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Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637919/the-morphological-heterogeneity-of-cricket-flow-sensing-hairs-conveys-the-complex-flow-signature-of-predator-attacks
#1
Thomas Steinmann, Jérôme Casas
Arthropod flow-sensing hair length ranges over more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 5 mm. Previous studies repeatedly identified the longest hairs as the most sensitive, but recent studies identified the shortest hairs as the most responsive. We resolved this apparent conflict by proposing a new model, taking into account both the initial and long-term aspects of the flow pattern produced by a lunging predator. After the estimation of the mechanical parameters of hairs, we measured the flow produced by predator mimics and compared the predicted and observed values of hair displacements in this flow...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637918/direct-enzymatic-bioelectrocatalysis-differentiating-between-myth-and-reality
#2
REVIEW
Ross D Milton, Shelley D Minteer
Enzymatic bioelectrocatalysis is being increasingly exploited to better understand oxidoreductase enzymes, to develop minimalistic yet specific biosensor platforms, and to develop alternative energy conversion devices and bioelectrosynthetic devices for the production of energy and/or important chemical commodities. In some cases, these enzymes are able to electronically communicate with an appropriately designed electrode surface without the requirement of an electron mediator to shuttle electrons between the enzyme and electrode...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637917/degree-heterogeneity-and-stability-of-ecological-networks
#3
Gang Yan, Neo D Martinez, Yang-Yu Liu
A classic measure of ecological stability describes the tendency of a community to return to equilibrium after small perturbations. While many advances show how the network architecture of these communities severely constrains such tendencies, one of the most fundamental properties of network structure, i.e. degree heterogeneity-the variability of the number of links associated with each species, deserves further study. Here we show that the effects of degree heterogeneity on stability vary with different types of interspecific interactions...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637916/model-based-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-bubonic-plague-in-cairo-in-1801
#4
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637915/tumour-on-a-chip-microfluidic-models-of-tumour-morphology-growth-and-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Hsieh-Fu Tsai, Alen Trubelja, Amy Q Shen, Gang Bao
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death, albeit enormous efforts to cure the disease. To overcome the major challenges in cancer therapy, we need to have a better understanding of the tumour microenvironment (TME), as well as a more effective means to screen anti-cancer drug leads; both can be achieved using advanced technologies, including the emerging tumour-on-a-chip technology. Here, we review the recent development of the tumour-on-a-chip technology, which integrates microfluidics, microfabrication, tissue engineering and biomaterials research, and offers new opportunities for building and applying functional three-dimensional in vitro human tumour models for oncology research, immunotherapy studies and drug screening...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637914/soiled-adhesive-pads-shear-clean-by-slipping-a-robust-self-cleaning-mechanism-in-climbing-beetles
#6
Guillermo J Amador, Thomas Endlein, Metin Sitti
Animals using adhesive pads to climb smooth surfaces face the problem of keeping their pads clean and functional. Here, a self-cleaning mechanism is proposed whereby soiled feet would slip on the surface due to a lack of adhesion but shed particles in return. Our study offers an in situ quantification of self-cleaning performance in fibrillar adhesives, using the dock beetle as a model organism. After beetles soiled their pads by stepping into patches of spherical beads, we found that their gait was significantly affected...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637913/predicting-green-really-radical-plant-predictive-processing
#7
Paco Calvo, Karl Friston
In this article we account for the way plants respond to salient features of their environment under the free-energy principle for biological systems. Biological self-organization amounts to the minimization of surprise over time. We posit that any self-organizing system must embody a generative model whose predictions ensure that (expected) free energy is minimized through action. Plants respond in a fast, and yet coordinated manner, to environmental contingencies. They pro-actively sample their local environment to elicit information with an adaptive value...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615495/a-bayesian-approach-to-estimating-hidden-variables-as-well-as-missing-and-wrong-molecular-interactions-in-ordinary-differential-equation-based-mathematical-models
#8
Benjamin Engelhardt, Maik Kschischo, Holger Fröhlich
