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Marine Drugs

Xue Liu, Peng Du, Xiao Liu, Sujian Cao, Ling Qin, Meijia He, Xiaoxi He, Wenjun Mao
The active sulfated polysaccharide from seaweed possesses important pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. In the study, Monostroma sulfated polysaccharide (MSP) was obtained from Monostroma angicava , and the low-molecular-weight fragments of MSP (MSP-Fs: MSP-F1⁻MSP-F6) were prepared by controlled acid degradation. The molecular weights of MSP and MSP-F1⁻MSP-F6 were 335 kDa, 240 kDa, 90 kDa, 40 kDa, 24 kDa, 12 kDa, and 6.8 kDa, respectively. The polysaccharides were sulfated rhamnans that consisted of →3)-α-l-Rha p -(1→ and →2)-α-l-Rha p -(1→ units with partial sulfation at C-2 of →3)-α-l-Rha p -(1→ and C-3 of →2)-α-l-Rha p -(1→...
November 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Weizhang Jia, Qiong Peng, Linnan Su, Xuesong Yu, Chung Wah Ma, Ming Liang, Xiquan Yin, Yongdong Zou, Zebo Huang
The hard clam Meretrix meretrix , which has been traditionally used as medicine and seafood, was used in this study to isolate antioxidant peptides. First, a peptide-rich extract was tested for its protective effect against paraquat-induced oxidative stress using the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans . Then, three novel antioxidant peptides; MmP4 (LSDRLEETGGASS), MmP11 (KEGCREPETEKGHR) and MmP19 (IVTNWDDMEK), were identified and were found to increase the resistance of nematodes against paraquat. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that MmP4 was predominantly in beta-sheet conformation, while MmP11 and MmP19 were primarily in random coil conformation...
November 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Sara García-Davis, Ines Sifaoui, María Reyes-Batlle, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, José J Fernández, Ana R Díaz-Marrero
Focused on our interest to develop novel antiparasistic agents, the present study was aimed to evaluate the biological activity of an extract of Laurencia johnstonii collected in Baja California Sur, Mexico, against an Acantamoeba castellanii Neff strain. Bioassay-guided fractionation allowed us to identify the amoebicidal diastereoisomers α-bromocuparane ( 4 ) and α-isobromocuparane ( 5 ). Furthermore, bromination of the inactive laurinterol ( 1 ) and isolaurinterol ( 2 ) yielded four halogenated derivatives, ( 6 )⁻( 9 ), which improved the activity of the natural sesquiterpenes...
November 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yu-Dong Zhou, Jun Li, Lin Du, Fakhri Mahdi, Thuy P Le, Wei-Lun Chen, Steven M Swanson, Kounosuke Watabe, Dale G Nagle
Breast tumors reprogram their cellular metabolism, nutrient uptake, and utilization-associated biochemical processes. These processes become further transformed as genetically predisposed metastatic breast tumor cells colonize specific organs. Breast tumor cells often metastasize to the brain, bone, lung and liver. Massagué and colleagues isolated organotropic subclones and established organ-specific gene signatures associated with lung-, bone-, and brain-specific metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells...
November 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Seyeon Oh, Myeongjoo Son, Hye Sun Lee, Hyun-Soo Kim, You-Jin Jeon, Kyunghee Byun
Ecklonia cava ( E. cava ) can alleviate vascular dysfunction in diseases associated with poor circulation. E. cava contains various polyphenols with different functions, but few studies have compared the effects of these polyphenols. Here, we comparatively investigated four major compounds present in an ethanoic extract of E. cava . These four major compounds were isolated and their effects were examined on monocyte-associated vascular inflammation and dysfunctions. Pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB) significantly inhibited monocyte migration in vitro by reducing levels of inflammatory macrophage differentiation and of its related molecular factors...
November 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Xiao-Dong Li, Xin Li, Xiao-Ming Li, Gang-Ming Xu, Yang Liu, Bin-Gui Wang
Four new uncommon 20-nor-isopimarane diterpenoid epimers, aspewentins I-L ( 1 ⁻ 4 ), together with a new methylated derivative of 3 , aspewentin M ( 5 ), were isolated from the deep sea sediment-derived fungus Aspergillus wentii SD-310. The very similar structures of these epimers made the separation and purification procedures difficult. The structures of compounds 1 ⁻ 5 were illustrated based on spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 ⁻ 5 were unambiguously determined by the combination of NOESY, time-dependent density functional (TDDFT)-ECD calculations, and X-ray crystallographic analysis...
