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Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501082/a-high-content-screening-technology-for-quantitatively-studying-podocyte-dynamics
#1
REVIEW
Jochen Reiser, Ha Won Lee, Vineet Gupta, Mehmet M Altintas
Podocytes form the visceral layer of a kidney glomerulus and express a characteristic octopus-like cellular architecture specialized for the ultrafiltration of blood. The cytoskeletal dynamics and structural elasticity of podocytes rely on the self-organization of highly interconnected actin bundles, and the maintenance of these features is important for the intact glomerular filtration. Development of more differentiated podocytes in culture has dramatically increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating podocyte actin dynamics...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501081/the-impact-of-excess-ligand-on-the-retention-of-nonionic-linear-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-patients-with-various-levels-of-renal-dysfunction-a-review-and-simulation-analysis
#2
REVIEW
John P Prybylski, Michael Jay
The role of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in the pathophysiology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is now uncontested. Although the definitive mechanism has not been established, the association with weaker GBCA ligands and with reduced renal clearance supports a hypothesis that Gd release from the GBCAs is a key process in precipitating the disease. Prevention strategies often include the use of more stable GBCA ligands in patients with reduced kidney function, but animal models and some clinical data suggest that better patient outcomes can be achieved when excess ligand is administered with weaker GBCAs; this is particularly significant for OptiMARK, which contains a nonionic, linear ligand similar to gadodiamide, the active ingredient in Omniscan, but contains twice the amount of excess ligand...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501080/intravenous-contrast-induced-nephropathy-the-rise-and-fall-of-a-threatening-idea
#3
REVIEW
Lyndon Luk, Jonathan Steinman, Jeffrey H Newhouse
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been considered to be a cause of renal failure for over 50 years, but careful review of past and recent studies reveals the risks of CIN to be overestimated. Older studies frequently cited the use of high-osmolality contrast media, which have since been replaced by low-osmolality contrast media, which have lower risks for nephropathy. In addition, literature regarding CIN typically describes the incidence following cardiac angiography, whereas the risk of CIN from intravenous injection is much lower...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501079/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-kidneys-with-and-without-gadolinium-based-contrast
#4
REVIEW
Jeff L Zhang
Assessment of renal function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been actively explored in the past decade. In this review, we introduce the principle of MRI and review recent progress of MRI methods (contrast enhanced and noncontrast) in assessing renal function. Contrast-enhanced MRI using ultra-low dose of gadolinium-based agent has been validated for measuring single-kidney glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow accurately. For routine functional test, contrast-enhanced MRI may not replace the simple serum-creatinine method...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501078/the-role-of-pet-scanning-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-kidney-disease
#5
REVIEW
Namrata Krishnan, Mark A Perazella
Patients with underlying kidney disease are often required to undergo imaging for a variety of purposes including diagnosis and prognosis. A test that is being increasingly used with for this group of patients is the positron emission test (PET) scan. In addition, combining the nuclear medicine technique (PET) with computed tomography scan allows additional imaging advantages over either alone. These imaging modalities are commonly used for a number of extrarenal indications (ie, cancer, coronary artery disease, central nervous system disease, infectious diseases, and others)...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501077/recent-advances-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-renal-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Jia Li, Changlong An, Lei Kang, William E Mitch, Yanlin Wang
CKD is a global public health problem. Renal fibrosis is a final common pathway leading to progressive loss of function in CKD. The degree of renal fibrosis predicts the prognosis of CKD. Recent studies have shown that bone marrow-derived fibroblasts contribute significantly to the development of renal fibrosis, which may yield novel therapeutic strategy for fibrotic kidney disease. Therefore, it is imperative to accurately assess the degree of renal fibrosis noninvasively to identify those patients who can benefit from antifibrotic therapy...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501076/intravenous-contrast-friend-or-foe-a-review-on-contrast-induced-nephropathy
#7
REVIEW
Catherine Do
Intravenous iodinated contrast is used in many contrasted imaging studies ranging from computed tomography to angiography. The risks of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and its incidence have not been clearly defined. Most iodinated contrast media used today are hypertonic compared with serum osmolality and pose biological risks. However, the risk of CIN in the general population may be overestimated. Confounding risk factors may contribute to acute kidney injury other than attributable risk of contrast exposure...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501075/gadolinium-retention-and-toxicity-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Miguel Ramalho, Joana Ramalho, Lauren M Burke, Richard C Semelka