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a popular approach to quantitatively model molecular networks based on biological knowledge. However, such knowledge is typically restricted. Wrongly modelled biological mechanisms as well as relevant external influence factors that are not included into the model are likely to manifest in major discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. Finding the exact reasons for such observed discrepancies can be quite challenging in practice. In order to address this issue, we suggest a Bayesian approach to estimate hidden influences in ODE-based models...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615494/correction-analysis-of-unstable-modes-distinguishes-mathematical-models-of-flagellar-motion
#9
P V Bayly, K S Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615493/optically-ambidextrous-circularly-polarized-reflection-from-the-chiral-cuticle-of-the-scarab-beetle-chrysina-resplendens
#10
Ewan D Finlayson, Luke T McDonald, Pete Vukusic
The evolution of structural colour mechanisms in biological systems has given rise to many interesting optical effects in animals and plants. The instance of the scarab beetle Chrysina resplendens is particularly distinctive. Its exoskeleton has a bright, golden appearance and reflects both right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized light concurrently. The chiral nanostructure responsible for these properties is a helicoid, in which birefringent dielectric planes are assembled with an incremental rotation...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615492/macromolecular-crowding-directs-the-motion-of-small-molecules-inside-cells
#11
Stephen Smith, Claudia Cianci, Ramon Grima
It is now well established that cell interiors are significantly crowded by macromolecules, which impede diffusion and enhance binding rates. However, it is not fully appreciated that levels of crowding are heterogeneous, and can vary substantially between subcellular regions. In this article, starting from a microscopic model, we derive coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the concentrations of two populations of large and small spherical particles with steric volume exclusion. By performing an expansion in the ratio of the particle sizes, we find that the diffusion of a small particle in the presence of large particles obeys an advection-diffusion equation, with a reduced diffusion coefficient and a velocity directed towards less crowded regions...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615491/enhanced-osteointegration-of-poly-methylmethacrylate-bone-cements-by-incorporating-strontium-containing-borate-bioactive-glass
#12
Xu Cui, Chengcheng Huang, Meng Zhang, Changshun Ruan, Songlin Peng, Li Li, Wenlong Liu, Ting Wang, Bing Li, Wenhai Huang, Mohamed N Rahaman, William W Lu, Haobo Pan
Although poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) cements are widely used in orthopaedics, they have numerous drawbacks. This study aimed to improve their bioactivity and osseointegration by incorporating strontium-containing borate bioactive glass (SrBG) as the reinforcement phase and bioactive filler of PMMA cement. The prepared SrBG/PMMA composite cements showed significantly decreased polymerization temperature when compared with PMMA and retained properties of appropriate setting time and high mechanical strength...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592663/inspiration-for-wing-design-how-forelimb-specialization-enables-active-flight-in-modern-vertebrates
#13
REVIEW
Diana D Chin, Laura Y Matloff, Amanda Kay Stowers, Emily R Tucci, David Lentink
Harnessing flight strategies refined by millions of years of evolution can help expedite the design of more efficient, manoeuvrable and robust flying robots. This review synthesizes recent advances and highlights remaining gaps in our understanding of how bird and bat wing adaptations enable effective flight. Included in this discussion is an evaluation of how current robotic analogues measure up to their biological sources of inspiration. Studies of vertebrate wings have revealed skeletal systems well suited for enduring the loads required during flight, but the mechanisms that drive coordinated motions between bones and connected integuments remain ill-described...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592662/a-cohort-of-new-adhesive-proteins-identified-from-transcriptomic-analysis-of-mussel-foot-glands
#14
Daniel G DeMartini, John M Errico, Sebastian Sjoestroem, April Fenster, J Herbert Waite
The adaptive attachment of marine mussels to a wide range of substrates in a high-energy, saline environment has been explored for decades and is a significant driver of bioinspired wet adhesion research. Mussel attachment relies on a fibrous holdfast known as the byssus, which is made by a specialized appendage called the foot. Multiple adhesive and structural proteins are rapidly synthesized, secreted and moulded by the foot into holdfast threads. About 10 well-characterized proteins, namely the mussel foot proteins (Mfps), the preCols and the thread matrix proteins, are reported as representing the bulk of these structures...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592661/raman-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-ecology-and-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Arno Germond, Vipin Kumar, Taro Ichimura, Jerome Moreau, Chikara Furusawa, Hideaki Fujita, Tomonobu M Watanabe
