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Journal of Neural Engineering

Yu-Cheng Pei, Ting-Yu Chen, Pei-Chun Hsu, Chen-Hung Lin, Jian-Jia Huang
Nerve injury is the main reason for nerve reconstruction surgery, during which the surgeon must determine the location of the injured nerve segment, resect it, and reconnect the remaining healthy nerve stump ends within a limited time. Given this importance, an assay needed to determine the exact location of the injured nerve segment, but no tool has yet fulfilled this need so that a visual inspection of the nerve is still the primary method of identifying the injured segment. We designed a flexible multi-electrode array sensor that records the electroneurographic signal (ENG) as the action potential elicited by electrical stimulation that propagates along the nerve upon both orthodromic and antidromic stimulation...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Subhadip Paul, Satyam Mukherjee, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Brain can be represented as a network, where anatomical regions are nodes and relations between regions are edges. Within a network, co-existence of cooperative and competitive relationships between different nodes is called coopetition. Inter-regional genetic influences on morphological phenotypes (thickness, surface area) of cerebral cortex display such coopetitive relationships. However, whether these cooperative and competitive genetic influences are organized similarly has remained elusive. How the collective organization of the cooperative and competitive genetic influences is related to the inter-individual variations of cortical morphological phenotypes has remained unexplored...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Marissa Rae Jones, Eric W Sellers
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology can be important for those unable to communicate due to loss of muscle control. Given that the P300 Speller provides a relatively slow rate of communication, highly accurate classification is of great importance. Previous studies have shown that alternative stimuli (e.g., faces) can improve BCI speed and accuracy. The present study uses two new alternative stimuli, locations and graspable tools. Functional MRI studies have shown that images of familiar locations produce brain responses in the parahippocampal place area and graspable tools produce brain responses in premotor cortex...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Gaia Amaranta Taberna, Marco Marino, Marco Ganzetti, Dante Mantini
A reliable reconstruction of neural activity using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) requires an accurate spatial localization of EEG electrodes aligned to the structural magnetic resonance (MR) image of an individual's head. Current technologies for electrode positioning, such as electromagnetic digitization, are yet characterized by non-negligible localization and co-registration errors. In this study, we propose an automated method for spatial localization of EEG electrodes using 3D scanning, a non-invasive and easy-to-use technology with potential applications in clinical settings...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Sinem Burcu Erdoğan, Eran Özsarfati, Burcu Dilek, Kübra Soğukkanlı Kadak, Lütfü Hanoğlu, Ata Akin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel methodology for classification of brain hemodynamic responses collected via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during rest, motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) tasks which involves generating population-level training sets. Main Approach: A 48 channel fNIRS system was utilized to obtain hemodynamic signals from the frontal (FC), primary motor (PMC) and somatosensory cortex (SMC) of 10 subjects during an experimental paradigm consisting of ME and MI of various right hand movements...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Victoria Peterson, Dominik Wyser, Olivier Lambercy, Ruben Spies, Roger Gassert
OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG), a promising technology to provide assistance and support rehabilitation of neurological patients with sensorimotor impairments, require a reliable and adaptable subject-specific model to efficiently decode motor intention. The most popular EEG feature extraction algorithm for MI-BCIs is the common spatial patterns (CSP) method, but its performance strongly depends on the predefined frequency band and time segment length for analyzing the EEG signal...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Andrey Mikhaylovich Demchinsky, Timur Bulatovich Shaimov, Daria Nikolaevna Goranskaya, Irina Moiseeva, Daniil Igorevich Kuznetsov, Denis Sergeevich Kuleshov, Dmitry Valerievich Polikanov
