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Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299921/physical-training-improves-myocardial-perfusion-but-not-left-ventricular-function-response-to-exercise-in-patients-with-microvascular-angina
#1
Eduardo E Carvalho, Júlio C Crescêncio, Giovani L Santi, Luciano F Oliveira, Pedro V Schwartzmann, Lourenço Gallo, José A Marin-Neto, Marcus V Simões
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary microvascular angina (PMA) commonly exhibit abnormal left ventricular function (LVF) during exercise, potentially owing to myocardial ischemia. Herein, we investigated n PMA patients the effect of the reduction of myocardial perfusion disorders, by using aerobic physical training, upon LVF response to exercise. METHODS: Overall, 15 patients (mean age, 53.7±8.9 years) with PMA and 15 healthy controls (mean age, 51.0±9.4 years) were studied...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217987/radiolabelled-psma-small-molecule-inhibitors
#2
Leon Will, Ida Sonni, Klaus Kopka, Clemens Kratochwil, Frederik L Giesel, Uwe Haberkorn
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been found to be expressed in most PCs and represents an ideal target for radiolabeling with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Numerous PSMA-tracers have been recently developed. This systematic review aims to provide an overview on the clinical influence of PSMA-tracers in primary staging, biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PC and advanced, metastatic PC...
February 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124549/radiolabeled-inorganic-nanoparticles-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-cancer-an-overview
#3
Rubel Chakravarty, Shreya Goel, Ashutosh Dash, Weibo Cai
Over the last few years, a plethora of radiolabeled inorganic nanoparticles have been developed and evaluated for their potential use as probes in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of a wide variety of cancers. Inorganic nanoparticles represent an emerging paradigm in molecular imaging probe design, allowing the incorporation of various imaging modalities, targeting ligands, and therapeutic payloads into a single vector. A major challenge in this endeavor is to develop disease-specific nanoparticles with facile and robust radio labeling strategies...
January 26, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124548/european-rules-to-bring-novel-radiopharmaceuticals-to-the-clinic
#4
Clemens Decristoforo, Ivan Penuelas, Marianne Patt, Sergio Todde
The development of novel radiopharmaceutical is very rapid and highly innovative both for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The translation into the clinic, however, is hampered by the high regulatory demands in Europe. This article describes the main rules, guidelines and guidance documents in the European Union in relation to the pharmaceutical regulatory framework. Until today a great number of radiopharmaceuticals are introduced clinically using specific national pathways outside the clinical trial regulation and examples are provided...
January 26, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982544/cardiovascular-preclinical-imaging
#5
Stephan G Nekolla, Christoph Rischpler, Anna Paschali, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos
Non-invasive imaging in the form of single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT), positron-emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very useful tool for cardiovascular research as it allows assessment of biological processes in vivo. Nuclear imaging with SPECT and PET offers the advantage of high sensitivity, the potential for serial imaging, and reliable quantification. Currently a wide range of established as well as innovative agents is available and can be imaged with dedicated preclinical and clinical SPECT and PET imaging systems...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982543/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-using-orthotopic-xenografts-towards-patient-s-derived-xenograft-medulloblastoma-models
#6
Fatemeh Asadzadeh, Veronica Ferrucci, Pasqualino DE Antonellis, Massimo Zollo
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar neoplasia of the central nervous system. Four molecular subgrups have been identified (MBWNT, MBSHH, MBgroup3 and MBgroup4) with distinct genetics and clinical outcome. Among these, MBgroup3-4 are highly metastatic with the worst prognosis. The current standard therapy includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, specific treatments adapted to cure those different molecular subgroups are needed. The use of orthotopic xenograft models, together with the non-invasive in vivo biolumiscence imaging (BLI) technology, is emerging during preclinical studies to test novel therapeutics for medulloblastoma treatment...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858408/preclinical-imaging-in-oncology-advances-and-perspectives
#7
Francesca Iommelli, Viviana DE Rosa, Cristina Terlizzi, Silvana Del Vecchio
Preclinical imaging with radiolabeled probes became an integral part of the complex translational process that moves a newly developed compound from laboratory to clinical application. Imaging studies in animal tumor models may be undertaken to test a newly synthesized tracer, a newly developed drug or to interrogate, in the living organism, specific molecular and biological processes underlying tumor growth and progression. The aim of the present review is to outline the current knowledge and future perspectives of preclinical imaging in oncology by providing examples from recent literature...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858407/preclinical-imaging-anesthesia-in-rodents
#8
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858406/molecular-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-preclinical-rodent-models-using-positron-emission-tomography
#9
Sara Gargiulo, Anna R Coda, Mariarosaria Panico, Matteo Gramanzini, Rosa M Moresco, Sylvie Chalon, Sabina Pappatà
Neuroinflammation (NI) is an adaptive response to different noxious stimuli, involving microglia, astrocytes and peripheral immune cells. NI is a hallmark of several acute and chronic diseases of central nervous system (CNS) and contributes to both damage and repair of CNS tissue. Interventional or genetically modified rodent models mimicking human neuropathologies may provide valuable insights on basic mechanisms of NI, but also for improving the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) allows to investigate noninvasively the inflammatory response in CNS of rodent models at a molecular level, validating innovative probes for early diagnosis, and characterizing the time course of neuroinflammatory changes and their relationship with disease progression, as well as the effects of experimental treatments with high translational potential...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858405/advances-in-molecular-preclinical-therapy-mediated-by-imaging
#10
Adelaide Greco, Sandra Albanese, Luigi Auletta, Flavia DE Carlo, Marco Salvatore, Candace M Howard, Pier P Claudio
Several advances have been made toward understanding the biology of cancer and most of them are due to robust genetic studies that led to the scientific recognition that although many patients have the same type of cancer their tumors may have harbored different molecular alterations. Personalized therapy and the development of advanced techniques of preclinical imaging and new murine models of disease are emerging concepts that are allowing mapping of disease markers in vivo and in some cases also receptor targeted therapy...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858404/advances-in-multimodal-molecular-imaging
