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Marine Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916864/marine-organisms-with-anti-diabetes-properties
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Lauritano, Adrianna Ianora
Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916863/lipid-composition-of-oil-extracted-from-wasted-norway-lobster-nephrops-norvegicus-heads-and-comparison-with-oil-extracted-from-antarctic-krill-euphasia-superba
#2
Amaya Albalat, Lauren E Nadler, Nicholas Foo, James R Dick, Andrew J R Watts, Heather Philp, Douglas M Neil, Oscar Monroig
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898026/new-anti-inflammatory-9-11-secosterols-with-a-rare-tricyclo-5-2-1-1-decane-ring-from-a-formosan-gorgonian-pinnigorgia-sp
#3
Yu-Chia Chang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Yang-Chang Wu, Ping-Jyun Sung
Pinnigorgiols D (1) and E (2), two new 9,11-secosterols with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from a Taiwan gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp. The structures of these two compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and were proven to possess a tricyclo[5,2,1,1]decane ring. The new secosterols 1 and 2 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils.
November 26, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897975/polyketides-with-immunosuppressive-activities-from-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-sp-zj-sy%C3%A2
#4
Hongju Liu, Senhua Chen, Weiyang Liu, Yayue Liu, Xishan Huang, Zhigang She
Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone (1) and methyl peniphenone (2), along with seven known xanthones (3-9) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY₂ isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL.
November 25, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886049/alkynyl-containing-peptides-of-marine-origin-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Qiu-Ye Chai, Zhen Yang, Hou-Wen Lin, Bing-Nan Han
Since the 1990s, a number of terminal alkynyl residue-containing cyclic/acyclic peptides have been identified from marine organisms, especially cyanobacteria and marine mollusks. This review has presented 66 peptides, which covers over 90% marine peptides with terminal alkynyl fatty acyl units. In fact, more than 90% of these peptides described in the literature are of cyanobacterial origin. Interestingly, all the linear peptides featured with terminal alkyne were solely discovered from marine cyanobacteria...
November 23, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879659/innovative-alternative-technologies-to-extract-carotenoids-from-microalgae-and-seaweeds
#6
REVIEW
Mahesha M Poojary, Francisco J Barba, Bahar Aliakbarian, Francesco Donsì, Gianpiero Pataro, Daniel A Dias, Pablo Juliano
Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies...
November 22, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879655/phomopsichin-a-d-four-new-chromone-derivatives-from-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-phomopsis-sp-33
#7
Meixiang Huang, Jing Li, Lan Liu, Sheng Yin, Jun Wang, Yongcheng Lin
Four new chromone derivatives, phomopsichins A-D (1-4), along with a known compound, phomoxanthone A (5), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction or theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). They feature a tricyclic framework, in which a dihydropyran ring is fused with the chromone ring. Compounds 1-5 showed weak inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase as well as α-glucosidase, weak radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as OH, and weak antimicrobial activities...
November 22, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869701/the-role-of-individual-disulfide-bonds-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-giiia-in-the-inhibition-of-nav1-4
#8
Penggang Han, Kang Wang, Xiandong Dai, Ying Cao, Shangyi Liu, Hui Jiang, Chongxu Fan, Wenjian Wu, Jisheng Chen
μ-Conotoxin GIIIA, a peptide toxin isolated from Conus geographus, preferentially blocks the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4. GIIIA folds compactly to a pyramidal structure stabilized by three disulfide bonds. To assess the contributions of individual disulfide bonds of GIIIA to the blockade of NaV1.4, seven disulfide-deficient analogues were prepared and characterized, each with one, two, or three pairs of disulfide-bonded Cys residues replaced with Ala. The inhibitory potency of the analogues against NaV1...
November 18, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869700/preclinical-and-clinical-studies-on-antioxidative-antihypertensive-and-cardioprotective-effect-of-marine-proteins-and-peptides-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Ida-Johanne Jensen, Hanne K Mæhre
High seafood consumption has traditionally been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to the lipid lowering effects of the long chained omega 3 fatty acids. However, fish and seafood are also excellent sources of good quality proteins and emerging documentation show that, upon digestion, these proteins are sources for bioactive peptides with documented favorable physiological effects such as antioxidative, antihypertensive and other cardioprotective effects. This documentation is mainly from in vitro studies, but also animal studies are arising...
November 18, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869664/anti-melanogenic-activity-of-gagunin-d-a-highly-oxygenated-diterpenoid-from-the-marine-sponge-phorbas-sp-via-modulating-tyrosinase-expression-and-degradation
#10
Ho Yeon Lee, Eun Jeong Jang, Song Yi Bae, Ju-Eun Jeon, Hyen Joo Park, Jongheon Shin, Sang Kook Lee
Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis and controls pigmentation in the skin. The inhibition of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach for the development of skin-whitening cosmetics. Gagunin D (GD), a highly oxygenated diterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., has exhibited cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cells. However, the effect of GD on normal cells and the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified for the first time the anti-melanogenic activity of GD and its precise underlying mechanisms in mouse melan-a cells...
November 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854274/the-potential-exploitation-of-the-mediterranean-invasive-alga-caulerpa-cylindracea-can-the-invasion-be-transformed-into-a-gain
#11
Loredana Stabili, Simonetta Fraschetti, Maria Immacolata Acquaviva, Rosa Anna Cavallo, Sandra Angelica De Pascali, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Carmela Gerardi, Marcella Narracci, Lucia Rizzo
Recently, there is a growing interest towards the development of strategies for invasive seaweed control and exploitation as source of secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the potential of exploitation in biotechnology and recycling options in eradication programs of the lipidic extract of the Mediterranean invasive seaweed Caulerpa cylindracea (Chlorophyta). The chemical characterization was carried out by means of multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The fatty acid profile of C. cylindracea assessed the presence of several types of molecules known for antioxidant activity such as carotenoids, chlorophylls, pheophytins, and sterols...
