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Journal of Neural Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931749/ethics-in-published-brain-computer-interface-research
#1
Laura Specker Sullivan, Judy Illes
OBJECTIVE: Sophisticated signal processing has opened the doors to more research with human subjects than ever before. The increase in the use of human subjects in research comes with a need for increased human subjects protections. APPROACH: We quantified the presence or absence of ethics language in published reports of BCI studies that involved human subjects and qualitatively characterized ethics statements. MAIN RESULTS: Reports of BCI studies with human subjects that are published in neural engineering and engineering journals are anchored in the rationale of technological improvement...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925375/modelling-the-effect-of-electrode-displacement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#2
Sriharsha Ramaraju, Mohammed Ali Roula, Peter McCarthy
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers a low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas with the purpose of modulating underlying brain activity. Recent studies have reported inconsistencies in tDCS outcomes. The underlying assumption of many tDCS studies has been that replication of electrode montage equates to replicating stimulation conditions. It is possible however that anatomical difference between subjects, as well as inherent inaccuracies in montage placement, could affect current flow to targeted areas...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925372/an-automatic-algorithm-for-blink-artifact-suppression-based-on-iterative-template-matching-application-to-single-channel-recording-of-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials
#3
Joaquin T Valderrama, Angel de la Torre, Bram Van Dun
Artifact reduction in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is usually necessary to carry out data analysis appropriately. Despite the large amount of denoising techniques available with a multichannel setup, there is a lack of efficient algorithms that remove (not only detect) blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG, which is of interest in many clinical and research applications. This paper describes and evaluates the Iterative Template Matching and Suppression (ITMS), a new method proposed for detecting and suppressing the artifact associated with the blink activity from a single channel EEG...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914232/combined-rtms-and-virtual-reality-brain-computer-interface-training-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#4
Nessa N Johnson, James Carey, Bradley Edelman, Alexander Doud, Andrew Grande, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Bin He
OBJECTIVE: Combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with brain-computer interface (BCI) training can address motor impairment after stroke by down-regulating exaggerated inhibition from the contralesional hemisphere and encouraging ipsilesional activation. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combined rTMS+BCI, compared to sham rTMS+BCI, on motor recovery after stroke in subjects with lasting motor paresis. APPROACH: Three stroke subjects approximately one year post-stroke participated in three weeks of combined rTMS (real or sham) and BCI, followed by three weeks of BCI alone...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905812/carbon-fiber-on-polyimide-ultra-microelectrodes
#5
Wintrop F Gillis, Charles A Lissandrello, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Alket Mertiri, Felix Deku, Stuart Cogan, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy M Otchy, Timothy Gardner
OBJECTIVE: Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885187/a-review-on-mechanical-considerations-for-chronically-implanted-neural-probes
#6
Aziliz Lecomte, Emeline Descamps, Christian Bergaud
This review intends on presenting a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical considerations for chronically-implanted neural probes. Failure of neural electrical recordings or stimulation over time has shown to arise from foreign body reaction and device material stability. It seems that devices that match most closely the mechanical properties of the brain would more likely reduce the mechanical stress at the probe/tissue interface, thus improving body acceptance. The use of low Young's modulus polymers instead of hard substrates is a known way to enhance this mechanical mimetism, though compliance can be achieved through a variety of means...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884708/dual-echo-asl-based-assessment-of-motor-networks-a-feasibility-study
#7
Silvia Francesca Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Francesca B Pizzini, Gloria Menegaz
OBJECTIVE: Dual-echo arterial spin labeling (DE-ASL) techniques have been recently proposed for the simultaneous acquisition of ASL and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The assessment of this technique in detecting functional connectivity at rest or during motor and motor imagery tasks is still unexplored both per-se and in comparison with conventional methods. The purpose is to quantify the sensitivity of the DE-ASL sequence with respect to the conventional fMRI sequence (cvBOLD) in detecting brain activations, and to assess and compare the relevance of node features in decoding the network structure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875947/improved-prediction-of-bimanual-movements-by-a-two-staged-effector-then-trajectory-decoder-with-epidural-ecog-in-nonhuman-primates
#8
Hoseok Choi, Jeyeon Lee, Jinsick Park, Seho Lee, Kyoung-Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung-Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
OBJECTIVE: In arm movement BCIs (brain-computer interfaces), unimanual research has been much more extensively studied than its bimanual counterpart. However, it is well known that the bimanual brain state is different from the unimanual one. Conventional methodology used in unimanual studies does not take the brain stage into consideration, and therefore appears to be insufficient for decoding bimanual movements. In this paper, we propose the use of a two-staged (effector-then-trajectory) decoder, which combines the classification of movement conditions and uses a hand trajectory predicting algorithm for unimanual and bimanual movements, for application to in real-world BCIs...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862159/temporary-persistence-of-conduction-block-after-prolonged-kilohertz-frequency-alternating-current-khfac-on-rat-sciatic-nerve
#9
Narendra Bhadra, Emily Foldes, Tina Vrabec, Kevin L Kilgore, Niloy Bhadra
Application of Kilohertz Frequency Alternating Current (KHFAC) waveforms can result in nerve conduction block that is induced in less than a second. Conduction recovers within seconds when KHFAC is applied for about 5 - 10 minutes. This study investigated the effect of repeated and prolonged application of KHFAC on rat Sciatic nerve with bipolar platinum electrodes. Approach: Varying durations of KHFAC at signal amplitudes for conduction block with intervals of no stimulus were studied. Nerve conduction was monitored by recording peak Gastrocnemius muscle force utilizing stimulation electrodes proximal (PS) and distal (DS) to a blocking electrode...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853420/decoding-natural-reach-and-grasp-actions-from-human-eeg
