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Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793670/renal-functional-reserve-revisited
#1
REVIEW
Ragnar Palsson, Sushrut S Waikar
Kidney function, like the function of other organs, is dynamic and continuously adjusts to changes in the internal environment to maintain homeostasis. The glomerular filtration rate, which serves as the primary index of kidney function in clinical practice, increases in response to various physiological and pathological stressors including oral protein intake. The difference between the glomerular filtration rate in the resting state and at maximum capacity has been termed renal functional reserve (RFR). RFR could provide additional information on kidney health and renal function prognosis...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793669/magnesium-balance-in-chronic-and-end-stage-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ben Oliveira, John Cunningham, Stephen B Walsh
This article explores the effects of CKD and end-stage kidney disease on magnesium balance. In CKD, there is decreased glomerular filtration of magnesium. Decreased tubular reabsorption can compensate to a degree, but once CKD stage 4 is reached there is a tendency toward hypermagnesemia. In dialysis, magnesium balance is dependent on the constituents of the dialysate that the blood is exposed to. The concentration of dialysate magnesium is just one of the factors that need to be considered. During transplantation, there are particular effects of immunosuppressants that can affect the magnesium balance and need to be considered by the clinician...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793668/magnesium-as-a-calcification-inhibitor
#3
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Ziad A Massy
Vascular calcification (VC) is associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality rates in patients with CKD. Recent clinical studies of patients with advanced CKD have observed an association between low serum magnesium (Mg) levels on one hand and elevated VC and cardiovascular mortality on the other. These findings have stimulated interest in understanding Mg's impact on CKD in general and the associated VC in particular. In vitro and preclinical in vivo data indicate that Mg has the potential to protect vascular smooth muscle cells against calcification via several different molecular mechanisms...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793667/magnesium-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-benefits-beyond-cardiovascular-protection
#4
REVIEW
Yusuke Sakaguchi, Takayuki Hamano, Yoshitaka Isaka
Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency leads to hypertension, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given that cardiovascular disease and CKD share similar risk factors, the low magnesium status may also contribute to CKD progression. In fact, lower serum magnesium levels and lower dietary magnesium intake are associated with an increased risk of incident CKD and progression to end-stage kidney disease...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793666/magnesium-and-drugs-commonly-used-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey H William, Katelyn Richards, John Danziger
As with other electrolytes, magnesium homeostasis depends on the balance between gastrointestinal absorption and kidney excretion. Certain drugs used commonly in patients with CKD can decrease gastrointestinal ingestion and kidney reclamation, and potentially cause hypomagnesemia. Other magnesium-containing drugs such as laxatives and cathartics can induce hypermagnesemia, particularly in those with impaired glomerular filtration and magnesium excretion. In this review, we will discuss the potential magnesium complications associated with a range of commonly encountered drugs in the care of CKD patients, discuss the potential mechanisms, and provide basic clinical recommendations...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793665/oral-magnesium-supplementation-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#6
REVIEW
Martha Rodríguez-Morán, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Claudia I Gamboa-Gómez, Fernando Guerrero-Romero
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the improvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. This is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that enrolled 198 individuals with MetS and hypomagnesemia who were randomly allocated to receive either 30 mL of magnesium chloride 5% solution, equivalent to 382 mg of elemental magnesium (n = 100), or placebo solution (n = 98), daily for 16 weeks. Serum magnesium levels <1...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793664/magnesium-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
Magnesium is the most abundant intracellular divalent cation and essential for maintaining normal cellular physiology and metabolism, acting as a cofactor of numerous enzymes, regulating ion channels and energy generation. In the heart, magnesium plays a key role in modulating neuronal excitation, intracardiac conduction, and myocardial contraction by regulating a number of ion transporters, including potassium and calcium channels. Magnesium also has a role in regulating vascular tone, atherogenesis and thrombosis, vascular calcification, and proliferation and migration of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793663/magnesium-and-blood-pressure-a-physiology-based-approach
#8
REVIEW
Joëlle C Schutten, Michel M Joosten, Martin H de Borst, Stephan J L Bakker
Hypertension is an important public health challenge because of its high prevalence and strong association with cardiovascular disease and premature death. Hypertension is a major cause of CKD, is present in more than 80% of CKD patients, and contributes to CKD progression. Risk factors for hypertension include, but are not limited to, age, race, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and inadequate intake of minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the human body and plays an important role in insulin and adenosine triphosphate metabolism...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793662/magnesium-handling-in-the-kidney
#9
REVIEW
Joshua N Curry, Alan S L Yu
Magnesium is a divalent cation that fills essential roles as regulator and cofactor in a variety of biological pathways, and maintenance of magnesium balance is vital to human health. The kidney, in concert with the intestine, has an important role in maintaining magnesium homeostasis. Although micropuncture and microperfusion studies in the mammalian nephron have shone a light on magnesium handling in the various nephron segments, much of what we know about the protein mediators of magnesium handling in the kidney have come from more recent genetic studies...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793661/dietary-magnesium-and-chronic-disease
#10
REVIEW
Forrest H Nielsen
