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Current Alzheimer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915996/cerebral-microinfarcts-and-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Lei Cao, Lan Tan, Hui-Fu Wang, Teng Jiang, Xi-Chen Zhu, Jin-Tai Yu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the relationship between the cerebral microinfarcts and dementia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses using the MEDLINE, EMBASE,the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS preview for studies published in the period from 1 January 1997 to 1 April 2014. We also searched the reference lists of relevant studies and review articles. Studies had to be controlled, with participants divided into a dementia group and a control group...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915995/lack-of-p-glycoprotein-results-in-impairment-of-removal-of-beta-amyloid-and-increased-intraparenchymal-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-after-active-immunization-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Sascha Brückmann, Anja Brenn, Markus Grube, Katharina Niedrig, Silva Holtfreter, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Martin Groschup, Markus Keller, Silke Vogelgesang
Immunization against beta-amyloid (Aβ) reduces cerebral Aβ deposits and improves cognitive capacities in transgenic mouse models, and thus has been considered a promising disease-modifying therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although clinical trials in AD patients have yielded evidence for clearance of parenchymal Aβ plaques, Aβ increases in blood vessels of treated patients. We hypothesize that an age-related decline in the mechanisms that clear Aβ from the brain might be at least in part responsible for the failure to purge and re-distribute Aβ...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915994/is-educational-attainment-associated-with-increased-risk-of-mortality-in-people-with-dementia-a-population-based-study
#3
Israel Contador, Yaakov Stern, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferro, Julián Benito-León
OBJECTIVE: The association between higher education and increased mortality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. Further it is unknown whether education predicts survival in all dementia subtypes. We assessed mortality rates and death causes of persons with dementia compared to participants without dementia. METHODS: Participants derive from the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, a prospective population-based cohort study of older adults. We compared 269 persons with dementia to 2944 participants without dementia...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915993/directed-functional-connectivity-of-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-whole-brain-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Enyan Yu, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Gongjun Ji, Yumei Li, Zhongxiang Ding
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) is supposedly involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) might be an imaging marker for monitoring AD progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the alterations in the directed functional connectivity between the PCC and whole brain in patients with AD, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 116 enrolled participants were divided into three groups: AD (n=32), MCI (n=26), and controls (n=58)...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915992/plasma-phospholipids-are-associated-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#5
Jin-Biao Zhang, Yan-Nan Cong, Zhen-Guang Li, Hai-Rong Sun, Jiang-Shan Zhang, Peng-Fei Wang, Qi-Zhan Wu
Phospholipids (PLs) and their metabolisms are closely allied to nosogenesis and aggravation of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to characterize the plasma levels of phospholipids in type 2 diabetes patients and type 2 diabetes patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to identify potential biomarkers of type 2 diabetes patients with MCI. In this cross-sectional study, A total of 374 type 2 diabetes patients were prospectively enrolled. There were 103 patients with MCI and 271 patients without MCI (control)...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875949/treponema-iron-and-neurodegeneration
#6
A Jolivet-Gougeon, M Bonnaure Mallet
Spirochetes are suspected to be linked to the genesis of neurological diseases, including neurosyphillis or neurodegeneration (ND). Impaired iron homeostasis has been implicated in loss of function in several enzymes requiring iron as a cofactor, formation of toxic oxidative species, inflammation and elevated production of beta-amyloid proteins. This review proposes to discuss the link that may exist between the involvement of Treponema spp. in the genesis or worsening of ND, and iron dyshomeostasis. Proteins secreted by Treponema can act directly on iron metabolism, with hemin binding ability (HbpA and HbpB) and iron reductase able to reduce the central ferric iron of hemin, iron-containing proteins (rubredoxin, neelaredoxin, desulfoferrodoxin metalloproteins, bacterioferritins etc)...
November 21, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875948/prevalence-incidence-risk-and-protective-factors-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-the-elderly-in-shanghai
#7
Tao Wang, Shifu Xiao, Kewei Chen, Cece Yang, Shuhui Dong, Yan Cheng, Xia Li, Jinghua Wang, Minjie Zhu, Fuzhong Yang, Guanjun Li, Ning Su, Yuanyuan Liu, Jing Dai, Mingyuan Zhang
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) has notably increased in Shanghai, China. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence rates of aMCI and to determine the risk and protective factors for aMCI among persons ≥ 60 years-old in Shanghai communities. This 1-year longitudinal study, which surveyed a random sample of 1,302 individuals ≥ 60 years-old, collected baseline data about lifestyle through self-reports, and vascular and comorbid conditions from medical records and a physical examination. We also analyzed a subgroup of individuals ≥ 70 years-old...