#10
Andreas Schwarz, Patrick Ofner, Joana Pereira, Andreea Ioana Sburlea, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832013/model-and-experiments-to-optimize-co-adaptation-in-a-simplified-myoelectric-control-system
#11
Mathilde Couraud, Daniel Cattaert, Florent Paclet, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Aymar de Rugy
OBJECTIVE: To compensate for a limb lost in an amputation, myoelectric prostheses use surface electromyography (EMG) from the remaining muscles to control the prosthesis. Despite considerable progress, myoelectric controls remain markedly different from the way we normally control movements, and require intense user adaptation. To overcome this, our goal is to explore concurrent machine co-adaptation techniques that are developed in the field of brain-machine interface, and that are beginning to be used in myoelectric controls...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829045/novel-drug-delivering-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#12
Pratima Labroo, Jill Shea, Kyle Edwards, Scott Ho, Brett Davis, Himanshu J Sant, Isak Goodwin, Bruce K Gale, Jay Agarwal
This paper describes the design of a novel drug delivery apparatus integrated with a PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) based nerve guide conduit for controlled local delivery of NGF and application in peripheral nerve gap injury. Approach: An NGF dosage curve was acquired to determine the minimum in vitro concentration for optimal neurite outgrowth of DRG (dorsal root ganglion) cells; PLGA based drug delivery devices were then designed and tested in vitro and in vivo across 15 mm rat sciatic nerve gap injury model...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825407/evaluation-of-high-density-multi-contact-nerve-cuffs-for-activation-of-grasp-muscles-in-monkeys
#13
Natalie A Brill, Stephanie Naufel Naufel, Katharine H Polasek, Christian Ethier, Jennifer Cheesborough, Sonya Agnew, Lee E Miller, Dustin J Tyler
Objective. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether nerve cuffs can selectively activate hand muscles for functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES typically involves identifying and implanting electrodes in many individual muscles, but nerve cuffs only require implantation at a single site around the nerve. This method is surgically more attractive. Nerve cuffs may also more effectively stimulate intrinsic hand muscles, which are typically difficult to individually implant and stimulate without spillover to adjacent muscles...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816702/as-above-so-below-towards-understanding-inverse-models-in-bci
#14
Jussi T Lindgren
In Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), measurements of the users brain activity are classified into commands for the computer. With EEG-based BCIs, the origins of the classified phenomena are often considered to be spatially localized in the cortical volume and mixed in the EEG. Does the reconstruction of the source activities in the volume help in building more accurate BCIs? The answer remains inconclusive despite previous work. In this paper, we study the question by contrasting the physiology-driven source reconstruction with data-driven representations obtained by statistical machine learning...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#15
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786397/integrated-trimodal-ssep-experimental-setup-for-visual-auditory-and-tactile-stimulation
#16
Rafal Kus, Tomasz Spustek, Magdalena Zieleniewska, Anna Duszyk, Piotr Rogowski, Piotr Suffczynski
Objective Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), the brain responses to repetitive stimulation are commonly used in both clinical practice and scientific research. Particular brain mechanisms underlying SSEPs in different modalities (i.e. visual, auditory and tactile) are very complex and still not completely understood. Each response has distinct resonant frequencies and exhibits a particular brain topography. Moreover, the topography can be frequency-dependent, as in case of auditory potentials. However, to study each modality separately and also to investigate multisensory interactions through multimodal experiments, a proper experimental setup appears to be of critical importance...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777075/numerical-evaluation-of-the-skull-for-human-neuromodulation-with-transcranial-focused-ultrasound
#17
Jerel K Mueller, Leo Ai, Priya Bansal, Wynn Legon
OBJECTIVE: Transcranial focused ultrasound is an emerging field for human non-invasive neuromodulation, but its dosing in humans is difficult to know due to the skull. The objective of the present study was to establish modeling methods based on medical images to assess skull differences between individuals on the wave propagation of ultrasound. APPROACH: Computational models of transcranial focused ultrasound were constructed using CT and MR scans to solve for intracranial pressure...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776500/invariance-and-variability-in-interaction-error-related-potentials-and-their-consequences-for-classification
#18
Mohammad Abu-Alqumsan, Christoph Kapeller, Christoph Hintermüller, Christoph Guger, Angelika Peer
OBJECTIVE: This paper discusses the invariance and variability in interaction error-related potentials (ErrPs), where a special focus is laid upon the factors of (1) the human mental processing required to assess interface actions (2) time (3) subjects. APPROACH: Three different experiments were designed as to vary primarily with respect to the mental processes that are necessary to assess whether an interface error has occurred or not. The three experiments were carried out with 11 subjects in a repeated-measures experimental design...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747582/an-improved-genetic-algorithm-for-designing-optimal-temporal-patterns-of-neural-stimulation
#19
Isaac Russell Cassar, Nathan David Titus, Warren M Grill
Electrical neuromodulation therapies typically apply constant frequency stimulation, but non-regular temporal patterns of stimulation may be more effective and more efficient. However, the design space for temporal patterns is exceedingly large, and model-based optimization is required for pattern design. We designed and implemented a modified genetic algorithm (GA) intended for design optimal temporal patterns of electrical neuromodulation. Approach: We tested and modified standard GA methods for application to designing temporal patterns of neural stimulation...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745303/extracellular-ph-monitoring-for-use-in-closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#20
Simon C Cork, Amir Eftekhar, Khalid B Mirza, James V Gardiner, Stephen R Bloom, Christofer Toumazou
OBJECTIVE: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown potential benefits for obesity treatment; however current devices lack physiological feedback, which limit their efficacy. Changes in extracellular pH (pH<sub>e</sub>) have shown to be correlated with neural activity, but have traditionally been measured with glass microelectrodes, which limit their in vivo applicability. APPROACH: Iridium oxide has previously been shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in pH and is biocompatible...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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