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Tropical Medicine and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077924/temperature-during-pregnancy-influences-the-fetal-growth-and-birth-size
#1
Harunor Rashid, Miki Kagami, Farzana Ferdous, Enbo Ma, Toru Terao, Taiichi Hayashi, Yukiko Wagatsuma
BACKGROUND: Birth weight and length have seasonal fluctuations. However, it is uncertain which meteorological element has an effect on birth outcomes and which timing of pregnancy would explain such effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine temperature effects during pregnancy and which timing of pregnancy has effects on size at birth. METHODS: A large, randomized, controlled trial of food and micronutrient supplementation for pregnant women was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh (MINIMat Study), where women were enrolled from November 2001 to October 2003...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980451/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-diarrheal-diseases-among-under-five-children-of-the-nomadic-population-in-northeast-ethiopia
#2
Wondwoson Woldu, Bikes Destaw Bitew, Zemichael Gizaw
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among under-five children worldwide. Every day, more than 4000 children lose their lives due to diarrhea. In Ethiopia, diarrhea is the second killer of under-five children next to pneumonia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of under-five diarrhea and socioeconomic factors among the nomadic people in Hadaleala District. A total of 704 under-five children were included in this study, and subjects were recruited by the multistage cluster sampling technique...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942243/prevalence-seasonal-variation-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-enteric-bacterial-pathogens-among-hospitalized-diarrheic-children-in-suburban-regions-of-central-kenya
#3
Mohammad Shah, Cyrus Kathiiko, Akihiro Wada, Erick Odoyo, Martin Bundi, Gabriel Miringu, Sora Guyo, Mohamed Karama, Yoshio Ichinose
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of enteric pathogens has not been well studied in Kenya because of wide disparities in health status across the country. Therefore, the present study describes the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria, their seasonal variation, and antibiotic resistance profiles among hospitalized diarrheic children in a suburban region of central Kenya. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected between July 2009 and December 2013 from a total of 1410 children younger than 5 years, hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Kiambu County Hospital, Kenya...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904417/global-warming-and-the-possible-globalization-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-call-for-increased-awareness-and-action
#4
Emmanuel O Balogun, Andrew J Nok, Kiyoshi Kita
Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895526/development-of-a-simple-and-specific-direct-competitive-elisa-for-the-determination-of-artesunate-using-an-anti-artesunate-polyclonal-antiserum
#5
Yoshinori Mitsui
BACKGROUND: Since artesunate (ART) became a vital component of artemisinin (ARM)-based combination therapies for the treatment for malaria, counterfeit ART drugs have spread in regions of Southeast Asia and Africa. The consumption of counterfeit ART drugs has resulted in the death of many patients. Thus, evaluating the quality of ART drugs is needed. There are several methods for quantitating the ART content in tablets, the most common being a high-performance liquid chromatography. However, that method is hampered by the need for expensive equipment and a rather time-consuming process of extraction...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857610/predictors-of-specific-anti-brucella-antibodies-among-humans-in-agro-pastoral-communities-in-sengerema-district-mwanza-tanzania-the-need-for-public-awareness
#6
Elifuraha B Mngumi, Mariam M Mirambo, Sospeter Wilson, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis remains to be a neglected zoonotic disease among agro-pastoral communities where livestock rearing is one of the main economic activities. This study was conducted in different agro-pastoral communities in Sengerema district, Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine seroprevalence and predictors of anti-Brucella antibodies, information that may influence public awareness on the risk factors and strategies to improve the diagnosis of brucellosis in developing countries...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826219/a-dengue-infection-without-bleeding-manifestations-in-an-adult-with-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#7
N D B Ehelepola, M B K Gunawardhana, T N Sudusinghe, S K D Sooriyaarachchi, S P Manchanayake, K L R Kalupahana
