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Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Naelle Lombion, Philippe Robin, Adrian Tempescul, Pierre Y LE Roux, Ulrike Schick, Gaëlle Guillerm, Jean C Ianotto, Christian Berthou, Pierre Y Salaün, Ronan Abgral
BACKGROUND: Advanced age is an independent poor prognostic factor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMitCEBO is an alternative to CHOP to decrease side effects in elderly patients. Many studies have shown prognostic value of an interim FDG PET-CT to predict survival. A recent consensus (ICML, Lugano 2013) has suggested using the 5-point scale Deauville criteria instead of those of the international harmonization project (IHP) to visually assess the response on interim PET. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of an interim FDG PET-CT in patients older than 60 with treated DLBCL and to compare IHP and 5-PS Deauville visual interpretation to predict survival...
November 30, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Francesca Iommelli, Viviana DE Rosa, Cristina Terlizzi, Silvana Del Vecchio
Preclinical imaging with radiolabeled probes became an integral part of the complex translational process that moves a newly developed compound from laboratory to clinical application. Imaging studies in animal tumor models may be undertaken to test a newly synthesized tracer, a newly developed drug or to interrogate, in the living organism, specific molecular and biological processes underlying tumor growth and progression. The present review will try to delineate the current status and future perspectives of preclinical imaging in oncology by providing examples from recent literature...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sara Gargiulo, Anna R Coda, Mariarosaria Panico, Matteo Gramanzini, Rosa M Moresco, Sylvie Chalon, Sabina Pappatà
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation (NI) is an adaptive response to different noxious stimuli, involving microglia, astrocytes and peripheral immune cells. NI is a hallmark of several acute and chronic diseases of central nervous system (CNS) and contributes to both damage and repair of CNS tissue. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Interventional or genetically modified rodent models mimicking human neuropathologies may provide valuable insights on basic mechanisms of NI, but also for improving the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Adelaide Greco, Sandra Albanese, Luigi Auletta, Flavia De Carlo, Marco Salvatore, Candace M Howard, Pier P Claudio
Several advances have been made toward understanding the biology of cancer and most of them are due to robust genetic studies that led to the scientific recognition that although many patients have the same type of cancer their tumors may have harbored different molecular alterations. Personalized therapy and the development of advanced techniques of preclinical imaging and new murine models of disease are emerging concepts that are allowing mapping of disease markers in vivo and in some cases also receptor targeted therapy...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Luigi Auletta, Matteo Gramanzini, Gargiulo Sara, Sandra Albanese, Marco Salvatore, Adelaide Greco
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical molecular imaging is an emerging field. Improving the ability of scientists to study the molecular basis of human pathology in animals is of the utmost importance for future advances in all fields of human medicine. Moreover, the possibility of developing new imaging techniques or of implementing old ones adapted to the clinic is a significant area. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Cardiology, neurology, immunology and oncology have all been studied with preclinical molecular imaging...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mariana Zirnsak, Robert Bärwolf, Martin Freesmeyer
BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion during PET/CT acquisition generates artifacts in the form of breath-related blurring, which influences the lesion detectability and diagnostic accuracy. The goal of this study was to verify whether breath-hold [68Ga]DOTA-TOC PET/CT (bhPET) allows detection of additional foci compared to free-breathing PET/CT (fbPET), and to assess the impact of breath-holding on standard uptake values (SUV) and isocontoured volume (Vic40) in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET)...
