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Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539485/correction-to-quantification-of-the-efficacy-of-collagen-cross-linking-agents-to-induce-stiffening-of-rat-sclera
#1
Ian C Campbell, Bailey G Hannon, A Thomas Read, Joseph M Sherwood, Stephen A Schwaner, C Ross Ethier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539484/variation-of-thermal-conductivity-of-dppc-lipid-bilayer-membranes-around-the-phase-transition-temperature
#2
Sina Youssefian, Nima Rahbar, Christopher R Lambert, Steven Van Dessel
Given their amphiphilic nature and chemical structure, phospholipids exhibit a strong thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour in an aqueous environment. Around the phase transition temperature, phospholipids transform from a gel-like state to a fluid crystalline structure. In this transition, many key characteristics of the lipid bilayers such as structure and thermal properties alter. In this study, we employed atomistic simulation techniques to study the structure and underlying mechanisms of heat transfer in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers around the fluid-gel phase transformation...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539483/fundamentals-of-soft-robot-locomotion
#3
REVIEW
M Calisti, G Picardi, C Laschi
Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539482/multi-cored-vortices-support-function-of-slotted-wing-tips-of-birds-in-gliding-and-flapping-flight
#4
Marco KleinHeerenbrink, L Christoffer Johansson, Anders Hedenström
Slotted wing tips of birds are commonly considered an adaptation to improve soaring performance, despite their presence in species that neither soar nor glide. We used particle image velocimetry to measure the airflow around the slotted wing tip of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) as well as in its wake during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel. The separated primary feathers produce individual wakes, confirming a multi-slotted function, in both gliding and flapping flight. The resulting multi-cored wingtip vortex represents a spreading of vorticity, which has previously been suggested as indicative of increased aerodynamic efficiency...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539481/inferring-stratified-parasitoid-dispersal-mechanisms-and-parameters-from-coarse-data-using-mathematical-and-bayesian-methods
#5
Christopher Strickland, Nadiah P Kristensen, Laura Miller
Biological invasions have movement at the core of their success. However, due to difficulties in collecting data, medium- and long-distance dispersal of small insects has long been poorly understood and likely to be underestimated. The agricultural release of parasitic hymenoptera, a group of wasps that are critical for biological pest control, represents a rare opportunity to study the spread of insects on multiple spatial scales. As these insects are typically less than 1 mm in size and are challenging to track individually, a first-time biocontrol release will provide a known spatial position and time of initial release for all individuals that are subsequently collected...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539480/identification-of-vortex-structures-in-a-cohort-of-204-intracranial-aneurysms
#6
Nicole Varble, Gabriel Trylesinski, Jianping Xiang, Kenneth Snyder, Hui Meng
An intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a cerebrovascular pathology that can lead to death or disability if ruptured. Abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) has been associated with IA growth and rupture, but little is known about the underlying flow physics related to rupture-prone IAs. Previous studies, based on analysis of a few aneurysms or partial views of three-dimensional vortex structures, suggest that rupture is associated with complex vortical flow inside IAs. To further elucidate the relevance of vortical flow in aneurysm pathophysiology, we studied 204 patient IAs (56 ruptured and 148 unruptured)...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515328/mechanotransmission-in-endothelial-cells-subjected-to-oscillatory-and-multi-directional-shear-flow
#7
Mahsa Dabagh, Payman Jalali, Peter J Butler, Amanda Randles, John M Tarbell
Local haemodynamics are linked to the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosic lesions in arteries. Low and oscillatory (reversing in the axial flow direction) wall shear stress (WSS) induce inflammatory responses in endothelial cells (ECs) mediating disease localization. The objective of this study is to investigate computationally how the flow direction (reflected in WSS variation on the EC surface over time) influences the forces experienced by structural components of ECs that are believed to play important roles in mechanotransduction...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515327/minimum-action-principle-and-shape-dynamics
