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Protein Journal

Xun Liu, Yang Zhang, Zhanhong Hu, Qian Li, Lu Yang, Guoqiang Xu
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays important roles in the regulation of protein stability, localization, and activity. A myriad of studies have focused on the functions of ubiquitin ligases E3s and deubiquitinating enzymes DUBs due to their specificity in the recognition of downstream substrates. However, the roles of the most ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes E2s are not completely understood except that they transport the activated ubiquitin and form E2-E3 protein complexes. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 can promote the degradation of downstream targets through the UPS whereas its non-catalytic functions are still elusive...
March 21, 2018: Protein Journal
Debasish Kar, Satya Deo Pandey, Sathi Mallick, Mouparna Dutta, Anindya S Ghosh
Escherichia coli PBP5, a DD-carboxypeptidase (DD-CPase), helps in maintaining cell shape and intrinsic β-lactam resistance. Though PBP5 does not have β-lactamase activity under physiological pH, it has a common but shorter Ω-like loop resembling class A β-lactamases. However, such Ω-like loop lacks the key glutamic acid residue that is present in β-lactamases. It is speculated that β-lactamases and DD-CPases might have undergone divergent evolution leading to distinct enzymes with different substrate specificities and functions indicating the versatility of the Ω-loops...
March 17, 2018: Protein Journal
Swi See Ang, Abu Bakar Salleh, Leow Thean Chor, Yahaya M Normi, Bimo Ario Tejo, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, Mariam-Aisha Fatima
The bioconversion of vitamin D3 catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) requires 25-hydroxylation and subsequent 1α-hydroxylation to produce the hormonal activated 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase catalyses the first step in the vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway, essential in the de novo activation of vitamin D3. A CYP known as CYP107CB2 has been identified as a novel vitamin D hydroxylase in Bacillus lehensis G1. In order to deepen the understanding of this bacterial origin CYP107CB2, its detailed biological functions as well as biochemical characteristics were defined...
March 5, 2018: Protein Journal
Zhiqing Zhang, Lei Wang, Shimeng Bai, Jiaming Qiao, Honglin Shen, Fang Huang, Shuangquan Gao, Shaoyong Li, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been a global epidemic since 1983; yet, the virology and immunology related to HIV-1 remain elusive. Furthermore, as there is still no effective chemoprophylaxis or vaccine to treat patients with HIV-1, most research focuses on strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection, such as with antiviral drugs, novel therapeutics, or improved diagnostic kits. The HIV-1 Gag precursor protein (p55)-comprising the matrix (MA/p17), capsid (CA/p24), and nucleocapsid (NC/p7) protein domains-is the main structural HIV-1 protein, and is uniquely responsible for virion assembly within the virus life cycle...
March 5, 2018: Protein Journal
Ye Li, Lei Chen, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su, Taiwu Li
The gelsolin family proteins are best known for involvement in cytoskeletal rearrangement by controlling actin organization during a variety of cellular processes. Previously, a 1962 bp cDNA encoding a 41.7 kDa protein with three gelsolin-like domains (G domains) from Dendrorhynchus zhejiangensis was identified and named as DzGSN. In this study, the sequence and function of a novel member of the gelsolin family proteins from D. zhejiangensis have been analyzed. Sequence alignment indicates that DzGSN is highly homologous to human gelsolin (35% identity) and human CapG (36% identity)...
March 2, 2018: Protein Journal
Lawrence Berlilner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Protein Journal
Avisek Mahapa, Sukhendu Mandal, Debabrata Sinha, Subrata Sau, Keya Sau
SarA, a pleiotropic transcription regulator, is encoded by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium. The expression of many virulence and non-virulence genes in S. aureus is modulated by this regulator. Structural studies have shown it to be a winged-helix DNA-binding protein carrying two monomers. Each SarA monomer is composed of five α-helices (α1-α5), three β-strands (β1-β3) and multiple loops. The putative DNA binding region of SarA is constituted with α3, α4, β2, and β3, whereas, its dimerization seems to occur using α1, α2, and α5...
