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IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

Jacob Trueb, Oguzhan Avci, Derin Sevenler, John H Connor, M Selim Ünlü
Single-molecule and single-nanoparticle biosensors are a growing frontier in diagnostics. Digital biosensors are those which enumerate all specifically immobilized biomolecules or biological nanoparticles, and thereby achieve limits of detection usually beyond the reach of ensemble measurements. Here we review modern optical techniques for single nanoparticle detection and describe the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS). We present challenges associated with reliably detecting faint nanoparticles with SP-IRIS, and describe image acquisition processes and software modifications to address them...
March 2017: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
J W Parks, T A Wall, H Cai, A R Hawkins, H Schmidt
Silicon-based optofluidic devices are very attractive for applications in biophotonics and chemical sensing. Understanding and controlling the properties of their dielectric waveguides is critical for the performance of these chips. We report that thermal annealing of PECVD-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) ridge waveguides results in considerable improvements to optical transmission and particle detection. There are two fundamental changes that yield higher optical transmission: (1) propagation loss in solid-core waveguides is reduced by over 70%, and (2) coupling efficiencies between solid- and liquid-core waveguides are optimized...
November 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Pin-Chieh Huang, Paritosh Pande, Adeel Ahmad, Marina Marjanovic, Darold R Spillman, Boris Odintsov, Stephen A Boppart
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used in many diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical applications over the past few decades to enhance imaging contrast, steer drugs to targets, and treat tumors via hyperthermia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical biomedical imaging modality that relies on the detection of backscattered light to generate high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissue. MNPs have been utilized as imaging contrast and perturbative mechanical agents in OCT in techniques called magnetomotive OCT (MM-OCT) and magnetomotive elastography (MM-OCE), respectively...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Jing Men, Yongyang Huang, Jitendra Solanki, Xianxu Zeng, Aneesh Alex, Jason Jerwick, Zhan Zhang, Rudolph E Tanzi, Airong Li, Chao Zhou
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due to its non-invasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Cong Liu, Yen-Liang Liu, Evan P Perillo, Andrew K Dunn, Hsin-Chih Yeh
In the past two decades significant advances have been made in single-molecule detection, which enables the direct observation of single biomolecules at work in real time and under physiological conditions. In particular, the development of single-molecule tracking (SMT) microscopy allows us to monitor the motion paths of individual biomolecules in living systems, unveiling the localization dynamics and transport modalities of the biomolecules that support the development of life. Beyond the capabilities of traditional camera-based tracking techniques, state-of-the-art SMT microscopies developed in recent years can record fluorescence lifetime while tracking a single molecule in the 3D space...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Wei Chen, Kicheon Park, Nora Volkow, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Simultaneous imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in response to functional activation during drug intoxication provides a valuable strategy to assess cocaine induced neurovascular dysfunction. However, this requires tools with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution and adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR). Though several technologies have been developed to address this demand during functional brain activation, their spatiotemporal resolution has been compromised to preserve SNR. In this study, we combine spatiotemporal-domain laser speckle contrast analysis and image correlation techniques to integrate multi-wavelength spectroimaging and laser speckle contrast imaging (MW-LSCI)...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Daniel Shir, Zachary S Ballard, Aydogan Ozcan
Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Damla Ozcelik, Matthew A Stott, Joshua W Parks, Jennifer A Black, Thomas A Wall, Aaron R Hawkins, Holger Schmidt
We present fluorescence detection of single H1N1 viruses with enhanced signal to noise ratio (SNR) achieved by multi-spot excitation in liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). Solid-core Y-splitting ARROW waveguides are fabricated orthogonal to the liquid-core section of the chip, creating multiple excitation spots for the analyte. We derive expressions for the SNR increase after signal processing, and analyze its dependence on signal levels and spot number. Very good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Yu Wang, Soyoung Kang, Josh D Doerksen, Adam K Glaser, Jonathan T C Liu
The imaging of dysregulated cell-surface receptors (or biomarkers) is a potential means of identifying the presence of cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. However, due to heterogeneities in the expression of protein biomarkers in tumors, molecular imaging technologies should ideally be capable of visualizing a multiplexed panel of cancer biomarkers. Recently, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted wide interest due to their potential for sensitive and multiplexed biomarker detection...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Amy L Oldenburg, Richard L Blackmon, Justin M Sierchio
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Lucas Freitas de Freitas, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Fredrick A South, Yuan-Zhi Liu, P Scott Carney, Stephen A Boppart
Three-dimensional high-resolution optical imaging systems are generally restricted by the trade-off between resolution and depth-of-field as well as imperfections in the imaging system or sample. Computed optical interferometric imaging is able to overcome these longstanding limitations using methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) which manipulate the complex interferometric data. These techniques correct for limited depth-of-field and optical aberrations without the need for additional hardware...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Robert C Lee, Michal Staninec, Oanh Le, Daniel Fried
