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Journal of Neural Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224972/a-mathematical-model-for-the-two-learners-problem
#1
Jan Mueller, Carmen Vidaurre, Martijn Schreuder, Frank Meinecke, Paul von Bünau, Klaus-Robert Mueller
OBJECTIVE: We present the first generic theoretical formulation of the co-adaptive learning problem and give a simple example of two interacting linear learning systems, a human and a machine. APPROACH: After the description of the training protocol of the two learning systems, we define a simple linear model where the two learning agents are coupled by a joint loss function. The simplicity of the model allows us to find learning rules for both human and machine that permit computing theoretical simulations...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224970/an-improved-p300-pattern-in-bci-to-catch-user-s-attention
#2
Jing Jin, Hanhan Zhang, Daly Ian, Xingyu Wang, Andrzej Cichocki
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can help patients who have lost control over most muscles but are still conscious and able to communicate or interact with the environment. One of the most popular types of BCI is the P300-based BCI. With this BCI, users are asked to count the number of appearances of target stimuli in an experiment. To date, the majority of visual P300-based BCI systems developed have used the same character or picture as the target for every stimulus presentation, which can bore users...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220764/dimensionality-reduction-based-on-distance-preservation-to-local-mean-dplm-for-spd-matrices-and-its-application-in-bci
#3
Alireza Davoudi, Saeed Shiry Ghidary, Khadijeh Sadatnejad
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm for the manifold of Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices that considers the geometry of SPD matrices and provides a low dimensional representation of the manifold with high class discrimination in a supervised or unsupervised manner. APPROACH: The proposed algorithm, tries to preserve the local structure of the data by preserving distances to local means (DPLM) and also provides an implicit projection matrix...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220759/musculoskeletal-model-based-control-interface-mimics-physiologic-hand-dynamics-during-path-tracing-task
#4
Dustin Lee Crouch, Helen Huang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. APPROACH: A two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5 to 10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given 3 attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211795/a-murine-model-of-a-novel-surgical-architecture-for-proprioceptive-muscle-feedback-and-its-potential-application-to-control-of-advanced-limb-prostheses
#5
Tyler R Clites, Matthew Carty, Shriya Srinivasan, Anthony Zorzos, Hugh Herr
<i>Objective:</i> Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the Agonist-antagonist Myoplastic Interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198704/simultaneous-in-vivo-recording-of-local-brain-temperature-and-electrophysiological-signals-with-a-novel-neural-probe
#6
Zoltan Fekete, Márton Csernai, Kinga Kocsis, Ágoston Csaba Horváth, Anita Pongrácz, Péter Barthó
Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, the simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, while records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198703/implantable-optoelectronic-probes-for-in-vivo-optogenetics
#7
Ege Iseri, Duygu Kuzum
More than a decade has passed since optics and genetics came together and lead to the emerging technologies of optogenetics. The advent of light-sensitive opsins made it possible to optically trigger the neurons into activation or inhibition by using visible light. The importance of spatiotemporally isolating a segment of a neural network and controlling nervous signaling in a precise manner has driven neuroscience researchers and engineers to invest great efforts in designing high precision in-vivo implantable devices...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198356/a-comparison-study-of-visually-stimulated-brain-computer-and-eye-tracking-interfaces
#8
Kaori Suefusa, Toshihisa Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Brain--computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye tracking or eye tracking interfaces (ETIs). Both types of interfaces have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on the comprehensive comparison between these two types of interfaces has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198354/noise-robust-unsupervised-spike-sorting-based-on-discriminative-subspace-learning-with-outlier-handling
#9
Mohammad Reza Keshtkaran, Zhi Yang
OBJECTIVE: Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192282/classifier-transfer-with-data-selection-strategies-for-online-support-vector-machine-classification-with-class-imbalance
#10
Mario Michael Krell, Nils Wilshusen, Anett Seeland, Su Kyoung Kim
OBJECTIVE: Classifier transfers usually come with dataset shifts. To overcome dataset shifts in practical applications, we consider the limitations in computational resources in this paper for the adaptation of batch learning algorithms, like the support vector machine (SVM). APPROACH: We focus on data selection strategies which limit the size of the stored training data by different inclusion, exclusion, and further dataset manipulation criteria like handling class imbalance with two new approaches...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177925/signal-independent-noise-in-intracortical-brain-computer-interfaces-causes-movement-time-properties-inconsistent-with-fitts-law
#11
Francis R Willett, Brian A Murphy, William D Memberg, Christine H Blabe, Chethan Pandarinath, Benjamin L Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan P Miller, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, Leigh R Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, A Bolu Ajiboye
