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Journal of Neural Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350199/cortical-visual-prostheses-from-microstimulation-to-functional-percept
#1
Armin Najarpour Foroushani, Christopher Pack, Mohamad Sawan
Cortical visual prostheses are intended to restore vision by targeted electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. The perception of spots of light, called phosphenes, resulting from microstimulation of the visual pathway, suggests the possibility of creating meaningful percept made of phosphenes. However, to date electrical stimulation of V1 has still not resulted in perception of phosphenated images that goes beyond punctate spots of light. In this review, we summarize the clinical and experimental progress that has been made in generating phosphenes and modulating their associated perceptual characteristics in human and macaque primary visual cortex (V1)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#2
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345632/brain-machine-interfaces-for-controlling-lower-limb-powered-robotic-systems
#3
Yongtian He, David Eguren, José M Azorín, Robert Grossman, Trieu Phat Luu, Jose Luis Pepe Contreras-Vidal
Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343650/decoder-calibration-with-ultra-small-current-sample-set-for-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#4
Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Luyao Chen, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang, Wei Li, Jiping He
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. APPROACH: Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339580/advantages-of-soft-subdural-implants-for-the-delivery-of-electrochemical-neuromodulation-therapies-to-the-spinal-cord
#5
Marco Capogrosso, Jérôme Gandar, Nathan Greiner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Nikolaus Wenger, Polina Shkorbatova, Pavel E Мusienko, Ivan Minev, Stephanie P Lacour, Gregoire Courtine
We recently developed soft neural interfaces enabling the delivery of electrical and chemical stimulation to the spinal cord. These stimulations restored locomotion in animal models of paralysis. Soft interfaces can be placed either below or above the dura mater. Theoretically, the subdural location combines many advantages, including increased selectivity of electrical stimulation, lower stimulation thresholds, and targeted chemical stimulation through local drug delivery. However, these advantages have not been documented, nor have their functional impact been studied in-silico or in a relevant animal model of neurological disorders using a multimodal neural interface...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309274/temporary-persistence-of-conduction-block-after-prolonged-kilohertz-frequency-alternating-current-on-rat-sciatic-nerve
#6
Narendra Bhadra, Emily Foldes, Tina Vrabec, Kevin Kilgore, Niloy Bhadra
OBJECTIVE: Application of kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms can result in nerve conduction block that is induced in less than a second. Conduction recovers within seconds when KHFAC is applied for about 5-10 min. This study investigated the effect of repeated and prolonged application of KHFAC on rat sciatic nerve with bipolar platinum electrodes. APPROACH: Varying durations of KHFAC at signal amplitudes for conduction block with intervals of no stimulus were studied...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303113/self-sensing-of-temperature-rises-on-light-emitting-diode-based-optrodes
#7
Fahimeh Dehkhoda, Ahmed Soltan, Nikhil Ponon, Andrew Jackson, Anthony G O'Neill, Patrick Degenaar
This work presents a method to determine the surface temperature of microphotonic medical implants like LEDs. Our inventive step is to use the photonic emitter (LED) employed in an implantable device as its own sensor and develop readout circuitry to accurately determine the surface temperature of the device. There are two primary classes of applications where microphotonics could be used in implantable devices; opto-electrophysiology, and fluorescence sensing. In such scenarios, intense light needs to be delivered to the target...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303112/biomimetic-hydrogels-direct-spinal-progenitor-cell-differentiation-and-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Sydney A Geissler, Alexandra L Sabin, Rachel R Besser, Olivia M Gooden, Bryce D Shirk, Quan M Nguyen, Zin Z Khaing, Christine E Schmidt
Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation [1]. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303111/chronic-implantation-of-cuff-electrodes-on-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats-is-well-tolerated-and-does-not-compromise-afferent-or-efferent-fibre-functionality
#9
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300002/design-strategies-for-dynamic-closed-loop-optogenetic-neurocontrol-in-vivo
#10
Michael F Bolus, Adam A Willats, Clarissa J Whitmire, Christopher J Rozell, Garrett B Stanley
Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300001/redesigning-existing-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-coils-to-reduce-energy-application-to-low-field-magnetic-stimulation
#11
Boshuo Wang, Michael R Shen, Zhi-De Deng, James Evan Smith, Joseph James Tharayil, Clement J Gurrey, Luis J Gomez, Angel V Peterchev
To present a systematic framework and exemplar for the development of a compact and energy-efficient coil that replicates the electric field (E-field) distribution induced by an existing transcranial magnetic stimulation coil. Approach. The E-field generated by a conventional low field magnetic stimulation (LFMS) coil was measured for a spherical head model and simulated in both spherical and realistic head models. Then, using a spherical head model and spatial harmonic decomposition, a spherical-shaped cap coil was synthesized such that its windings conformed to a spherical surface and replicated the E-field on the cortical surface while requiring less energy...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300000/the-use-of-tungsten-as-a-chronically-implanted-material
#12
Ahmad Shah Idil, Nick Donaldson
This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally by used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength and yield point. However a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271361/adaptive-spectral-tracking-for-coherence-estimation-the-z-tracker