#8
Patrice Koehl
In this paper, we propose a new method for computing a distance between two shapes embedded in three-dimensional space. Instead of comparing directly the geometric properties of the two shapes, we measure the cost of deforming one of the two shapes into the other. The deformation is computed as the geodesic between the two shapes in the space of shapes. The geodesic is found as a minimizer of the Onsager-Machlup action, based on an elastic energy for shapes that we define. Its length is set to be the integral of the action along that path; it defines an intrinsic quasi-metric on the space of shapes...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515326/semantic-closure-demonstrated-by-the-evolution-of-a-universal-constructor-architecture-in-an-artificial-chemistry
#9
Edward B Clark, Simon J Hickinbotham, Susan Stepney
We present a novel stringmol-based artificial chemistry system modelled on the universal constructor architecture (UCA) first explored by von Neumann. In a UCA, machines interact with an abstract description of themselves to replicate by copying the abstract description and constructing the machines that the abstract description encodes. DNA-based replication follows this architecture, with DNA being the abstract description, the polymerase being the copier, and the ribosome being the principal machine in expressing what is encoded on the DNA...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490607/reviewers-in-2016
#10
EDITORIAL
Leslie Dutton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490606/comparison-of-10-murine-models-reveals-a-distinct-biomechanical-phenotype-in-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms
#11
C Bellini, M R Bersi, A W Caulk, J Ferruzzi, D M Milewicz, F Ramirez, D B Rifkin, G Tellides, H Yanagisawa, J D Humphrey
Thoracic aortic aneurysms are life-threatening lesions that afflict young and old individuals alike. They frequently associate with genetic mutations and are characterized by reduced elastic fibre integrity, dysfunctional smooth muscle cells, improperly remodelled collagen and pooled mucoid material. There is a pressing need to understand better the compromised structural integrity of the aorta that results from these genetic mutations and renders the wall vulnerable to dilatation, dissection or rupture. In this paper, we compare the biaxial mechanical properties of the ascending aorta from 10 murine models: wild-type controls, acute elastase-treated, and eight models with genetic mutations affecting extracellular matrix proteins, transmembrane receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, or intracellular signalling molecules...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490605/adhesion-modulation-using-glue-droplet-spreading-in-spider-capture-silk
#12
Gaurav Amarpuri, Ci Zhang, Todd A Blackledge, Ali Dhinojwala
Orb web spiders use sticky capture spiral silk to retain prey in webs. Capture spiral silk is composed of an axial fibre of flagelliform silk covered with glue droplets that are arranged in a beads-on-a-string morphology that allows multiple droplets to simultaneously extend and resist pull off. Previous studies showed that the adhesion of capture silk is responsive to environmental humidity, increasing up to an optimum humidity that varied among different spider species. The maximum adhesion was hypothesized to occur when the viscoelasticity of the glue optimized contributions from glue spreading and bulk cohesion...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490604/the-evolution-of-lossy-compression
#13
Sarah E Marzen, Simon DeDeo
In complex environments, there are costs to both ignorance and perception. An organism needs to track fitness-relevant information about its world, but the more information it tracks, the more resources it must devote to perception. As a first step towards a general understanding of this trade-off, we use a tool from information theory, rate-distortion theory, to study large, unstructured environments with fixed, randomly drawn penalties for stimuli confusion ('distortions'). We identify two distinct regimes for organisms in these environments: a high-fidelity regime where perceptual costs grow linearly with environmental complexity, and a low-fidelity regime where perceptual costs are, remarkably, independent of the number of environmental states...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490603/inferring-single-cell-behaviour-from-large-scale-epithelial-sheet-migration-patterns
#14
Rachel M Lee, Haicen Yue, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Wolfgang Losert