OBJECTIVE: Do movements made with an intracortical BCI (iBCI) have the same movement time properties as able-bodied movements? Able-bodied movement times typically obey Fitts' law: [Formula: see text] (where MT is movement time, D is target distance, R is target radius, and [Formula: see text] are parameters). Fitts' law expresses two properties of natural movement that would be ideal for iBCIs to restore: (1) that movement times are insensitive to the absolute scale of the task (since movement time depends only on the ratio [Formula: see text]) and (2) that movements have a large dynamic range of accuracy (since movement time is logarithmically proportional to [Formula: see text])...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177924/adapted-wavelet-transform-improves-time-frequency-representations-a-study-of-auditory-elicited-p300-like-event-related-potentials-in-rats
#12
Nelly Richard, Bettina Laursen, Morten Grupe, Asbjørn M Drewes, Carina Graversen, Helge B D Sørensen, Jesper F Bastlund
OBJECTIVE: Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169219/open-ephys-an-open-source-plugin-based-platform-for-multichannel-electrophysiology
#13
Joshua Handman Siegle, Aarón Cuevas López, Yogi Patel, Kirill Abramov, Shay Ohayon, Jakob Voigts
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments, in which causal interventions are conditioned on the state of the system under investigation, have become increasingly common in neuroscience. Such experiments can have a high degree of explanatory power, but they require a precise implementation that can be difficult to replicate across laboratories. We sought to overcome this limitation by building open-source software that makes it easier to develop and share algorithms for closed-loop control. APPROACH: We created the Open Ephys GUI, an open-source platform for multichannel electrophysiology experiments...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157088/transdermal-optogenetic-peripheral-nerve-stimulation
#14
Benjamin Maimon, Anthony Nicholas Zorzos, Rhys Bendell, Alexander Harding, Mina Fahmi, Shriya Srinivasan, Peter Calvaresi, Hugh Herr
A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats, we demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155848/optimal-voltage-stimulation-parameters-for-network-mediated-responses-in-wild-type-and-rd10-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells
#15
Archana Jalligampala, Sudarshan Sekhar, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel L Rathbun
To further improve the quality of visual percepts elicited by microelectronic retinal prosthetics, substantial efforts have been made to understand how retinal neurons respond to electrical stimulation. It is generally assumed that a sufficiently strong stimulus will recruit most retinal neurons. However, recent evidence has shown that the responses of some retinal neurons decrease with excessively strong stimuli (a non-monotonic response function). Therefore, it is necessary to identify stimuli that can be used to activate the majority of retinal neurons even when such non-monotonic cells are part of the neuronal population...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155844/enhanced-biocompatibility-of-neural-probes-by-integrating-microstructures-and-delivering-anti-inflammatory-agents-via-microfluidic-channels
#16
Bin Liu, Eric Kim, Anika Meggo, Sachin Gandhi, Hao Luo, Srinivas Kallakuri, Yong Xu, Jinsheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Biocompatibility is a major issue for chronic neural implants, involving inflammatory and wound healing responses of neurons and glial cells. To enhance biocompatibility, we developed silicon-parylene hybrid neural probes with open architecture electrodes, microfluidic channels and a reservoir for drug delivery to suppress tissue responses. APPROACH: We chronically implanted our neural probes in the rat auditory cortex and investigated (1) whether open architecture electrode reduces inflammatory reaction by measuring glial responses; and (2) whether delivery of antibiotic minocycline reduces inflammatory and tissue reaction...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155841/reference-layer-adaptive-filtering-rlaf-for-eeg-artifact-reduction-in-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#17
David Steyrl, Gunther Krausz, Karl Koschutnig, Günter Edlinger, Gernot R Müller-Putz
OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combines advantages of both methods, namely high temporal resolution of EEG and high spatial resolution of fMRI. However, EEG quality is limited due to severe artifacts caused by fMRI scanners. APPROACH: To improve EEG data quality substantially, we introduce methods that use a reusable reference layer EEG cap prototype in combination with adaptive filtering. The first method, reference layer adaptive filtering (RLAF), uses adaptive filtering with reference layer artifact data to optimize artifact subtraction from EEG...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145275/the-effect-of-binaural-beats-on-verbal-working-memory-and-cortical-connectivity
#18
Christine Beauchene, Nicole Abaid, Rosalyn Moran, Rachel Diana, Alexander Leonessa
OBJECTIVE: Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145274/the-hybrid-bci-system-for-movement-control-by-combining-motor-imagery-and-moving-onset-visual-evoked-potential
#19
Teng Ma, Hui Li, Lili Deng, Hao Yang, Xulin Lv, Peiyang Li, Fali Li, Rui Zhang, Tiejun Liu, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. APPROACH: In current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140365/multichannel-activity-propagation-across-an-engineered-axon-network
#20
Han-Chiao Isaac Chen, John Wolf, Douglas Smith
OBJECTIVE: Although substantial progress has been made in mapping the connections of the brain, less is known about how this organization translates into brain function. In particular, the massive interconnectivity of the brain has made it difficult to specifically examine data transmission between two nodes of the connectome, a central component of the "neural code." Here, we investigated the propagation of multiple streams of asynchronous neuronal activity across an isolated in vitro "connectome unit...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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