#13
David Halliday, John-Stuart Brittain, Carl W Stevenson, Rob Mason
OBJECTIVE: A major challenge in non-stationary signal analysis is reliable estimation of correlation. Neurophysiological recordings can be many minutes in duration with data that exhibits correlation which changes over different time scales. Local smoothing can be used to estimate time-dependency, however, an effective framework needs to adjust levels of smoothing in response to changes in correlation. APPROACH: Here we present a novel data-adaptive algorithm, the z-tracker, for estimating local correlation in segmented data...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265009/eraasr-an-algorithm-for-removing-electrical-stimulation-artifacts-from-multielectrode-array-recordings
#14
Daniel Joseph O'Shea, Krishna V Shenoy
Electrical stimulation is a widely used and effective tool in systems neuroscience, neural prosthetics, and clinical neurostimulation. However, electrical artifacts evoked by stimulation prevent the detection of spiking activity on nearby recording electrodes, which obscures the neural population response evoked by stimulation. We sought to develop a method to clean artifact-corrupted electrode signals recorded on multielectrode arrays in order to recover the underlying neural spiking activity. Approach: We created ERAASR: an algorithm which performs Estimation and Removal of Array Artifacts via Sequential principal components Regression...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244032/evaluation-methods-as-quality-control-in-the-generation-of-decellularized-peripheral-nerve-allografts
#15
Charlot Philips, Ria Cornelissen, Víctor Carriel
Nowadays, the high incidence of peripheral nerve injuries and the low success ratio of surgical treatments are driving research to the generation of novel alternatives to repair critical nerve defects. In this sense, tissue engineering emerged as a possible alternative with special attention for decellularization techniques. Tissue decellularization offers the possibility to obtain a cell-free, natural extracellular matrix (ECM), characterized by an adequate three-dimensional organization and proper molecular composition to repair different tissues or organs, including peripheral nerves...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235448/how-do-the-reference-montage-and-electrodes-setup-affect-the-measured-scalp-eeg-potentials
#16
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro Antonio Valdés-Sosa, Maria Luisa Brings-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235446/optimized-programming-algorithm-for-cylindrical-and-directional-deep-brain-stimulation-electrodes
#17
Daria Nesterovich Anderson, Braxton Osting, Johannes Vorwerk, Alan Chuck Dorval, Christopher R Butson
 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a growing treatment option for movement and psychiatric disorders. As DBS technology moves toward directional leads with increased numbers of smaller electrode contacts, trial-and-error methods of manual DBS programming are becoming too time-consuming for clinical feasibility. We propose an algorithm to automate DBS programming in near real-time for a wide range of DBS lead designs. Approach: Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are used to build finite element models that include anisotropic conductivity...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235438/acoustic-stimulation-can-induce-a-selective-neural-network-response-mediated-by-piezoelectric-nanoparticles
#18
Camilo Andres Rojas Cifuentes, Mariateresa Tedesco, Paolo Massobrio, Attilio Marino, Gianni Ciofani, Sergio Martinoia, Roberto Raiteri
OBJECTIVE: We aim at developing novel non-invasive or minimally invasive methods for neural stimulation to be applied in the study and treatment of brain (dys)functions and neurological disorders. APPROACH: We investigate the electrophysiological response of in vitro neuronal networks when subjected to low intensity pulsed acoustic stimulation mediated by piezoelectric nanoparticles adsorbed on the neuronal membrane. MAIN RESULTS: We show that the presence of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles induces, in a reproducible way, an increase in the network activity when excited by stationary ultrasound waves in the MHz regime...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219123/chronic-cuffing-of-cervical-vagus-nerve-inhibits-efferent-fiber-integrity-in-rat-model
#19
Jesse Paul Somann, Gabriel Albors, Kaitlyn Neihouser, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu, Matthew Peter Ward, Abigail Durkes, J Paul Robinson, Terry Powley, Pedro Irazoqui
Numerous studies of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have been published showing it to be a potential treatment for chronic inflammation and other related diseases and disorders. Studies in recent years have shown that electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent fibers can artificially modulate cytokine levels and reduce systematic inflammation. Most VNS research in the treatment of inflammation have been acute studies on rodent subjects. Our study tested VNS on freely moving animals by stimulating and recording from the cervical vagus with nerve cuff electrodes over an extended period of time...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219118/adaptive-quantization-of-local-field-potentials-for-wireless-implants-in-freely-moving-animals-an-open-source-neural-recording-device
#20
Dominique Martinez, Maxime Clement, Belkacem Messaoudi, Damien Gervasoni, Philippe Litaudon, Nathalie Buonviso
OBJECTIVE: Modern neuroscience research asks for electrophysiological recording of local field potentials (LFPs) in moving animals. Wireless transmission has the advantage of removing the wires between the animal and the recording equipment but is hampered by the large amount of data to be sent at a relatively high rate. APPROACH: To reduce transmission bandwidth, we propose an encoder/decoder scheme based on adaptive non-uniform quantization. Our algorithm uses the current transmitted codeword to adapt the quantization intervals to changing statistics in LFP signals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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