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most prevalent and fast spreading arboviral infection affecting people. No specific drug is available to treat dengue. Thrombocytopenia with potential of serious hemorrhages is one of the hall mark features of dengue. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an autoimmune disease causing thrombocytopenia. If a patient with that gets dengue, we expect severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding manifestations. Only a handful of such cases were reported before, and they were managed in different ways...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799844/emergency-government-response-team-for-global-infectious-disease-outbreaks-a-japanese-challenge
#8
Koji Wada, Yasuo Sugiura, Hidechika Akashi, Tamotsu Nakasa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777508/pathogenic-potential-and-growth-kinetics-of-muko-virus-in-mice-and-human-derived-cells
#9
Gianne Eduard L Ulanday, Satoshi Shimada, Ngwe Tun Mya Myat, Takeshi Nabeshima, Kouichi Morita, Daisuke Hayasaka
BACKGROUND: Ticks have been long known as vectors of various pathogens, some of which can cause high fatality rates among infected individuals. Our enhanced tick surveillance around Nagasaki, Japan, led to the isolation and identification of a new strain of a recently identified Orbivirus, Muko virus (MUV). The orbiviruses have a wide host range, including humans, and is related to a spectrum of clinical outcomes. However, the zoonotic potential of some members of the genus, although reported, were not clearly elucidated...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729827/latent-class-evaluation-of-three-serological-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-brucellosis-in-bangladesh
#10
A K M A Rahman, C Saegerman, D Berkvens
BACKGROUND: A Bayesian latent class evaluation was used to estimate the true prevalence of brucellosis in livestock farmers and patients with prolonged pyrexia (PP) and to validate three conditionally dependent serological tests: indirect ELISA (iELISA), Rose Bengal Test (RBT), and standard tube agglutination (STAT). A total of 335 sera from livestock farmers and 300 sera from PP patients were investigated. RESULTS: The true prevalence of brucellosis in livestock farmers and PP patients was estimated to be 1...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708543/molecular-basis-of-human-cerebral-malaria-development
#11
Saw Thu Wah, Hathairad Hananantachai, Usanee Kerdpin, Chotiros Plabplueng, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Pornlada Nuchnoi
Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, much genomic data and a novel body of knowledge, including the identification of microRNAs, are being increasingly accumulated for the development of laboratory testing cassettes for cerebral malaria prevention...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672349/prevalence-of-tuberculosis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-the-central-prison-of-mbuji-mayi-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Guillaume MuasaPatoka Kalonji, Gérard De Connick, Léon Okenge Ngongo, Dieudonné Kazumba Nsaka, Thierry Kabengele, Félicien Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga, Albert Adelin, Didier Giet
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis still remains a major public health concern in several provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo, especially in prison settings. The present study aimed at determining tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and associated risk factors in inmates of the Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed over a 6-month period (January to June 2015) in Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. A total of 733 inmates were screened systematically for TB...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651731/multisystem-failure-and-death-due-to-extensive-hemorrhaging-and-brain-herniation-subsequent-to-a-bite-by-an-unidentified-snake
#13
N D B Ehelepola, S M A N Samaranayake, B M L S Basnayake, C G K Amiyangoda, D M U C B Dhanapala, K L R Kalupahana
BACKGROUND: Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries even though existing treatment methods can prevent most deaths if presentation occurs early to hospitals. Envenomation by unidentified snakes is common in central Sri Lanka. Management of such patients is challenging especially if presentation is late. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a 52-year-old man from central Sri Lanka who presented late after being bitten by an unidentified snake...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610043/detection-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-by-real-time-pcr-with-improved-primers
#14
Noriko Shinoda, Hajime Nakamura, Mineo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is a severe skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Real-time PCR targeting the IS2404 sequence has been used as a reliable and rapid method for the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer and detection of M. ulcerans in the environment. The genome of M. ulcerans contains hundreds of IS2404 copies, which have variability in certain sequences. Therefore, the design of new primers specific to conserved IS2404 regions may potentially improve the sensitivity of M. ulcerans detection and, consequently, the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer, thus ensuring timely treatment of the disease...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579020/a-retrospective-survey-of-dengue-fever-among-japanese-individuals-staying-in-manila-philippines