Although official magnesium (Mg) dietary reference intakes are open to question, a significant number of adults likely have intakes that are in the range of 50%-99% of the requirement. This moderate or marginal (subclinical) deficient Mg intake generally is asymptomatic. Animal studies, however, indicate that moderate or subclinical Mg deficiency primes phagocytic cells for the release of proinflammatory cytokines leading to chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress. Human studies have found that dietary Mg is inversely related to serum or plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793660/magnesium-balance-and-measurement
#11
REVIEW
Snigdha T Reddy, Sandeep S Soman, Jerry Yee
Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body, playing an important role in practically every major metabolic and biochemical process, supporting and maintaining cellular processes critical for human life. Magnesium plays an important physiological role, particularly in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. As the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium, it is involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Magnesium has been implicated in and used as treatment of several diseases...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793659/magnesium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#12
EDITORIAL
David J Leehey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793658/magnesium-an-important-orphan
#13
EDITORIAL
Jerry Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580584/the-promise-of-systems-biology-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#14
REVIEW
Frank C Brosius, Wenjun Ju
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has a complex and prolonged pathogenesis involving many cell types in the kidney as well as extrarenal factors. It is clinically silent for many years after the onset of diabetes and usually progresses over decades. Given this complexity, a comprehensive and unbiased molecular approach is best suited to help identify the most critical mechanisms responsible for progression of DKD and those most suited for targeted intervention. Systems biological investigations provide such an approach since they examine the entire network of molecular changes that occur in a disease process in a comprehensive way instead of focusing on a single abnormal molecule or pathway...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580583/role-of-kidney-biopsies-for-biomarker-discovery-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Helen C Looker, Michael Mauer, Robert G Nelson
Although estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria are well-established biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), additional biomarkers are needed, especially for the early stages of the disease when both albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate may still be in the normal range and are less helpful for identifying those at risk of progression. Traditional biomarker studies for early DKD are challenging because of a lack of good early clinical end points, and most rely on changes in existing imprecise biomarkers to assess the value of new biomarkers...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580582/inflammatory-mechanisms-as-new-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Radica Z Alicic, Emily J Johnson, Katherine R Tuttle
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Approximately 30-40% of people with diabetes develop this microvascular complication, placing them at high risk of losing kidney function as well as of cardiovascular events, infections, and death. Current therapies are ineffective for arresting kidney disease progression and mitigating risks of comorbidities and death among patients with DKD. As the global count of people with diabetes will soon exceed 400 million, the need for effective and safe treatment options for complications such as DKD becomes ever more urgent...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580581/acute-kidney-injury-and-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Samuel Mon-Wei Yu, Joseph V Bonventre
Diabetic kidney disease, commonly termed diabetic nephropathy (DN), is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. The characteristic histopathology of DN includes glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, nodular glomerular sclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Diabetes is associated with a number of metabolic derangements, such as reactive oxygen species overproduction, hypoxic state, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. In the past few decades, our knowledge of DN has advanced considerably although much needs to be learned...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580580/treatment-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-with-hypertension-control-and-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition
#18
REVIEW
Vikram Patney, Kunal Chaudhary, Adam Whaley-Connell
The global incidence and prevalence of diabetes continues to expand due primarily to the influences of obesity and the contribution of obesity to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes has driven an increase in rates of CKD in the past 3 decades in the United States. In turn, so have the rates for complications related to type 2 diabetes including CKD, eg, diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Although incident rates for DKD have stabilized in the recent years, diabetes continues to be the leading cause of ESRD in the United States...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580579/new-glucose-lowering-agents-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Lisanne C de Vos, Thushan S Hettige, Mark E Cooper
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing and is associated with a range of complications including nephropathy. New antidiabetic agents are sought which also have positive effects to diminish diabetic complications. Examples of promising new classes of such agents are glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. In addition to cardiovascular protective effects such as weight loss and decreased blood pressure of some of these agents, there is evidence for renoprotective effects with these agents...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580578/glycemic-control-as-primary-prevention-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Improving strategies to prevent the development and progression of CKD is a highly desirable outcome for all involved in the care of patients with diabetes. This is because CKD is a major factor contributing to morbidly and mortality in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD in most developed countries. Although tight glucose control is now an established modality for preventing the development and progression of albuminuria, evidence is now accumulating to suggest that it can also ameliorate glomerular filtration rate loss and possibly progression to ESRD...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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