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Retrovirology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302150/identification-of-a-tripartite-interaction-between-the-n-terminus-of-hiv-1-vif-and-cbf%C3%AE-that-is-critical-for-vif-function
#1
Belete A Desimmie, Jessica L Smith, Hiroshi Matsuo, Wei-Shau Hu, Vinay K Pathak
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 Vif interacts with the cellular core-binding factor β (CBFβ) and counteracts the protective roles of certain human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies have identified some amino acids important for Vif-CBFβ interactions, and recently a co-crystal structure of a pentameric complex of HIV-1 Vif, CBFβ, Cul5, EloB, and EloC was resolved. However, a comprehensive analysis of Vif-CBFβ interactions that are important for Vif function has not been performed...
March 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302141/dna-hypomethylation-and-aberrant-expression-of-the-human-endogenous-retrovirus-ervwe1-syncytin-1-in-seminomas
#2
Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Dana Kučerová, Jiří Hejnar
BACKGROUND: Syncytin-1 and 2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast in chorionic villi. In non-trophoblastic cells, however, the expression of syncytins has to be suppressed to avoid potential pathogenic effects. Previously, we have shown that the transcriptional suppression of ERVWE1 promoter is controlled epigenetically by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications...
March 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288652/conserved-residues-within-the-hiv-1-vpu-transmembrane-proximal-hinge-region-modulate-bst2-binding-and-antagonism
#3
Sabelo Lukhele, Éric A Cohen
BACKGROUND: BST2 inhibits HIV-1 release by tethering nascent virions to the surface of infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu overcomes this restriction by removing BST2 from viral budding sites via BST2 intracellular trapping and sequestration, surface downregulation and/or displacement mechanisms. Vpu is composed of a short luminal tail, a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a cytoplasmic hinge region that is followed by two helices. BST2 counteraction relies on the ability of Vpu to physically bind BST2 through TMD interactions and recruit the clathrin-dependent trafficking machinery via a canonical acidic di-leucine signalling motif within the helix-2 of Vpu...
March 14, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279181/a-mature-macrophage-is-a-principal-hiv-1-cellular-reservoir-in-humanized-mice-after-treatment-with-long-acting-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Mariluz Araínga, Benson Edagwa, R Lee Mosley, Larisa Y Poluektova, Santhi Gorantla, Howard E Gendelman
BACKGROUND: Despite improved clinical outcomes seen following antiretroviral therapy (ART), resting CD4+ T cells continue to harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1). However, such cells are not likely the solitary viral reservoir and as such defining where and how others harbor virus is imperative for eradication measures. To such ends, we used HIV-1ADA-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdc (scid) Il2rg (tm1Wjl) /SzJ mice reconstituted with a human immune system to explore two long-acting ART regimens investigating their abilities to affect viral cell infection and latency...
March 9, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270144/prototype-foamy-virus-elicits-complete-autophagy-involving-the-er-stress-related-upr-pathway
#5
Peipei Yuan, Lanlan Dong, Qingqing Cheng, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Prototype foamy virus (PFV) is a member of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily of retroviruses, which maintains lifelong latent infection while being nonpathogenic to their natural hosts. Autophagy is a cell-programmed mechanism that plays a pivotal role in controlling homeostasis and defense against exotic pathogens. However, whether autophagy is the mechanism for host defense in PFV infection has not been investigated. FINDINGS: Our results revealed that PFV infection induced the accumulation of autophagosomes and triggered complete autophagic flux in BHK-21 cells...
March 7, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231861/reply-to-correspondence-conserved-signatures-indicate-hiv-1-transmission-is-under-strong-selection-and-thus-is-not-a-stochastic-process-by-gonzalez-et-al-retrovirology-2017
#6
Corinna S Oberle, Carsten Magnus, Beda Joos, Peter Rusert, David Beauparlant, Roger Kouyos, Alexandra Trkola, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231858/conserved-signatures-indicate-hiv-1-transmission-is-under-strong-selection-and-thus-is-not-a-stochastic-process
#7
Mileidy Gonzalez, Anthony L DeVico, John L Spouge
Recently, Oberle et al. published a paper in Retrovirology evaluating the question of whether selection plays a role in HIV transmission. The Oberle study found no obvious genotypic or phenotypic differences between donors and recipients of epidemiologically linked pairs from the Swiss cohort. Thus, Oberle et al. characterized HIV-1 B transmission as largely "stochastic", an imprecise and potentially misleading term. Here, we re-analyzed their data and placed them in the context of transmission data for over 20 other human and animal trials...
