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Marine Drugs

Cong Wang, Adeep Monger, Liping Wang, Peng Fu, Pawinee Piyachaturawat, Arthit Chairoungdua, Weiming Zhu
One new indolocarbazole, 3-hydroxy-K252d ( 3 ), together with the recently reported 3-hydroxyholyrine A ( 1 ) and 3'- N -acetyl-3-hydroxyholyrine A ( 2 ), were obtained by feeding a culture of the marine-derived Streptomyces strain OUCMDZ-3118 with 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 potently induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting topoisomerase IIα enzyme activity and reducing the expression of antiapoptosis protein level...
May 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
Qingsen Shang, Ya Wang, Lin Pan, Qingfeng Niu, Chao Li, Hao Jiang, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut microbiota. In this light, given the critical role of gut microbiota in health and disease, we investigated here the effect of ECP on gut microbiota using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by bioinformatic analyses, ECP considerably changed the structure of the gut microbiota and significantly promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria in C57BL/6J mice...
May 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Kevin A Martínez Andrade, Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Cancer is the leading cause of death globally and finding new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment remains a major challenge in the pursuit for a cure. This paper presents an overview on microalgae with anti-cancer activities. Microalgae are eukaryotic unicellular plants that contribute up to 40% of global primary productivity. They are excellent sources of pigments, lipids, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and other fine chemicals, and there is an increasing demand for their use as nutraceuticals and food supplements...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
Sophie Drouillard, Isabelle Jeacomine, Laurine Buon, Claire Boisset, Anthony Courtois, Bertrand Thollas, Pierre-Yves Morvan, Romuald Vallée, William Helbert
Vibrio alginolyticus (CNCM I-4151) secretes an exopolysaccharide whose carbohydrate backbone is decorated with amino acids, likely conferring its properties that are appreciated in cosmetics. Here, the secreted polysaccharide of another strain of V. alginolyticus (CNCM I-5034) was characterized by chromatography and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments. The structure was resolved and shows that the carbohydrate backbone is made of four residues: D-galactose (Gal), D-galacturonic acid (GalA) D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), forming a tetrasaccharide repetition unit [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→3)-α-d-Gal-(1→3)-α-d-GalA-(1→3)-β-GlcNAc(1→]...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
Venke Kristoffersen, Teppo Rämä, Johan Isaksson, Jeanette Hammer Andersen, William H Gerwick, Espen Hansen
The marine environment is a rich source of biodiversity, including microorganisms that have proven to be prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Arctic seas are less explored than warmer, more accessible areas, providing a promising starting point to search for novel bioactive compounds. In the present work, an Arctic marine Pseudomonas sp. belonging to the Pseudomonas (P.) fluorescence group was cultivated in four different media in an attempt to activate biosynthetic pathways leading to the production of antibacterial and anticancer compounds...
May 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Dianne J Watters
Ascidians (tunicates) are invertebrate chordates, and prolific producers of a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites from cyclic peptides to aromatic alkaloids. Several of these compounds have properties which make them candidates for potential new drugs to treat diseases such as cancer. Many of these natural products are not produced by the ascidians themselves, rather by their associated symbionts. This review will focus mainly on the mechanism of action of important classes of cytotoxic molecules isolated from ascidians...
May 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wen-Hao Zhao, Chang-Feng Chi, Yu-Qin Zhao, Bin Wang
Collagen is one of the most useful biomaterials and widely applied in functional food and cosmetics. However, some consumers have paid close attention to the safety of mammalian collagens because of the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and other prion diseases. Therefore, there is a strong demand for developing alternative sources of collagen, with one promising source being from the process by-products of commercial fisheries. In this report, acid-soluble collagen (ASC-SB) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC-SB) from swim bladders of miiuy croaker ( Miichthys miiuy ) were isolated with yields of 1...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Meiqi Fan, Amit Kumar Nath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Jin Choi, Trishna Debnath, Eun-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyung Kim
This review focuses on marine compounds with anti-prostate cancer properties. Marine species are unique and have great potential for the discovery of anticancer drugs. Marine sources are taxonomically diverse and include bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, and mangroves. Marine-derived compounds, including nucleotides, amides, quinones, polyethers, and peptides are biologically active compounds isolated from marine organisms such as sponges, ascidians, gorgonians, soft corals, and bryozoans, including those mentioned above...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jiayun Chen, Hong Li, Zishuo Zhao, Xue Xia, Bo Li, Jinrong Zhang, Xiaojun Yan
Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.
