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Journal of Neural Engineering

A E Pena, S S Kuntaegowdanahalli, J J Abbas, J Patrick, K W Horch, R Jung
OBJECTIVE: A neural interface system has been developed that consists of an implantable stimulator/recorder can with a 15-electrode lead that trifurcates into three bundles of five individual wire longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes. This work evaluated the mechanical fatigue resistance of the branched lead and distributed electrode system under conditions designed to mimic anticipated strain profiles that would be observed after implantation in the human upper arm. APPROACH: Custom test setups and procedures were developed to apply linear or angular strain at four critical stress riser points on the lead and electrode system...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Bin Xia, Lei Cao, Oladazimi Maysam, Jie Li, Hong Xie, Caixia Su, Niels Birbaumer
OBJECTIVE: Two-dimensional movement control is a popular issue in brain-computer interface (BCI) research and has many applications in the real world. In this paper, we introduce a combined control strategy to a binary class-based BCI system that allows the user to move a cursor in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Users focus on a single moving vector to control 2D movement instead of controlling vertical and horizontal movement separately. APPROACH: Five participants took part in a fixed-target experiment and random-target experiment to verify the effectiveness of the combination control strategy under the fixed and random routine conditions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Nir Even-Chen, Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
OBJECTIVE: Making mistakes is inevitable, but identifying them allows us to correct or adapt our behavior to improve future performance. Current brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) make errors that need to be explicitly corrected by the user, thereby consuming time and thus hindering performance. We hypothesized that neural correlates of the user perceiving the mistake could be used by the BMI to automatically correct errors. However, it was unknown whether intracortical outcome error signals were present in the premotor and primary motor cortices, brain regions successfully used for intracortical BMIs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Renaud Schuck, Mary Ann Go, Stefania Garasto, Stephanie Reynolds, Pier Luigi Dragotti, Simon Schultz
OBJECTIVE: Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jan Eike Golenia, Markus Andreas Wenzel, Mihail Bogojeski, Benjamin Blankertz
OBJECTIVE: Methods from brain-computer interfacing (BCI) open a direct access to the mental processes of computer users, which offers particular benefits in comparison to standard methods for inferring user-related information. The signals can be recorded unobtrusively in the background, which circumvents the time-consuming and distracting need for the users to give explicit feedback to questions concerning the individual interest. The obtained implicit information makes it possible to create dynamic user interest profiles in real-time, that can be taken into account by novel types of adaptive, personalised software...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Stephanie Lees, Natalie Dayan, Hubert Cecotti, Paul McCullagh, Liam Maguire, Fabien Lotte, Damien H Coyle
Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) combined with the detection of event related brain responses facilitates the selection of relevant information contained in a stream of images presented rapidly to a human. Event related potentials (ERPs), measured non-invasively with electroencephalography (EEG), can be associated with infrequent target stimuli(images) in groups of images, potentially providing an interface for human-machine symbiosis, where humans can interact and interface with a computer without moving and which may offer faster image sorting than scenarios where humans are expected to physically react when a target image is detected...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Alie J Buckmire, Danielle R Lockwood, Cynthia J Doane, Andrew J Fuglevand
The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ana Rodriguez, Kate O'Neill, Przemyslaw Swiatkowski, Mihir V Patel, Bonnie Lynne Firestein
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effect that overexpression of cytosolic PSD-95 interactor (cypin), a regulator of synaptic PSD-95 protein localization and a core regulator of dendrite branching, exerts on the electrical activity of rat hippocampal neurons and networks. APPROACH: We cultured rat hippocampal neurons and used lipid-mediated transfection and lentiviral gene transfer to achieve high levels of cypin or cypin mutant (cypinΔPDZ; PSD-95 non-binding) expression cellularly and network-wide, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Heng Li, Yajie Zeng, Zhuofan Lu, Xiaofei Cao, Xiaofan Su, Xiaohong Sui, Jing Wang, Xinyu Chai
Retinal prosthesis devices have shown great value in restoring some sight for individuals with profoundly impaired vision, but the visual acuity and visual field provided by prostheses greatly limit recipients' visual experience. In this paper, we employ computer vision approaches to seek to expand the perceptible visual field in patients implanted potentially with a high-density retinal prosthesis while maintaining visual acuity as much as possible. Approach. We propose an optimized content-aware image retargeting method, by introducing salient object detection based on color and intensity-difference contrast, aiming to remap important information of a scene into a small visual field and preserve their original scale as much as possible...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Chuang Lin, Binghui Wang, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina
OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a novel simultaneous and proportional multiple degree of freedom (DOF) myoelectric control method for active prostheses. APPROACH: The approach is based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of surface EMG signals with the inclusion of sparseness constraints. By applying a sparseness constraint to the control signal matrix, it is possible to extract the basis information from arbitrary movements (quasi-unsupervised approach) for multiple DOFs concurrently...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Linda Hyoungsun Kim, Regan Sarah McLeod, Zelma Kiss
There have been remarkable advances over the past decade in neural prostheses to restore lost motor function. However, restoration of somatosensory feedback, which is essential for fine motor control and user acceptance, has lagged behind. With increasing interest in using electrical stimulation to restore somatosensory sensations within the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems (CNS), it is critical to characterize the percepts evoked by electrical stimulation in a standardized manner with a validated psychometric questionnaire...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Se-Jun Lee, Wei Zhu, Margaret Nowicki, Grace Lee, Dong Nyoung Heo, Junghoon Kim, Yi Zuo, Lijie Grace Zhang
In recent years, the development of tissue-engineered 3D scaffolds for various regenerative engineering applications has been widely investigated. Hydrogel polymers are extensively used as tissue engineering scaffold materials due to their unique biocompatible features. However, hydrogel based scaffolds often suffer from weak mechanical strength and a lack of functional groups to enhance cell adhesion. Hence, nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been introduced to modify the surface properties of scaffolds, thus enhancing the interaction between the neural cells and biomaterials...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
John Spanias, Ann M Simon, Suzanne Finucane, Eric Perreault, Levi Hargrove
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an adaptive intent recognition algorithm that continuously learns to incorporate a lower limb amputee's neural information (acquired via electromyography [EMG]) as they ambulate with a robotic leg prosthesis. APPROACH: We present a powered lower limb prosthesis that was configured to acquire the user's neural information and kinetic/kinematic information from embedded mechanical sensors, and identify and respond to the user's intent...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Henry Shin, Nina Suresh, William Zev Rymer, Xiaogang Hu
Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach: Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Dong Sunghee, Jichai Jeong
Memory is formed by the interaction of various brain functions at the item and task level. Revealing individual and combined effects of item- and task-related processes on retrieving episodic memory is an unsolved problem because of limitations in existing neuroimaging techniques. To investigate these issues, we analyze fast and slow optical signals measured from a custom-built continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-fNIRS) system. In our work, we visually encode the words to the subjects and let them recall the words after a short rest...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
R E Alcaide-Aguirre, S A Warschausky, D Brown, A Aref, J E Huggins
OBJECTIVE: Typically, clinical measures of cognition require motor or speech responses. Thus, a significant percentage of people with disabilities are not able to complete standardized assessments. This situation could be resolved by employing a more accessible test administration method, such as a brain-computer interface (BCI). A BCI can circumvent motor and speech requirements by translating brain activity to identify a subject's response. By eliminating the need for motor or speech input, one could use a BCI to assess an individual who previously did not have access to clinical tests...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yan Liu, João L Pereira, Timothy Constandinou
The prospect of real-time and on-node spike sorting provides a genuine opportunity to push the envelope for large-scale integration of neural recording systems. In such systems the hardware resource, power requirements and data bandwidth increase linearly with channel count. Event-based (or data-driven) processing can here provide a new efficient means for hardware implementation that is completely activity dependant. In this work, we investigate using continuous time level-crossing sampling for efficient data representation and subsequent spike processing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Frederic Michoud, Loïc Sottas, Liam E Browne, Leonie Asboth, Alban Latremoliere, Miyuki Sakuma, Gregoire Courtine, Clifford J Woolf, Stephanie P Lacour
OBJECTIVE: Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. APPROACH: Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface - an optocuff -, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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