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Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166080/stress-induced-gastric-ulcers-presenting-as-massive-rectal-bleeding-in-a-newborn
#1
A Joshi, P S Shrestha, S Dangol, N C Shrestha, P Poudyal, A Shrestha A
Severe gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn period is a serious but uncommon phenomenon that has a broad differential diagnosis. Primary duodenal ulcers are rare in children but stress induced ulceration in stomach occurs more often in neonatal period due to birth asphyxia, prolonged labour, cesarean deliveries, instrumentations, respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. These present as acute onset of gastrointestinal bleeding commonly as altered gastric aspirate, hematemesis or malena. We report a case of a neonate with stress induced gastric bleeding following birth asphyxia who presented with massive gastrointestinal bleed manifesting as hematemesis and massive rectal bleeding...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166079/osteomyelitis-of-humerus-and-intramuscular-abscess-due-to-melioidosis
#2
G S Vijaykumar, P Thilakavathy, S S Jeremiah, G Vithiya
Melioidosis is a clinically diverse disease caused by gram negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is a potential bioterrorism agent. The high risk group includes the agricultural and construction workers whose contact with contaminated soil and water may expose them to bacteria. The clinical manifestations varies from asymptomatic infection to overwhelming sepsis. To diagnose melioidosis a high index of suspicion along with isolation and identification of the organism from the clinical samples is needed...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166078/pressure-cooker-a-potential-hazard-in-domestic-setting
#3
A Atreya, T Kanchan, S Nepal
Pressure cooker is an integral part of Asian kitchen, and is frequently used in Nepal. Steam under pressure generated while cooking has high boiling point and great penetrating power. The use of pressure cooker in kitchen is associated with unintentional injuries that mostly include pressure cooker burns. In rare instances the pressure cooker may accidently explode and may cause serious injuries. The same mechanism is used in making explosive device for mass homicides. An unusual case of penetrating facial injury sustained in a pressure cooker explosion in a domestic setting is reported along with a brief review of literature on pressure cooker explosions...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166077/a-rare-case-of-bilateral-aspergillomas-in-a-patient-of-ankylosing-spondylitis
#4
A Das, S Pandit, S K Das, S Basuthakur, S Das
Pulmonary involvement by Aspergillus sp. mainly includes allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and invasive aspergillosis. Aspergilloma (Fungal ball) is the most common form of aspergillous pulmonary involvement, which occurs in preexisting pulmonary cavities, especially secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Ankylosing spondylitis is a rare cause of upper lobe fibro-cavitary lesions in pulmonary parenchyma. It may also lead to development of fungal balls in pulmonary cavities. Most common presentation is mild to massive hemoptysis; dyspnoea, chronic cough, expectoration may be other presentation; even the patient may remain asymptomatic...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166076/bedside-ultrasound-in-the-emergency-department-to-detect-hydronephrosis-for-the-evaluation-of-suspected-ureteric-colic
#5
R Shrestha, R M Shakya, A Khan A
Background Renal colic is a common emergency department presentation. Hydronephrosis is indirect sign of urinary obstruction which may be due to obstructing ureteric calculus and can be detected easily by bedside ultrasound with minimal training. Objective To compare the accuracy of detection of hydronephrosis performed by the emergency physician with that of radiologist's in suspected renal colic cases. Method This was a prospective observational study performed over a period of 6 months. Patients >8 years with provisional diagnosis of renal colic with both the bedside ultrasound and the formal ultrasound performed were included...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166075/clinico-histopathological-survey-of-head-and-neck-cancer-at-tertiary-health-care-centre-dhulikhel-hospital
#6
S Dixit, C Upadhyaya, M Humagain, R Srii, V Marla
Background Head and neck is one of the most prevalent site for cancers along with lungs, cervix, breast and stomach. Hospital based cancer registries required for effective evaluation of diagnosis and management of cancer is inadequate in Nepal. Cancer registry system established by WHO is acquired by seven major hospitals in our country. However, data from tertiary health care centres like ours remain undocumented. Objective The objective of this study is to perform retrospective analysis of clinicohistopathological types of head and neck lesions which were eventually diagnosed as cancer in Dhulikel Hospital, a tertiary health care centre of Central East Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166074/airborne-particulate-matter-and-health-condition-in-brick-kiln-workers-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
