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Retrovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107820/evidence-against-a-role-for-jaagsiekte-sheep-retrovirus-in-human-lung-cancer
#1
A Dusty Miller, Marcelo De Las Heras, Jingyou Yu, Fushun Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Andrew E Vaughan, Thomas L Vaughan, Raul Rosadio, Stefano Rocca, Giuseppe Palmieri, James J Goedert, Junya Fujimoto, Ignacio I Wistuba
BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a specific cell-surface receptor, Hyal2. Unlike almost all other retroviruses, the JSRV Env protein is also a potent oncoprotein and is responsible for lung cancer in animals. Of concern, Hyal2 is a functional receptor for JSRV in humans. RESULTS: We show here that JSRV is fully capable of infecting human cells, as measured by its reverse transcription and persistence in the DNA of cultured human cells...
January 20, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086923/multiple-hiv-1-m%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hiv-1-o-dual-infections-and-new-hiv-1-mo-inter-group-recombinant-forms-detected-in-cameroon
#2
Fabienne De Oliveira, Thomas Mourez, Aurélia Vessiere, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, François Simon, Dominique Rousset, Jean-Christophe Plantier
BACKGROUND: Due to the prevalence of HIV-1 group M and the endemicity of HIV-1 group O infections in Cameroon, patients may be infected with both viruses and/or with HIV-1/MO recombinant forms. Such atypical infections may be deleterious in terms of diagnosis and therapeutic management due to the high divergence of HIV-1/O. The aim of this study was to identify prospectively such atypical infections in Cameroon. RESULTS: Based on serological screening by env-V3 serotyping and a molecular strategy using group-specific (RT)-PCRs, we identified 10 Cameroonian patients harboring three different profiles of infection: (1) 4 HIV-1/M + O dual infections without evidence of recombinant; (2) 5 recombinants associated with one or both parental strains; and (3) 1 new recombinant form without parental strains...
January 13, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086908/hiv-integration-sites-in-latently-infected-cell-lines-evidence-of-ongoing-replication
#3
Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malantinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
BACKGROUND: Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. RESULTS: We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034301/mechanistic-differences-between-hiv-1-and-siv-nucleocapsid-proteins-and-cross-species-hiv-1-genomic-rna-recognition
#4
Klara Post, Erik D Olson, M Nabuan Naufer, Robert J Gorelick, Ioulia Rouzina, Mark C Williams, Karin Musier-Forsyth, Judith G Levin
BACKGROUND: The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of HIV-1 Gag is responsible for specific recognition and packaging of genomic RNA (gRNA) into new viral particles. This occurs through specific interactions between the Gag NC domain and the Psi packaging signal in gRNA. In addition to this critical function, NC proteins are also nucleic acid (NA) chaperone proteins that facilitate NA rearrangements during reverse transcription. Although the interaction with Psi and chaperone activity of HIV-1 NC have been well characterized in vitro, little is known about simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) NC...
December 29, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998286/ultrasensitive-single-genome-sequencing-accurate-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-hiv-1-rna
#5
Valerie F Boltz, Jason Rausch, Wei Shao, Junko Hattori, Brian Luke, Frank Maldarelli, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin
BACKGROUND: Although next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential for studying virus populations in unprecedented depth, PCR error, amplification bias and recombination during library construction have limited its use to population sequencing and measurements of unlinked allele frequencies. Here we report a method, termed ultrasensitive Single-Genome Sequencing (uSGS), for NGS library construction and analysis that eliminates PCR errors and recombinants, and generates single-genome sequences of the same quality as the "gold-standard" of HIV-1 single-genome sequencing assay but with more than 100-fold greater depth...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998285/are-t-cells-the-only-hiv-1-reservoir
#6
REVIEW
Abraham Joseph Kandathil, Sho Sugawara, Ashwin Balagopal
Current antiretroviral therapies have improved the duration and quality of life of people living with HIV-1. However, viral reservoirs impede complete eradication of the virus. Although there are many strategies to eliminate infectious virus, the most actively pursued are latency reversing agents in conjunction with immune modulation. This strategy, known as "shock and kill", has been tested primarily against the most widely recognized HIV-1 latent reservoir found in resting memory CD4+ T cells. This is in part because of the dearth of conclusive evidence about the existence of non-T cell reservoirs...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998283/a-genotypic-method-for-determining-hiv-2-coreceptor-usage-enables-epidemiological-studies-and-clinical-decision-support
#7
Matthias Döring, Pedro Borrego, Joachim Büch, Andreia Martins, Georg Friedrich, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Josef Eberle, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer, Nuno Taveira, Nico Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus can use only the CCR5 coreceptor (R5) and cannot evade the drug by using the CXCR4 coreceptor (X4-capable). However, until now, no online tool for the genotypic identification of HIV-2 coreceptor usage had been available. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on the determinants of HIV-2 coreceptor usage...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998278/janus-kinase-inhibition-suppresses-pkc-induced-cytokine-release-without-affecting-hiv-1-latency-reversal-ex-vivo
#8
Adam M Spivak, Erin T Larragoite, McKenna L Coletti, Amanda B Macedo, Laura J Martins, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles
BACKGROUND: Despite the durable viral suppression afforded by antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication will require strategies to target latently infected cells that persist in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation is a promising strategy to reactivate latent proviruses and allow for subsequent recognition and clearance of infected cells by the immune system. Ingenol derivatives are PKC agonists that induce latency reversal but also lead to T cell activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which would be undesirable in vivo...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998270/pcr-mediated-recombination-impacts-the-analysis-of-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#9
Rodolphe Suspène, Valérie Thiers, Jean-Pierre Vartanian, Simon Wain-Hobson
BACKGROUND: The replication of HBV involves the production of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from the HBV genome through the repair of virion relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) in the virion. As cccDNA is the transcription template for HBV genomes, it needs to be eliminated from hepatocytes if the eradication of chronic HBV infection is to be achieved. PCR quantitation of cccDNA copy number is the technique of choice for evaluating the efficiency of treatment regimens. The PCR target commonly used to identify cccDNA spans the gapped region of rcDNA and is considered to accurately distinguish between cccDNA and rcDNA...
