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Marine Drugs

Takashi Kamada, Min-Cheol Kang, Chin-Soon Phan, Intan Irna Zanil, You-Jin Jeon, Charles S Vairappan
Soft corals are known to be prolific producers of a wide spectrum of biologically active cembranoids. One new cembranoid, sinularolide F ( 2 ), along with three known compounds, cembranolide ( 1 ), ( E , E , E )-6,10,14-trimethyl-3-methylene- cis -3α,4,5,8,9,12,13,15α-octahydrocyclo tetradeca[β]furan-2( 3H )-one ( 3 ), and denticulatolide ( 4 ), were isolated from the Bornean soft coral Sinularia sp. Compounds 2 and 4 showed potential anti-inflammatory activities against lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264...
March 21, 2018: Marine Drugs
Fangying Song, Ning Liu, Minghao Liu, Yihua Chen, Ying Huang
Mycemycins A-E are new members of the dibenzoxazepinone (DBP) family, derived from the gntR gene-disrupted deep sea strain Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and the soil strain Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.235. In this paper, we report the identification of the gene clusters and pathways' inference for mycemycin biosynthesis in the two strains. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome sequences of S. olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and S . sp. FXJ1.235 predicted two divergent mycemycin gene clusters, mym and mye , respectively...
March 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jin Liu, Yu Chen, Jing-Ya Li, Cheng Luo, Jia Li, Kai-Xian Chen, Xu-Wen Li, Yue-Wei Guo
Phidianidines A and B are two novel marine indole alkaloids bearing an uncommon 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring and exhibiting various biological activities. Our previous research showed that the synthesized phidianidine analogs had the potential to inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a validated target for Type II diabetes, which indicates that these analogs are worth further structural modification. Therefore, in this paper, a series of phidianidine derivatives were designed and rapidly synthesized with a function-oriented synthesis (FOS) strategy...
March 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Daniel Oves-Costales, Mercedes de la Cruz, Maria Kokkini, Jesús Martín, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
Phocoenamicins B and C ( 1 and 2 ), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin ( 3 ), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis . Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides...
March 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yong-Zhe Zhu, Jing-Wen Liu, Xue Wang, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Chuan-Jie Zhang
The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus) , which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4- en -3-one, cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol, and hurgadacin...
March 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Chiung-Yao Huang, Wan-Ru Tseng, Atallah F Ahmed, Pei-Lun Chiang, Chi-Jen Tai, Tsong-Long Hwang, Chang-Feng Dai, Jyh-Horng Sheu
Three new polyoxygenated steroids, michosterols A-C ( 1 - 3 ), and four known compounds ( 4 - 7 ) were isolated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the soft coral Lobophytum michaelae , collected off the coast of Taitung. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data with related steroids. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 - 3 against the proliferation of a limited panel of cancer cell lines was assayed...
March 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yunyang Lu, Hu Li, Minchang Wang, Yang Liu, Yingda Feng, Ke Liu, Haifeng Tang
Four new polyhydroxysteroidal glycosides-culcinosides A-D ( 1 , 2 , 4 , and 7 )-along with three known compounds-echinasteroside C ( 3 ), linckoside F ( 5 ), and linckoside L3 ( 6 )-were isolated from the ethanol extract of starfish Culcita novaeguineae collected from the Xisha Islands of the South China Sea. The structures of new compounds were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic studies and chemical evidence, especially two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. The cytotoxicity of the new compounds against human glioblastoma cell lines U87, U251, and SHG44 were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Anne Bernhardt, Birgit Paul, Michael Gelinsky
BACKGROUND: Collagens of marine origin are applied increasingly as alternatives to mammalian collagens in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop a biphasic scaffold from exclusively marine collagens supporting both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and to find a suitable setup for in vitro chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stroma cells (hMSC). METHODS: Biphasic scaffolds from biomimetically mineralized salmon collagen and fibrillized jellyfish collagen were fabricated by joint freeze-drying and crosslinking...
March 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jin-Soo Park, Hak Cheol Kwon
A member of the marine streptomycete clade MAR4, Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, has genetic potential for the biosynthesis of hybrid isoprenoids and produces several meroterpenoids such as naphterpin, nitropyrrolin and marinophenazine. Our research on the strain CNQ-509 led to the isolation of two new naphterpin derivatives ( 1 and 2 ) comprised of naphthoquinone and geranyl moieties along with the known terpenoid, debromomarinone. The two-dimensional structure of these compounds was determined through spectral data analysis using data from NMR, MS and UV spectroscopy...
March 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Bruno Catalanotti, Agnese Secondo, Tiziana Petrozziello, Ilaria Piccialli, Anna Pannaccione, Valeria Costantino, Luciano Mayol, Gennaro Piccialli, Giorgia Oliviero
Herein, we reported on the synthesis of cpIPP, which is a new structurally-reduced analogue of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a potent Ca2+ -releasing secondary messenger that was firstly isolated from sea urchin eggs extracts. To obtain cpIPP the "northern" ribose of cADPR was replaced by a pentyl chain and the pyrophosphate moiety by a phophono-phosphate anhydride. The effect of the presence of the new phosphono-phosphate bridge on the intracellular Ca2+ release induced by cpIPP was assessed in PC12 neuronal cells in comparison with the effect of the pyrophosphate bridge of the structurally related cyclic N1-butylinosine diphosphate analogue (cbIDP), which was previously synthesized in our laboratories, and with that of the linear precursor of cpIPP, which, unexpectedly, revealed to be the only one provided with Ca2+ release properties...
