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Tropical Medicine and Health

Hitomi Araki, Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Lavy Lorphachan, Pheovaly Soundala, Moritoshi Iwagami, Akira Shibanuma, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
Background: Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection is one of the foodborne trematodiases, which is highly endemic in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The infection occurs especially when people eat raw fish containing Ov metacercariae. As eating raw fish is a traditional culture in Lao PDR, changing this behavior is difficult. A new approach is necessary to control Ov infection because people easily get re-infected even after taking praziquantel unless they change their behaviors...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Thae Maung Maung, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Tin Oo, Swai Mon Oo, Than Naing Soe, Aung Thi, Khin Thet Wai
Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Myanmar with reported artemisinin resistance. Myanmar promotes the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) through the free delivery of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) with target coverage of at least 80% in moderate and high-risk areas by 2014. Migrant people are at greater risk of malaria. They have significant barriers to health care services for febrile illness and malaria. Thus, a community-based survey was conducted among the migrant population to assess the ownership and utilization of bed nets (ITN/LLINs) for malaria...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Dristi Halwai, Rajendra Gurung, Nimesh Poudyal, Dharanidhar Baral, Shyamal Kumar Bhattacharya
Background: Emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious challenge for successful global tuberculosis control. Early diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis by direct nitrate reductase assay (NRA) aids in appropriate treatment and reduction in disease transmission, particularly in countries with high tuberculosis burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of NRA for direct detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in laboratories with limited resources...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Pramod Kumar Mehta, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
Background: Pondicherry, a union territory in India , is an endemic district for bancroftian lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus where eight rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) were completed in 2011 (annually once from 2004 to 2011).The objectives of this study were to conduct a focal survey to assess microfilaria and antigen (Ag) prevalence among young adults and to assess vector infection and infectivity through a focal entomological survey. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected using gravid traps in Sedurapet village of Pondicherry and dissected to enumerate W...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Emilie Louise Akiko Matsumoto-Takahashi, Pilarita Tongol-Rivera, Elena Andino Villacorte, Ray Uyaan Angluben, Masamine Jimba, Shigeyuki Kano
Background: Microscopists have active roles in bringing malaria diagnosis and treatment closer to households in Palawan, the highest malaria-endemic province in the Philippines. To accelerate the elimination of malaria in Palawan, we performed a study based on the bottom-up approach to provide profound data to strengthen this community-based malaria control from the microscopists' point of view. Methods: We performed a qualitative cross-sectional study in Palawan...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hanako Iwashita, Yukiko Higa, Kyoko Futami, Peter A Lutiali, Sammy M Njenga, Takeshi Nabeshima, Noboru Minakawa
Background: Many arboviral outbreaks have occurred in various locations in Kenya. Entomological surveys are suitable methods for revealing information about circulating arboviruses before human outbreaks are recognized. Therefore, mosquitoes were collected in Kenya to determine the distribution of arboviruses. Methods: Various species of mosquitoes were sampled from January to July 2012 using several collection methods. Mosquito homogenates were directly tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using various arbovirus-targeted primer pairs...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Hunachew Beyene, Wakgari Deressa, Abera Kumie, Delia Grace
Background: Despite improvements in prevention efforts, childhood diarrhea remains a public health concern. However, there may be substantial variation influenced by place, time, and season. Description of diarrheal clusters in time and space and understanding seasonal patterns can improve surveillance and management. The present study investigated the spatial and seasonal distribution and purely spatial, purely temporal, and space-time clusters of childhood diarrhea in Southern Ethiopia...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, J S Thakur, Gursimer Jeet, Sanjay Jain
Background: A non-communicable disease risk factor survey (based on World Health Organization STEP approach to Surveillance, i.e., WHO-STEPS) was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals. The study subjects were administered the WHO STEPS questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. This study aimed at exploring the risk factors of diabetes using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach in the North Indian state of Punjab...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Yukie M Lloyd, Livo F Esemu, Jovikka Antallan, Bradley Thomas, Samuel Tassi Yunga, Bekindaka Obase, Nana Christine, Rose G F Leke, Richard Culleton, Kenji Obadiah Mfuh, Vivek R Nerurkar, Diane Wallace Taylor
Background: Sampling of saliva for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum infections is a safe, non-invasive alternative to sampling of blood. However, the use of saliva presents a challenge because lower concentrations of parasite DNA are present in saliva compared to peripheral blood. Therefore, a sensitive method is needed for detection of parasite DNA in saliva. This study utilized two recently reported "ultra-sensitive" PCR assays based on detection of the P. falciparum mitochondrial cox3 gene and the multi-copy nuclear varATS gene...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Daniel Eid, Miguel Guzman-Rivero, Ernesto Rojas, Isabel Goicolea, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Daniel Illanes, Miguel San Sebastian
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s41182-018-0089-6.].