February 20, 2018: Protein Journal
Edina Pandur, Zsuzsanna Fekete, Kitti Tamási, László Grama, Edit Varga, Katalin Sipos
Hepcidin, the key hormone of iron homeostasis is responsible for lowering the serum iron level through its interaction with iron exporter ferroportin. Thus, hepcidin agonists provide a promising opportunity in the treatment of iron disorders caused by lacking or decreased hepcidin expression. We investigated the importance of each of the eight highly conserved cysteines for the biological activity of hepcidin. Eight cysteine mutants were created with site directed mutagenesis. The binding ability of these hepcidin mutants to the hepcidin receptor ferroportin was determined using bacterial two-hybrid system and WRL68 human hepatic cells...
February 12, 2018: Protein Journal
Jason Krause, Carminita L Frost
Cancer procoagulant (CP), a direct activator of coagulation factor X, is among one of the tumour cell products or activities which may promote fibrin formation and has been suggested to be selectively associated with the malignant phenotype. At present, the most reliable assay for the quantification of CP activity is the three-stage chromogenic assay which utilises the ability of CP to activate factor X. In this assay, the activation of factor X leads to the formation of activated thrombin from prothrombin and the eventual hydrolyses of a thrombin chromogenic substrate which contains a p-nitroaniline leaving group...
February 6, 2018: Protein Journal
Othman Montacir, Houda Montacir, Andreas Springer, Stephan Hinderlich, Fereidoun Mahboudi, Amirhossein Saadati, Maria Kristina Parr
Etanercept is a soluble fusion protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) extracellular domain, linked to an Fc part of IgG1. It possesses three N- and 13 O-glycosylation sites. Due to its complex structure, an analytical challenge is facing the development and approval of biosimilars. In the current study, physicochemical characterization using state-of-the-art analytics was performed to analyze intact and subunit masses, post-translational modifications (PTMs), higher order structure and potency of Etanercept originator Enbrel® and its biosimilar Altebrel™ (AryoGen Pharmed) in accordance to critical quality attributes of biopharmaceuticals...
February 6, 2018: Protein Journal
Hui Zhang, Xiao Sun, Wenjie Li, Tuoping Li, Suhong Li, Motomitsu Kitaoka
SPase is widely used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Previously, a SPase gene was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217 and constructed into Escherichia coli BL21. In this paper, its expression conditions were optimized. The results showed that several induction factors determined the expression efficiency of SPase. The initial cell density, IPTG concentration, and induction time and temperature significantly (p < 0.01) affected the total protein content and activity of expressed SPase...
January 29, 2018: Protein Journal
Dorian Migoń, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz
Antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates for anti-infective pharmaceuticals. Unfortunately, because of their low proteolytic and chemical stability, their usage is generally narrowed down to topical formulations. Until now, numerous approaches to increase peptide stability have been proposed. One of them, peptide hydrocarbon stapling, a modification based on stabilizing peptide secondary structure with a side-chain covalent hydrocarbon bridge, have been successfully applied to many peptides. Moreover, constraining secondary structure of peptides have also been proven to increase their biological activity...
January 12, 2018: Protein Journal
B S Gnanesh Kumar, Avadhesha Surolia
Banana lectin (BanLec) exhibits specificity to glucose/mannose residues present in oligo saccharides or glycoconjugates and has attracted a lot of attention recently as a potent therapeutic agent. Structural studies and molecular cloning methods has revealed the presence of three different BanLec proteins in two species. In our study, initial mass spectrometric analysis of affinity purified native BanLec from banana pulp (Musa paradisiaca) indicated the presence of proteins with different molecular mass. Through the bottom up and top down analysis we identified three major isoforms with acetylation at N terminus...
February 2018: Protein Journal
Divya Reddy, Saikat Bhattacharya, Vinod Jani, Uddhavesh Sonavane, Rajendra Joshi, Sanjay Gupta
Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) is a histone chaperone that exchanges histone H2A-H2B dimer from chromatin templates. Studies with yeast NAP1 (yNAP1) have revealed its existence as multiple oligomeric species in solution. Here, rat NAP1 (rNAP1), which is 98% identical to the human NAP1 (hNAP1) was used as a model to characterize the oligomeric structures of this protein in higher eukaryotes. Gel filtration chromatography and Dynamic light scattering of recombinant rNAP1 indicated that the protein exists as a complex mixture of multimeric species even at 500 mM ionic strength...