November 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Li-Mei Dong, Li-Lan Huang, Hang Dai, Qiao-Lin Xu, Jin-Kui Ouyang, Xu-Chao Jia, Wen-Xiang Gu, Jian-Wen Tan
The striking rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has become a serious threat to public health worldwide. In an effort to search for new anti-MRSA agents from natural products, a bioassay-guided phytochemical study was conducted on the semi-mangrove plant Myoporum bontioides A. Gray, which led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpene alkaloids ( 1 and 2 ) and six known furanosesquiterpenes ( 3 ⁻ 8 ). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of their 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Xuan Wei, Jianhong Liao, Zahra Davoudi, Hua Zheng, Jingru Chen, Dan Li, Xiong Xiong, Yihua Yin, Xiuxiang Yu, Jinghui Xiong, Qun Wang
For enhanced intracellular accumulation of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in leukemia, a folate receptor-targeted and glutathione (GSH)-responsive polymeric prodrug nanoparticle was made. The nanoparticles were prepared by conjugating 6-MP to carboxymethyl chitosan via a GSH-sensitive carbonyl vinyl sulfide linkage, ultrasonic self-assembly and surface decoration with folate. The TEM graphs shows that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are spherical with a particle size of 170~220 nm. In vitro drug release of nanoparticles demonstrated acceptable stability in PBS containing 20 μM GSH at pH 7...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Xiaxia Di, Caroline Rouger, Ingibjorg Hardardottir, Jona Freysdottir, Tadeusz F Molinski, Deniz Tasdemir, Sesselja Omarsdottir
An UPLC-qTOF-MS-based dereplication study led to the targeted isolation of seven bromoindole alkaloids from the sub-Arctic sponge Geodia barretti . This includes three new metabolites, namely geobarrettin A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 ) and four known compounds, barettin ( 4 ), 8,9-dihydrobarettin ( 5 ), 6-bromoconicamin ( 6 ), and l-6-bromohypaphorine ( 7 ) . The chemical structures of compounds 1 ⁻ 7 were elucidated by extensive analysis of the NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute stereochemistry of geobarrettin A ( 1 ) was assigned by ECD analysis and Marfey's method employing the new reagent l- N α -(1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)tryptophanamide (l-FDTA)...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
BoMi Ryu, Yunfei Jiang, Hyun-Soo Kim, Jee-Min Hyun, Sang-Bin Lim, Yong Li, You-Jin Jeon
Nutraceutical use of algae requires understanding of the diversity and significance of their active compositions for intended activities. Ishige okamurae ( I. okamurae ) extract is well-known to possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activity; however, studies are needed to investigate its active composition in order to standardize its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In this study, we observed the intensity of the dominant compounds of each I. okamurae extract harvested between 2016 and 2017, and the different potency of each I...
November 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Marta Rodríguez Estévez, Maksym Myronovskyi, Nils Gummerlich, Suvd Nadmid, Andriy Luzhetskyy
Streptomycetes represent an important reservoir of active secondary metabolites with potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The gene clusters responsible for their production are often cryptic under laboratory growth conditions. Characterization of these clusters is therefore essential for the discovery of new microbial pharmaceutical drugs. Here, we report the identification of the previously uncharacterized nybomycin gene cluster from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces albus subsp. chlorinus through its heterologous expression...
November 4, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jing-Ling Ren, Xiao-Peng Zou, Wan-Shan Li, Li Shen, Jun Wu
Five new limonoids named thaigranatins A⁻E ( 1 ⁻ 5 ), containing a C₁⁻ O ⁻C29 moiety, were isolated from seeds of the Thai Xylocarpus granatum , collected at the mangrove swamp of Trang Province, together with the known limonoid, granatumin L ( 6 ). The structures of these compounds were established by HR-ESIMS and extensive NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was unequivocally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, conducted with Cu Kα radiation; whereas that of 2 or 6 was established to be the same as that of 1 by the similarity of their electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra...
November 4, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yasmin Dar, Dor Salomon, Eran Bosis
Vibrionaceae is a widespread family of aquatic bacteria that includes emerging pathogens and symbionts. Many Vibrionaceae harbor a type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is a secretion apparatus used to deliver toxins, termed effectors, into neighboring cells. T6SSs mediate both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities. Notably, antibacterial effectors are encoded together with a gene that encodes a cognate immunity protein so as to antagonize the toxicity of the effector. The MIX (Marker for type sIX effectors) domain has been previously defined as a marker of T6SS effectors carrying polymorphic C-terminal toxins...