February 24, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222757/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-france-1999-2014-and-impact-of-targeted-prevention-strategies
#8
Antoine Chaillon, Asma Essat, Pierre Frange, Davey M Smith, Constance Delaugerre, Francis Barin, Jade Ghosn, Gilles Pialoux, Olivier Robineau, Christine Rouzioux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Marie-Laure Chaix
BACKGROUND: Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. RESULTS: Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i...
February 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193275/immune-regulator-abin1-suppresses-hiv-1-transcription-by-negatively-regulating-the-ubiquitination-of-tat
#9
Shiyou Chen, Xiaodan Yang, Weijia Cheng, Yuhong Ma, Yafang Shang, Liu Cao, Shuliang Chen, Yu Chen, Min Wang, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB activation (ABIN1), an important immune regulator, was previously shown to be involved in HIV-1 replication. However, the reported studies done with overexpressed ABIN1 provided controversial results. RESULTS: Here we identified ABIN1 as a suppressor of HIV-1 transcription since transient knockdown of ABIN1 led to increased HIV-1 replication both in transformed Jurkat T cell line and in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes...
February 13, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178982/erratum-to-are-t-cells-the-only-hiv-1-reservoir
#10
Abraham Joseph Kandathil, Sho Sugawara, Ashwin Balagopal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166802/induction-of-complex-immune-responses-and-strong-protection-against-retrovirus-challenge-by-adenovirus-based-immunization-depends-on-the-order-of-vaccine-delivery
#11
Meike Kaulfuß, Ina Wensing, Sonja Windmann, Camilla Patrizia Hrycak, Wibke Bayer
BACKGROUND: In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL85-93-specific CD8(+) T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To optimize the immunization outcome we evaluated vaccination strategies using combinations of these vaccines. RESULTS: While the vaccines on their own confer strong protection from a subsequent Friend virus challenge, the simple combination of the vaccines for the establishment of an optimized immunization protocol did not result in a further improvement of vaccine effectivity...
February 6, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166800/a-purine-rich-element-in-foamy-virus-pol-regulates-env-splicing-and-gag-pol-expression
#12
Rebecca Moschall, Sarah Denk, Steffen Erkelenz, Christian Schenk, Heiner Schaal, Jochen Bodem
BACKGROUND: The foamy viral genome encodes four central purine-rich elements localized in the integrase-coding region of pol. Previously, we have shown that the first two of these RNA elements (A and B) are required for protease dimerization and activation. The D element functions as internal polypurine tract during reverse transcription. Peters et al., described the third element (C) as essential for gag expression suggesting that it might serve as an RNA export element for the unspliced genomic transcript...
February 6, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166799/toll-like-receptor-3-activation-selectively-reverses-hiv-latency-in-microglial-cells
#13
David Alvarez-Carbonell, Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Stephanie Milne, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Roxana Rojas, Jonathan Karn
BACKGROUND: Multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in cells of the monocytic lineage, including microglia, which constitute the major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the brain. We hypothesized that TLR receptor mediated responses to inflammatory conditions by microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are able to induce latent HIV proviruses, and contribute to the etiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. RESULTS: Newly developed human microglial cell lines (hµglia), obtained by immortalizing human primary microglia with simian virus-40 (SV40) large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase, were used to generate latently infected cells using a single-round HIV virus carrying a green fluorescence protein reporter (hµglia/HIV, clones HC01 and HC69)...
February 6, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122636/breast-milk-and-in-utero-transmission-of-hiv-1-select-for-envelope-variants-with-unique-molecular-signatures
#14
Kyle J Nakamura, Laura Heath, Edwin R Sobrera, Thomas A Wilkinson, Katherine Semrau, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicole H Tobin, Nicholas E Webb, Benhur Lee, Donald M Thea, Louise Kuhn, James I Mullins, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) poses a serious health threat in developing countries, and adequate interventions are as yet unrealized. HIV-1 infection is frequently initiated by a single founder viral variant, but the factors that influence particular variant selection are poorly understood. RESULTS: Our analysis of 647 full-length HIV-1 subtype C and G viral envelope sequences from 22 mother-infant pairs reveals unique genotypic and phenotypic signatures that depend upon transmission route...
January 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122580/identification-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-hiv-1-tat-and-rev-protein-accumulation
#15
Ahalya Balachandran, Raymond Wong, Peter Stoilov, Sandy Pan, Benjamin Blencowe, Peter Cheung, P Richard Harrigan, Alan Cochrane
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 replication is critically dependent upon controlled processing of its RNA and the activities provided by its encoded regulatory factors Tat and Rev. A screen of small molecule modulators of RNA processing identified several which inhibited virus gene expression, affecting both relative abundance of specific HIV-1 RNAs and the levels of Tat and Rev proteins. RESULTS: The screen for small molecules modulators of HIV-1 gene expression at the post-transcriptional level identified three (a pyrimidin-7-amine, biphenylcarboxamide, and benzohydrazide, designated 791, 833, and 892, respectively) that not only reduce expression of HIV-1 Gag and Env and alter the accumulation of viral RNAs, but also dramatically decrease Tat and Rev levels...