A 59-year-old man with retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss (clinical Usher syndrome) underwent surgery to implant the Argus II retinal prosthesis system in the right eye. This is the first case of retinal implant surgery in the Russian Federation. In this study we propose a new method for evaluating the functional results after implantation of the Argus II, the statistical analysis was performed to find correlations between the sizes of phosphenes that the patient drew and then were digitalized, and the height of the subimplant interface, retinal thickness, impedance, and perceptual threshold, which showed interesting mixed results...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lisa Y Maeng, Maria F Murillo, Michelle Mu, Meng-Chen Lo, Marjorie de la Rosa, Jonathan M O'Brien, Daniel Freeman, Alik S Widge
OBJECTIVE: Neurostimulation technologies are important for studying neural circuits and the connections that underlie neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, current methods come with limitations such as the restraint on movement imposed by the wires delivering stimulation. The objective of this study was to assess whether the e-Particle (EP), a novel wireless neurostimulator, could sufficiently stimulate the brain to modify behavior without these limitations. APPROACH: Rats were implanted with the EP and a commercially available stimulating electrode...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Qiyun Huang, Yang Chen, Zhijun Zhang, Shenghong He, Rui Zhang, Jun Liu, Yuandong Zhang, Ming Shao, Yuanqing Li
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we combine a wheelchair and an intelligent robotic arm based on electrooculogram (EOG) signal to help patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) accomplish a self-drinking task. The main challenge is to accurately control the wheelchair to ensure that the randomly located object is within a limited reachable space of the robotic arm (length: 0.8 m; width: 0.4 m; height: 0.6 m), which requires decimeter-level precision and is still unproved for EOG-based systems as well as EEG-based systems...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Maxime Yochum, Julien Modolo, David Mogul, Pascal Benquet, Fabrice Wendling
Among electrophysiological signals, Local Field Potentials (LFPs) are extensively used to study brain activity, either in vivo or in vitro. LFPs are recorded with extracellular electrodes implanted in brain tissue. They reflect intermingled excitatory and inhibitory processes in neuronal assemblies. In cortical structures, LFPs mainly originate from the summation of post-synaptic potentials (PSPs), either excitatory (ePSPs) or inhibitory (iPSPs) generated at the level of pyramidal cells. The challenging issue, addressed in this paper, is to estimate, from a single extracellularly-recorded signal, both ePSP and iPSP components of the LFP...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aung Thu Htet, Guilherme B Saturnino, Edward H Burnham, Gregory Noetscher, Aapo Nummenmaa, Sergey N Makarov
A study pertinent to the numerical modeling of cortical neurostimulation is conducted in an effort to compare the performance of the finite element method (FEM) and an original formulation of the boundary element fast multipole method (BEM-FMM) at matched computational performance metrics. We consider two problems: (i) a canonic multi-sphere geometry and an external magnetic-dipole excitation where the analytical solution is available and; (ii) a problem with realistic head models excited by a realistic coil geometry...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aprinda Indahlastari, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind Sadleir
To compare field measure differences in simulations of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) generated by variations in finite element (FE) models due to boundary condition specification, use of tissue compartment smoothing filters, and use of free or structured tetrahedral meshes based on magnetic resonance imaging data.
