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Marine Drugs

Bor-Chyuan Su, Jyh-Yih Chen
The cationic antimicrobial peptide epinecidin-1 was identified from Epinephelus coioides and possesses multiple biological functions, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects. In addition, epinecidin-1 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation by neutralizing LPS and ameliorating LPS/Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 internalization. However, it is unclear whether the actions of epinecidin-1 depend on the regulation of TLR adaptor protein MyD88 or endogenous TLR signaling antagonists, which include A20, interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK)-M, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1...
November 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
Héctor Barbero, Carlos Díez-Poza, Asunción Barbero
Oceans have shown to be a remarkable source of natural products. The biological properties of many of these compounds have helped to produce great advances in medicinal chemistry. Within them, marine natural products containing an oxepanyl ring are present in a great variety of algae, sponges, fungus and corals and show very important biological activities, many of them possessing remarkable cytotoxic properties against a wide range of cancer cell lines. Their rich chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have reported interesting synthetic approaches to these targets...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
José M Lorenzo, Rubén Agregán, Paulo E S Munekata, Daniel Franco, Javier Carballo, Selin Şahin, Ramón Lacomba, Francisco J Barba
Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content) and nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile) of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcate) were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p < 0.001) different among the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry matter); whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter). Regarding fatty acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the most abundant followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
Yue Zhou, Ran Chen, Dong Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Wenhan Lin
Asperlin is a marine-derived natural product with antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In the present study, we isolated asperlin from a marine Aspergillus versicolor LZD4403 fungus and investigated its anti-atherosclerotic effects in vitro and in vivo. Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Supplementation with asperlin also suppressed LPS-elicited production of pro-inflammatory factors in RAW264...
November 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
Lisa Küppers, Weaam Ebrahim, Mona El-Neketi, Ferhat C Özkaya, Attila Mándi, Tibor Kurtán, Raha S Orfali, Werner E G Müller, Rudolf Hartmann, Wenhan Lin, Weiguo Song, Zhen Liu, Peter Proksch
The marine-derived fungus Talaromyces rugulosus isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Axinella cannabina and cultured on solid rice medium yielded seventeen lactone derivatives including five butenolides (1-5), seven (3S)-resorcylide derivatives (6-12), two butenolide-resorcylide dimers (13 and 14), and three dihydroisocoumarins (15-17). Among them, fourteen compounds (1-3, 6-16) are new natural products. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy as well as by ESI-HRMS (ElectroSpray Ionization-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry)...
November 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
Zheng Sun, Yong Chen, Xuemei Mao, Jin Liu
The marine microalgae Isochrysis are a good producer of natural docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). To better understand the patterns of DHA accumulation and distribution, two Isochrysis strains, CL153180 and CCMP462, were evaluated in this study. In a batch culture, CL153180 showed a decline in DHA content while CCMP462 exhibited a progressive increase during the late growth period when nitrogen was almost exhausted. In response to nitrogen deficiency (ND), both strains showed a considerable increase in neutral lipids (NL) at the expense of glycolipids (GL) but had little variation in phospholipids (PL)...
November 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
Amin Mokhlesi, Rudolf Hartmann, Tibor Kurtán, Horst Weber, Wenhan Lin, Chaidir Chaidir, Werner E G Müller, Georgios Daletos, Peter Proksch
Three new 2-methoxy acetylenic acids (1-3) and a known derivative (4), in addition to three new natural pyrazole alkaloids (5-7) were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge of the genus Cinachyrella. Compounds 5 and 6 have previously been reported as synthetic compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometric data. The absolute configuration of the new acetylenic acid derivatives (1-3) was established by ECD spectroscopy...
November 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Ishrat Khan, Yanbin Lu, Kuiwu Wang, Bin Wu, Yue-Wei Guo
Nowadays, various drugs on the market are becoming more and more resistant to numerous diseases, thus declining their efficacy for treatment purposes in human beings. Antibiotic resistance is one among the top listed threat around the world which eventually urged the discovery of new potent drugs followed by an increase in the number of deaths caused by cancer due to chemotherapy resistance as well. Accordingly, marine cyanobacteria, being the oldest prokaryotic microorganisms belonging to a monophyletic group, have proven themselves as being able to generate pharmaceutically important natural products...
November 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
Susete Pinteus, Marco F L Lemos, Joana Silva, Celso Alves, Agnieszka Neugebauer, Rafaela Freitas, Adriana Duarte, Rui Pedrosa
Sargassum muticum is a brown seaweed with strong potential to be used as a functional food ingredient, mainly due to its antioxidant properties. It is widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted to add scientific evidence on its effects as well as on the mechanisms of action involved. In this work, the human cell line MCF-7 was used as an in vitro cellular model to evaluate the capability of Sargassum muticum enriched fractions to protect cells on an oxidative stress condition...
November 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
Yang-Mei Zhang, Bai-Lian Liu, Xin-Heng Zheng, Xiao-Jun Huang, Hong-Yu Li, Ying Zhang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Da-Yuan Sun, Bi-Run Lin, Guang-Xiong Zhou
Anandins A (1) and B (2), two rare steroidal alkaloids, were isolated from the fermentative broth of a marine actinobacteria Streptomyces anandii H41-59. The gross structures of the two alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. Their absolute configurations were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and comparison of their experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra, respectively. Anandin A exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect against three human cancer cell lines MCF-7, SF-268, and NCI-H460 with IC50 values of 7...