November 8, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
James T Thackeray, Frank M Bengel
The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Luca Presotto, Elena Busnardo, Luigi Gianolli, Valentino Bettinardi
Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lucia Leccisotti, Mariadea Lavalle, Alessandro Giordano
Until a few years ago, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using positron-emission tomography (PET) and the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) was limited to research institutions. Following an increase in the number of PET scanner installations and in the availability of perfusion tracers that do not have to be produced by an on-site cyclotron and commercial software for MBF quantification, a more widespread clinical use of MBF quantification with PET can be expected. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the advantages of MBF quantification with PET highlighting the potential applications in several clinical settings, from patients with cardiovascular risk factors and early coronary artery disease (CAD) to patients with multi-vessel or myocardial disease...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Roberto Sciagrà
In the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), ischemia plays a possibly under-evaluated role. In particular, a large body of evidence indicates that structural and functional abnormalities in the coronary microcirculation contribute to myocardial ischemia and are key elements for HCM pathophysiology and clinical evolution. Measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and under maximal hyperemia (hMBF) by means of perfusion positron-emission tomography (PET) is the most effective way to assess microvascular dysfunction in humans...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Piva, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Valentina Ceriani, Ambra Buschiazzo, Silvia Morbelli, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti
Over the last several decades, radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) has been a mainstay for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD), based on the assumption that a detailed knowledge of stenosis localization and severity is not sufficient for clinical decision making. Furthermore, radionuclide MPI diagnostic accuracy has been implemented by the assessment of Coronary Flow Reserve (CFR) and Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF), as quantitative indexes of stenosis severity and surrogates of total ischaemic burden...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Daniel Juneau, Fernanda Erthal, Atif Alzahrani, Ali Alenazy, Pablo B Nery, Rob S Beanlands, Benjamin J Chow
Cardiac inflammatory disorders, either primarily cardiac or secondary to a systemic process, are associated with significant morbidity and/or mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging, especially due to significant overlap in their clinical presentation with other cardiac diseases. Recent publications have investigated the potential diagnostic role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in these patients. Most of the available literature is focused on Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer which has already demonstrated its use in other inflammatory and infectious processes...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Claudio Marcassa
Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a large component of the healthcare spending both in developed and developing countries. MPI is also responsible for a significant increase in the exposition of patients and health care operators to ionizing radiations for medical purposes. Thus, health-care systems and pertinent scientific societies were involved in developing criteria to contain the non-appropriate use by implementing Appropriate Use Criteria and Clinical Indications Guidelines. The present manuscript will review the concept and limitations of such an approach...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mario Petretta, Emilia Zampella, Roberta Assante, Valentina Mercurio, Wanda Acampa, Marco Salvatore, Alberto Cuocolo
Risk prediction through integration of clinical variables and imaging data into a prognostic model can identify those factors with a high impact on patient outcome. The development of a prognostic model traditionally includes the evaluation of the independent contribution of variables with consideration of covarying factors that may confound risk stratification. Several methods and metrics are available to assess the performance of a prediction model. Traditional measures for binary and survival outcomes include the concordance (C) statistic for discriminative ability, and goodness-of-fit statistics for calibration...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Stefan Gratz, Patrik Reize, Bendix Kemke, Wim U Kampen, Markus Luster, Helmut Höffken
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of "pure" osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with "pure" osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Otakar Belohlavek, Monika Jaruskova
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that a non-fasting state reduces [18F]FDG-PET quality, but the significance of higher levels of fasting blood glucose has aroused some doubts over time. The aim of this work was to provide further evidence to clarify this issue and its impact on the handling of hyperglycemic patients in daily routine. METHODS: Muscle and liver standardized uptake values (SUV) and their ratio, tumor SUV and the frequency of positive PET findings were retrospectively analyzed in 116 hyperglycemic (HG) patients (>11 mmol/L), in 116 patients with slightly elevated glycemia (SEG) (5...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Barbara Palumbo, Silvio Sivolella, Isabella Palumbo, Tommaso Buresta, Valentina Radicchia, Mario L Fravolini, Francesca Ferretti, Rita Bellavita, Luigi Mearini, Michele Scialpi, Cynthia Aristei, Gianfranco Pelliccia
BACKGROUND: Patients with suspected recurrence of prostate cancer undergoing [18F]fluoromethyl choline ([18F]FCH) PET/CT were retrospectively evaluated to investigate the influence of hormonal therapy (HT) in [18F]FCH uptake. METHODS: [18F]FCH PET/CT was performed in 102 surgically treated patients with suspected recurrence (PSA increase >0.2 ng/mL) of prostate cancer, divided in two groups: under HT (N.=54) and without HT (N.=48) at the time of PET scanning...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alessandra Bacca, Angela Pucci, Daniele Lorenzini, Serena Chiacchio, Duccio Volterrani, Mauro Ferrari, Stefano Sellari Franceschini, Gabriele Materazzi, Fulvio Basolo, Giampaolo Bernini
BACKGROUND: The expression of vesicular catecholamine transporters (VMAT1 and 2) in pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) and the possible relationships with [18F]FDOPA PET/CT and [123I]MIBG scintigraphy uptake are unknown. Our purpose was to investigate possible correlations of either VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression with the functional imaging in patients with PHEOs and PGLs. METHODS: An observational 3-year time study was performed by enrolling 31 consecutive patients with PHEO (n=17) or PGL (n= 14)...
September 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Alessandro Stefano, Giorgio Russo, Massimo Ippolito, Sebastiano Cosentino, Gabriella Murè, Sara Baldari, Maria G Sabini, Daniele Sardina, Lucia M Valastro, Roberto Bordonaro, Cristina Messa, Maria C Gilardi, Hector Soto Parra
BACKGROUND: In this paper the clinical value of PET for early prediction of tumor response to erlotinib in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen is evaluated. The aim was to compare the early metabolic treatment response using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1999 recommendations and PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST), and the standard treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)...
September 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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