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Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580584/the-promise-of-systems-biology-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Frank C Brosius, Wenjun Ju
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has a complex and prolonged pathogenesis involving many cell types in the kidney as well as extrarenal factors. It is clinically silent for many years after the onset of diabetes and usually progresses over decades. Given this complexity, a comprehensive and unbiased molecular approach is best suited to help identify the most critical mechanisms responsible for progression of DKD and those most suited for targeted intervention. Systems biological investigations provide such an approach since they examine the entire network of molecular changes that occur in a disease process in a comprehensive way instead of focusing on a single abnormal molecule or pathway...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580583/role-of-kidney-biopsies-for-biomarker-discovery-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Helen C Looker, Michael Mauer, Robert G Nelson
Although estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria are well-established biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), additional biomarkers are needed, especially for the early stages of the disease when both albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate may still be in the normal range and are less helpful for identifying those at risk of progression. Traditional biomarker studies for early DKD are challenging because of a lack of good early clinical end points, and most rely on changes in existing imprecise biomarkers to assess the value of new biomarkers...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580582/inflammatory-mechanisms-as-new-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Radica Z Alicic, Emily J Johnson, Katherine R Tuttle
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Approximately 30-40% of people with diabetes develop this microvascular complication, placing them at high risk of losing kidney function as well as of cardiovascular events, infections, and death. Current therapies are ineffective for arresting kidney disease progression and mitigating risks of comorbidities and death among patients with DKD. As the global count of people with diabetes will soon exceed 400 million, the need for effective and safe treatment options for complications such as DKD becomes ever more urgent...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580581/acute-kidney-injury-and-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Samuel Mon-Wei Yu, Joseph V Bonventre
Diabetic kidney disease, commonly termed diabetic nephropathy (DN), is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. The characteristic histopathology of DN includes glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, nodular glomerular sclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Diabetes is associated with a number of metabolic derangements, such as reactive oxygen species overproduction, hypoxic state, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. In the past few decades, our knowledge of DN has advanced considerably although much needs to be learned...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580580/treatment-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-with-hypertension-control-and-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition
#5
REVIEW
Vikram Patney, Kunal Chaudhary, Adam Whaley-Connell
The global incidence and prevalence of diabetes continues to expand due primarily to the influences of obesity and the contribution of obesity to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes has driven an increase in rates of CKD in the past 3 decades in the United States. In turn, so have the rates for complications related to type 2 diabetes including CKD, eg, diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Although incident rates for DKD have stabilized in the recent years, diabetes continues to be the leading cause of ESRD in the United States...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580579/new-glucose-lowering-agents-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Lisanne C de Vos, Thushan S Hettige, Mark E Cooper
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing and is associated with a range of complications including nephropathy. New antidiabetic agents are sought which also have positive effects to diminish diabetic complications. Examples of promising new classes of such agents are glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. In addition to cardiovascular protective effects such as weight loss and decreased blood pressure of some of these agents, there is evidence for renoprotective effects with these agents...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580578/glycemic-control-as-primary-prevention-for-diabetic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Improving strategies to prevent the development and progression of CKD is a highly desirable outcome for all involved in the care of patients with diabetes. This is because CKD is a major factor contributing to morbidly and mortality in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD in most developed countries. Although tight glucose control is now an established modality for preventing the development and progression of albuminuria, evidence is now accumulating to suggest that it can also ameliorate glomerular filtration rate loss and possibly progression to ESRD...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580577/competing-risk-of-death-with-end-stage-renal-disease-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Yue Jiang, Jason P Fine, Amy K Mottl
The concept of competing risks is particularly relevant to survival analyses of diabetic ESRD given the high likelihood of death prior to ESRD. Approaches such as Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models operate on the assumption that there are no competing risks for the event of interest, yielding uninterpretable and generally biased estimates in the presence of competing risks. The cumulative incidence function and Fine-Gray regression are more appropriate methodologies for survival analysis when competing risks are present...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580576/the-global-epidemiology-of-diabetes-and-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Digsu N Koye, Dianna J Magliano, Robert G Nelson, Meda E Pavkov
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, with the greatest increases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. In most developed countries, type 2 diabetes is presently the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and also contributes substantially to cardiovascular disease. In countries with weaker economies type 2 diabetes is rapidly replacing communicable diseases as a leading cause of kidney disease and is increasingly competing for scarce health care resources. Here, we present a narrative review of the prevalence and incidence of diabetes-related kidney disease worldwide...
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580575/diabetic-kidney-disease-c-2018
#10
EDITORIAL
Katherine R Tuttle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580574/diabetes-and-the-kidney-sweet-dreams
#11
EDITORIAL
James E Novak, Jerry Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499893/measurement-and-estimation-of-residual-kidney-function-in-patients-on-dialysis
#12
REVIEW
Tariq Shafi, Andrew S Levey
Residual kidney function (RKF) in patients on dialysis is strongly associated with survival and better quality of life. Assessment of kidney function underlies the management of patients with chronic kidney disease before dialysis initiation. However, methods to assess RKF after dialysis initiation are just now being refined. In this review, we discuss the definition of RKF and methods for measurement and estimation of RKF, highlighting the unique aspects of dialysis that impact these assessments.
