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Tropical Medicine and Health

Alvaro Berg Soto, Zhijing Xu, Peter Wood, Nelly Sanuku, Leanne J Robinson, Christopher L King, Daniel Tisch, Melinda Susapu, Patricia M Graves
Background: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has encouraged countries to follow a set of guidelines to help them assess the need for mass drug administration and evaluate its progress. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the highest priority countries in the Western Pacific for lymphatic filariasis and the site of extensive research on lymphatic filariasis and surveys of its prevalence. However, different diagnostic tests have been used and thresholds for each test are unclear...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Pascal Ogeleka, Akorede O Awosemo
Background: Following the successful implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) strategy in Tanzania, improvements in child health indicators were observed. However, it remains unclear whether complementary feeding practices have improved given the renewed global agenda on child nutrition. This study investigated trends and socioeconomic and health service factors of complementary feeding practices in Tanzania for the period spanning from 2004 to2016. Methods: The study was based on the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data for the years 2004-2005 ( n  = 2480), 2010 ( n  = 2275) and 2015-2016 ( n  = 2949) to estimate the trends in complementary feeding practices...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Eliakimu Paul, Ireen Kiwelu, Blandina Mmbaga, Rebeka Nazareth, Elias Sabuni, Athanasia Maro, Arnold Ndaro, Jo E B Halliday, Jaffu Chilongola
Background: Acute Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy represents a risk for congenital disease, especially among women without previous exposure to infection. There is, however, a paucity of information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and associated demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors in pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), a referral medical center in Northern Tanzania...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Nay Yi Yi Linn, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Thae Maung Maung, Khine Khine Saw, Lei Yee Win Maw, Badri Thapa, Zaw Lin, Aung Thi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41182-018-0110-0.].
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Momoko Mawatari, Tetsuro Kobayashi, Shinya Yamamoto, Nozomi Takeshita, Kayoko Hayakawa, Satoshi Kutsuna, Norio Ohmagari, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Yasuyuki Kato
Background: Neurological complications from malaria cause significant morbidity and mortality. Severe cerebral malaria occurs as a result of intense sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the cerebral capillaries. However, the pathology of the reversible neurological symptoms remains unclear. We report the case of a patient with malaria who also had mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) causing transient neurological symptoms. Case presentation: A 55-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with acute fever upon returning from Nigeria...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Aneth M Mahande, Shandala Msangi, Lucile J Lyaruu, Eliningaya J Kweka
Background: Mosquitoes have developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides for malaria vector control. A new generation of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) has been developed with increased efficacy against these resistant mosquitoes. The present study therefore evaluated the efficacy of the pyrethroid-based LLINs, DuraNet versus PermaNet 3.0, in an Eastern Africa hut design in Magugu in northern Tanzania where mosquitoes' population higher proportion (69.3%) has been identified as Anopheles gambiae s...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Jesús Sotomayor-Bonilla, Omar García-Suárez, Nohemí Cigarroa-Toledo, Rosa C Cetina-Trejo, Ana C Espinosa-García, Rosa E Sarmiento-Silva, Carlos Machain-Williams, Diego Santiago-Alarcón, Marisa Mazari-Hiriart, Gerardo Suzán
Background: RNA viruses commonly infect bats and rodents, including mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV) that affect human and animal health. Serological evidence suggests past interactions between these two mammalian orders with dengue viruses (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). Although in Mexico there are reports of these viruses in both host groups, we know little about their endemic cycles or persistence in time and space. Methods: Rodents and bats were captured at the Cuitzmala River Basin on the Pacific coast of Jalisco state, Mexico, where MBFV, such as DENV, have been reported in both humans and bats...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Pascal Ogeleka, Anselm Okoro, Bolajoko O Olusanya, Jacob Olusanya, Ifegwu K Ifegwu, Akorede O Awosemo, John Eastwood, Andrew Page
Background: According to the World Health Organization, Nigeria is one of the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Improving the burden of TB among HIV-negative people would require comprehensive and up-to-date data to inform targeted policy actions in Nigeria. The study aimed to describe the incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and risk factors of tuberculosis in Nigeria between 1990 and 2016. Methods: This study used the most recent data from the global burden of disease study 2016...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Richard Culleton, Hoang Ha, Le Thanh, Panom Phongmany, Ron P Marchand, Satoru Kawai, Kazuhiko Moji, Shusuke Nakazawa, Yoshimasa Maeno
Background: Border malaria in the Greater Mekong region of Southeast Asia poses a serious threat to the health of the ethnic minority populations of the region. Traditionally thought to be caused primarily by the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax , recently a zoonotic parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi , has been identified in some countries of the region. The presence of this parasite poses a challenge to malaria control programmes, as it is maintained in a zoonotic reservoir of forest-dwelling macaque monkeys...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Kay Thwe Han, Khin Thet Wai, Tin Oo, Aung Thi, Zayar Han, Daw Kyin Hla Aye, Aung Ye Naung Win, Jetsumon Prachumsri
Background: Alongside monitoring of the disease burden, the successful move towards malaria elimination relies on the readiness of the health care delivery system. However, there is a lack of evidence in the gap of existing National Guidelines and access to low dose primaquine in real practice under varying degrees of antimalarial resistance in the pre-elimination phase in Myanmar. Therefore, this study addressed the essential information from the service delivery points (SDPs) of public and private sectors on the availability and the use of primaquine in both supply and demand side...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Sakrapee Tulatorn, Sutima Preeprem, Varaporn Vuddhakul, Pimonsri Mittraparp-Arthorn
