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Tropical Medicine and Health

A K M A Rahman, C Saegerman, D Berkvens
BACKGROUND: A Bayesian latent class evaluation was used to estimate the true prevalence of brucellosis in livestock farmers and patients with prolonged pyrexia (PP) and to validate three conditionally dependent serological tests: indirect ELISA (iELISA), Rose Bengal Test (RBT), and standard tube agglutination (STAT). A total of 335 sera from livestock farmers and 300 sera from PP patients were investigated. RESULTS: The true prevalence of brucellosis in livestock farmers and PP patients was estimated to be 1...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Saw Thu Wah, Hathairad Hananantachai, Usanee Kerdpin, Chotiros Plabplueng, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Pornlada Nuchnoi
Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, much genomic data and a novel body of knowledge, including the identification of microRNAs, are being increasingly accumulated for the development of laboratory testing cassettes for cerebral malaria prevention...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Guillaume MuasaPatoka Kalonji, Gérard De Connick, Léon Okenge Ngongo, Dieudonné Kazumba Nsaka, Thierry Kabengele, Félicien Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien Ilunga-Ilunga, Albert Adelin, Didier Giet
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis still remains a major public health concern in several provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo, especially in prison settings. The present study aimed at determining tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and associated risk factors in inmates of the Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed over a 6-month period (January to June 2015) in Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison. A total of 733 inmates were screened systematically for TB...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
N D B Ehelepola, S M A N Samaranayake, B M L S Basnayake, C G K Amiyangoda, D M U C B Dhanapala, K L R Kalupahana
BACKGROUND: Snakebites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries even though existing treatment methods can prevent most deaths if presentation occurs early to hospitals. Envenomation by unidentified snakes is common in central Sri Lanka. Management of such patients is challenging especially if presentation is late. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a 52-year-old man from central Sri Lanka who presented late after being bitten by an unidentified snake...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Noriko Shinoda, Hajime Nakamura, Mineo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is a severe skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Real-time PCR targeting the IS2404 sequence has been used as a reliable and rapid method for the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer and detection of M. ulcerans in the environment. The genome of M. ulcerans contains hundreds of IS2404 copies, which have variability in certain sequences. Therefore, the design of new primers specific to conserved IS2404 regions may potentially improve the sensitivity of M. ulcerans detection and, consequently, the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer, thus ensuring timely treatment of the disease...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Atsuo Hamada, Yuki Tada, Shinji Fukushima, Hidemi Murata, Hirohisa Kikuchi
Dengue fever is a serious concern for Japanese people staying in Southeast Asia. In order to implement necessary prophylactic measures for dengue fever in this population, we investigated the characteristics of dengue fever among Japanese nationals living in Manila, Philippines. From 2012 to 2015, 175 Japanese expatriates were diagnosed with dengue fever at the medical clinic of the Japanese Association Manila, Inc. Most of the patients were employees of Japanese companies and their families and were long-term residents of Manila...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Ripa Jamal, Rieko Shimogawara, Ki-Ichi Yamamoto, Nobuo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Previous publications suggest that nutritional supplements have anti-trypanosome activity in vitro, although apparent efficacy was not noted in vivo. This study was conducted by experimentally infecting mice with Trypanosoma brucei brucei to assess the anti-trypanosome activity of various nutritional supplements with the hope of finding possible application in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. METHODS: Activities of nutritional supplements were screened in vitro against bloodstream forms of T...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Gianne Eduard L Ulanday, Kenta Okamoto, Kouichi Morita
BACKGROUND: Dengue disease is one of the most significant vector-borne illnesses in the world. The emergence and re-emergence of dengue infections in many parts of the world affect millions annually and continue to burden public health systems especially in low-income populations. Advances in dengue vaccine development showed promising results; however, protection seems to be suboptimal. There is no licensed chemotherapeutic agent against dengue to date. An ideal scenario of combinatorial vaccination of high-risk individuals and chemotherapy of the diseased during outbreaks may compensate for the meager protection offered by the vaccine...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Michael Amoa-Bosompem, Mitsuko Ohashi, Mba-Tihssommah Mosore, Jeffrey Agyapong, Nguyen Huu Tung, Kofi D Kwofie, Frederick Ayertey, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah Owusu, Isaac Tuffour, Philip Atchoglo, Georgina I Djameh, Faustus A Azerigyik, Senyo K Botchie, William K Anyan, Regina Appiah-Opong, Takuhiro Uto, Osamu Morinaga, Alfred A Appiah, Irene Ayi, Yukihiro Shoyama, Daniel A Boakye, Nobuo Ohta
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Viengvaly Phommanivong, Seiji Kanda, Takaki Shimono, Pheophet Lamaningao, Andrew Waleluma Darcy, Nobuyuki Mishima, Bounthanh Phaytanavanh, Toshimasa Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: During the 2013 outbreak, 4638 infection cases and 32 deaths have been recorded in the southern part of Laos. In recent years, the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the part of the country bordering Cambodia. Dengue virus (DENV) and CHIKV are transmitted by common mosquito vectors. Both diseases have similar clinical presentations; therefore, CHIKV infections might go undiagnosed in DENV-endemic areas. Thus, rapid detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial for differentiating between the two viruses (DENV and CHIKV)...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Chisato Imai, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Jin-Hee Eum, Clara T Kim, Jin Seob Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Swadhin K Behera, Mohd Nasir Hassan, Joshua Nealon, Hyenmi Chung, Masahiro Hashizume