November 4, 2018: Marine Drugs
Antonio Molino, Sanjeet Mehariya, Angela Iovine, Vincenzo Larocca, Giuseppe Di Sanzo, Maria Martino, Patrizia Casella, Simeone Chianese, Dino Musmarra
Astaxanthin and lutein, antioxidants used in nutraceutics and cosmetics, can be extracted from several microalgal species. In this work, investigations on astaxanthin and lutein extraction from Haematococcus pluvialis ( H. pluvialis ) in the red phase were carried out by means of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique, in which CO₂ supercritical fluid was used as the extracting solvent with ethanol as the co-solvent. The experimental activity was performed using a bench-scale reactor in semi-batch configuration with varying extraction times (20, 40, 60, and 80 min), temperatures (50, 65, and 80 °C) and pressures (100, 400, and 550 bar)...
November 3, 2018: Marine Drugs
Rosa Maria Vitale, Enrico D'Aniello, Stefania Gorbi, Andrea Martella, Cristoforo Silvestri, Maria Elisa Giuliani, Tariq Fellous, Alessandra Gentile, Marianna Carbone, Adele Cutignano, Laura Grauso, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Biagio D'Aniello, Fanny Defranoux, Serena Felline, Antonio Terlizzi, Antonio Calignano, Francesco Regoli, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Pietro Amodeo, Ernesto Mollo
Although the chemical warfare between invasive and native species has become a central problem in invasion biology, the molecular mechanisms by which bioactive metabolites from invasive pests influence local communities remain poorly characterized. This study demonstrates that the alkaloid caulerpin (CAU)-a bioactive component of the green alga Caulerpa cylindracea that has invaded the entire Mediterranean basin-is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Our interdisciplinary study started with the in silico prediction of the ligand-protein interaction, which was then validated by in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays...
November 3, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ángela Sánchez, María Mengíbar, Margarita Fernández, Susana Alemany, Angeles Heras, Niuris Acosta
The methods to obtain chitooligosaccharides are tightly related to the physicochemical properties of the end products. Knowledge of these physicochemical characteristics is crucial to describing the biological functions of chitooligosaccharides. Chitooligosaccharides were prepared either in a single-step enzymatic hydrolysis using chitosanase, or in a two-step chemical-enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed products obtained in the single-step preparation were composed mainly of 42% fully deacetylated oligomers plus 54% monoacetylated oligomers, and they attenuated the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mice and in RAW264...
November 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
Chien Thang Doan, Thi Ngoc Tran, Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
Chitinous materials from marine byproducts elicit great interest among biotechnologists for their potential biomedical or agricultural applications. In this study, four kinds of marine chitinous materials (squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells, and demineralized crab shells) were used to screen the best source for producing chitosanase by Paenibacillus macerans TKU029. Among them, the chitosanase activity was found to be highest in the culture using the medium containing squid pens as the sole carbon/nitrogen (C/N) source...
November 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
Long-He Yang, Han Ou-Yang, Xia Yan, Bo-Wen Tang, Mei-Juan Fang, Zhen Wu, Jing-Wei Chen, Ying-Kun Qiu
To investigate structurally novel and anti-neuroinflammatory natural compounds from marine-derived microorganisms, the secondary metabolites of Aspergillus terreus Y10, a fungus separated from the sediment of the coast in the South China Sea, were studied. Three new compounds ( 2 ⁻ 4 ), with novel open-ring butenolide skeletons, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture medium. In addition, a typical new butenolide, asperteretal F ( 1 ), was found to dose-dependently inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) generation with an IC50 of 7...
November 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
Gabriella Donà, Alessandra Andrisani, Elena Tibaldi, Anna Maria Brunati, Chiara Sabbadin, Decio Armanini, Guido Ambrosini, Eugenio Ragazzi, Luciana Bordin
Astaxanthin (Asta), red pigment of the carotenoid family, is known for its anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Asta on isolated human sperm in the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 capsid protein, L1. Sperm, purified by gradient separation, were treated with HPV16-L1 in both a dose and time-dependent manner in the absence or presence of 30 min-Asta pre-incubation. Effects of HPV16-L1 alone after Asta pre-incubation were evaluated by rafts (CTB) and Lyn dislocation, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) of the head, percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC) and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
November 2, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jiro Koizumi, Naoki Takatani, Noritoki Kobayashi, Koji Mikami, Kazuo Miyashita, Yumiko Yamano, Akimori Wada, Takashi Maoka, Masashi Hosokawa
Carotenoids are natural pigments that contribute to light harvesting and photo-protection in photosynthetic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the carotenoid profiles, including mono-hydroxy and epoxy-carotenoids, in the economically valuable red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis , to clarify the detailed biosynthetic and metabolic pathways in the order Bangiales. P. yezoensis contained lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, as major carotenoids in both the thallus and conchocelis stages. Monohydroxy intermediate carotenoids for the synthesis of lutein with an ε-ring from α-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin (β,ε-caroten-3'-ol), and zeinoxanthin (β,ε-caroten-3-ol) were identified...
November 1, 2018: Marine Drugs
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