December 20, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#10
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894306/first-phase-i-human-clinical-trial-of-a-killed-whole-hiv-1-vaccine-demonstration-of-its-safety-and-enhancement-of-anti-hiv-antibody-responses
#11
Eunsil Choi, Chad J Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein, Eric J Arts, Jamie F S Mann, Yong Gao, C Yong Kang
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety concerns, despite the ability of killed whole-virus vaccines to generate a strong, predominantly antibody-mediated immune response in vivo. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence for the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin signal peptide to produce a less virulent and more replication efficient virus...
November 28, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871328/membrane-bound-modified-form-of-clade-b-env-jrcsf-is-suitable-for-immunogen-design-as-it-is-efficiently-cleaved-and-displays-all-the-broadly-neutralizing-epitopes-including-v2-and-c2-domain-dependent-conformational-epitopes
#12
Supratik Das, Saikat Boliar, Nivedita Mitra, Sweety Samal, Manish Bansal, Wayne C Koff, Bimal K Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Antigenicity of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) of both lab-adapted and primary isolates expressed on the cell surface rarely match with in vitro neutralization of viruses, pseudo-typed with corresponding Envs. Often, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies bind to Envs expressed on the cell membrane. This could be due to the lack of efficient cleavage of Env expressed on the cell surface. Naturally occurring, efficiently cleaved Envs with appropriate antigenic properties are relatively rare...
November 21, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846847/hiv-and-zika-when-will-we-be-able-to-end-these-epidemics
#13
EDITORIAL
Mark A Wainberg, Andrew M L Lever
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835956/sl1-revisited-functional-analysis-of-the-structure-and-conformation-of-hiv-1-genome-rna
#14
Sayuri Sakuragi, Masaru Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shioda, Hironori Sato, Jun-Ichi Sakuragi
BACKGROUND: The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization...
November 11, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821119/insufficient-natural-killer-cell-responses-against-retroviruses-how-to-improve-nk-cell-killing-of-retrovirus-infected-cells
#15
REVIEW
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer, Kathrin Sutter
Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and inhibitory receptors on their cell surface and often become activated after recognizing virus-infected cells. They have diverse antiviral effector functions like the release of cytotoxic granules, cytokine production and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The importance of NK cell activity in retroviral infections became evident due to the discovery of several viral strategies to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells...
November 8, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814766/antibody-dependent-cd56-t-cell-responses-are-functionally-impaired-in-long-term-hiv-1-infection
#16
Xueying Fan, Liyan Zhu, Hua Liang, Zhe Xie, Xiangbo Huang, Shuo Wang, Tao Shen
BACKGROUND: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which mainly mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, may play a critical role in slowing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) disease progression and protecting from HIV-1 infection. Besides classic NK cells, CD56+ T cells also have some NK cell-like properties, such as the large granular lymphocyte morphology and the capacity to destroy NK-sensitive target cells. However, little is known about the potentials of antibody-dependent CD56+ T cell responses and the association between antibody-dependent CD56+ T cell responses and HIV-1 disease progression...
November 4, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814725/whole-genome-sequencing-of-51-breast-cancers-reveals-that-tumors-are-devoid-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-dna
#17
Nicolas A Gillet, Luc Willems
Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of cancer cases may be attributable to viral exposure. Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome...
November 4, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809912/frequency-and-env-determinants-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-strains-from-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-subjects-that-display-incomplete-inhibition-by-maraviroc
#18
Katharina Borm, Martin R Jakobsen, Kieran Cashin, Jacqueline K Flynn, Paula Ellenberg, Lars Ostergaard, Benhur Lee, Melissa J Churchill, Michael Roche, Paul R Gorry
BACKGROUND: Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells involves the interaction of the viral gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) with cellular CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, which is typically one of the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5-using (R5) HIV-1 strains that display reduced sensitivity to CCR5 antagonists can use antagonist-bound CCR5 for entry. In this study, we investigated whether naturally occurring gp120 alterations in HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV) variants exist in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve subjects that may influence their sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC)...
November 3, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760548/atl-derived-exosomes-modulate-mesenchymal-stem-cells-potential-role-in-leukemia-progression
#19
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737691/an-hiv-1-capsid-binding-protein-trim11-accelerates-viral-uncoating
#20
Ting Yuan, Weitong Yao, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rongge Yang, Binlian Sun
BACKGROUND: Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These results prompted us to examine the effect of TRIM11 on HIV-1 uncoating, which is closely related to viral reverse transcription. RESULTS: Using a combination of in vitro binding and in situ proximity ligation assay, we showed that TRIM11 could interact with HIV-1 capsid...
October 13, 2016: Retrovirology
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