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Retrovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754126/modulation-of-chromatin-structure-by-the-fact-histone-chaperone-complex-regulates-hiv-1-integration
#1
Julien Matysiak, Paul Lesbats, Eric Mauro, Delphine Lapaillerie, Jean-William Dupuy, Angelica P Lopez, Mohamed Salah Benleulmi, Christina Calmels, Marie-Line Andreola, Marc Ruff, Manuel Llano, Olivier Delelis, Marc Lavigne, Vincent Parissi
BACKGROUND: Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration...
July 28, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659190/tribute-to-mark-wainberg
#2
Eric J Arts, Anne Gatignol, Andrew J Mouland, Chen Liang, Matthias Götte, Hugo Soudeyns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637466/the-kt-jeang-retrovirology-prize-2017-michael-emerman
#3
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583191/hiv-drug-resistance-against-strand-transfer-integrase-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Kaitlin Anstett, Bluma Brenner, Thibault Mesplede, Mark A Wainberg
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest class of antiretroviral drugs to be approved for treatment and act by inhibiting the essential HIV protein integrase from inserting the viral DNA genome into the host cell's chromatin. Three drugs of this class are currently approved for use in HIV-positive individuals: raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (EVG), and dolutegravir (DTG), while cabotegravir (CAB) and bictegravir (BIC) are currently in clinical trials. RAL and EVG have been successful in clinical settings but have relatively low genetic barriers to resistance...
June 5, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576126/effective-treatment-of-sivcpz-induced-immunodeficiency-in-a-captive-western-chimpanzee
#5
Hannah J Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N Denny, Paul M Sharp, George M Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P Acosta, Michael S Saag, Katharine J Bar, Beatrice H Hahn
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Surprisingly, however, similar findings have not been reported for chimpanzees experimentally infected with SIVcpz in captivity, raising questions about the intrinsic pathogenicity of this lentivirus. FINDINGS: Here, we report progressive immunodeficiency and clinical disease in a captive western chimpanzee (P...
June 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569216/potent-and-reversible-lentiviral-vector-restriction-in-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Franziska K Geis, Melanie Galla, Dirk Hoffmann, Johannes Kuehle, Daniela Zychlinski, Tobias Maetzig, Juliane W Schott, Adrian Schwarzer, Christine Goffinet, Stephen P Goff, Axel Schambach
BACKGROUND: Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or less permissive to retrovirus infection due to the presence of active defense mechanisms, or the absence of important cellular host co-factors. In contrast to multipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have potential to differentiate into all three germ layers...
May 31, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535768/parent-offspring-regression-to-estimate-the-heritability-of-an-hiv-1-trait-in-a-realistic-setup
#7
Nadine Bachmann, Teja Turk, Claus Kadelka, Alex Marzel, Mohaned Shilaih, Jürg Böni, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Gabriel E Leventhal, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger Kouyos
BACKGROUND: Parent-offspring (PO) regression is a central tool to determine the heritability of phenotypic traits; i.e., the relative extent to which those traits are controlled by genetic factors. The applicability of PO regression to viral traits is unclear because the direction of viral transmission-who is the donor (parent) and who is the recipient (offspring)-is typically unknown and viral phylogenies are sparsely sampled. METHODS: We assessed the applicability of PO regression in a realistic setting using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck simulated data on phylogenies built from 11,442 Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) partial pol sequences and set-point viral load (SPVL) data from 3293 patients...
May 23, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532477/jan-svoboda-1934-2017-sixty-years-with-retroviruses
#8
LETTER
Jiří Hejnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482907/a-conflict-of-interest-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-mammalian-apobec3-and-lentiviral-vif
#9
REVIEW
Yusuke Nakano, Hirofumi Aso, Andrew Soper, Eri Yamada, Miyu Moriwaki, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are mammalian-specific cellular deaminases and have a robust ability to restrain lentivirus replication. To antagonize APOBEC3-mediated antiviral action, lentiviruses have acquired viral infectivity factor (Vif) as an accessory gene. Mammalian APOBEC3 proteins inhibit lentiviral replication by enzymatically inserting G-to-A hypermutations in the viral genome, whereas lentiviral Vif proteins degrade host APOBEC3 via the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway...
May 8, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476171/professor-mark-wainberg
#10
EDITORIAL
Monsef Benkirane, Ben Berkhout, Persephone Borrow, Ariberto Fassati, Masahiro Fujii, J Victor Garcia, Paul Gorry, Andrew Lever, Johnson Mak, Monique Nijhuis, Klaus Strebel, Francois Venter, Robin Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464889/highly-divergent-patterns-of-genetic-diversity-and-evolution-in-proviral-quasispecies-from-hiv-controllers
#11
Suwellen S D de Azevedo, Diogo Gama Caetano, Fernanda H Côrtes, Sylvia L M Teixeira, Karina Dos Santos Silva, Brenda Hoagland, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso, Mariza G Morgado, Gonzalo Bello
BACKGROUND: Ongoing intra-host HIV-1 evolution has been shown in individuals that naturally suppress the viremia to low levels (HIV controllers) by the analysis of the RNA in plasma compartment. Detection of evolution at the DNA proviral compartment in HIV controllers, however, has been more challenging and the precise correlation between the systemic viral suppression level and rate of reservoir's reseeding in those individuals is not fully understood. In this sense, we examined the proviral DNA quasispecies by single genome amplification of the env gene in a cohort of 23 HIV controllers from Brazil, divided in three groups, according to the level of systemic viral suppression: (1) elite controllers with persistent undetectable viral load (PEC, n = 6); (2) elite controllers with occasional episodes of transient (51-400 copies/mL) viremia (EEC, n = 7); and (3) viremic controllers with persistent low-level (80-2000 copies/mL) viremia (VC, n = 10)...