#11
Luigi Auletta, Matteo Gramanzini, Sara Gargiulo, Sandra Albanese, Marco Salvatore, Adelaide Greco
Preclinical molecular imaging is an emerging field. Improving the ability of scientists to study the molecular basis of human pathology in animals is of the utmost importance for future advances in all fields of human medicine. Moreover, the possibility of developing new imaging techniques or of implementing old ones adapted to the clinic is a significant area. Cardiology, neurology, immunology and oncology have all been studied with preclinical molecular imaging. The functional techniques of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in association with each other or with the anatomic reference provided by computed tomography (CT) as well as with anatomic and functional information provided by magnetic resonance (MR) have all been proficiently applied to animal models of human disease...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25479418/the-impact-of-different-18fdg-pet-healthy-subject-scans-for-comparison-with-single-patient-in-spm-analysis
#12
Francesca Gallivanone, Pasquale A Della Rosa, Daniela Perani, Maria C Gilardi, Isabella Castiglioni
BACKGROUND: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) has been applied for single-subject evaluation of [18F]FDG uptake in Alzheimer Disease (AD). In a single-subject framework, the patient is compared to a dataset of [18F]FDG PET images from healthy subjects (HS) evaluating brain metabolic abnormalities. No studies exist that assess the effects on SPM analysis of HS [18F]FDG PET datasets acquired from different subjects and using different PET scanners including the same or different PET scanners than those used for patients...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25289633/stable-metabolic-disease-on-fdg-pet-provides-information-on-response-to-endocrine-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#13
Vibeke Kruse, Christophe VAN DE Wiele, Alex Maes, Marleen Borms, Hans Pottel, Simon VAN Belle, Veronique Cocquyt
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess whether outcome in advanced breast cancer patients is related to metabolic response to endocrine therapy determined by fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 21 consecutive breast cancer patients receiving endocrine therapy for metastatic disease (mean number of previous therapies 3.6±3.5). All patients had been evaluated with at least 2 FDG-PETs. The first scan was performed by initiation of endocrine therapy...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24975843/diagnostic-accuracy-and-functional-parameters-of-myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy-using-accelerated-cardiac-acquisition-with-iq-spect-technique-in-comparison-to-conventional-imaging
#14
Christian Pirich, Peter Keinrath, Gabriele Barth, Gundula Rendl, Lukas Rettenbacher, Margarida Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: IQ SPECT consists of a new pinhole-like collimator, cardio-centric acquisition, and advanced 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction. The aim of this paper was to compare diagnostic accuracy and functional parameters obtained with IQ SPECT versus conventional SPECT in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with adenosine stress and at rest. METHODS: Eight patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent [99mTc] tetrofosmin gated SPECT...
March 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611712/pet-imaging-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#15
James T Thackeray, Frank M Bengel
The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611711/an-update-on-technical-and-methodological-aspects-for-cardiac-pet-applications
#16
Luca Presotto, Elena Busnardo, Luigi Gianolli, Valentino Bettinardi
Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611710/clinical-relevance-of-pet-myocardial-blood-flow-quantification
#17
Lucia Leccisotti, Mariadea Lavalle, Alessandro Giordano
Until a few years ago, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using positron-emission tomography (PET) and the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) was limited to research institutions. Following an increase in the number of PET scanner installations and in the availability of perfusion tracers that do not have to be produced by an on-site cyclotron and commercial software for MBF quantification, a more widespread clinical use of MBF quantification with PET can be expected. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the advantages of MBF quantification with PET highlighting the potential applications in several clinical settings, from patients with cardiovascular risk factors and early coronary artery disease (CAD) to patients with multi-vessel or myocardial disease...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611709/positron-emission-tomography-myocardial-blood-flow-quantification-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#18
Roberto Sciagrà
In the setting of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), ischemia plays a possibly under-evaluated role. In particular, a large body of evidence indicates that structural and functional abnormalities in the coronary microcirculation contribute to myocardial ischemia and are key elements for HCM pathophysiology and clinical evolution. Measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and under maximal hyperemia (hMBF) by means of perfusion positron-emission tomography (PET) is the most effective way to assess microvascular dysfunction in humans...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611708/non-invasive-measurement-of-coronary-flow-reserve-uniqueness-of-radionuclide-methods-and-alternative-techniques
#19
Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Piva, Giulia Ferrarazzo, Valentina Ceriani, Ambra Buschiazzo, Silvia Morbelli, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti
Over the last several decades, radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) has been a mainstay for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD), based on the assumption that a detailed knowledge of stenosis localization and severity is not sufficient for clinical decision making. Furthermore, radionuclide MPI diagnostic accuracy has been implemented by the assessment of Coronary Flow Reserve (CFR) and Myocardial Blood Flow (MBF), as quantitative indexes of stenosis severity and surrogates of total ischaemic burden...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611707/systemic-and-inflammatory-disorders-involving-the-heart-the-role-of-pet-imaging
#20
Daniel Juneau, Fernanda Erthal, Atif Alzahrani, Ali Alenazy, Pablo B Nery, Rob S Beanlands, Benjamin J Chow
Cardiac inflammatory disorders, either primarily cardiac or secondary to a systemic process, are associated with significant morbidity and/or mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging, especially due to significant overlap in their clinical presentation with other cardiac diseases. Recent publications have investigated the potential diagnostic role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in these patients. Most of the available literature is focused on Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer which has already demonstrated its use in other inflammatory and infectious processes...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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