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Sothy Sor, Michiyo Higuchi, Mohammad Abul Bashar Sarker, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Background: The rabies incidence and number of dogs in Cambodia are much higher than in nearby countries. Knowledge and behaviors which are related to rabies and/or dogs are considered to be contributing factors for rabies infection control in the community; however, such information in rural Cambodia is limited. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess knowledge and experiences related to rabies as well as dog-related behaviors among people in Siem Reap Province, and to identify the specific factors associated with adequate knowledge...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Farzana Ferdous, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Sumon Kumar Das, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Dilruba Nasrin, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, James P Nataro, Enbo Ma, Khitam Muhsen, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Tahmeed Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque
Background: The present study aimed to examine the risk factors for death due to pneumonia in young children and healthcare behaviors of the guardians for children in rural Bangladesh. A prospective autopsy study was conducted among guardians of children aged 4 weeks to 59 months in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from 2008 to 2012. Results: Pneumonia was the primary cause of death, accounting for 26.4% ( n  = 81) of all 307 deaths. Of the pneumonia deaths, 58% ( n  = 47) deaths occurred in younger infants (aged 4 weeks to < 6 months) and 24...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Manabu Ote, Hirotaka Kanuka
Background: Vector-borne infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms transmitted mainly by blood-sucking arthropod vectors. In laboratories, the handling of insects carrying human pathogens requires extra caution because of safety concerns over their escape risk. Based on standard insect containment practices, there have been cases where costly enhancements were required to definitely protect laboratory workers and neighbors from potential infection through mosquito bites...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Sangeeta Gupta, Raymond Asare Tutu, John Boateng, Janice Desire Busingye, Sathya Elavarthi
Background: Although substantial progress has been made in reducing total mortality resulting from foodborne diseases, diarrheal illness are still the second most common illnesses among children. In Ghana, foodborne diseases have consistently been among the top 20 causes of outpatient illness over the last couple of decades. This study, therefore, examines health literacy on foodborne diseases and the relative effects of health literacy on self-rated health. Methods: Foodborne diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Charlie Ave, D Ramaiah Kapa, Eric Ottesen
Background: The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. Methods: All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Kidanemariam G/Michael Beyene, Solomon Worku Beza
Background: Self-medication which is the act of obtaining and using one or more medicines without medical supervision is a common practice among pregnant women. Unless proper caution is taken, it may result in maternal and fetal adverse outcomes. In Ethiopia, information on self-medication practice during pregnancy is scanty. Hence, this study aimed to assess self-medication practice and associated factors among pregnant women in government health centers in Addis Ababa. Methods: An institution-based mixed study design using a sequential explanatory approach was employed among 617 pregnant women and nine key informants in Addis Ababa from May 8, 2017, to June 30, 2017...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Kyawt Mon Win, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Thae Maung Maung, Tin Oo, Aung Thi, Khin Nan Lon, Zaw Lin
Background: As Myanmar progresses towards lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination, it is important to know how well the anti-filarial activities have performed. The present study was conducted to study the implementation of the key anti-filarial activities and their impact on key indicators of LF transmission. Methods: A secondary analysis of aggregate program data on the anti-filarial activities was conducted in four endemic state/regions of Myanmar receiving at least six mass drug administration (MDA) rounds during 2001-2016...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
David Harimbola Rakotonandrasana, Takahiro Tsukahara, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani
Background: Despite the World Health Organization and the National Malaria Program of Madagascar recommending that antimalarial drugs only be prescribed for patients with positive results on malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers continue to prescribe these drugs for cases with negative test results. We explored why and how primary healthcare workers in Madagascar continue to prescribe antimalarial drugs despite this guidance. Methods: We purposively selected 14 medical doctors and 2 nurses from 11 primary health facilities (6 public, 5 private) in Toliara, Madagascar, and interviewed them regarding their antimalarial prescribing behaviors...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Daniel Eid, Miguel Guzman-Rivero, Ernesto Rojas, Isabel Goicolea, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Daniel Illanes, Miguel San Sebastian
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Bolivia, particularly in the rainforest of Cochabamba, in the municipality of Villa Tunari. The precarious, dispersed, and poorly accessible settlements in these farming communities make it difficult to study them, and there are no epidemiological studies in the area. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2015 and August 2016 in two communities of Villa Tunari, Cochabamba...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Aye Mon Mon Kyaw, Soundappan Kathirvel, Mrinalini Das, Badri Thapa, Nay Yi Yi Linn, Thae Maung Maung, Zaw Lin, Aung Thi
Background: Myanmar, a malaria endemic country of Southeast Asia, adopted surveillance and response strategy similar to "1-3-7" Chinese strategy to achieve sub-national elimination in six low-endemic region/states of the country. Among these, Yangon, Bago-East, and Mon region/states have implemented this malaria surveillance and response strategy with modification in 2016. The current study was conducted to assess the case notification, investigation, classification, and response strategy (NICR) in these three states...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
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