November 21, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842487/molecular-interactions-of-bexarotene-a-retinoid-drug-and-alzheimer-s-a%C3%AE-peptide-a-docking-study
#8
Zeenat Mirza, Mohd Amin Beg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is primarily hallmarked by the production and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. Along with the understanding of the neurodegenerative disease progression and its pathophysiological mechanisms, development of anti-Aβ targeted effective therapeutics is essential for AD management. Numerous therapeutic approaches targeting the production, toxicity and removal of Aβ are being attempted worldwide. Prime need is to design inhibitors which can slow down the Aβ aggregation process in a physiological environment...
November 14, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829339/improved-brain-expression-of-anti-amyloid-%C3%AE-scfv-by-complexation-of-mrna-including-a-secretion-sequence-with-peg-based-block-catiomer
#9
Federico Perche, Satoshi Uchida, Hiroki Akiba, Chin-Yu Lin, Masaru Ikegami, Anjaneyulu Dirisala, Toshihiro Nakashima, Keiji Itaka, Kohei Tsumoto, Kazunori Kataoka
Amyloid β aggregates have been proposed as central effectors in Alzheimer's disease, as evidenced by several passive immunotherapies in clinical trials. We used mRNA encoding anti-amyloid β (Aβ) scFv for passive immunotherapy. These scFvs could recognize amyloid oligomers with significant affinity, delay the aggregation of amyloid β in vitro, and dissociate Aβ aggregates in vitro. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of pDNA and mRNA encoding the scFv resulted in detectable scFv levels in the brain, with higher in vivo expression from mRNA...
November 8, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829338/electrochemical-biosensor-for-detection-of-glycated-albumin
#10
Edyta Mikuła, Aleksandra Wysłouch-Cieszyńska, Liliya Zhukova, Peter Verwilst, Wim Dehaen, Jerzy Radecki, Hanna Radecka
This paper presents an electrochemical biosensor based on a thiol derivative of a pentetic acid (DPTA) complex with Cu (II) created on a gold electrode surface. His-tagged domains of Receptors for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) have been applied as an analytical active element for the determination of the glycated albumin. DPTA-Cu(II) complex molecules play a double role. They are sites for covalent immobilization of His6- RAGE domains, as well as transducers of the analytical signal. The binding of glycated albumin by His6- RAGE domains causes a variation in the electrochemical properties of the Cu(II) redox centers tethered to the electrode surface...
November 8, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829337/association-of-rs610932-and-rs670139-polymorphisms-in-the-ms4a-gene-cluster-with-alzheimer-s-disease-an-updated-meta-analysis
#11
Ruixia Zhu, Xu Liu, Zhiyi He
Two large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified rs610932 and rs670139 polymorphisms within the MS4A gene cluster as being significantly associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in those with European ancestry. A number of studies have focused on the association between MS4A gene variants and AD in Caucasian and East Asian populations. However, the results remain inconsistent owing to the small sample size in each study and the heterogeneity of the populations, among others...
November 8, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829336/effectiveness-of-a-standardized-and-specific-follow-up-in-memory-centers-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Laure Rouch, Philippe Cestac, Charlène Cool, Catherine Helmer, Jean-François Dartigues, Claudine Berr, Olivier Rouaud, Bruno Vellas, Sandrine Andrieu
OBJECTIVES: To compare the 4-year survival, institutionalization, cognitive and functional decline of Alzheimer's patients with specific follow-up in memory centers versus usual care. DESIGN: Four year longitudinal follow-up. SETTINGS: The French Network of memory centers in Alzheimer's disease (REAL-FR study) and The French population-based study (3C study). PARTICIPANTS: 728 patients aged ≥ 65, living at home, meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and having Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores between 10 and 26 at baseline were included...
November 8, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829341/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-patients-with-non-apnea-sleep-disorder
#13
Pi-Shan Sung, Chih-Ching Yeh, Liang-Chao Wang, Peir-Haur Hung, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung, Chih-Hung Chen, Kuen-Jer Tsai
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders other than sleep apnea (non-apnea sleep disorder, NSD), esp. insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, has been reported to induce higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia in previous longitudinal follow-up studies. However, large-scale nationwide population-based study may further confirm the association between NSD and dementia. METHODS: It was a nationwide population-based retrospective study. We used data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between January 2000 and December 2011...