Cell migration plays an important role in a wide variety of biological processes and can incorporate both individual cell motion and collective behaviour. The emergent properties of collective migration are receiving increasing attention as collective motion's role in diseases such as metastatic cancer becomes clear. Yet, how individual cell behaviour influences large-scale, multi-cell collective motion remains unclear. In this study, we provide insight into the mechanisms behind collective migration by studying cell migration in a spreading monolayer of epithelial MCF10A cells...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490602/processes-on-the-emergent-landscapes-of-biochemical-reaction-networks-and-heterogeneous-cell-population-dynamics-differentiation-in-living-matters
#15
REVIEW
Sui Huang, Fangting Li, Joseph X Zhou, Hong Qian
The notion of an attractor has been widely employed in thinking about the nonlinear dynamics of organisms and biological phenomena as systems and as processes. The notion of a landscape with valleys and mountains encoding multiple attractors, however, has a rigorous foundation only for closed, thermodynamically non-driven, chemical systems, such as a protein. Recent advances in the theory of nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems and its applications to mesoscopic reaction networks, one reaction at a time, have provided a new basis for a landscape of open, driven biochemical reaction systems under sustained chemostat...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490601/optimizing-mating-encounters-by-sexually-dimorphic-movements
#16
Nobuaki Mizumoto, Masato S Abe, Shigeto Dobata
All organisms with sexual reproduction undergo a process of mating, which essentially involves the encounter of two individuals belonging to different sexes. During mate search, both sexes should mutually optimize their encounters, thus raising a question of how they achieve this. Here, we show that a population with sexually dimorphic movement patterns achieves the highest individual mating success under a limited lifespan. Extensive simulations found and analytical approximations corroborated the existence of conditions under which sexual dimorphism in the movement patterns (i...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468924/jumping-without-slipping-leafhoppers-hemiptera-cicadellidae-possess-special-tarsal-structures-for-jumping-from-smooth-surfaces
#17
Christofer J Clemente, Hanns Hagen Goetzke, James M R Bullock, Gregory P Sutton, Malcolm Burrows, Walter Federle
Many hemipteran bugs can jump explosively from plant substrates, which can be very smooth. We therefore analysed the jumping performance of froghoppers (Philaenus spumarius, Aphrophoridae) and leafhoppers (Aphrodes bicinctus/makarovi, Cicadellidae) taking off from smooth (glass) and rough (sandpaper, 30 µm asperity size) surfaces. On glass, the propulsive hind legs of Philaenus froghoppers slipped, resulting in uncontrolled jumps with a fast forward spin, a steeper angle and only a quarter of the velocity compared with jumps from rough surfaces...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468923/three-dimensional-midwater-camouflage-from-a-novel-two-component-photonic-structure-in-hatchetfish-skin
#18
Eric I Rosenthal, Amanda L Holt, Alison M Sweeney
The largest habitat by volume on Earth is the oceanic midwater, which is also one of the least understood in terms of animal ecology. The organisms here exhibit a spectacular array of optical adaptations for living in a visual void that have only barely begun to be described. We describe a complex pattern of broadband scattering from the skin of Argyropelecus sp., a hatchetfish found in the mesopelagic zone of the world's oceans. Hatchetfish skin superficially resembles the unpolished side of aluminium foil, but on closer inspection contains a complex composite array of subwavelength-scale dielectric structures...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468922/form-and-function-of-the-teleost-lateral-line-revealed-using-three-dimensional-imaging-and-computational-fluid-dynamics
#19
Hendrik Herzog, Birgit Klein, Alexander Ziegler
Fishes sense weak water motion using the lateral line. Among the thousands of described fish species, this organ may differ in size, shape and distribution of individual mechanoreceptors or lateral line canals. The reasons for this diversity remain unclear, but are very likely related to habitat preferences. To better understand the performance of the organ in natural hydrodynamic surroundings, various three-dimensional imaging datasets of the cephalic lateral line were gathered using Leuciscus idus as representative freshwater teleost...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468921/correction-to-body-monitoring-with-photonic-textiles-a-reflective-heartbeat-sensor-based-on-polymer-optical-fibres
#20
Brit M Quandt, Fabian Braun, Damien Ferrario, René M Rossi, Anke Scheel-Sailer, Martin Wolf, Gian-Luca Bona, Rudolf Hufenus, Lukas J Scherer, Luciano F Boesel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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