Scientists are always on the lookout for new modalities of information which could reveal new biological features that are useful for deciphering the complexity of biological systems. Here, we introduce Raman spectroscopy as a prime candidate for ecology and evolution. To encourage the integration of this microscopy technique in the field of ecology and evolution, it is crucial to discuss first how Raman spectroscopy fits within the conceptual, technical and pragmatic considerations of ecology and evolution...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592660/mechanical-interactions-in-bacterial-colonies-and-the-surfing-probability-of-beneficial-mutations
#16
Fred D Farrell, Matti Gralka, Oskar Hallatschek, Bartlomiej Waclaw
Bacterial conglomerates such as biofilms and microcolonies are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in industry and medicine. In contrast to well-mixed cultures routinely used in microbial research, bacteria in a microcolony interact mechanically with one another and with the substrate to which they are attached. Here, we use a computer model of a microbial colony of rod-shaped cells to investigate how physical interactions between cells determine their motion in the colony and how this affects biological evolution...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592659/mitochondrial-dna-3243a-g-heteroplasmy-is-associated-with-changes-in-cytoskeletal-protein-expression-and-cell-mechanics
#17
Judith Kandel, Martin Picard, Douglas C Wallace, David M Eckmann
Mitochondrial and mechanical alterations in cells have both been shown to be hallmarks of human disease. However, little research has endeavoured to establish connections between these two essential features of cells in both functional and dysfunctional situations. In this work, we hypothesized that a specific genetic alteration in mitochondrial function known to cause human disease would trigger changes in cell mechanics. Using a previously characterized set of mitochondrial cybrid cell lines, we examined the relationship between heteroplasmy for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 3243A>G mutation, the cell cytoskeleton, and resulting cellular mechanical properties...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592658/the-structural-response-of-the-cornea-to-changes-in-stromal-hydration
#18
Sally Hayes, Tomas White, Craig Boote, Christina S Kamma-Lorger, James Bell, Thomas Sorenson, Nick Terrill, Olga Shebanova, Keith M Meek
The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between corneal structure and hydration in humans and pigs. X-ray scattering data were collected from human and porcine corneas equilibrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to varying levels of hydration, to obtain measurements of collagen fibril diameter, interfibrillar spacing (IFS) and intermolecular spacing. Both species showed a strong positive linear correlation between hydration and IFS(2) and a nonlinear, bi-phasic relationship between hydration and fibril diameter, whereby fibril diameter increased up to approximately physiological hydration, H = 3...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566516/the-counterbend-dynamics-of-cross-linked-filament-bundles-and-flagella
#19
Rachel Coy, Hermes Gadêlha
Cross-linked filament bundles, such as in cilia and flagella, are ubiquitous in biology. They are considered in textbooks as simple filaments with larger stiffness. Recent observations of flagellar counterbend, however, show that induction of curvature in one section of a passive flagellum instigates a compensatory counter-curvature elsewhere, exposing the intricate role of the diminutive cross-linking proteins at large scales. We show that this effect, a material property of the cross-linking mechanics, modifies the bundle dynamics and induces a bimodal L(2) - L(3) length-dependent material response that departs from the Euler-Bernoulli theory...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566515/a-microfluidics-assay-to-study-invasion-of-human-placental-trophoblast-cells
#20
Yassen Abbas, Carolin Melati Oefner, William J Polacheck, Lucy Gardner, Lydia Farrell, Andrew Sharkey, Roger Kamm, Ashley Moffett, Michelle L Oyen
Pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth are major pregnancy disorders throughout the world. The underlying pathogenesis of these diseases is defective placentation characterized by inadequate invasion of extravillous placental trophoblast cells into the uterine arteries. How trophoblast invasion is controlled remains an unanswered question but is influenced by maternal uterine immune cells called decidual natural killer cells. Here, we describe an in vitro microfluidic invasion assay to study the migration of primary human trophoblast cells...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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