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Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Alessandra Bacca, Angela Pucci, Daniele Lorenzini, Serena Chiacchio, Duccio Volterrani, Mauro Ferrari, Stefano Sellari Franceschini, Gabriele Materazzi, Fulvio Basolo, Giampaolo Bernini
BACKGROUND: The expression of vesicular catecholamine transporters (VMAT1 and 2) in pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) and the possible relationships with [18F]FDOPA PET/CT and [123I]MIBG scintigraphy uptake are unknown. Our purpose was to investigate possible correlations of either VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression with the functional imaging in patients with PHEOs and PGLs. METHODS: An observational 3-year time study was performed by enrolling 31 consecutive patients with PHEO (n=17) or PGL (n= 14)...
September 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
James T Thackeray, Frank M Bengel
The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Luca Presotto, Elena Busnardo, Luigi Gianolli, Valentino Bettinardi
Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lucia Leccisotti, Mariadea Lavalle, Alessandro Giordano
Until a few years ago, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using positron-emission tomography (PET) and the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) was limited to research institutions. Following an increase in the number of PET scanner installations and in the availability of perfusion tracers that do not have to be produced by an on-site cyclotron and commercial software for MBF quantification, a more widespread clinical use of MBF quantification with PET can be expected. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the advantages of MBF quantification with PET highlighting the potential applications in several clinical settings, from patients with cardiovascular risk factors and early coronary artery disease (CAD) to patients with multi-vessel or myocardial disease...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Roberto Sciagrà
In the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), ischemia plays a possibly under-evaluated role. In particular, a large body of evidence indicates that structural and functional abnormalities in the coronary microcirculation contribute to myocardial ischemia and are key elements for HCM pathophysiology and clinical evolution. Measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and under maximal hyperemia (hMBF) by means of perfusion positron-emission tomography (PET) is the most effective way to assess microvascular dysfunction in humans...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Piva, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Valentina Ceriani, Ambra Buschiazzo, Silvia Morbelli, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti
Over the last several decades, radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) has been a mainstay for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD), based on the assumption that a detailed knowledge of stenosis localization and severity is not sufficient for clinical decision making. Furthermore, radionuclide MPI diagnostic accuracy has been implemented by the assessment of Coronary Flow Reserve (CFR) and Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF), as quantitative indexes of stenosis severity and surrogates of total ischaemic burden...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Daniel Juneau, Fernanda Erthal, Atif Alzahrani, Ali Alenazy, Pablo B Nery, Rob S Beanlands, Benjamin J Chow
Cardiac inflammatory disorders, either primarily cardiac or secondary to a systemic process, are associated with significant morbidity and/or mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging, especially due to significant overlap in their clinical presentation with other cardiac diseases. Recent publications have investigated the potential diagnostic role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in these patients. Most of the available literature is focused on Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer which has already demonstrated its use in other inflammatory and infectious processes...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Claudio Marcassa
Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a large component of the healthcare spending both in developed and developing countries. MPI is also responsible for a significant increase in the exposition of patients and health care operators to ionizing radiations for medical purposes. Thus, health-care systems and pertinent scientific societies were involved in developing criteria to contain the non-appropriate use by implementing Appropriate Use Criteria and Clinical Indications Guidelines. The present manuscript will review the concept and limitations of such an approach...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mario Petretta, Emilia Zampella, Roberta Assante, Valentina Mercurio, Wanda Acampa, Marco Salvatore, Alberto Cuocolo
Risk prediction through integration of clinical variables and imaging data into a prognostic model can identify those factors with a high impact on patient outcome. The development of a prognostic model traditionally includes the evaluation of the independent contribution of variables with consideration of covarying factors that may confound risk stratification. Several methods and metrics are available to assess the performance of a prediction model. Traditional measures for binary and survival outcomes include the concordance (C) statistic for discriminative ability, and goodness-of-fit statistics for calibration...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Stefan Gratz, Patrik Reize, Bendix Kemke, Wim U Kampen, Markus Luster, Helmut Höffken