 Approach: A structural magnetic resonance image head volume was acquired at 1 mm3 resolution and segmented into ten tissue compartments. Predicted current densities and electric fields were computed in segmented models using modeling pipelines involving either an in-house (block) or a commercial platform commonly used in previous FE tES studies involving smoothed compartments and free meshing procedures (smooth)...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jan Behrenbeck, Zied Tayeb, Cyrine Bhiri, Christoph Richter, Oliver Rhodes, Nikola Kasabov, Josafath I Espinosa-Ramos, Steve Furber, Gordon Cheng, Jorg Conradt
The objective of this work is to use the capability of spiking neural networks to capture the spatio-temporal information encoded in time-series signals and decode them without the use of hand-crafted features and vector-based learning and the realization of the spiking model on low-power neuromorphic hardware. APPROACH: The NeuCube spiking model was used to classify different grasp movements directly from raw electromyography signals (sEMG), the estimations of the applied finger forces as well as the classification of two motor imagery movements from raw electroencephalography (EEG)...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Mohammed Amine Samoudi, Timothy Van Renterghem, Dick Botteldooren
OBJECTIVE: While transcranial focused ultrasound is a very promising neuromodulation technique for its non-invasiveness and high spatial resolution, its application to the human deep brain regions such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is relatively new. The objective of this study is to design a simple ultrasound transducer and study the transcranial wave propagation through a highly realistic human head model. The effects of skull morphology and skull and brain tissue properties on the focusing performance and energy deposition must therefore be known...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Shiran Shustak, Lilah Inzelberg, Stanislav Steinberg, David Rand, Moshe David-Pur, Inbar Hillel, Shlomit Katzav, Firas Fahoum, Maarten De Vos, Anat Mirelman, Yael Hanein
Circadian and sleep dysfunction have long been symptomatic hallmarks of a various devastating neurodegenerative conditions. The gold standard for sleep monitoring is overnight sleep in a Polysomnography (PSG) laboratory. However, this method has several limitations such as availability, cost and being labour-intensive. In recent years there is heightened interest in home-based sleep monitoring via wearable sensors. Printed electrode arrays offer exciting opportunities in the realm of wearable electrophysiology...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Steven Baldassano, Xuelong Zhao, Benjamin Henry Brinkmann, Vaclav Kremen, John Bernabei, Mark J Cook, Timothy J Denison, Gregory A Worrell, Brian Litt
Closed-loop implantable neural stimulators are an exciting treatment option for patients with medically refractory epilepsy, with a number of new devices in or nearing clinical trials. These devices must accurately detect a variety of seizure types in order to reliably deliver therapeutic stimulation. While effective, broadly-applicable seizure detection algorithms have recently been published, these methods are too computationally intensive to be directly deployed in an implantable device. We demonstrate a strategy that couples devices to cloud computing resources in order to implement complex seizure detection methods on an implantable device platform...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yao-Chuan Chang, Dorsa Haji Ghaffari, Robert H Chow, James David Weiland
 Retinal prosthetic implants restore partial vision to patients blinded due to outer retinal degeneration, using a camera-guided multielectrode array (MEA) that electrically stimulates surviving retinal neurons. Commercial epi-retinal prostheses use millisecond-scale charge-balanced, symmetric, cathodic-first biphasic pulses to depolarize retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and bipolar cells (BCs), frequently creating oblong perceptions of light related to axonal activation of RGCs. Stimulation strategies that avoid axonal stimulation and decrease the threshold of targeted neurons may significantly improve prosthetic vision in terms of spatial resolution and power efficiency...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Doe Kumsa, Eric M Hudak, Narendra Bhadra, J Thomas Mortimer
OBJECTIVE: Charge injection through platinum neural stimulation electrodes is often constrained by the Shannon limit1 of k=1.75. By leveraging the tools of electrochemistry to better understand the reactions at electrode-tissue interface, we endeavor to find a way to safely inject more charge than allowed if the traditional Shannon limit were followed. APPROACH: In previous studies on platinum electrodes using charge-balanced, cathodic-first, biphasic pulses, we noted that during the secondary anodic phase, the electrode potential moves into a range where platinum dissolution is possible when charge injection is greater than k=1...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Robert K Shepherd, Paul Carter, Ya Lang Enke, Andrew K Wise, James B Fallon
OBJECTIVE: Although there are useful guidelines defining the boundary between damaging and non-damaging electrical stimulation they were derived from acute studies using large surface area electrodes in direct contact with cortical neurons. These parameters are a small subset of the parameters used by neural stimulators. More recently, histological examination of cochleae from patients that were long-term cochlear implant users have shown evidence of particulate platinum (Pt). The pathophysiological effect of Pt within the cochlea is unknown...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Steven M Peterson, Daniel Perry Ferris
Objective Due to its high temporal resolution, electroencephalography (EEG) has become a promising tool for quantifying cortical dynamics and effective connectivity in a mobile setting. While many connectivity estimators are available, the efficacy of these measures has not been rigorously validated in real-world scenarios. The goal of this study was to quantify the accuracy of independent component analysis and multiple connectivity measures on ground-truth connections while exposed real-world volume conduction and head motion...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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