March 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Teofil Jesionowski, Małgorzata Norman, Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Iaroslav Petrenko, Yvonne Joseph, Hermann Ehrlich
The biosynthesis, chemistry, structural features and functionality of spongin as a halogenated scleroprotein of keratosan demosponges are still paradigms. This review has the principal goal of providing thorough and comprehensive coverage of spongin as a naturally prefabricated 3D biomaterial with multifaceted applications. The history of spongin's discovery and use in the form of commercial sponges, including their marine farming strategies, have been analyzed and are discussed here. Physicochemical and material properties of spongin-based scaffolds are also presented...
March 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jing Jin, Xiaoyan Yang, Tan Liu, Hua Xiao, Guiyang Wang, Mengjie Zhou, Fawang Liu, Yingtao Zhang, Dong Liu, Minghua Chen, Wei Cheng, Donghui Yang, Ming Ma
Aromatic polyketides from marine actinomycetes have received increasing attention due to their unusual structures and potent bioactivities. Compared to their terrestrial counterparts, marine aromatic polyketides have been less discovered and their structural and biological diversities are far from being fully investigated. In this study, we employed a PCR-based genome mining method to discover aromatic polyketides in our marine bacteria collection. Five new atypical angucyclinones, fluostatins M-Q ( 1 - 5 ) featuring a unique 6-5-6-6 ring skeleton, were discovered from one "positive" Streptomyces sp...
March 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Peng Chen, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yuanxia Sun
Alginate oligosaccharides with different bioactivities can be prepared through the specific degradation of alginate by alginate lyases. Therefore, alginate lyases that can be used to degrade alginate under mild conditions have recently attracted public attention. Although various types of alginate lyases have been discovered and characterized, few can be used in industrial production. In this study, AlgA, a novel alginate lyase with high specific activity, was purified from the marine bacterium Bacillus sp...
March 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ruobing Cao, Weihua Jin, Yeqi Shan, Ju Wang, Ge Liu, Shan Kuang, Chaomin Sun
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Kasmiati Kasmiati, Yukio Yoshioka, Tetsuji Okamoto, Makoto Ojika
A crude methanolic extract of the Indonesian sponge Clathria bulbotoxa showed a potent cytotoxic activity against the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. An investigation of the active components led to the isolation of three new compounds named crambescidins 345 ( 1 ), 361 ( 2 ), and 373 ( 3 ), together with the known related metabolites crambescidins 359 ( 4 ), 657 ( 5 ), and 800 ( 6 ). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds 1 - 4 that possess a simple pentacyclic guanidine core exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the A431 cells with the IC50 values of 7...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Chien Thang Doan, Thi Ngoc Tran, Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
Chitosanases and proteases have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Four kinds of chitinous materials, squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells and demineralized crab shells, were used as the sole carbon and nitrogen (C/N) source to produce chitosanases, proteases and α-glucosidase inhibitors (αGI) by four different strains of Paenibacillus . Chitosanase productivity was highest in the culture supernatants using squid pens as the sole C/N source. The maximum chitosanase activity of fermented squid pens (0...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yingjuan Liu, Lihua Geng, Jingjing Zhang, Jing Wang, Qi Zhang, Delin Duan, Quanbin Zhang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is caused by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. Current PD treatments provide symptomatic relief but do not prevent or decelerate disease progression. Previous studies have suggested that acetylated and phosphorylated porphyran, derived from Porphyra , produces a neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA-induced damage. Due to its antioxidant and neuroprotective potential, this study evaluates whether oligo-porphyran (OP) could be beneficial in an experimental model of PD in mice...
March 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jose Manuel Leão, Antonio Lozano-Leon, Jorge Giráldez, Óscar Vilariño, Ana Gago-Martínez
Tetrodotoxins (TTX) are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands) linked to the presence of high concentrations of Vibrio , in particular Vibrio parahaemolyticus . This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of Vibrio species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams) from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain)...
March 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
Shao-Lu Wang, Yun-Liang Li, Zhuang Han, Xi Chen, Qi-Jia Chen, Yong Wang, Li-Sheng He
N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) based novel pharmaceutical agents and diagnostic reagents are highly required in medical fields. However, N -acetylneuraminate lyase(NAL)for Neu5Ac synthesis is not applicable for industry due to its low catalytic efficiency. In this study, we biochemically characterized a deep-sea NAL enzyme (abbreviated form: MyNal) from a symbiotic Mycoplasma inhabiting the stomach of a deep-sea isopod, Bathynomus jamesi . Enzyme kinetic studies of MyNal showed that it exhibited a very low Km for both cleavage and synthesis activities compared to previously described NALs...
March 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
Hermann Ehrlich, Marcin Wysokowski, Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Iaroslav Petrenko, Teofil Jesionowski
The biosynthesis, structural diversity, and functionality of collagens of sponge origin are still paradigms and causes of scientific controversy. This review has the ambitious goal of providing thorough and comprehensive coverage of poriferan collagens as a multifaceted topic with intriguing hypotheses and numerous challenging open questions. The structural diversity, chemistry, and biochemistry of collagens in sponges are analyzed and discussed here. Special attention is paid to spongins, collagen IV-related proteins, fibrillar collagens from demosponges, and collagens from glass sponge skeletal structures...
March 3, 2018: Marine Drugs
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