journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139463/incomplete-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-and-kidney-stones
#1
REVIEW
Daniel G Fuster, Orson W Moe
Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is comprised of a diverse group of congenital or acquired diseases with the common denominator of defective renal acid excretion with protean manifestation, but in adults, recurrent kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis are mainly found in presentation. Calcium phosphate (CaP) stones and nephrocalcinosis are frequently encountered in distal hypokalemic RTA type I. Alkaline urinary pH, hypocitraturia, and, less frequently, hypercalciuria are the tripartite lithogenic factors in distal RTA (dRTA) predisposing to CaP stone formation; the latter 2 are also commonly encountered in other causes of urolithiasis...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139462/pseudo-renal-tubular-acidosis-conditions-mimicking-renal-tubular-acidosis
#2
REVIEW
Junior Uduman, Jerry Yee
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, particularly renal tubular acidosis, can pose diagnostic challenges. The laboratory phenotype of a low total carbon dioxide content, normal anion gap, and hyperchloremia may be misconstrued as hypobicarbonatemia from renal tubular acidosis. Several disorders can mimic renal tubular acidosis, and these must be appropriately diagnosed to prevent inadvertent and inappropriate application of alkali therapy. Key physiologic principles and limitations in the assessment of renal acid handling that can pose diagnostic challenges are enumerated...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139461/clinical-approach-to-proximal-renal-tubular-acidosis-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Gal Finer, Daniel Landau
Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is an inherited or acquired clinical syndrome in which there is a decreased bicarbonate reclamation in the proximal tubule resulting in normal anion gap hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. In children, pRTA may be isolated but is often associated with a general proximal tubular dysfunction known as Fanconi syndrome which frequently heralds an underlying systemic disorder from which it arises. When accompanied by Fanconi syndrome, pRTA is characterized by additional renal wasting of phosphate, glucose, uric acid, and amino acids...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139460/renal-tubular-acidosis-h-base-and-ammonia-transport-abnormalities-and-clinical-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Ira Kurtz
Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) represents a group of diseases characterized by (1) a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; (2) abnormalities in renal HCO3 - absorption or new renal HCO3 - generation; (3) changes in renal NH4 + , Ca2+ , K+ , and H2 O homeostasis; and (4) extrarenal manifestations that provide etiologic diagnostic clues. The focus of this review is to give a general overview of the pathogenesis of the various clinical syndromes causing RTA with a particular emphasis on type I (hypokalemic distal RTA) and type II (proximal) RTA while reviewing their pathogenesis from a physiological "bottom-up" approach...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139459/hyperkalemic-forms-of-renal-tubular-acidosis-clinical-and-pathophysiological-aspects
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Batlle, Jose Arruda
In contrast to distal type I or classic renal tubular acidosis (RTA) that is associated with hypokalemia, hyperkalemic forms of RTA also occur usually in the setting of mild-to-moderate CKD. Two pathogenic types of hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis are frequently encountered in adults with underlying CKD. One type, which corresponds to some extent to the animal model of selective aldosterone deficiency (SAD) created experimentally by adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement, is manifested in humans by low plasma and urinary aldosterone levels, reduced ammonium excretion, and preserved ability to lower urine pH below 5...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139458/hypokalemic-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#6
REVIEW
Patricia G Vallés, Daniel Batlle
Distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) is defined as hyperchloremic, non-anion gap metabolic acidosis with impaired urinary acid excretion in the presence of a normal or moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate. Failure in urinary acid excretion results from reduced H+ secretion by intercalated cells in the distal nephron. This results in decreased excretion of NH4 + and other acids collectively referred as titratable acids while urine pH is typically above 5.5 in the face of systemic acidosis. The clinical phenotype in patients with DRTA is characterized by stunted growth with bone abnormalities in children as well as nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis that develop as the consequence of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and relatively alkaline urine...