May 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Haifeng Li, Shuling Wang, Yunyi Zhang, Liehuan Chen
An alginate lyase encoding gene sagl from Flavobacterium sp. H63 was codon optimized and recombinantly expressed at high level in P.pastoris through high cell-density fermentation. The highest yield of recombinant enzyme of sagl (rSAGL) in yeast culture supernatant reached 226.4 μg/mL (915.5 U/mL). This was the highest yield record of recombinant expression of alginate lyase so far. The rSAGL was confirmed as a partially glycosylated protein through EndoH digestion. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of this enzyme were 45 °C and 7...
May 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Amira A Goda, Abu Bakar Siddique, Mohamed Mohyeldin, Nehad M Ayoub, Khalid A El Sayed
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease with different molecular subtypes. The high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, Maxi-K channels) play an important role in the survival of some BC phenotypes, via membrane hyperpolarization and regulation of cell cycle. BK channels have been implicated in BC cell proliferation and invasion. Penitrems are indole diterpene alkaloids produced by various terrestrial and marine Penicillium species. Penitrem A ( 1 ) is a selective BK channel antagonist with reported antiproliferative and anti-invasive activities against multiple malignancies, including BC...
May 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Paz Otero, Somaris E Quintana, Guillermo Reglero, Tiziana Fornari, Mónica R García-Risco
Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of high qualify fatty acids that represent useful leads in the development of new nutraceutical agents. In this work, we investigated the lipid composition of six algae species from the Northwest of Spain ( Ulva intestinalis , Ulva lactuca , Fucus vesiculosus, Dictyota dichotoma, Cystoseira baccata and Himanthalia elongata ) and compared the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Furthermore, Fucus vesiculosus ( F...
May 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Irina Bakunina, Oksana Chadova, Olesya Malyarenko, Svetlana Ermakova
α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (EC (alpha-NaGalase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N -acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactoside residues from non-reducing ends of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. It is known that human cancer cells express an alpha-NaGalase, which accumulates in the blood plasma of patients. The enzyme deglycosylates the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and inhibits macrophage activity acting as an immunosuppressor. The high specific activity 0...
May 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Awanis Azizan, Muhammad Safwan Ahamad Bustamam, M Maulidiani, Khozirah Shaari, Intan Safinar Ismail, Norio Nagao, Faridah Abas
Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified...
May 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Fangling Chen, Wenxin Huang, Tao Jiang, Rilei Yu
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels generate and propagate action potentials in excitable cells, and several NaV subtypes have become important targets for pain management. The μ-conotoxins inhibit subtypes of the NaV with varied specificity but often lack of specificity to interested subtypes. Engineering the selectivity of the μ-conotoxins presents considerable complexity and challenge, as it involves the optimization of their binding affinities to multiple highly conserved NaV subtypes. In this study, a model of NaV 1...
May 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Pinelopi Vlachou, Géraldine Le Goff, Carolina Alonso, Pedro A Álvarez, Jean-François Gallard, Nikolas Fokialakis, Jamal Ouazzani
Isolation of marine compounds from living invertebrates represents a major challenge for sustainable and environmentally friendly exploitation of marine bio-resources. To develop innovative technology to trap invertebrate compounds in the open sea, the proof of concept of a system combining external continuous circulation of water with XAD-amberlite solid-phase extraction was validated in an aquarium. In this work, we reported the elicitation of guanidine alkaloid production of Crambe crambe in the presence of Anemonia sulcata , both collected from the Mediterranean Sea...
May 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
Guiqiang Zhang, Jing Liu, Ruilian Li, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Zhuo A Wang, Yuguang Du
Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility further restricts its applications on anti-infection therapy...
May 4, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wenjing Wang, Xiao Wan, Junjun Liu, Jianping Wang, Hucheng Zhu, Chunmei Chen, Yonghui Zhang
A new sesquiterpenoid 9,10-diolhinokiic acid ( 1 ) and a new diterpenoid roussoellol C ( 2 ), together with 4 known compounds, were isolated from the extracts of laboratory cultures of marine-derived fungus Talaromyces purpurogenus . 9,10-diolhinokiic acid is the first thujopsene-type sesquiterpenoid containing a 9,10-diol moiety, and roussoellol C possesses a novel tetracyclic fusicoccane framework with an unexpected hydroxyl at C-4. These new structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data, chemical method, NMR data calculations and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations...
May 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Linn Anja Vikøren, Svein Are Mjøs, Åge Oterhals, Daniela Pampanin, Ola Flesland, Oddrun Anita Gudbrandsen
Proteins from different fish species and different raw materials such as fish fillets and by-products have shown promising cardioprotective effects in rodents and humans, including effects on cholesterol metabolism. Blue whiting is used mainly to produce fish meal for the feed industry and during this production, a water-soluble protein fraction, containing small peptides that are easily absorbed and may hold bioactive properties, is isolated. The effects of water-soluble fish protein on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in twelve male obese Zucker fa/fa rats...
May 1, 2018: Marine Drugs
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