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Marine Drugs

Bin Liu, Jiao Li, Minghua Chen, Xiaomeng Hao, Fei Cao, Yi Tan, Yuhui Ping, Yiguang Wang, Chunling Xiao, Maoluo Gan
Six new tetracenomycin congeners, saccharothrixones E⁻I ( 1 ⁻ 5 ) and 13-de- O -methyltetracenomycin X ( 6 ), were isolated from the rare marine-derived actinomycete Saccharothrix sp. 10-10. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)-electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Saccharothrixones G ( 3 ) and H ( 4 ) are the first examples of tetracenomycins featuring a novel ring-A-cleaved chromophore. Saccharothrixone I ( 5 ) was determined to be a seco -tetracenomycin derivative with ring-B cleavage...
September 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
José Antonio Vázquez, Javier Fraguas, Ramón Novoa-Carvallal, Rui L Reis, Luis T Antelo, Ricardo I Pérez-Martín, Jesus Valcarcel
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan actively researched for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and tissue engineering applications. CS extracted from marine animals displays different features from common terrestrial sources, resulting in distinct properties, such as anti-viral and anti-metastatic. Therefore, exploration of undescribed marine species holds potential to expand the possibilities of currently-known CS. Accordingly, we have studied for the first time the production and characterization of CS from blackmouth catshark ( Galeus melastomus ), a shark species commonly discarded as by-catch...
September 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Xinyang Li, Wanjing Ding, Pinmei Wang, Jinzhong Xu
Two novel aspochalasins, tricochalasin A ( 1 ) and aspochalasin A2 ( 2 ), along with three known compounds ( 3 ⁻ 5 ) have been isolated from the different culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica . Compound 1 contains a rare 5/6/6 tricyclic ring fused with the aspochalasin skeleton. The structures were determined on the basis of electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy (ESIMS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data, and the absolute configurations were further confirmed by modified Mosher's method...
September 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Masaki J Fujita, Yusuke Goto, Ryuichi Sakai
The biosynthetic gene cluster for bisucaberin B ( 1 , bsb gene cluster), an N -hydroxy- N -succinyl diamine (HSD)-based siderophore, was cloned from the marine bacterium Tenacibaculum mesophilum , originated from a marine sponge. The bsb gene cluster consists of six open reading frames (ORFs), in contrast to the four ORFs typically seen in biosynthetic gene clusters of the related molecules. Heterologous expression of the key enzyme, BsbD2, which is responsible for the final biosynthetic step of 1 resulted in production of bisucaberin B ( 1 ), but not bisucaberin ( 2 ) a macrocyclic counterpart of 1 ...
September 19, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wenwen Liu, Fengfeng Mo, Guixian Jiang, Hongyu Liang, Chaoqun Ma, Tong Li, Lulu Zhang, Liyan Xiong, Gian Luigi Mariottini, Jing Zhang, Liang Xiao
BACKGROUND: Jellyfish respond quickly to external stress that stimulates mucus secretion as a defense. Neither the composition of secreted mucus nor the process of secretion are well understood. METHODS: Aurelia coerulea jellyfish were stimulated by removing them from environmental seawater. Secreted mucus and tissue samples were then collected within 60 min, and analyzed by a combination of proteomics and metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS), respectively...
September 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
Matthew A Carson, Susan A Clarke
Marine organisms represent a highly diverse reserve of bioactives which could aid in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, including various musculoskeletal conditions. Osteoporosis in particular would benefit from a novel and effective marine-based treatment, due to its large disease burden and the inefficiencies of current treatment options. Osteogenic bioactives have been isolated from many marine organisms, including nacre powder derived from molluscan shells and fucoidan-the sulphated polysaccharide commonly sourced from brown macroalgae...
September 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
Hsu-Ming Chung, Yi-Chen Wang, Chung-Chih Tseng, Nan-Fu Chen, Zhi-Hong Wen, Lee-Shing Fang, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Ping-Jyun Sung
The structures, names, bioactivities, and references of 82 natural products, including 48 new metabolites, purified from the gorgonian corals belonging to the genus Junceella are described in this review. All compounds mentioned in this review were obtained from Junceella fragilis , Junceella gemmacea , Junceella juncea , and Junceella sp., collected from tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. Some of these compounds exhibited potential biomedical activities.