May 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449719/interference-of-retroviral-envelope-with-vaccine-induced-cd8-t-cell-responses-is-relieved-by-co-administration-of-cytokine-encoding-vectors
#12
Nadine Bongard, Dennis Lapuente, Sonja Windmann, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch, Wibke Bayer
BACKGROUND: Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins are known to exhibit immunosuppressive properties, which become apparent not only in retroviral infections, but also in gene-based immunizations using retroviral immunogens, where envelope interferes with the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses towards another, simultaneously or subsequently delivered, immunogen. RESULTS: In the Friend retrovirus mouse model, immunization with a plasmid encoding the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) Leader-Gag protein resulted in induction of a strong GagL85-93-specific CD8(+) T cell response, while the response was completely abrogated by co-immunization with an F-MuLV Env-encoding plasmid...
April 27, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446240/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-herv-k-gag-interferes-with-hiv-1-gag-assembly-and-particle-infectivity
#13
Kazuaki Monde, Hiromi Terasawa, Yusuke Nakano, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Yosuke Maeda, Akira Ono
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced HERV-K proteins could affect HIV-1 replication. Indeed, previously we showed that HERV-K Gag and HIV-1 Gag coassemble and that this appears to correlate with the effect of HERV-K Gag expression on HIV-1 particle release and its infectivity. We further showed that coassembly requires both MA and NC domains, which presumably serve as scaffolding for Gag via their abilities to bind membrane and RNA, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420387/effects-of-host-restriction-factors-and-the-htlv-1-subtype-on-susceptibility-to-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis
#14
Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo, Hiroshi Takashima
BACKGROUND: Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TSP have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined whether HAM/TSP patients had the disease-specific genomic variants of HTLV-1 by analyzing entire sequences of HTLV-1 proviruses in these patients, including familial cases. In addition, we investigated the genetic variants of host restriction factors conferring antiretroviral activity to determine which mutations may be related to resistance or susceptibility to HAM/TSP...
April 19, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415995/type-i-interferon-signaling-is-required-for-the-apobec3-rfv3-dependent-neutralizing-antibody-response-but-not-innate-retrovirus-restriction
#15
Bradley S Barrett, Michael S Harper, Sean T Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J Heilman, Ross M Kedl, Kim J Hasenkrug, Mario L Santiago
BACKGROUND: APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV), a potent type I interferon inducer. Previously, we showed that APOBEC3 is required for the anti-FV activity of exogenous IFN-alpha treatment. Thus, type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) signaling may be required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3 response. RESULTS: To test if the APOBEC3/Rfv3 response is dependent on type I IFN signaling, we infected IFNAR knockout versus IFNAR/APOBEC3 double-knockout mice with FV/LDV or LDV-free FV, and evaluated acute FV infection and subsequent NAb titers...
April 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376881/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-bovine-mhc-region-of-japanese-black-cattle-are-associated-with-bovine-leukemia-virus-proviral-load
#16
Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load, which represents the BLV genome integrated into host genome, is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. The study examined 93 cattle with a high proviral load and 266 with a low proviral load...
April 4, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347330/erratum-to-hiv-integration-sites-in-latently-infected-cell-lines-evidence-of-ongoing-replication
#17
Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malatinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335782/the-hiv-1-transmission-bottleneck
#18
LETTER
Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Kevin K Ariën, Jeffrey R Dorfman
It is well established that most new systemic infections of HIV-1 can be traced back to one or a limited number of founder viruses. Usually, these founders are more closely related to minor HIV-1 populations in the blood of the presumed donor than to more abundant lineages. This has led to the widely accepted idea that transmission selects for viral characteristics that facilitate crossing the mucosal barrier of the recipient's genital tract, although the specific selective forces or advantages are not completely defined...
March 23, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330477/inhibition-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-by-antiretroviral-drugs
#19
Richa Tyagi, Wenxue Li, Danelvis Parades, Mario A Bianchet, Avindra Nath
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genomic sequences of retroviral origin which were believed to be integrated into germline chromosomes millions of years ago and account for nearly 8% of the human genome. Although mostly defective and inactive, some of the HERVs may be activated under certain physiological and pathological conditions. While no drugs are designed specifically targeting HERVs, there are a panel of antiretroviral drugs designed against the human immunodeficiency virus and approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA)...
March 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302150/identification-of-a-tripartite-interaction-between-the-n-terminus-of-hiv-1-vif-and-cbf%C3%AE-that-is-critical-for-vif-function
#20
Belete A Desimmie, Jessica L Smith, Hiroshi Matsuo, Wei-Shau Hu, Vinay K Pathak
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 Vif interacts with the cellular core-binding factor β (CBFβ) and counteracts the protective roles of certain human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies have identified some amino acids important for Vif-CBFβ interactions, and recently a co-crystal structure of a pentameric complex of HIV-1 Vif, CBFβ, Cul5, EloB, and EloC was resolved. However, a comprehensive analysis of Vif-CBFβ interactions that are important for Vif function has not been performed...
March 17, 2017: Retrovirology
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