January 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122574/natural-killer-t-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-acute-retroviral-infection
#16
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) play an important role in the immunity against viral infections. They produce cytokines or have direct cytolytic effects that can restrict virus replication. However, the exact function of NKT cells in retroviral immunity is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the antiretroviral functions of NKT cells in mice infected with the Friend retrovirus (FV). RESULTS: After FV infection numbers of NKT cells remained unchanged but activation as well as improved effector functions of NKT cells were found...
January 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114951/hiv-signaling-through-cd4-and-ccr5-activates-rho-family-gtpases-that-are-required-for-optimal-infection-of-primary-cd4-t-cells
#17
Mark B Lucera, Zach Fleissner, Caroline O Tabler, Daniela M Schlatzer, Zach Troyer, John C Tilton
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 hijacks host cell machinery to ensure successful replication, including cytoskeletal components for intracellular trafficking, nucleoproteins for pre-integration complex import, and the ESCRT pathway for assembly and budding. It is widely appreciated that cellular post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein activity within cells; however, little is known about how PTMs influence HIV replication. Previously, we reported that blocking deacetylation of tubulin using histone deacetylase inhibitors promoted the kinetics and efficiency of early post-entry viral events...
January 24, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107820/evidence-against-a-role-for-jaagsiekte-sheep-retrovirus-in-human-lung-cancer
#18
A Dusty Miller, Marcelo De Las Heras, Jingyou Yu, Fushun Zhang, Shan-Lu Liu, Andrew E Vaughan, Thomas L Vaughan, Raul Rosadio, Stefano Rocca, Giuseppe Palmieri, James J Goedert, Junya Fujimoto, Ignacio I Wistuba
BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a contagious lung cancer in sheep and goats that can be transmitted by aerosols produced by infected animals. Virus entry into cells is initiated by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a specific cell-surface receptor, Hyal2. Unlike almost all other retroviruses, the JSRV Env protein is also a potent oncoprotein and is responsible for lung cancer in animals. Of concern, Hyal2 is a functional receptor for JSRV in humans. RESULTS: We show here that JSRV is fully capable of infecting human cells, as measured by its reverse transcription and persistence in the DNA of cultured human cells...
January 20, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086923/multiple-hiv-1-m%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hiv-1-o-dual-infections-and-new-hiv-1-mo-inter-group-recombinant-forms-detected-in-cameroon
#19
Fabienne De Oliveira, Thomas Mourez, Aurélia Vessiere, Paul-Alain Ngoupo, Elodie Alessandri-Gradt, François Simon, Dominique Rousset, Jean-Christophe Plantier
BACKGROUND: Due to the prevalence of HIV-1 group M and the endemicity of HIV-1 group O infections in Cameroon, patients may be infected with both viruses and/or with HIV-1/MO recombinant forms. Such atypical infections may be deleterious in terms of diagnosis and therapeutic management due to the high divergence of HIV-1/O. The aim of this study was to identify prospectively such atypical infections in Cameroon. RESULTS: Based on serological screening by env-V3 serotyping and a molecular strategy using group-specific (RT)-PCRs, we identified 10 Cameroonian patients harboring three different profiles of infection: (1) 4 HIV-1/M + O dual infections without evidence of recombinant; (2) 5 recombinants associated with one or both parental strains; and (3) 1 new recombinant form without parental strains...
January 13, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086908/hiv-integration-sites-in-latently-infected-cell-lines-evidence-of-ongoing-replication
#20
Jori Symons, Abha Chopra, Eva Malantinkova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Shay Leary, Don Cooper, Chike O Abana, Ajantha Rhodes, Simin D Rezaei, Linos Vandekerckhove, Simon Mallal, Sharon R Lewin, Paul U Cameron
BACKGROUND: Assessing the location and frequency of HIV integration sites in latently infected cells can potentially inform our understanding of how HIV persists during combination antiretroviral therapy. We developed a novel high throughput sequencing method to evaluate HIV integration sites in latently infected cell lines to determine whether there was virus replication or clonal expansion in these cell lines observed as multiple integration events at the same position. RESULTS: We modified a previously reported method using random DNA shearing and PCR to allow for high throughput robotic processing to identify the site and frequency of HIV integration in latently infected cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Retrovirology
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