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Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

Shi Zhao, Chris T Bauch, Daihai He
Visitors can play an important role in the spread of infections. Here, we incorporate an epidemic model into a game theoretical framework to investigate the effects of travel strategies on infection control. Potential visitors must decide whether to travel to a destination that is at risk of infectious disease outbreaks. We compare the individually optimal (Nash equilibrium) strategy to the group optimal strategy that maximizes the overall population utility. Economic epidemiological models often find that individual and group optimal strategies are very different...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Federico Battiston, Jeremy Guillon, Mario Chavez, Vito Latora, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani
What is the core of the human brain is a fundamental question that has been mainly addressed by studying the anatomical connections between differently specialized areas, thus neglecting the possible contributions from their functional interactions. While many methods are available to identify the core of a network when connections between nodes are all of the same type, a principled approach to define the core when multiple types of connectivity are allowed is still lacking. Here, we introduce a general framework to define and extract the core-periphery structure of multi-layer networks by explicitly taking into account the connectivity patterns at each layer...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Saki Takahashi, C Jessica E Metcalf, Yuzo Arima, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Hiroyuki Shimizu, H Rogier van Doorn, Tan Le Van, Yoke-Fun Chan, Jeremy J Farrar, Kazunori Oishi, Bryan T Grenfell
Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease have been documented in Japan since 1963. This disease is primarily caused by the two closely related serotypes of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Here, we analyse Japanese virologic and syndromic surveillance time-series data from 1982 to 2015. As in some other countries in the Asia Pacific region, EV-A71 in Japan has a 3 year cyclical component, whereas CV-A16 is predominantly annual. We observe empirical signatures of an inhibitory interaction between the serotypes; virologic lines of evidence suggest they may indeed interact immunologically...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Sean Aller, Andrew Scott, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Orkun S Soyer
Current and reoccurring viral epidemic outbreaks such as those caused by the Zika virus illustrate the need for rapid development of antivirals. Such development would be facilitated by computational approaches that can provide experimentally testable predictions for possible antiviral strategies. To this end, we focus here on the fact that viruses are directly dependent on their host metabolism for reproduction. We develop a stoichiometric, genome-scale metabolic model that integrates human macrophage cell metabolism with the biochemical demands arising from virus production and use it to determine the virus impact on host metabolism and vice versa...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Timothy G Vaughan, Tanja Stadler
HIV patients form clusters in HIV transmission networks. Accurate identification of these transmission clusters is essential to effectively target public health interventions. One reason for clustering is that the underlying contact network contains many local communities. We present a new maximum-likelihood method for identifying transmission clusters caused by community structure, based on phylogenetic trees. The method employs a multi-state birth-death (MSBD) model which detects changes in transmission rate, which are interpreted as the introduction of the epidemic into a new susceptible community, i...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Steven E Massey, Bud Mishra
Biological macromolecules encode information: some of it to endow the molecule with structural flexibility, some of it to enable molecular actions as a catalyst or a substrate, but a residual part can be used to communicate with other macromolecules. Thus, macromolecules do not need to possess information only to survive in an environment, but also to strategically interact with others by sending signals to a receiving macromolecule that can properly interpret the signal and act suitably. These sender-receiver signalling games are sustained by the information asymmetry that exists among the macromolecules...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Guillermo Vilanova, Miguel Burés, Ignasi Colominas, Hector Gomez
Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from pre-existing ones, plays a key role in cancer progression. Tumours release tumour angiogenic factors (TAFs) into the extracellular matrix (ECM) that trigger angiogenesis once they reach the vasculature. The neovasculature provides nutrients and oxygen to the tumour. In the ECM, the interstitial fluid moves driven by pressure differences and may affect the distribution of tumour TAFs, and, in turn, tumour vascularization. In this work, we propose a hybrid mathematical model to investigate the influence of fluid flow in tumour angiogenesis...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Sylvain Billiard, Vincent Bansaye, J-R Chazottes
Functional responses are widely used to describe interactions and resource exchange between individuals in ecology. The form given to functional responses dramatically affects the dynamics and stability of populations and communities. Despite their importance, functional responses are generally considered with a phenomenological approach, without clear mechanistic justifications from individual traits and behaviours. Here, we develop a bottom-up stochastic framework grounded in renewal theory that shows how functional responses emerge from the level of the individuals through the decomposition of interactions into different activities...