November 7, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829340/preclinical-evaluation-of-avn-322-novel-and-highly-selective-5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Alexandre V Ivachtchenko, Yan A Ivanenkov, Mark S Veselov
Alla Chem LLC, Hallandale Beach, USA; bAvineuro Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Hallandale Beach, USA; cMoscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny city, Russian Federation. Abstract: In recent years, 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT6R) has rapidly emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence indicates that 5-HT6 receptors are deeply implicated in the processes of learning and memory, while 5-HT6R antagonists were shown to improve cognition in animal models of cognitive impairment...
November 7, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784218/uleine-disrupts-key-enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-biomarkers-that-leads-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Cláudia Seidl, Cid Aimbiré de Moraes Santos, Angela De Simone, Manuela Bartolini, Almeriane Maria Weffort-Santos, Vincenza Andrisano
Alzheimer´s disease, a progressive and degenerative disorder of the brain, is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. To face its multifactorial nature, the use of single compounds that can simultaneously modulate different targets involved in the neurodegenerative cascade has emerged as an interesting therapeutic approach. In that context, we investigated the ability of uleine, the major indole alkaloid purified from the stem barks of the Brazilian medicinal plant Himatanthus lancifolius, to interact with crucial Alzheimer´s disease disruptive targets...
October 26, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784219/serum-starvation-induces-bace1-processing-and-secretion
#16
Alexandra-Vasiliki Stavropoulou, Olga Mavrofrydi, Paul Saftig, Spiros Efthimiopoulos
β-secretase (BACE1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), initiated by BACE1 and followed by γ-secretase, leads to the formation of toxic Aβ peptides. Increased levels of BACE1 have been detected in the CSF of AD patients compared to age-matched healthy controls indicating that neurodegenerative conditions induce shedding of BACE1. To mimic such conditions, we examined whether serum deprivation stimulates proteolysis-dependent secretion of BACE1...
October 25, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774875/brain-spect-with-perfusion-radiopharmaceuticals-and-dopaminergic-system-radiocompounds-in-dementia-disorders
#17
Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
As well known, the increase in life expectancy and the better physical condition of people in western countries will lead in the next 20 years to a dramatic development of neurodegenerative diseases, especially of dementia that could be considered one of the most important problems in clinical, social and economic fields for the future. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of the various types of dementia is a critical step for patients, clinicians and researchers since an accurate "in vivo" diagnosis can lead to a better patients management...
October 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758681/deep-brain-stimulation-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
David S Xu, Francisco Ponce
High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that was introduced in the late 1980s for the treatment of movement disorders. It is a reversible, adjustable, and non-ablative therapy that has been used in over 100,000 people worldwide. The surgical procedure used to implant the DBS system, as well as the effects of chronic electrical stimulation, have been shown to be safe and effective through many clinical trials. The ability to therapeutically modulate the motor circuits of the brain in this manner has resulted in consideration of use of this surgical strategy for other neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders involving non-motor circuits, including appetite, mood, and cognition...
October 14, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758680/complement-c4a-and-c4b-gene-copy-number-study-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#19
Michele Zorzetto, Francesca Datturi, Laura Divizia, Cristiana Pistono, Ilaria Campo, Annalisa De Silvestri, Mariaclara Cuccia, Giovanni Ricevuti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests the importance of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. Complement activation occurs in the brain of patients with AD and seems to contribute to an important local inflammatory state. Increased expression of the fourth serum complement component 4 (C4) has been observed in AD patients in many studies. This protein has two isoforms, encoded by two genes: C4A and C4B localized to the HLA class III region...
October 12, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748187/comparison-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-blood-compartments-highlights-redox-alterations-in-alzheimer-s-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#20
Noemí Arce-Varas, Giulia Abate, Chiara Prandelli, Carmen Martínez, Fernando Cuetos, Manuel Menéndez, Mariagrazia Marziano, David Cabrera-García, María Teresa Fernández-Sánchez, Antonello Novelli, Maurizio Memo, Daniela Uberti
Many studies suggest oxidative stress as an early feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, evidence of established oxidative stress in AD peripheral cells is still inconclusive, possibly due to both, differences in the type of samples and the heterogeneity of oxidative markers used in different studies. Here we measured the activity of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase both in the extracellular and the intracellular blood compartments of AD, MCI and control subjects. The amount of an open isoform of p53 protein (unfolded p53), resulting from oxidative modifications was also determined...
October 10, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
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