November 15, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834904/chemical-and-genetic-diversity-of-nodularia-spumigena-from-the-baltic-sea
#12
Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Mireia Bertos-Fortis, Anna Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna Fidor, Catherine Legrand
Nodularia spumigena is a toxic, filamentous cyanobacterium occurring in brackish waters worldwide, yet forms extensive recurrent blooms in the Baltic Sea. N. spumigena produces several classes of non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) that are active against several key metabolic enzymes. Previously, strains from geographically distant regions showed distinct NRP metabolic profiles. In this work, conspecific diversity in N. spumigena was studied using chemical and genetic approaches. NRP profiles were determined in 25 N...
November 10, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834847/astaxanthin-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-reverse-the-toxicity-of-the-maxi-k-bk-channel-antagonist-mycotoxin-penitrem-a
#13
Amira A Goda, Khayria M Naguib, Magdy M Mohamed, Hassan A Amra, Somaia A Nada, Abdel-Rahman B Abdel-Ghaffar, Chris R Gissendanner, Khalid A El Sayed
Penitrem A (PA) is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K) channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST) is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs), inducing neuroprotective effects...
November 9, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827914/new-typical-vector-of-neurotoxin-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-in-the-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#14
Aifeng Li, Jialiang Song, Yang Hu, Longji Deng, Ling Ding, Meihui Li
The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been identified as an environmental factor triggering neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the possible vectors of BMAA and its isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-2(aminoethyl)glycine (AEG) in marine mollusks collected from the Chinese coast. Sixty-eight samples of marine mollusks were collected along the Chinese coast in 2016, and were analyzed by an HILIC-MS/MS (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer) method without derivatization...
November 4, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827902/chiral-alkyl-halides-underexplored-motifs-in-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Bálint Gál, Cyril Bucher, Noah Z Burns
While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery...
November 4, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827901/structure-activity-relationship-studies-using-natural-and-synthetic-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-toxins
#16
Michael J Twiner, Gregory J Doucette, Yucheng Pang, Chao Fang, Craig J Forsyth, Christopher O Miles
Okadaic acid (OA) and the closely related dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are algal toxins that accumulate in shellfish and are known serine/threonine protein phosphatase (ser/thr PP) inhibitors. Phosphatases are important modulators of enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways. However, the interactions between the OA/DTX toxins and phosphatases are not fully understood. This study sought to identify phosphatase targets and characterize their structure-activity relationships (SAR) with these algal toxins using a combination of phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity assays...
November 4, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827870/ceramide-as-a-target-of-marine-triterpene-glycosides-for-treatment-of-human-myeloid-leukemia
#17
REVIEW
Seong-Hoon Yun, Sung-Won Shin, Valentin A Stonik, Joo-In Park
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous myeloid clonal disorder exhibiting the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Standard AML therapy requires intensive combination chemotherapy, which leads to significant treatment-related toxicity. The search for new, low toxic marine agents, inducing the generation of ceramide in leukemic cells is a new approach to improve the therapy of leukemia. This review focuses on the metabolism of sphingolipids, the role of ceramide in treating leukemia, and the antitumor activity, related to ceramide metabolism, of some marine metabolites, particularly stichoposides, triterpene glycosides extracted from sea cucumbers of the family Stichopodiidae...
November 3, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827848/biscogniauxone-a-new-isopyrrolonaphthoquinone-compound-from-the-fungus-biscogniauxia-mediterranea-isolated-from-deep-sea-sediments
#18
Bin Wu, Jutta Wiese, Rolf Schmaljohann, Johannes F Imhoff
The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth) in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species...
November 2, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827845/natural-products-from-microalgae-with-potential-against-alzheimer-s-disease-sulfolipids-are-potent-glutaminyl-cyclase-inhibitors
#19
Stephanie Hielscher-Michael, Carola Griehl, Mirko Buchholz, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Norbert Arnold, Ludger A Wessjohann
In recent years, many new enzymes, like glutaminyl cyclase (QC), could be associated with pathophysiological processes and represent targets for many diseases, so that enzyme-inhibiting properties of natural substances are becoming increasingly important. In different studies, the pathophysiology connection of QC to various diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) was described. Algae are known for the ability to synthesize complex and highly-diverse compounds with specific enzyme inhibition properties. Therefore, we screened different algae species for the presence of QC inhibiting metabolites using a new "Reverse Metabolomics" technique including an Activity-correlation Analysis (AcorA), which is based on the correlation of bioactivities to mass spectral data with the aid of mathematic informatics deconvolution...
November 2, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801821/chemistry-and-bioactivity-of-briaranes-from-the-south-china-sea-gorgonian-dichotella-gemmacea
#20
Cui Li, Ming-Ping La, Hua Tang, Peng Sun, Bao-Shu Liu, Chun-Lin Zhuang, Yang-Hua Yi, Wen Zhang
Seven new briarane diterpenoids, gemmacolides AZ-BF (1-7), were isolated together with eight known analogues (8-15) from the South China gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. Their structures were elucidated based on detailed spectroscopic analysis and a comparison with reported data. In an in vitro bioassay, these compounds exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG63 cells, giving continuous evidences about the biological contribution of functional groups at C-2, C-12, C-13, and C-16...
October 28, 2016: Marine Drugs
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