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Journal of Neural Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730995/decoding-human-mental-states-by-whole-head-eeg-fnirs-during-category-fluency-task-performance
#1
Ahmet Omurtag, Haleh Aghajani, Hasan Onur Keles
Concurrent scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which we refer to as EEG+fNIRS, promises greater accuracy than the individual modalities while remaining nearly as convenient as EEG. We sought to quantify the hybrid system's ability to decode mental states and compare it with its unimodal components. Approach. We recorded from healthy volunteers taking the category fluency test and applied machine learning techniques to the data. Main results...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722685/neural-control-of-finger-movement-via-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#2
Zachary T Irwin, Karen E Schroeder, Philip P Vu, Autumn J Bullard, Derek M Tat, Chrono S Nu, Alex Vaskov, Samuel R Nason, David E Thompson, Nicole Bentley, Parag G Patil, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. APPROACH: In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718781/latent-variable-method-for-automatic-adaptation-to-background-states-in-motor-imagery-bci
#3
Nikolay Dagaev, Ksenia Volkova, Alexei Ossadtchi
<i>Objective</i>. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. <i>Approach</i>. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model's parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718779/a-review-and-experimental-study-on-application-of-classifiers-and-evolutionary-algorithms-in-eeg-based-brain-machine-interface-systems
#4
Farajollah Tahernezhad-Javazm, Vahid Azimirad, Maryam Shoaran
OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance and the near future development of noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) systems, this paper presents a comprehensive theoretical-experimental survey on the classification and evolutionary methods for BMI-based systems in which EEG signals are used. APPROACH: The paper is divided into two main parts. In the first part a wide range of different types of the base and combinatorial classifiers including boosting and bagging classifiers and also evolutionary algorithms are reviewed and investigated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718773/mouse-epileptic-seizure-detection-with-multiple-eeg-features-and-simple-thresholding-technique
#5
Quang M Tieng, Ashwin Anbazhagan, Min Chen, David Charles Reutens
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The search for new treatments for seizures and epilepsy relies upon studies in animal models of epilepsy. To capture data on seizures, many applications require prolonged electroencephalography (EEG) with recordings that generate voluminous data. The desire for efficient evaluation of these recordings motivates the development of automated seizure detection algorithms. Approach: A new seizure detection method is proposed, based on multiple features and a simple thresholding technique...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707628/brainframe-a-node-level-heterogeneous-accelerator-platform-for-neuron-simulations
#6
Georgios Smaragdos, Georgios Chatzikonstantis, Rahul Kukreja, Harry Sidiropoulos, Dimitrios Rodopoulos, Ioannis Sourdis, Zaid Al-Ars, Christoforos Kachris, Dimitrios Soudris, Chris de Zeeuw, Christos Strydis
OBJECTIVE: The advent of High-Performance Computing (HPC) in recent years has led to its increasing use in brain study through computational models. The scale and complexity of such models are constantly increasing, leading to challenging computational requirements. Even though modern HPC platforms can often deal with such challenges, the vast diversity of the modeling field does not permit for a homogeneous acceleration platform to effectively address the complete array of modeling requirements...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#7
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696340/brain-actuated-gait-trainer-with-visual-and-proprioceptive-feedback
#8
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Kyuhwa Lee, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Mohamed Bouri, Zhongcai Pei, Jose Del R Millan
OBJECTIVE: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been proposed in closed-loop applications for neuromodulation and neurorehabilitation. This study describes the impact of different feedback modalities on the performance of an EEG-based BMI that decodes motor imagery (MI) of leg flexion and extension. APPROACH: We executed experiments in a lower-limb gait trainer (the legoPress) where nine able-bodied subjects participated in three consecutive sessions based on a crossover design...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695839/rapid-prototyping-of-flexible-intrafascicular-electrode-arrays-by-picosecond-laser-structuring
#9
Matthias Mueller, Natalia de la Oliva, Jaume Del Valle, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Xavier Navarro, Thomas Stieglitz
Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691694/context-dependent-adaptation-improves-robustness-of-myoelectric-control-for-upper-limb-prostheses
#10
Gauravkumar K Patel, Janne Mathias Hahne, Claudio Castellini, Dario Farina, Strahinja Dosen
OBJECTIVE: Dexterous upper-limb prostheses are available today to restore grasping, but an effective and reliable feed-forward control is still missing. The aim of this work was to improve the robustness and reliability of myoelectric control by using context information from sensors embedded within the prosthesis. APPROACH: We developed a context-driven myoelectric control scheme (cxMYO) that incorporates the inference of context information from proprioception (inertial measurement unit) and exteroception (force and grip aperture) sensors to modulate the outputs of myoelectric control...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677591/a-realistic-multimodal-modeling-approach-for-the-evaluation-of-distributed-source-analysis-application-to-sloreta