S Sanjel, S N Khanal, S M Thygerson, K Khanal, Z Pun, S Tamang, S K Joshi
Background Air quality monitoring in brick kilns indicates very high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Air pollution from brick kilns poses an enhanced threat to the environment and to human health. Objective To evaluate airborne particulate matter concentration and health status of brick kiln workers. Method A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the Kathmandu valley targeting all brick industries and their workers during January - March 2015 and March - April 2016. A total of 16 brick kilns and 800 participants (400 brick workers as exposed and 400 grocery workers as referent) were selected for study...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166073/ovarian-tumors-pattern-of-histomorphological-types-a-10-years-study-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-and-review-of-literature
#8
REVIEW
A Ghosh, D Ghartimagar, S Thapa, B Sathian, R Narasimhan, O P Talwar
Background Ovarian cancer accounts for 6% of all cancers in females. Among cancers of female genital tract, the incidence of ovarian cancers ranks below only carcinoma of the cervix and the endometrium. Objective To find the frequency of different types of histomorphological types and their association with age, side and size distribution. Method This study is a hospital based retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Manipal Teaching Hospital over a time period from Jan. 2006 to Sep. 2015...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166072/gender-based-comparison-of-gingival-zenith-esthetics
#9
M Humagain, D Rokaya, R Srii, S Dixit, D Kafle
Background The size, proportion and gingival zenith position of maxillary anterior teeth plays in the anterior teeth esthetics. Objective To compare the gingival zenith positions and levels between male and female in right and left side as an esthetic parameter. Method Impression of the maxillary arch was made in each participant with irreversible hydrocolloid, and dental cast was made with dental stone type IV. Two clinical parameters were evaluated: (1) the gingival zenith position (GZP) from the vertical bisected midline along the long axis of each individual maxillary anterior tooth; and (2) the gingival zenith level (GZL) of the lateral incisors in an apical-coronal direction relative to the gingival line joining the tangents of the GZP of the adjacent central incisor and canine teeth under healthy conditions...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166071/gallbladder-volume-in-sikkimese-population
#10
R Dey, B K Sharma, V K Singh, D K Jha
Background Gall bladder volume can have clinical and therapeutic implications and possibly affect certain pathophysiological mechanisms of many diseases affecting the gallbladder including gall stones. Objective The objective of the study was to establish baseline indices of gallbladder volume for the Sikkimese population and determine its correlation with age, sex and Body Mass Index. Method A prospective epidemiologic study on selected 100 patients (equal male to female ratio) over the age of 36 years, undergoing ultrasound scan of abdomen, was undertaken...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166070/prevalence-of-respiratory-diseases-according-to-spirometry-findings-among-patients-attending-the-spirometry-department-of-dhulikhel-hospital
#11
B K Prajapati, S Pradhan
Background Spirometry is a standard test for screening and evaluation of patients with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. Despite its easy availability, low cost and ease of performance it has not been widely used in clinical practice in Nepal. Objective To assess the prevalence of respiratory diseases in a regional referral centre in patients referred for spirometry. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including patients referred for spirometry to the spirometry unit of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital from 2014 July to 2015 October...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166069/the-prevalence-of-diabetic-retinopathy-among-known-diabetic-population-in-nepal
#12
S K Mishra, B P Pant, P Subedi
Background The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%. WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D. Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%. Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166068/role-of-c-reactive-protein-in-acute-appendicitis
#13
R Ghimire, A Sharma, S Bohara
Background Acute appendicitis is the common surgical emergency. This study analyzed the value of C-reactive protein as the diagnostic marker of acute appendicitis. Objective To assess the level of C-reactive protein in acute appendicitis and to relate the quantitative measurement with degree of inflammation of appendix. Method A cross sectional study was done with consecutive patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis that underwent appendectomy over six months period. Peroperative findings and histopathology report were compared and analyzed with the level of C-reactive protein...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166067/ultrasound-guided-femoral-nerve-block-to-provide-analgesia-for-positioning-patients-with-femur-fracture-before-subarachnoid-block-comparison-with-intravenous-fentanyl