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a significant public health issue in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as the burden is among the highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Though PNG's vulnerability to climate change and sensitivity of malaria mosquitoes to weather are well-documented, there are few in-depth epidemiological studies conducted on the potential impacts of climate on malaria incidence in the country. METHODS: This study explored what and how local weather and global climate variability impact on malaria incidence in five regions of PNG...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Shogo Kanamori, Akira Shibanuma, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: The 5S management method (where 5S stands for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) was originally implemented by manufacturing enterprises in Japan. It was then introduced to the manufacturing sector in the West and eventually applied to the health sector for organizing and standardizing the workplace. 5S has recently received attention as a potential solution for improving government health-care services in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a narrative literature review to explore its applicability to health-care facilities globally, with a focus on three aspects: (a) the context of its application, (b) its impacts, and (c) its adoption as part of government initiatives...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Hitomi Araki, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have gained much attention in recent years due to the support from various agencies. However, the main approach to combat NTDs has been to cure rather than to prevent. As many NTD infections are closely linked with human behaviors such as hygienic practices and tradition, behavior change is also very crucial to prevent relapse or reinfection. Therefore, we would like to suggest a potential new approach-the positive deviance approach-to tackle NTDs by focusing on the preventive phase...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Xu Guang Qiu, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Yukifumi Nawa, Makoto Itoh
BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis is one of the foodborn trematodiases and number of the patients was estimated to be about 23 million around the world. To obtain good compliance of people for the surveillance of paragonimiasis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis with unconcentrated urine samples was developed. RESULTS: Paragonimus westermani antigen specific IgG and IgG4 were detected in urine samples from paragonimiasis patients and the levels correlated well with those detected in the paired serum samples...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Ken Fujioka, Toshiki Nishimura, Masayuki Seki, Masanori Kinoshita, Nobuyuki Mishima, Shigeo Irimajiri, Masaya Yamato
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute viral hepatitis that is transmitted enterically. It is epidemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central America. It is known that HEV can cause extrahepatic manifestations. Here, we report the first case of acalculous cholecystitis as an extrahepatic symptom of HEV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old Japanese woman with no notable past medical history presented with complaints of fever and nausea while she was traveling in Australia; within the previous 2 months, she had also traveled to India and Africa...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Irene Ayi, Augustine Odoi-Kpoti Sowah, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Takashi Suzuki, Nobuo Ohta, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection can lead to severe disease outcomes in immune-compromised people. This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies among pregnant women, hospitalized children (<5 years old) and HIV-seropositive persons in Accra. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Accra, and a total of 450 voluntary participants were recruited for the study consisting of 125 pregnant women, 200 children and 125 HIV-seropositive persons...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hae Ji Kang, Se Hun Gu, Joseph A Cook, Richard Yanagihara
Novel hantaviruses, recently detected in moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Europe, Asia, and North America would predict a broader host range and wider ecological diversity. Employing RT-PCR, archival frozen tissues from the Chinese shrew mole (Uropsilus soricipes), broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus), coast mole (Scapanus orarius), Townsend's mole (Scapanus townsendii), and long-tailed mole (Scaptonyx fusicaudus) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA. Following multiple attempts, a previously unrecognized hantavirus, designated Dahonggou Creek virus (DHCV), was detected in a long-tailed mole, captured in Shimian County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, in August 1989...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Suqin Guo, Lishan He, Daniel J Tisch, James Kazura, Sungano Mharakurwa, Jagadish Mahanta, Sócrates Herrera, Baomin Wang, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: Good-quality artemisinin drugs are essential for malaria treatment, but increasing prevalence of poor-quality artemisinin drugs in many endemic countries hinders effective management of malaria cases. METHODS: To develop a point-of-care assay for rapid identification of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin drugs for resource-limited areas, we used specific monoclonal antibodies against artesunate and artemether, and developed prototypes of lateral flow dipstick assays...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Nguyen Lam Vuong, Dao Huy Manh, Nguyen Thi Mai, Le Hong Phuc, Van Thuy Luong, Vo Duy Quan, Nguyen Van Thuong, Nguyen Thi Phuong Lan, Cao Thi My Nhon, Shusaku Mizukami, Nguyen Ngoc Doan, Vu Thi Que Huong, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a viral disease that spreads rapidly in the tropic and subtropic regions of the world and causes 22,000 deaths annually. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a new classification of dengue infections, which divided them into three categories: dengue without warning sign (D), dengue with warning sign (DWS), and severe dengue (SD). However, researchers have been using different criteria to define persistent vomiting; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the ability of the number of vomiting times in early prediction of SD development among D/DWS patients...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Martin Kavao Mutua, Elizabeth Kimani-Murage, Nicholas Ngomi, Henrik Ravn, Peter Mwaniki, Elizabeth Echoka
BACKGROUND: More efforts have been put in place to increase full immunization coverage rates in the last decade. Little is known about the levels and consequences of delaying or vaccinating children in different schedules. Vaccine effectiveness depends on the timing of its administration, and it is not optimal if given early, delayed or not given as recommended. Evidence of non-specific effects of vaccines is well documented and could be linked to timing and sequencing of immunization...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
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