#15
Atsuo Hamada, Yuki Tada, Shinji Fukushima, Hidemi Murata, Hirohisa Kikuchi
Dengue fever is a serious concern for Japanese people staying in Southeast Asia. In order to implement necessary prophylactic measures for dengue fever in this population, we investigated the characteristics of dengue fever among Japanese nationals living in Manila, Philippines. From 2012 to 2015, 175 Japanese expatriates were diagnosed with dengue fever at the medical clinic of the Japanese Association Manila, Inc. Most of the patients were employees of Japanese companies and their families and were long-term residents of Manila...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579019/anti-trypanosome-effects-of-nutritional-supplements-and-vitamin-d3-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-efficacy-against-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei
#16
Ripa Jamal, Rieko Shimogawara, Ki-Ichi Yamamoto, Nobuo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Previous publications suggest that nutritional supplements have anti-trypanosome activity in vitro, although apparent efficacy was not noted in vivo. This study was conducted by experimentally infecting mice with Trypanosoma brucei brucei to assess the anti-trypanosome activity of various nutritional supplements with the hope of finding possible application in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. METHODS: Activities of nutritional supplements were screened in vitro against bloodstream forms of T...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551237/development-and-utility-of-an-in-vitro-fluorescence-based-assay-for-the-discovery-of-novel-compounds-against-dengue-2-viral-protease
#17
Gianne Eduard L Ulanday, Kenta Okamoto, Kouichi Morita
BACKGROUND: Dengue disease is one of the most significant vector-borne illnesses in the world. The emergence and re-emergence of dengue infections in many parts of the world affect millions annually and continue to burden public health systems especially in low-income populations. Advances in dengue vaccine development showed promising results; however, protection seems to be suboptimal. There is no licensed chemotherapeutic agent against dengue to date. An ideal scenario of combinatorial vaccination of high-risk individuals and chemotherapy of the diseased during outbreaks may compensate for the meager protection offered by the vaccine...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536194/in-vitro-anti-leishmania-activity-of-tetracyclic-iridoids-from-morinda-lucida-benth
#18
Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Mitsuko Ohashi, Mba-Tihssommah Mosore, Jeffrey Agyapong, Nguyen Huu Tung, Kofi D Kwofie, Frederick Ayertey, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah Owusu, Isaac Tuffour, Philip Atchoglo, Georgina I Djameh, Faustus A Azerigyik, Senyo K Botchie, William K Anyan, Regina Appiah-Opong, Takuhiro Uto, Osamu Morinaga, Alfred A Appiah, Irene Ayi, Yukihiro Shoyama, Daniel A Boakye, Nobuo Ohta
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524929/co-circulation-of-the-dengue-with-chikungunya-virus-during-the-2013-outbreak-in-the-southern-part-of-lao-pdr
#19
Viengvaly Phommanivong, Seiji Kanda, Takaki Shimono, Pheophet Lamaningao, Andrew Waleluma Darcy, Nobuyuki Mishima, Bounthanh Phaytanavanh, Toshimasa Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: During the 2013 outbreak, 4638 infection cases and 32 deaths have been recorded in the southern part of Laos. In recent years, the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the part of the country bordering Cambodia. Dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV are transmitted by common mosquito vectors. Both diseases have similar clinical presentations; therefore, CHIKV infections might go undiagnosed in DENV-endemic areas. Thus, rapid detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial for differentiating between the two viruses (DENV and CHIKV)...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524928/associations-between-malaria-and-local-and-global-climate-variability-in-five-regions-in-papua-new-guinea
#20
Chisato Imai, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Jin-Hee Eum, Clara T Kim, Jin Seob Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Swadhin K Behera, Mohd Nasir Hassan, Joshua Nealon, Hyenmi Chung, Masahiro Hashizume
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a significant public health issue in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as the burden is among the highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Though PNG's vulnerability to climate change and sensitivity of malaria mosquitoes to weather are well-documented, there are few in-depth epidemiological studies conducted on the potential impacts of climate on malaria incidence in the country. METHODS: This study explored what and how local weather and global climate variability impact on malaria incidence in five regions of PNG...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
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