#11
Delphine Cosandier-Rimélé, Georgia Ramantani, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Matthias Duempelmann
OBJECTIVE: Electrical Source Localization (ESL) deriving from scalp EEG and, in recent years, from intracranial EEG (iEEG), is an established method in epilepsy surgery workup. We aimed to validate the distributed ESL derived from scalp EEG and iEEG, particularly regarding the spatial extent of the source, using a realistic epileptic spike activity simulator. APPROACH: ESL was applied to the averaged scalp EEG and iEEG spikes of two patients with drug-resistant structural epilepsy...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675376/model-based-bayesian-signal-extraction-algorithm-for-peripheral-nerves
#12
Thomas Eggers, Yazan M Dweiri, Grant McCallum, Dominique M Durand
Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675151/the-relationship-between-retinal-damage-and-current-intensity-in-a-pre-clinical-suprachoroidal-transretinal-stimulation-model-using-a-laser-formed-microporous-electrode
#13
Hiroyuki Kanda, Yukari Nakano, Yasuo Terasawa, Takeshi Morimoto, Takashi Fujikado
Suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) is a stimulation method for retinal prostheses. For STS-type retinal prostheses, we developed a new type of stimulating electrode called a femtosecond laser-induced porous electrode (FLiP electrode). To verify the safety of FLiP electrode for STS, we investigated the characteristics of STS-induced retinal injury. Approach: Sixteen eyes of pigmented rabbits were studied in this in vivo study. For each examined eye, we implanted a single-channel FLiP electrode (diameter, 0...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#14
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#15
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627505/monitoring-alert-and-drowsy-states-by-modeling-eeg-source-nonstationarity
#16
Sheng-Hsiou Hsu, Tzyy-Ping Jung
As a human brain performs various cognitive functions within ever-changing environments, states of the brain characterized by recorded brain activities such as electroencephalogram (EEG) are inevitably nonstationary. The challenges of analyzing the nonstationary EEG signals include finding neurocognitive sources that underlie different brain states and using EEG data to quantitatively assess the state changes. Approach. This study hypothesizes that brain activities under different states, e.g. levels of alertness, can be modeled as distinct compositions of statistically independent sources using independent component analysis (ICA)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612758/recording-nerve-signals-in-canine-sciatic-nerves-with-a-flexible-penetrating-microelectrode-array
#17
Donghak Byun, Sung-Joon Cho, Byeong Han Lee, Joongkee Min, Jong-Hyun Lee, Sohee Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. APPROACH: For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612757/a-review-of-optical-pacing-with-infrared-light
#18
Stephanie Ford, Michiko Watanabe, Michael Jenkins
Optical pacing (OP) uses pulsed infrared light to initiate heartbeats in electrically-excitable cardiac tissues without employing exogenous agents. OP is an alternative approach to electrical pacing that may overcome some its disadvantages for some applications. In this review, we discuss the initial demonstrations, mechanisms, safety, advantages and applications of OP.
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612755/learning-to-see-again-biological-constraints-on-cortical-plasticity-and-the-implications-for-sight-restoration-technologies
#19
Michael Beyeler, Ariel Rokem, Geoffrey Boynton, Ione Fine
The "bionic eye" - so long a dream of the future - is finally becoming a reality with retinal prostheses available to patients in both the US and Europe. However, clinical experience with these implants has made it apparent that the vision provided by these devices differs substantially from normal sight. Consequently, the ability to learn to make use of this abnormal retinal input plays a critical role in whether or not some functional vision is successfully regained. The goal of the present review is to summarize the vast basic science literature on developmental and adult cortical plasticity with an emphasis on how this literature might relate to the field of prosthetic vision...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607224/evaluation-of-focused-multipolar-stimulation-for-cochlear-implants-a-preclinical-safety-study
#20
Robert K Shepherd, Andrew K Wise, Ya Lang Enke, Paul M Carter, James B Fallon
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) have a limited number of independent stimulation channels due to the highly conductive nature of the fluid-filled cochlea. Attempts to develop highly focused stimulation to improve speech perception in CI users includes the use of simultaneous stimulation via multiple current sources. Focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation is an example of this approach and has been shown to reduce interaction between stimulating channels. However, compared with conventional biphasic current pulses generated from a single current source, FMP is a complex stimulus that includes extended periods of stimulation before charge recovery is achieved, raising questions on whether chronic stimulation with this strategy is safe...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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