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
S Ranjit, B B Pradhan
Background Positioning patients with fractured femur for subarachnoid block is painful. Intravenous analgesics or peripheral nerve block like femoral nerve block or fascia iliaca compartment block are some of the available techniques to reduce pain. We compared the efficacy of femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl in providing effective analgesia before positioning for subarachnoid block. Objective This study was designed to compare between ultrasound guided femoral nerve block with lignocaine and intravenous fentanyl in providing effective analgesia before positioning patient with femur fracture in sitting position for subarachnoid block...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166066/prevalence-of-sensory-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-correlation-with-duration-of-disease
#15
D B Karki, S K Yadava, S Pant, N Thusa, E Dangol, S Ghimire
Background Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and distressing late complication of diabetes mellitus. Ignorance of the complications may develop foot ulcers and gangrene requiring amputation. Objective The main objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare it with the duration of disease. Method Two hundred seventy one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of both gender age 30 years and above willing to participate were included in this study...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166065/estimation-of-causes-of-death-in-suburban-nepal-using-verbal-autopsy
#16
N Ide, A L Fitzpatrick, A D Flaxman, R Koju, D Tamrakar, B Hernandez
Background Nepal is in the midst of a disease transition, including a rapid increase of noncommunicable diseases. In order for health policy makers and planners to make informed programmatic and funding decisions, they need up to date and accurate data regarding cause of death throughout the country. Methods of improving cause of death reporting in Nepal are urgently required. Objective We sought to validate SmartVA-Analyze, an application which computer certifies verbal autopsies, to evaluate it as a method for collecting mortality data in Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166064/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-surgical-site-infections-in-kathmandu-university-hospital-kavre-nepal
#17
S Shrestha, P Wenju, R Shrestha, R M Karmacharya
Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are the common nosocomial infection in surgical patients, and are a significant source of postoperative morbidity resulting in increased hospital stay, morbidity and cost. Objective The objective of this study was to obtain the incidence of SSI and determine various risks factors influencing the SSI rate with special reference to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index in Kathmandu University Hospital, Kavre, Nepal. Method Six hundred and thirty eight patients who underwent various surgeries in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital during a three-month period were included...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166063/eruption-pattern-of-dentition-and-its-medico-legal-significance
#18
R K Karki
Background The eruption pattern of temporary and permanent teeth are fairly constant with the growing age. So the age determination of an individual by examination of teeth is one of the accepted methods in legal system. A review of the literature shows there are differences in eruption pattern between different populations mainly due to variations in the constitutions and environment, so highlighting the importance of this study to the Nepalese population. Objective To assess the eruption age of temporary and permanent teeth in Nepalese population and compared the eruption age with other groups...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166062/topographical-differences-of-infant-mortality-in-nepal
#19
R Dev, M F Williams, A L Fitzpatrick, F A Connell
Background Infant mortality is a major problem in Nepal, particularly in the mountainous region of the country. Objective To identify factors that contributes to the high rate of infant mortality in the mountain zone in Nepal. Method Data were derived from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Infant mortality was analyzed across three ecological zones in a sample of 5,306 live births in the five years preceding the survey. The contribution of risk factors to the excess infant mortality was assessed using multiple logistic regression...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166061/updates-on-maternal-and-child-health
#20
G Dangal, T R Bhandari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
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