September 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
Baijun Ye, Peng Jiang, Tingrong Zhang, Yuanjun Sun, Xin Hao, Yingjun Cui, Liang Wang, Yue Chen
The first total synthesis of carmabin A and dragomabin was achieved at 52.3 mg and 43.8 mg scale, respectively. The synthesis led to determination of the configuration of carmabin A and reassignment of the configuration of dragomabin at the stereogenic centre on the alkyne-bearing fragment.
September 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
Chunlei Wang, Qiuping Fan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiaoping Lu, Yanrui Xu, Wenxing Zhu, Jie Zhang, Wen Hao, Lujiang Hao
Many marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs), which are made up of a substantial component of the macro-molecules surrounding cells. Recently, the wide demand for EPSs for food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications has led to great interest in them. In this study, an EPS produced by marine bacteria Aerococcus uriaeequi HZ strains (EPS-A) was isolated and purified to examine its structure and biological function. The molecular weight of EPS-A analyzed by high-performance liquid gel filtration chromatography (HPGFC) is found to have a number average of 2...
September 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Laura Núñez-Pons, Conxita Avila, Giovanna Romano, Cinzia Verde, Daniela Giordano
Solar radiation represents a key abiotic factor in the evolution of life in the oceans. In general, marine, biota-particularly in euphotic and dysphotic zones-depends directly or indirectly on light, but ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) can damage vital molecular machineries. UV-R induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairs intracellular structures and enzymatic reactions. It can also affect organismal physiologies and eventually alter trophic chains at the ecosystem level. In Antarctica, physical drivers, such as sunlight, sea-ice, seasonality and low temperature are particularly influencing as compared to other regions...
September 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Guihong Yu, Guangwei Wu, Zichao Sun, Xiaomin Zhang, Qian Che, Qianqun Gu, Tianjiao Zhu, Dehai Li, Guojian Zhang
Three new tetrahydroxanthone dimers, 5- epi -asperdichrome ( 1 ), versixanthones N ( 2 ), and O ( 3 ), were isolated from the mangrove-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were elucidated by NMR, HRMS, and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. Among them, compound 1 was the second example of tetrahydroxanthone dimers, which dimerized by a rare diaryl ether linkage and showed promising antibacterial activities against Vibrio parahemolyticus , Bacillus subtilis , Mycobacterium phlei , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , with MIC values ranging from 100 μM to 200 μM; whilst compounds 2 and 3 exhibited extensive cytotoxicities against five cancer cell lines (HL-60, K562, H1975, MGC803, and HO-8910), with IC50 values ranging from 1...
September 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Giuseppe Di Sanzo, Sanjeet Mehariya, Maria Martino, Vincenzo Larocca, Patrizia Casella, Simeone Chianese, Dino Musmarra, Roberto Balducchi, Antonio Molino
Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae in the red phase can produce significant amounts of astaxanthin, lutein, and fatty acids (FAs), which are valuable antioxidants in nutraceutics and cosmetics. Extraction of astaxanthin, lutein, and FAs from disrupted biomass of the H. pluvialis red phase using carbon dioxide (CO₂) in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions was investigated using a bench-scale reactor in a semi-batch configuration. In particular, the effect of extraction time (20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 min), CO₂ flow rate (3...
September 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Natalia Yu Anisimova, Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Fedor V Donenko, Natalia A Ushakova, Anatolii I Usov, Mikhail V Kiselevskiy, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Immunosuppression derived after cytostatics application in cancer chemotherapy is considered as an adverse side effect that leads to deterioration of quality of life and risk of infectious diseases. A linear sulfated (1→3)-α-l-fucan M-Fuc prepared by chemical modification of a fucoidan isolated from the brown seaweed Chordaria flagelliformis , along with two structurally related synthetic sulfated oligosaccharides, were studied as stimulators of hematopoiesis on a model of cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in mice...