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of "pure" osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with "pure" osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Otakar Belohlavek, Monika Jaruskova
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that a non-fasting state reduces [18F]FDG-PET quality, but the significance of higher levels of fasting blood glucose has aroused some doubts over time. The aim of this work was to provide further evidence to clarify this issue and its impact on the handling of hyperglycemic patients in daily routine. METHODS: Muscle and liver standardized uptake values (SUV) and their ratio, tumor SUV and the frequency of positive PET findings were retrospectively analyzed in 116 hyperglycemic (HG) patients (>11 mmol/L), in 116 patients with slightly elevated glycemia (SEG) (5...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Barbara Palumbo, Silvio Sivolella, Isabella Palumbo, Tommaso Buresta, Valentina Radicchia, Mario L Fravolini, Francesca Ferretti, Rita Bellavita, Luigi Mearini, Michele Scialpi, Cynthia Aristei, Gianfranco Pelliccia
BACKGROUND: Patients with suspected recurrence of prostate cancer undergoing [18F]fluoromethyl choline ([18F]FCH) PET/CT were retrospectively evaluated to investigate the influence of hormonal therapy (HT) in [18F]FCH uptake. METHODS: [18F]FCH PET/CT was performed in 102 surgically treated patients with suspected recurrence (PSA increase >0.2 ng/mL) of prostate cancer, divided in two groups: under HT (N.=54) and without HT (N.=48) at the time of PET scanning...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alessandro Stefano, Giorgio Russo, Massimo Ippolito, Sebastiano Cosentino, Gabriella Murè, Sara Baldari, Maria G Sabini, Daniele Sardina, Lucia M Valastro, Roberto Bordonaro, Cristina Messa, Maria C Gilardi, Hector Soto Parra
BACKGROUND: In this paper the clinical value of PET for early prediction of tumor response to erlotinib in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen is evaluated. The aim was to compare the early metabolic treatment response using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1999 recommendations and PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST), and the standard treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Markus Schwaiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alexis Vrachimis, Lisa Honold, Andreas Faust, Sven Hermann, Michael Schäfers
New molecular imaging approaches featuring the assessment of inflammatory processes in the vascular wall on top of existing anatomic and functional vessel imaging procedures could emerge as decisive tools for the understanding and prevention of cardiovascular events. In this respect imaging approaches addressing specific molecular and cellular targets in atherosclerosis are of high interest. This review summarizes the rationale and current status of nuclear imaging probes which possess high translational potential...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jan Bucerius
Whereas in the past the term "vasculitis" was most frequently used in context with systemic vasculitides, such as the large vessel vasculitides (LVV) Takayasa arteritis and giant cell arteritis, characterized by inflammation of blood vessel walls, it nowadays comprises also inflammatory changes of the vessel wall as a substantial part of the atherosclerotic disease process. Implementing non-invasive imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) as well as positron emission tomography (PET) in the diagnostic algorithm of atherosclerosis and LVV, depicts a promising step towards an earlier detection with a, consecutively, improved therapeutic approach and potentially prognostic benefit in patients suffering from vasculitis...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Hendrik B Sager, Matthias Nahrendorf
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Rouchelle S Sriranjan, Jason M Tarkin, Nicholas R Evans, Mohammed M Chowdhury, James H Rudd
Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christoph Rischpler
Inflammatory processes after myocardial infarction have gained major interest in recent cardiovascular research. It is believed that not only the degree of cell recruitment to the heart plays a pivotal role in the quality of wound healing after myocardial infarction, but also the balance between different types or even subtypes of cells. It is also this balance which is thought to control key processes in tissue repair, such as apoptosis and neoangiogenesis. In this paper, we aim to review imaging strategies (with a special focus on nuclear molecular imaging strategies) that target cells and processes involved in postischemic inflammation and that have a high potential to be translated into clinic or that are already being used and evaluated in humans...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Fernanda Erthal, Daniel Juneau, Siok P Lim, Girish Dwivedi, Pablo B Nery, David Birnie, Rob S Beanlands
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease. Cardiac involvement is described in up to 50% of the cases. The disease spectrum is wide and cardiac manifestations ranges from being asymptomatic to heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis can be challenging due to its non-specific nature and the focal involvement of the heart. In this review, we discuss the utility of a stepwise approach with multimodality cardiac imaging in the diagnosis and management of CS...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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