Until 2006, the main considerations regarding safety for all gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) were related to short-term adverse reactions. However, the administration of certain "high-risk" GBCAs to patients with renal failure resulted in multiple reported cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Findings have been reported regarding gadolinium deposition within the body and various reports of patients who report suffering from acute and chronic symptoms secondary to GBCA's exposure. At the present state of knowledge, it has been proved that gadolinium deposits also occur in the brain, irrespective of renal function and GBCAs stability class...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501074/scared-to-the-marrow-pitfalls-and-pearls-in-renal-imaging
#9
EDITORIAL
Brent Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501073/prophylactic-hemodialysis-for-protection-against-gadolinium-induced-nephrogenic-systemic-fibrosis-a-doll-s-house
#10
EDITORIAL
Jerry Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284385/igg4-related-tubulointerstitial-nephritis
#11
REVIEW
Pingchuan Zhang, Lynn D Cornell
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284384/autosomal-dominant-tubulointerstitial-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Anthony J Bleyer, Kendrah Kidd, Martina Živná, Stanislav Kmoch
There are 3 major forms of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD): ADTKD due to UMOD mutations, MUC1 mutations, and mutations in the REN gene encoding renin. Lack of knowledge about these conditions contributes to frequent nondiagnosis, but with even limited knowledge, nephrologists can easily obtain a diagnosis and improve patient care. There are 3 cardinal features of these disorders: (1) the conditions are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and should be considered whenever both a parent and child suffer from kidney disease; the presence of even more affected family members provides further support...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284383/tubulointerstitial-injury-and-drugs-of-abuse
#13
REVIEW
Arani Nanavati, Leal C Herlitz
Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Agents addressed in this review are synthetic cannabinoids, "bath salts," ecstasy, anabolic steroids, inhaled solvents, heroin, and cocaine. The most frequent biopsy findings are those of acute tubular necrosis and acute interstitial nephritis...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284382/medication-induced-interstitial-nephritis-in-the-21st-century
#14
REVIEW
Cynthia C Nast
Interstitial nephritis is an immune mediated form of tubulointerstitial kidney injury that may occur secondary to drugs, autoimmune disease, infections, and hematologic disorders or as a reactive process. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) occurs in 0.5%-3% of all kidney biopsies and in 5%-27% of biopsies performed for acute kidney injury. Drugs are implicated in 70%-90% of biopsy-proved IN with a prevalence of 50% in less developed to 78% in more developed countries. DI-AIN typically is idiosyncratic because of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, although some chemotherapeutic agents are permissive for immune upregulation and injure the kidney in a dose-related manner...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284381/mechanisms-of-drug-induced-interstitial-nephritis
#15
REVIEW
Rajeev Raghavan, Saed Shawar
Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (DI-AIN) is a drug hypersensitivity reaction (DHR) that manifests 7 to 10 days after exposure to the culprit drug. DHRs account for fewer than 15% of reported adverse drug reactions. The kidneys are susceptible to DHR because: (1) the high renal blood flow whereby antigens are filtered, secreted, or concentrated, and (2) it is a major site of excretion for drugs and drug metabolites. More than 250 different drugs from various classes have been incriminated as causative agents of DI-AIN, the third most common cause of acute kidney injury in the hospital...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284380/clinical-approach-to-diagnosing-acute-and-chronic-tubulointerstitial-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mark A Perazella
Tubulointerstitial diseases are a relatively common cause of acute and/or chronic kidney disease. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) most commonly develops in patients exposed to various medications; however, it can occur from infections, autoimmune and systemic diseases, environmental exposures, and some idiopathic causes. Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis may develop in patients with previous ATIN or may be the initial manifestation of an autoimmune, systemic, environmental, or metabolic process...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284379/the-renal-tubulointerstitium
#17
EDITORIAL
Cynthia C Nast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284378/the-tubulointerstitium-dark-matter
#18
EDITORIAL
Jerry Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284377/treatment-of-renal-fibrosis-turning-challenges-into-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Barbara M Klinkhammer, Roel Goldschmeding, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor
Current treatment modalities are not effective in halting the progression of most CKD. Renal fibrosis is a pathological process common to all CKD and thereby represents an excellent treatment target. A large number of molecular pathways involved in renal fibrosis were identified in preclinical studies, some of them being similar among different organs and some with available drugs in various phases of clinical testing. Yet only few clinical trials with antifibrotic drugs are being conducted in CKD patients...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284376/the-tubulointerstitial-pathophysiology-of-progressive-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
H William Schnaper
Accumulating evidence suggests that the central locus for the progression of CKD is the renal proximal tubule. As injured tubular epithelial cells dedifferentiate in attempted repair, they stimulate inflammation and recruit myofibroblasts. At the same time, tissue loss stimulates remnant nephron hypertrophy. Increased tubular transport workload eventually exceeds the energy-generating capacity of the hypertrophied nephrons, leading to anerobic metabolism, acidosis, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the induction of additional inflammatory and fibrogenic responses...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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