferences-in-china-what-parents-look-for-in-the-parents-of-their-children-s-mates
#11
Menelaos Apostolou, Yan Wang
Across different times and cultures, parents play an important role in influencing their children's mating decisions. When they do so, they aim to forge useful alliances with other parents which raises the question of what parents look for in the latter. The current research aims to address this question. In particular, we employed an online sample of 925 Chinese parents who were asked to rate the desirability of 88 traits in the parents of prospective mates for their children. Principal components analysis classified these traits in eight factors for the mothers and 10 factors of interest for the fathers of their children's mates...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828887/mating-goals-moderate-power-s-effect-on-conspicuous-consumption-among-women
#12
Taiyang Zhao, Xiaotong Jin, Wei Xu, Xiaomeng Zuo, Hongjing Cui
This study aimed to use evolutionary psychology to explain conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women. We used experiments to show that power moderates conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women through an underlying relationship with women's social comparison tendencies. In Study 1, the participants read a passage describing a young woman wearing a coat made by a conspicuous brand (vs. an ordinary brand) who aimed to attract a desired man (vs. aiming to guard against potential competitors' attempts to disrupt her established intimate relationship)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783973/conditional-reasoning-in-schizophrenic-patients
#13
Charles Kornreich, Dyna Delle-Vigne, Damien Brevers, Juan Tecco, Salvatore Campanella, Xavier Noël, Paul Verbanck, Elsa Ermer
Conditional reasoning (if p then q) is used very frequently in everyday situations. Conditional reasoning is impaired in brain-lesion patients, psychopathy, alcoholism, and polydrug dependence. Many neurocognitive deficits have also been described in schizophrenia. We assessed conditional reasoning in 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 depressive patients, and 25 controls, using the Wason selection task in three different domains: social contracts, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules. Control measures included depression, anxiety, and severity of schizophrenia measures as a Verbal Intelligence Scale...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727930/visual-perception-of-british-women-s-skin-color-distribution-in-two-nonindustrialized-societies-the-maasai-and-the-tsimane
#14
Bernhard Fink, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Paul J Matts
In women with lightly pigmented skin in particular, facial skin color homogeneity decreases with age, primarily due to chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leading to a decrease in perceived health and attractiveness. Perception of female skin may be influenced by continuous exposure to, and thus familiarity with, age-related changes in visible skin condition in a given society. Men and women of two traditional societies, the Maasai (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia), unfamiliar with lighter colored skin, judged images of British women's facial skin for age, health, and attractiveness...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580807/adverse-childhood-environment-relationship-with-sexual-risk-behaviors-and-marital-status-in-a-large-american-sample
#15
Kermyt G Anderson
A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580806/your-cheatin-voice-will-tell-on-you-detection-of-past-infidelity-from-voice
#16
Susan M Hughes, Marissa A Harrison
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508723/drinking-high-amounts-of-alcohol-as-a-short-term-mating-strategy-the-impact-of-short-term-mating-motivations-on-young-adults-drinking-behavior
#17
Eveline Vincke
Previous research indicates that drinking large quantities of alcohol could function as a short-term mating strategy for young adults in mating situations. However, no study investigated whether this is actually the case. Therefore, in this article, the link between short-term mating motivations and drinking high amounts of alcohol is tested. First, a survey study ( N = 345) confirmed that young adults who engage in binge drinking are more short-term oriented in their mating strategy than young adults who never engage in binge drinking...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508722/a-natural-history-of-the-drag-queen-phenomenon
#18
Michael Moncrieff, Pierre Lienard
The drag queen cultural phenomenon has been described at length. However, the depiction of outlandish and hyperbolic womanhood and taunting and formidable behavior at the core of drag queens' public persona has still to be fully accounted for. We argue that these aspects of the drag queen's public appearance could best be understood in a signaling framework. Publicly donning extravagant woman's costumes attracts harassment and brings financial, mating, and opportunity costs, generating the conditions for the transmission of honest signals...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504891/intelligence-and-fitness-the-mediating-role-of-educational-level
#19
Janko Međedović
The evolutionary status of intelligence is not clear: It is positively related to various indicators of fitness but negatively to reproductive success as the most important fitness marker. In the present research, we explored the links between intelligence and three fitness indicators: number of children (short-term reproductive success), number of grandchildren (long-term reproductive success), and age at first birth. Participants were individuals in a postreproductive stage ( N = 191; mean age = 66.5 years)...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441879/willingness-to-invest-in-children-psychological-kinship-estimates-and-emotional-closeness
#20
Jan Antfolk, Linda C Karlsson, Johanna Söderlund, Anna Szala
In general, adults invest more in related children compared to unrelated children. To test whether this pattern reflects variations in psychological kinship estimates (i.e., putative relatedness weighted by certainty in relatedness), willingness to invest in children belonging to different categories (direct offspring, nieces/nephews, stepchildren, and friends' children) was measured in a population-based sample of 1,012 adults. Respondents reported more willingness to invest in their own biological children, than in other related children (nieces and nephews), or in stepchildren and friends' children...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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