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499892/challenges-in-measuring-glomerular-filtration-rate-a-clinical-laboratory-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Jesse C Seegmiller, John H Eckfeldt, John C Lieske
The assessment of kidney function is a cornerstone in the clinical management and health of the patient. Although the kidneys perform many physiologic functions and are essential for maintaining homeostasis, kidney function is typically evaluated, quantitated, and understood using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Although GFR can be directly measured using a variety of externally administered glomerular filtration markers, in general practice, the GFR is usually estimated (eGFR) using endogenous markers that are cleared primarily by kidney filtration...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499891/measured-gfr-in-routine-clinical-practice-the-promise-of-dried-blood-spots
#14
REVIEW
Petter Bjornstad, Amy B Karger, David M Maahs
Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is crucial for the diagnosis of kidney disease. Estimated GFR (eGFR) calculated by serum creatinine and/or cystatin C is a mainstay in clinical practice and epidemiologic research but lacks precision and accuracy until GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Furthermore, eGFR may not precisely and accurately represent changes in GFR longitudinally. The lack of precision and accuracy is of concern in populations at high risk for kidney disease, as the dissociation between changes in eGFR and GFR may lead to missed diagnoses of early kidney disease...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499890/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-laboratory-implementation-and-current-global-status
#15
REVIEW
W Greg Miller, Graham R D Jones
In 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines for identifying and treating CKD recommended that clinical laboratories report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with every creatinine result to assist clinical practitioners to identify people with early-stage CKD. At that time, the original Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation based on serum creatinine measurements was recommended for calculating eGFR. Because the MDRD Study equation was developed using a nonstandardized creatinine method, a Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education program was formed and implemented standardized calibration traceability for all creatinine methods from global manufacturers by approximately 2010...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499889/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-from-a-panel-of-filtration-markers-hope-for-increased-accuracy-beyond-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate
#16
REVIEW
Lesley A Inker, Andrew S Levey, Josef Coresh
The recent Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 CKD guidelines recommend estimating GFR from serum creatinine (eGFRcr ) as a first-line test to assess kidney function and using cystatin C or measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as confirmatory tests. eGFRcr may be inaccurate in people with variation in muscle mass or diet, and eGFRcys is not more accurate than eGFRcr. eGFRcrcys is more accurate than either, but it is not independent of eGFRcr . Measured GFR is not practical and is susceptible to error due to variation in clearance methods and in the behavior of exogenous filtration markers...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499888/alternatives-for-the-bedside-schwartz-equation-to-estimate-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Hans Pottel, Laurence Dubourg, Karolien Goffin, Pierre Delanaye
The bedside Schwartz equation has long been and still is the recommended equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. However, this equation is probably best suited to estimate GFR in children with chronic kidney disease (reduced GFR) but is not optimal for children with GFR >75 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Moreover, the Schwartz equation requires the height of the child, information that is usually not available in the clinical laboratory. This makes automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) along with serum creatinine impossible...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499887/assessment-of-kidney-function-in-patients-with-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Verônica Torres da Costa E Silva, Elerson C Costalonga, Fernanda O Coelho, Renato A Caires, Emmanuel A Burdmann
Cancer patients are living longer. The sequelae of cancer treatment and the role of comorbid conditions present before the diagnosis, such as CKD, have been increasingly recognized. The interface between CKD and cancer is multifaceted. CKD is frequently observed in patients with cancer, and cancer treatment contributes to CKD development and progression. In addition, CKD has been recognized as an important risk factor for cancer development and reduced specific cancer survival. In this context, an accurate evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during oncologic treatment is pivotal and is used to define surgery strategies, program prophylactic management of contrasted examinations, make decisions on cisplatin eligibility, and adjust drug prescriptions, particularly chemotherapy agents...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499886/glomerular-filtration-rates-in-asians
#19
REVIEW
Boon Wee Teo, Luxia Zhang, Jinn-Yuh Guh, Sydney C W Tang, Vivekanand Jha, Duk-Hee Kang, Roberto Tanchanco, Lai Seong Hooi, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Xianglei Kong, Li Zuo, Gek Cher Chan, Evan J C Lee
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines recommended the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for the classification of CKD, but its accuracy was limited to North American patients with estimated GFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area of European (White) or African (Black) descent. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) developed another equation for estimating GFR, derived from a population that included both participants without kidney disease and with CKD...
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499885/a-roadmap-for-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-where-have-we-been-where-are-we-now-and-where-do-we-need-to-go
#20
EDITORIAL
Lesley A Inker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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