Background: Vibrio cholerae is associated with severe watery diarrheal disease among people in many parts of the world, including the coastal provinces of Southern Thailand. There are relatively few studies focusing on the genetic characterization among V. cholerae isolates in this region. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the presence of virulence genes and DNA fingerprints among V. cholerae O1 and non - O1/non - O139 isolates obtained from clinical samples in four southern coastal provinces during the period of 2001 - 2009 ( n  = 21)...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Nay Yi Yi Linn, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Thae Maung Maung, Khine Khine Saw, Lei Yee Win Maw, Badri Thapa, Zaw Lin, Aung Thi
Background: Village health volunteers (VHVs) play a key role in delivering community-based malaria care especially in the hard-to-reach areas in Myanmar. It is necessary to assess their performance and understand the challenges encountered by them for effective community management of malaria. This mixed methods study was conducted to (i) understand the cascade of malaria services (testing, diagnosis, referral, and treatment of malaria) provided by the VHVs under the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in Myanmar in 2016 and compare with other health care providers and (ii) explore the challenges in the delivery of malaria services by VHVs...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Betty Muriithi, Martin Bundi, Amina Galata, Gabriel Miringu, Ernest Wandera, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Martha Kamemba, Evans Amukoye, Sora Huqa, Mohammad Shah, Shingo Inoue, Yoshio Ichinose
The NUITM-KEMRI biosafety training program was developed for capacity building of new biosafety level three (BSL-3) laboratory users. The training program comprehensively covers biosafety and biosecurity theory and practice. Its training curriculum is based on the WHO biosafety guidelines, local biosafety standards, and ongoing biosafety level three research activities in the facility, also taking into consideration the emerging public health issues. The program's training approach enhances the participant's biosafety and biosecurity knowledge and builds their skills through the hands-on practice sessions and mentorship training...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hitomi Araki, Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Lavy Lorphachan, Pheovaly Soundala, Moritoshi Iwagami, Akira Shibanuma, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
Background: Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection is one of the foodborne trematodiases, which is highly endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The infection occurs especially when people eat raw fish containing Ov metacercariae. As eating raw fish is a traditional culture in Lao PDR, changing this behavior is difficult. A new approach is necessary to control Ov infection because people easily get re-infected even after taking praziquantel unless they change their behaviors...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Thae Maung Maung, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Tin Oo, Swai Mon Oo, Than Naing Soe, Aung Thi, Khin Thet Wai
Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Myanmar with reported artemisinin resistance. Myanmar promotes the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) through the free delivery of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) with target coverage of at least 80% in moderate and high-risk areas by 2014. Migrant people are at greater risk of malaria. They have significant barriers to health care services for febrile illness and malaria. Thus, a community-based survey was conducted among the migrant population to assess the ownership and utilization of bed nets (ITN/LLINs) for malaria...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Dristi Halwai, Rajendra Gurung, Nimesh Poudyal, Dharanidhar Baral, Shyamal Kumar Bhattacharya
Background: Emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious challenge for successful global tuberculosis control. Early diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis by direct nitrate reductase assay (NRA) aids in appropriate treatment and reduction in disease transmission, particularly in countries with high tuberculosis burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of NRA for direct detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in laboratories with limited resources...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Pramod Kumar Mehta, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
Background: Pondicherry, a union territory in India , is an endemic district for bancroftian lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus where eight rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) were completed in 2011 (annually once from 2004 to 2011).The objectives of this study were to conduct a focal survey to assess microfilaria and antigen (Ag) prevalence among young adults and to assess vector infection and infectivity through a focal entomological survey. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected using gravid traps in Sedurapet village of Pondicherry and dissected to enumerate W...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Emilie Louise Akiko Matsumoto-Takahashi, Pilarita Tongol-Rivera, Elena Andino Villacorte, Ray Uyaan Angluben, Masamine Jimba, Shigeyuki Kano
Background: Microscopists have active roles in bringing malaria diagnosis and treatment closer to households in Palawan, the highest malaria-endemic province in the Philippines. To accelerate the elimination of malaria in Palawan, we performed a study based on the bottom-up approach to provide profound data to strengthen this community-based malaria control from the microscopists' point of view. Methods: We performed a qualitative cross-sectional study in Palawan...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hanako Iwashita, Yukiko Higa, Kyoko Futami, Peter A Lutiali, Sammy M Njenga, Takeshi Nabeshima, Noboru Minakawa
Background: Many arboviral outbreaks have occurred in various locations in Kenya. Entomological surveys are suitable methods for revealing information about circulating arboviruses before human outbreaks are recognized. Therefore, mosquitoes were collected in Kenya to determine the distribution of arboviruses. Methods: Various species of mosquitoes were sampled from January to July 2012 using several collection methods. Mosquito homogenates were directly tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using various arbovirus-targeted primer pairs...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hunachew Beyene, Wakgari Deressa, Abera Kumie, Delia Grace
Background: Despite improvements in prevention efforts, childhood diarrhea remains a public health concern. However, there may be substantial variation influenced by place, time, and season. Description of diarrheal clusters in time and space and understanding seasonal patterns can improve surveillance and management. The present study investigated the spatial and seasonal distribution and purely spatial, purely temporal, and space-time clusters of childhood diarrhea in Southern Ethiopia...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
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