February 2018: Protein Journal
S Jeza, S B Maseko, J Lin
This study intended to purify and characterise exo-inulinase of diesel-degrading Paenibacillus sp. D9. The whole genome sequencing of Paenibacillus sp. D9 revealed to possess the sacC gene that is encoded as exo-inulinase/levanase. This isolate was capable of producing a maximum of 50.9 IU/mL of exo-inulinase activity within 3 days at 30 °C, 200 rpm and pH of 7.0 on minimal salt medium agar supplemented with 1% (w/v) inulin. An exo-inulinase of 58.5 kDa was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, HiTrap QFF column and MMC column chromatographies with a specific activity of 4333 IU/mg, 7...
February 2018: Protein Journal
Mausumi Adhya, Bong-Kyu Kim, Hee-Do Jeung, Moonjae Cho, Kwang-Sik Choi
A polyclonal antibody specific to an egg protein of Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis was previously developed in our laboratory to assess the reproductive life cycle of the oyster. The present study was undertaken to investigate vitellin of C. ariakensis (CAVt). Vitellin is an essential component of egg proteins in marine invertebrates as it provides energy and nutrients to the embryo and larvae. CAVt was purified from eggs of the oyster using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by affinity chromatography with Concanavalin A-agarose...
December 18, 2017: Protein Journal
M Jazouli, M Lightowlers, C G Gauci, K Tadlaoui, A Belmlih, M M Ennaji, M Elharrak
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely distributed zoonosis that is highly endemic in the Mediterranean basin. The disease represents a serious public health threat and causes economic losses. The parasite life-cycle involves dogs and ruminants as definitive and intermediate hosts; humans are accidently infected, causing serious clinical issues. Vaccination of ruminants and dog treatments represent the most efficient measures to prevent parasite transmission. The recombinant protein vaccine, EG95, has been used successfully in sheep vaccine trials against CE in several countries...
December 2017: Protein Journal
Oleg I Kit, Dmitry I Vodolazhsky, Denis S Kutilin, Yaroslav S Enin, Yury A Gevorkyan, Peter V Zolotukhin, Yanis Boumber, Leonid V Kharin, Svetlana B Panina
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in women and third most common cancer in men. Cell signaling alterations in colon cancer, especially in aggressive metastatic tumors, require further investigations. The present study aims to compare the expression pattern of proteins associated with cell signaling in paired tumor and non-tumor samples of patients with colon cancer, as well as to define the cluster of proteins to differentiate patients with non-metastatic (Dukes' grade B) and metastatic (Dukes' grade C&D) colon cancer...
December 2017: Protein Journal
Harkiranpreet Kaur Dhaliwal, Nagarajan Thiruvanakarasu, Raj Kumar, Kruti Patel, Ghuncha Ambrin, Shouwei Cai, Bal Ram Singh
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known to cause flaccid muscle paralysis as a result of inhibition of neurotransmitter release from peripheral cholinergic synapses. BoNT type A (BoNT/A) is a 150 kDa protein consisting of two major subunits: light chain (LC) and heavy chain (HC). The LC is required for the catalytic activity of neurotoxin, whereas the C and N terminal domains of the HC are required for cell binding, and translocation of LC across the endosome membranes, respectively...
December 2017: Protein Journal
Tomoka Matsuo, Daichi Yano, Kouji Uda, Nozomu Iwasaki, Tomohiko Suzuki
The cDNA sequence of arginine kinase (AK) from the precious coral Corallium rubrum was assembled from transcriptome sequence data, and the deduced amino acid sequence of 364 residues was shown to conserve the structural features characteristic of AK. Based on the amino acid sequence, the DNA coding C. rubrum AK was synthesized by overlap extension PCR to prepare the recombinant enzyme. The following kinetic parameters were determined for the C. rubrum enzyme: Ka Arg (0.10 mM), Kia Arg (0.79 mM), Ka ATP (0...
December 2017: Protein Journal
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