November 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
Huawei Zhang, Menglian Dong, Jianwei Chen, Hong Wang, Karen Tenney, Phillip Crews
The marine sponge genus Agelas comprises a rich reservoir of species and natural products with diverse chemical structures and biological properties with potential application in new drug development. This review for the first time summarized secondary metabolites from Agelas sponges discovered in the past 47 years together with their bioactive effects.
November 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
Van Bon Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
Six kinds of chitinous materials have been used as sole carbon/nitrogen (C/N) sources for producing α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGI) by Paenibacillus sp. TKU042. The aGI productivity was found to be highest in the culture supernatants using demineralized crab shell powder (deCSP) and demineralized shrimp shell powder (deSSP) as the C/N source. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and maximum aGI activity of fermented deCSP (38 µg/mL, 98%), deSSP (108 µg/mL, 89%), squid pen powder (SPP) (422 µg/mL, 98%), and shrimp head powder (SHP) (455 µg/mL, 92%) were compared with those of fermented nutrient broth (FNB) (81 µg/mL, 93%) and acarbose (1095 µg/mL, 74%), a commercial antidiabetic drug...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Shahida Akter Mitu, Utpal Bose, Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Luke H Turner, Min Zhao, Abigail Elizur, Steven M Ogbourne, Paul Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins
The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata) body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Weiyi Wang, Yanyan Liao, Chao Tang, Xiaomei Huang, Zhuhua Luo, Jianming Chen, Peng Cai
Three novel compounds, 4-methyl-candidusin A (1), aspetritone A (2) and aspetritone B (3), were obtained from the culture of a coral-derived fungus Aspergillus tritici SP2-8-1, together with fifteen known compounds (4-18). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were assigned based on NMR, MS, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) ECD calculations. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited better activities against methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA CGMCC 1...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Qian-Qian Ouyang, Shannon Zhao, Si-Dong Li, Cai Song
Classic hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuron death, acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency, metal ion dynamic equilibrium disorder, and deposition of amyloid and tau. Increased evidence suggests neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may cause AD. However, none of these factors induces AD independently, but they are all associated with the formation of Aβ and tau proteins. Current clinical treatments based on ACh deficiency can only temporarily relieve symptoms, accompanied with many side-effects...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Han Wang, Shuang Yang, Yuanhong Wang, Tingfu Jiang, Shuai Li, Zhihua Lv
In this study, the immunomodulatory activities of Apostichopus japonicus glycosaminoglycan (AHG) on the nature killer (NK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice were investigated. After stimulation with multiple concentrations of AHG (0-100 μg/mL), NK cells and CTLs displayed outperformance against YAC-1 and B16 cells, respectively. Furthermore, the mitogen-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in CY-induced immunosuppressed mice was significantly promoted by AHG. In addition, the administration of AHG dramatically increased the splenocytes Ca(2+) concentration and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in a dose-dependent manner...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
Fengli Yuan, Liang Qiao, Yinghan Chen, Xin Qi, Yankai Liu, Dehai Li, Qianqun Gu, Jing Li, Ming Liu
AS1041 is a novel synthesized anthraquinone lactone derivative of marine natural compound aspergiolide A (ASP-A) with new structure skeleton and marked cytotoxicity in cancer cells. To study its cytotoxicity in detail, we evaluated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and investigated the related molecule mechanisms. AS1041 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of K562 cells. Moreover, AS1041 arrested cell cycle progression at G2/M phase in a concentration-dependent manner, and also caused concentration- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis...
November 4, 2017: Marine Drugs
Yuhao Sun, Xiaolin Chen, Ziqiang Cheng, Song Liu, Huahua Yu, Xueqin Wang, Pengcheng Li
In this study, polysaccharides from Grateloupia filicinia (GFP) were extracted and several low molecular weight (Mw) G. filicina polysaccharides (LGFPs) were prepared by the hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) oxidation method. Additionally, the effect of different experimental conditions on the degradation of GFP was determined. Results showed that the GFP degradation rate was positively related to H₂O₂ concentration and temperature, and negatively related to pH. Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) of GFP and LGFPs showed that the degradation caused a slight decrease of total sugar and sulfate content...
November 3, 2017: Marine Drugs
María J Ortega, Juan J Pantoja, Carolina de Los Reyes, Eva Zubía
The chemical study of the bryozoan Schizomavella mamillata has led to the isolation of six new 5-alkylresorcinol derivatives, schizols A-F (1-6), whose structures were established by spectrocospic means. Schizol A (1) exhibits a (E)-6-phenylnon-5-enyl moiety linked to the C-5 of a resorcinol ring, while in schizol B (2) the substituent at C-5 contains an unusual 1,2-dihydrocyclobutabenzene moiety. Schizols C (3) and D (4) have been characterized as the 1-sulfate derivatives of 1 and 2, respectively, and schizols E (5) and F (6) are the corresponding 1,3-disulfates...
November 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
Concetta Imperatore, Paola Cimino, Gerardo Cebrián-Torrejón, Marco Persico, Anna Aiello, Maria Senese, Caterina Fattorusso, Marialuisa Menna, Antonio Doménech-Carbó
The electrochemical response of four natural cytotoxic thiazinoquinones isolated from the Aplidium species was studied using conventional solution-phase and solid-state techniques, based on the voltammetry of immobilized particles methodology. The interaction with O₂ and electrochemically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) was electrochemically monitored. At the same time, a molecular modeling study including density functional theory (DFT) calculations was performed in order to analyze the conformational and electronic properties of the natural thiazinoquinones, as well as those of their reduced intermediates...
November 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
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