New diagnostic methods are needed for the accurate assessment of caries lesion activity to establish the need for surgical treatment. Detection of the highly mineralized surface layer that forms near the surface of the lesions as a result of remineralization is important for diagnosis of the lesion activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that novel imaging methods can be used to detect remineralization of artificial enamel caries lesions. In this paper, the activity of natural enamel caries lesions was assessed in-vitro via detection of the surface layer with PS-OCT and dehydration rate measurements with NIR reflectance and thermal imaging modalities...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Manmohan Singh, Jiasong Li, Srilatha Vantipalli, Shang Wang, Zhaolong Han, Achuth Nair, Salavat R Aglyamov, Michael D Twa, Kirill V Larin
The mechanical properties of tissues can provide valuable information about tissue integrity and health and can assist in detecting and monitoring the progression of diseases such as keratoconus. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a rapidly emerging technique, which can assess localized mechanical contrast in tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. In this work we present a noncontact method of optical coherence elastography to evaluate the changes in the mechanical properties of the cornea after UV-induced collagen cross-linking...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Claudio Vinegoni, John M Dubach, Paolo Fumene Feruglio, Ralph Weissleder
Small molecule therapeutic drugs must reach their intended cellular targets (pharmacokinetics) and engage them to modulate therapeutic effects (pharmacodynamics). These processes are often difficult to measure in vivo due to their complexities and occurrence within single cells. It has been particularly difficult to directly measure cellular drug target binding. Fluorescence polarization is commonly used in pharmacological screening assays to measure drug-protein or protein-protein interactions. We hypothesized that fluorescence polarization imaging could be adapted and used with fluorescently labeled drugs to measure drug target engagement in vivo...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Yueqiao Qu, Teng Ma, Youmin He, Jiang Zhu, Cuixia Dai, Mingyue Yu, Shenghai Huang, Fan Lu, K Kirk Shung, Qifa Zhou, Zhongping Chen
We report on a real-time acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) system to map the relative elasticity of corneal tissue. A modulated ARF is used as excitation to vibrate the cornea while OCE serves as detection of tissue response. To show feasibility of detecting mechanical contrast using this method, we performed tissue-equivalent agarose phantom studies with inclusions of a different stiffness. We obtained 3-D elastograms of a healthy cornea and a highly cross-linked cornea. Finally we induced a stiffness change on a small portion of a cornea and observed the differences in displacement...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Shaw-Wei D Tsen, Karen Kibler, Bert Jacobs, Justin C Fay, N P Podolnikova, T P Ugarova, Samuel Achilefu, Kong-Thon Tsen
Microbial contamination of cell culture is a major problem encountered both in academic labs and in the biotechnology/pharmaceutical industries. A broad spectrum of microbes including mycoplasma, bacteria, fungi, and viruses are the causative agents of cell culture contamination. Unfortunately, the existing disinfection techniques lack selectivity and/or lead to the development of drug-resistance, and more importantly there is no universal method to address all microbes. Here, we report a novel, chemical-free visible ultrashort pulsed laser method for cell culture disinfection...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Bernard Choi, Wenbin Tan, Wangcun Jia, Sean M White, Wesley J Moy, Bruce Y Yang, Jiang Zhu, Zhongping Chen, Kristen M Kelly, J Stuart Nelson
Here, we review our current knowledge on the etiology and treatment of port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Current treatment options have significant limitations in terms of efficacy. With the combination of 1) a suitable preclinical microvascular model, 2) laser speckle imaging (LSI) to evaluate blood-flow dynamics, and 3) a longitudinal experimental design, rapid preclinical assessment of new phototherapies can be translated from the lab to the clinic. The combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and pulsed-dye laser (PDL) irradiation achieves a synergistic effect that reduces the required radiant exposures of the individual phototherapies to achieve persistent vascular shutdown...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Bingbing Cheng, Ming-Yuan Wei, Yuan Liu, Harish Pitta, Zhiwei Xie, Yi Hong, Kytai T Nguyen, Baohong Yuan
In this work we first introduced a recently developed high-resolution, deep-tissue imaging technique, ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF). The imaging principles based on two types of USF contrast agents were reviewed. To improve USF imaging techniques further, excellent USF contrast agents were developed based on high-performance thermoresponsive polymers and environment-sensitive fluorophores. Herein, such contrast agents were synthesized and characterized with five key parameters: (1) peak excitation and emission wavelengths (λex and λem), (2) the fluorescence intensity ratio between on and off states (IOn/IOff), (3) the fluorescence lifetime ratio between on and off states (τOn/τOff), (4) the temperature threshold to switch on fluorophores (Tth), and (5) the temperature transition bandwidth (TBW)...
May 2014: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Fanghui Ren, Jeremy Campbell, Gregory L Rorrer, Alan X Wang
We present an innovative surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor based on a biological-plasmonic hybrid nanostructure by self-assembling silver (Ag) nanoparticles into diatom frustules. The photonic-crystal-like diatom frustules provide a spatially confined electric field with enhanced intensity that can form hybrid photonic-plasmonic modes through the optical coupling with Ag nanoparticles. The experimental results demonstrate 4-6× and 9-12× improvement of sensitivities to detect the Raman dye for resonance and nonresonance SERS sensing, respectively...
May 2014: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
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