September 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Jana R Montgomery, Alena M Grabowski
People with transtibial amputations (TTAs) who use a powered ankle-foot prosthesis have equivalent metabolic costs and step-to-step transition work for level-ground walking over a range of speeds compared to non-amputees. The effects of using a powered compared to passive-elastic prosthesis for sloped walking are unknown. We sought to understand how the use of passive-elastic compared to powered ankle-foot prostheses affect metabolic cost and step-to-step transition work during sloped walking. Ten people (six M, four F) with TTAs walked 1...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Jan Bartussek, Fritz-Olaf Lehmann
Rhythmic locomotor behaviour in animals requires exact timing of muscle activation within the locomotor cycle. In rapidly oscillating motor systems, conventional control strategies may be affected by neural delays, making these strategies inappropriate for precise timing control. In flies, wing control thus requires sensory processing within the peripheral nervous system, circumventing the central brain. The underlying mechanism, with which flies integrate graded depolarization of visual interneurons and spiking proprioceptive feedback for precise muscle activation, is under debate...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
T Shams, U E Illangakoon, M Parhizkar, A H Harker, S Edirisinghe, M Orlu, M Edirisinghe
Single and coaxial electrospraying was used to prepare Eudragit L100-55 polymer microparticles containing prednisolone as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Different compositions of prednisolone and Eudragit L100-55 were used to develop five different formulations with different polymer : drug ratios. The resultant microparticles had a toroidal shape with a narrow size distribution. Prednisolone was present in an amorphous physical state, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Dissolution studies were carried out in order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed system for site-specific release of prednisolone...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Katie J Grayson, J L Ross Anderson
A principal goal of synthetic biology is the de novo design or redesign of biomolecular components. In addition to revealing fundamentally important information regarding natural biomolecular engineering and biochemistry, functional building blocks will ultimately be provided for applications including the manufacture of valuable products and therapeutics. To fully realize this ambitious goal, the designed components must be biocompatible, working in concert with natural biochemical processes and pathways, while not adversely affecting cellular function...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Hannah Donnelly, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Matthew J Dalby
Mesenchymal stem cells, characterized by their ability to differentiate into skeletal tissues and self-renew, hold great promise for both regenerative medicine and novel therapeutic discovery. However, their regenerative capacity is retained only when in contact with their specialized microenvironment, termed the stem cell niche Niches provide structural and functional cues that are both biochemical and biophysical, stem cells integrate this complex array of signals with intrinsic regulatory networks to meet physiological demands...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
S H Eshghi, M Jafarpour, A Darvizeh, S N Gorb, H Rajabi
Nature has evolved structures with high load-carrying capacity and long-term durability. The principles underlying the functionality of such structures, if studied systematically, can inspire the design of more efficient engineering systems. An important step in this process is to characterize the material properties of the structure under investigation. However, direct mechanical measurements on small complex-shaped biological samples involve numerous technical challenges. To overcome these challenges, we developed a method for estimation of the elastic modulus of insect cuticle, the second most abundant biological composite in nature, through simple light microscopy...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Marvin A Böttcher, David Dingli, Benjamin Werner, Arne Traulsen
The cellular age distribution of hierarchically organized tissues can reveal important insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and self-renewal and associated cancer risks. Here, we examine the effect of progenitor compartments with varying differentiation and self-renewal capacities on the resulting observable distributions of replicative cellular ages. We find that strongly amplifying progenitor compartments, i.e. compartments with high self-renewal capacities, substantially broaden the age distributions which become skewed towards younger cells with a long tail of few old cells...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Silvia Vitali, Vittoria Sposini, Oleksii Sliusarenko, Paolo Paradisi, Gastone Castellani, Gianni Pagnini
The problem of biological motion is a very intriguing and topical issue. Many efforts are being focused on the development of novel modelling approaches for the description of anomalous diffusion in biological systems, such as the very complex and heterogeneous cell environment. Nevertheless, many questions are still open, such as the joint manifestation of statistical features in agreement with different models that can also be somewhat alternative to each other, e.g. continuous time random walk and fractional Brownian motion...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
M O'Neill, R Mala, D Cafiso, C Bignardi, D Taylor
Limpets and other molluscs rely on shells to protect them from physical damage, predation, dehydration, etc. If the shell becomes damaged, this may significantly impair its function. In this work, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of damage on the strength of shells of the common limpet ( Patella vulgata ) and their ability to repair this damage effectively. Shells were damaged in three ways: (i) low-energy impacts; (ii) abrasion of the outer layer; and (iii) creation of a small hole in the apex of the shell...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Ka Yin Leung, Frank Ball, David Sirl, Tom Britton
The outbreak of an infectious disease in a human population can lead to individuals responding with preventive measures in an attempt to avoid getting infected. This leads to changes in contact patterns. However, as we show in this paper, rational behaviour at the individual level, such as social distancing from infectious contacts, may not always be beneficial for the population as a whole. We use epidemic network models to demonstrate the potential negative consequences at the population level. We take into account the social structure of the population through several network models...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Ludovica Beltrame, Toby Dunne, Hannah Rose Vineer, Josephine G Walker, Eric R Morgan, Peter Vickerman, Catherine M McCann, Diana J L Williams, Thorsten Wagener
The majority of existing models for predicting disease risk in response to climate change are empirical. These models exploit correlations between historical data, rather than explicitly describing relationships between cause and response variables. Therefore, they are unsuitable for capturing impacts beyond historically observed variability and have limited ability to guide interventions. In this study, we integrate environmental and epidemiological processes into a new mechanistic model, taking the widespread parasitic disease of fasciolosis as an example...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Alexander Blanke
Insect wings show a high variability in wing venation. Selection for function, developmental pathways and phylogeny likely influenced wing vein diversification, however, quantitative data to estimate these influences and their interplay are missing. Here, it is tested how dragonfly wing vein configuration is influenced by functional demands, development, phylogeny and allometry using the concepts of modularity and integration. In an evolutionary context, modules are sets of characters that evolve in relative independence to other characters, while integration refers to a high degree of association between subparts of a structure...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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