September 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Patricia Gómez-Villegas, Javier Vigara, Rosa León
The solar salterns located in the Odiel marshlands, in southwest Spain, are an excellent example of a hypersaline environment inhabited by microbial populations specialized in thriving under conditions of high salinity, which remains poorly explored. Traditional culture-dependent taxonomic studies have usually under-estimated the biodiversity in saline environments due to the difficulties that many of these species have to grow at laboratory conditions. Here we compare two molecular methods to profile the microbial population present in the Odiel saltern hypersaline water ponds (33% salinity)...
September 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Najeeb Akhter, Yaqin Liu, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Yutong Shi, Kuiwu Wang, Juanjuan Chen, Xiaodan Wu, Bin Wu
Natural products from marine actinomycetes remain an important resource for drug discovery, many of which are produced by the genus, Streptomyces. However, in standard laboratory conditions, specific gene clusters in microbes have long been considered silent or covert. Thus, various stress techniques activated latent gene clusters leading to isolation of potential metabolites. This study focused on the analysis of two new angucycline antibiotics isolated from the culture filtrate of a marine Streptomyces pratensis strain NA-ZhouS1, named, stremycin A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) which were further determined based on spectroscopic techniques such as high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-MS), 1D, and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments...
September 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Di Zhang, Chenyan Shu, Xiaoyuan Lian, Zhizhen Zhang
As part of our research to discover novel bioactive natural products from marine microorganisms, five bagremycin analogues, including the previously unreported bagremycins F ( 1 ) and G ( 2 ), were isolated from a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. ZZ745. The structures of these compounds were determined by means of NMR spectroscopic analysis, HRESIMS data, and optical rotation. Both bagremycins F ( 1 ) and G ( 2 ) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli , with MIC values of 41.8 and 61.7 μM, respectively...
September 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jian-Lin Xu, Hong-Xin Liu, Yu-Chan Chen, Hai-Bo Tan, Heng Guo, Li-Qiong Xu, Sai-Ni Li, Zi-Lei Huang, Hao-Hua Li, Xiao-Xia Gao, Wei-Min Zhang
Five new benzophenone derivatives named tenellones D⁻H ( 1 ⁻ 5 ), sharing a rare naturally occurring aldehyde functionality in this family, and a new eremophilane derivative named lithocarin A ( 7 ), together with two known compounds ( 6 and 8 ), were isolated from the deep marine sediment-derived fungus Phomopsis lithocarpus FS508. All of the structures for these new compounds were fully characterized and established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic interpretation and X-ray crystallographic analysis...
September 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Min-Kyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Choi, Youn Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
We investigated the protective effects of Pyropia yezoensis crude protein (PYCP) against dexamethasone (DEX)-induced myotube atrophy and its underlying mechanisms. DEX (3 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection) and PYCP (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight, oral) were administrated to mice for 18 days, and the effects of PYCP on DEX-induced muscle atrophy were evaluated. Body weight, calf thickness, and gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle weight were significantly decreased by DEX administration ( p < 0...
September 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Helena M Amaro, A Catarina Guedes, Marco A C Preto, I Sousa-Pinto, F Xavier Malcata
The nutraceutical potential of microalgae boomed with the exploitation of new species and sustainable extraction systems of bioactive compounds. Thus, a laboratory-made continuous pressurized solvent extraction system (CPSE) was built to optimize the extraction of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids and PUFA, from a scarcely studied prokaryotic microalga, Gloeothece sp. Following "green chemical principles" and using a GRAS solvent (ethanol), biomass amount, solvent flow-rate/pressure, temperature and solvent volume-including solvent recirculation-were sequentially optimized, with the carotenoids and PUFA content and antioxidant capacity being the objective functions...
September 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Si-Yu Zhou, Yi-Jie Hu, Fan-Cheng Meng, Shen-Yue Qu, Rui Wang, Raymond J Andersen, Zhi-Hua Liao, Min Chen
Seven long-chain amides, including five previously undescribed bacillamidins A⁻E ( 1 ⁻ 5 ) and two previously reported synthetic analogs, bacillamidins F ( 6 ) and G ( 7 ), were isolated from extracts of the marine-derived Bacillus pumilus strain RJA1515. The structures of the new compounds were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data as well as high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and the absolute configurations of the stereogenic carbons of 1 ⁻ 4 were established by comparison of the calculated and the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra...
September 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
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