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139457/renal-tubular-acidosis-and-the-nephrology-teaching-paradigm
#7
EDITORIAL
Daniel Batlle, Jose Arruda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139456/it-is-really-time-for-ammonium-measurement
#8
EDITORIAL
Kalani L Raphael, Jerry Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793670/renal-functional-reserve-revisited
#9
REVIEW
Ragnar Palsson, Sushrut S Waikar
Kidney function, like the function of other organs, is dynamic and continuously adjusts to changes in the internal environment to maintain homeostasis. The glomerular filtration rate, which serves as the primary index of kidney function in clinical practice, increases in response to various physiological and pathological stressors including oral protein intake. The difference between the glomerular filtration rate in the resting state and at maximum capacity has been termed renal functional reserve (RFR). RFR could provide additional information on kidney health and renal function prognosis...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793669/magnesium-balance-in-chronic-and-end-stage-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Ben Oliveira, John Cunningham, Stephen B Walsh
This article explores the effects of CKD and end-stage kidney disease on magnesium balance. In CKD, there is decreased glomerular filtration of magnesium. Decreased tubular reabsorption can compensate to a degree, but once CKD stage 4 is reached there is a tendency toward hypermagnesemia. In dialysis, magnesium balance is dependent on the constituents of the dialysate that the blood is exposed to. The concentration of dialysate magnesium is just one of the factors that need to be considered. During transplantation, there are particular effects of immunosuppressants that can affect the magnesium balance and need to be considered by the clinician...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793668/magnesium-as-a-calcification-inhibitor
#11
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Ziad A Massy
Vascular calcification (VC) is associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality rates in patients with CKD. Recent clinical studies of patients with advanced CKD have observed an association between low serum magnesium (Mg) levels on one hand and elevated VC and cardiovascular mortality on the other. These findings have stimulated interest in understanding Mg's impact on CKD in general and the associated VC in particular. In vitro and preclinical in vivo data indicate that Mg has the potential to protect vascular smooth muscle cells against calcification via several different molecular mechanisms...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793667/magnesium-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-benefits-beyond-cardiovascular-protection
#12
REVIEW
Yusuke Sakaguchi, Takayuki Hamano, Yoshitaka Isaka
Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency leads to hypertension, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given that cardiovascular disease and CKD share similar risk factors, the low magnesium status may also contribute to CKD progression. In fact, lower serum magnesium levels and lower dietary magnesium intake are associated with an increased risk of incident CKD and progression to end-stage kidney disease...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793666/magnesium-and-drugs-commonly-used-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey H William, Katelyn Richards, John Danziger
As with other electrolytes, magnesium homeostasis depends on the balance between gastrointestinal absorption and kidney excretion. Certain drugs used commonly in patients with CKD can decrease gastrointestinal ingestion and kidney reclamation, and potentially cause hypomagnesemia. Other magnesium-containing drugs such as laxatives and cathartics can induce hypermagnesemia, particularly in those with impaired glomerular filtration and magnesium excretion. In this review, we will discuss the potential magnesium complications associated with a range of commonly encountered drugs in the care of CKD patients, discuss the potential mechanisms, and provide basic clinical recommendations...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793665/oral-magnesium-supplementation-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
REVIEW
Martha Rodríguez-Morán, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Claudia I Gamboa-Gómez, Fernando Guerrero-Romero
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the improvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. This is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that enrolled 198 individuals with MetS and hypomagnesemia who were randomly allocated to receive either 30 mL of magnesium chloride 5% solution, equivalent to 382 mg of elemental magnesium (n = 100), or placebo solution (n = 98), daily for 16 weeks. Serum magnesium levels <1...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793664/magnesium-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
Magnesium is the most abundant intracellular divalent cation and essential for maintaining normal cellular physiology and metabolism, acting as a cofactor of numerous enzymes, regulating ion channels and energy generation. In the heart, magnesium plays a key role in modulating neuronal excitation, intracardiac conduction, and myocardial contraction by regulating a number of ion transporters, including potassium and calcium channels. Magnesium also has a role in regulating vascular tone, atherogenesis and thrombosis, vascular calcification, and proliferation and migration of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793663/magnesium-and-blood-pressure-a-physiology-based-approach
#16
REVIEW
Joëlle C Schutten, Michel M Joosten, Martin H de Borst, Stephan J L Bakker
Hypertension is an important public health challenge because of its high prevalence and strong association with cardiovascular disease and premature death. Hypertension is a major cause of CKD, is present in more than 80% of CKD patients, and contributes to CKD progression. Risk factors for hypertension include, but are not limited to, age, race, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and inadequate intake of minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in the human body and plays an important role in insulin and adenosine triphosphate metabolism...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793662/magnesium-handling-in-the-kidney
#17
REVIEW
Joshua N Curry, Alan S L Yu
Magnesium is a divalent cation that fills essential roles as regulator and cofactor in a variety of biological pathways, and maintenance of magnesium balance is vital to human health. The kidney, in concert with the intestine, has an important role in maintaining magnesium homeostasis. Although micropuncture and microperfusion studies in the mammalian nephron have shone a light on magnesium handling in the various nephron segments, much of what we know about the protein mediators of magnesium handling in the kidney have come from more recent genetic studies...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793661/dietary-magnesium-and-chronic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Forrest H Nielsen
Although official magnesium (Mg) dietary reference intakes are open to question, a significant number of adults likely have intakes that are in the range of 50%-99% of the requirement. This moderate or marginal (subclinical) deficient Mg intake generally is asymptomatic. Animal studies, however, indicate that moderate or subclinical Mg deficiency primes phagocytic cells for the release of proinflammatory cytokines leading to chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress. Human studies have found that dietary Mg is inversely related to serum or plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793660/magnesium-balance-and-measurement
#19
REVIEW
Snigdha T Reddy, Sandeep S Soman, Jerry Yee
Magnesium is an essential ion in the human body, playing an important role in practically every major metabolic and biochemical process, supporting and maintaining cellular processes critical for human life. Magnesium plays an important physiological role, particularly in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. As the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium, it is involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Magnesium has been implicated in and used as treatment of several diseases...
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793659/magnesium-homeostasis-in-ckd
#20
EDITORIAL
David J Leehey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
journal
journal
40653
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"