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Current Alzheimer Research

F E Reesink, D Vallez Garcia, C A Sanchez-Catasus, D E Peretti, A T Willemsen, R Boellaard, S K Meles, R B Huitema, B M de Jong, R A Dierckx, P P De Deyn
We describe the phenomenon of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in four subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the National Institute on Aging -Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) criteria, in combination with 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PiB PET imaging. 18F-FDG PET showed a pattern of cerebral metabolism with relative decrease most prominent in the frontal-parietal cortex of the left hemisphere and crossed hypometabolism of the right cerebellum. 11C-PiB PET showed symmetrical amyloid accumulation, but a lower relative tracer delivery (a surrogate of relative cerebral blood flow) in the left hemisphere...
September 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Geon-Ho Jahng, Wonmin Choi, Julius Juhyun Chung, Sang Tae Kim, Hak Young Rhee
To investigate exchangeable proton signals of A&#946; proteins of the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice by using a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MR imaging technique. </p> <p> Method: Eight non-transgenic (Tg) mice (5 young and 3 old) and twelve Tg-APPswe/PSdE9 mice (5 young and 7 old) were used in this study. CESL Z-spectra were obtained by using two saturation powers, which were ω1 = 25 Hz with TSL = 3.0 s and ω1 = 500 Hz with TSL = 150 ms, at 71 offsets with uneven intervals between the offset frequencies at Ω = ±7...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Ahsanul Haque, Abdullah Sheikh, Abdullah Al Mamun, Shozo Yano, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido, Atsushi Nagai
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is demonstrated to improve neurological performance in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study is to understand the underlying mechanism of such improvement. METHODS: Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide was infused into the lateral ventricle of adult Wister rats using osmotic pump. After 15 days of continuous infusion, a mesenchymal stem cell line (B10) was transplanted in the lateral ventricle...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Mirjana Babić Leko, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Nataša Klepac, Fran Borovečki, Lea Langer Horvat, Željka Vogrinc, Zdenko Sonicki, Patrick R Hof, Goran Simic
BACKGROUND: Since pathological process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain begins 20-30 years earlier than the emergence of first symptoms, early and differential diagnosis of AD should be improved. Event-related potentials (ERP) measured by electroencephalography showed diagnostic potential in AD. OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficiency of P300 and N200 potentials and reaction time (RT) with protein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, amyloid β (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, serine 199 and threonine 231 (p-tau181, p-tau199 and p-tau231), and visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) in differential diagnosis of AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Botond Penke, Gábor Paragi, János Gera, Róbert Berkecz, Zsolt Kovács, Tim Crul, László Vígh
Lipids participate in amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and processing ‒ important factors in the initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and influence the formation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. An important risk factor, the presence of ApoE4 protein in AD brain cells binds the lipids to AD. In addition, lipid signaling pathways have a crucial role in the cellular homeostasis, and depend on specific protein-lipid interactions. The current review focuses on pathological alterations of membrane lipids (cholesterol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) and lipid metabolism in AD and provides insight in the current understanding of biological membranes, their lipid structures and functions, as well as their role as potential therapeutic targets...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Edward N Wilson, Sonia Do Carmo, M Florencia Iulita, Hélène Hall, Grant L Austin, Dan Tong Jia, Janice C Malcolm, Morgan K Foret, Adam Marks, D Allan Butterfield, A Claudio Cuello
BACKGROUND: Microdose lithium is protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the precise mechanisms through which its protective effects are conferred remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To further examine the effects during the earliest stages of Aβ pathology, we evaluated whether NP03, a microdose lithium formulation, modulates Aβ-mediated oxidative damage and neuroinflammation when applied to a rat transgenic model of AD-like amyloidosis overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP)...
September 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Vilma Maria Junges, Vera Elizabeth Closs, Guilherme Marcos Nogueira, Maria Gabriela Valle Gottlieb
The role of diet and gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, has recently come under intense investigation. Studies suggest that human gut microbiota may contribute to the modulation of several neurochemical and neurometabolic pathways, through complex systems that interact and interconnect with the central nervous system. The brain and intestine form a bidirectional communication axis, or vice versa, they form an axis through bi-directional communication between endocrine and complex immune systems, involving neurotransmitters and hormones...
September 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Rongwei Zhai, Joshua Rizak, Na Zheng, Xiaping He, Zhenhui Li, Yong Yin, Tao Su, Yingge He, Rongqiao He, Yuanye Ma, Meifeng Yang, Zhengbo Wang, Xintian Hu
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (FA) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as an age-related factor and as a protein cross-linker known to aggregate amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau protein in vitro. Higher levels of FA have also been found in patients with greater cognitive impairment and in AD patient brains. OBJECTIVE: To directly evaluate the effect of chronically elevated FA levels on the primate brain with respect to AD pathological markers. METHOD: Young rhesus macaques (5-8 yrs, without AD related mutations) were given chronic intracerebroventricular (i...
September 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
The importance of the issue of the economic burden of treatment and care for people with dementia is crucial in developed countries. The European Union and other developed countries are trying to improve the course of population aging which leads to rising costs. Their uniform registration is also one of the objectives of the developed countries strategic plans to fight dementia. The individual steps of the plans in practical terms so far are mainly directed at the early diagnosis of diseases, records of the associated data are so far in the background...
August 30, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Stephen Salloway, Gad A Marshall, Ming Lu, H Robert Brashear
BACKGROUND: Bapineuzumab is a humanized anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) monoclonal antibody directed at lowering the cerebral Aβ deposit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: This phase 2, open-label extension (OLE) study evaluated long-term safety and efficacy of bapineuzumab in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. METHODS: Patients (58-78 years) who completed either of two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies (subcutaneous [SC] single-dose-escalation, or intravenous (IV) multiple-ascending-dose) entered the OLE...
August 20, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Irving E Vega, Andrew Umstead, Cassandra M Wygant, John S Beck, Scott E Counts
BACKGROUND: The lack of diagnostic tools and disease-modifying treatments against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders, collectively known as tauopathies, have led to a socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportion. Proteomics approaches can be used to identify novel proteome changes that could help us understand the pathogenesis of tau-related pathological hallmarks and/or cellular stress responses associated with tauopathy. These studies, however, need to be conducted taking in consideration brain region specificity and stage of neurodegeneration in order to provide insights about the pathological role of the identified proteins...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Alexandre A de Castro, Elaine F F da Cunha, Ander F Pereira, Flavia V Soares, Daniel H S Leal, Kamil Kuca, Teodorico C Ramalho
Alzheimer's disease is known to be a chronic disease, with an estimated prevalence of about 10-30%, considering the population over 60 years of age. Most patients with this disorder (> 95%) present the sporadic form, being characterized by a late onset (80-90 years of age), and it is the consequence of the failure to clear the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide from the interstices of the brain. Significant numbers of genetic risk factors for the sporadic disease have been researched. Some existing drugs for Alzheimer's disease provide symptomatic benefit for up to 12 months, but there are no approved disease-modifying therapies...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Zihan Jiang, Huilin Yang, Xiaoying Tang
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the influence that the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts upon the corpus callosum (CC) using a total of 325 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, 155 AD subjects, and 185 healthy control (HC) subjects. METHOD: Regionally-specific morphological CC abnormalities, as induced by AD, were quantified using a large deformation diffeomorphic metric curve mapping based statistical shape analysis pipeline. We also quantified the association between the CC shape phenotype and two cognitive measures; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior Section (ADAS-cog)...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Maria Gonzalez-Nosti, Fernando Cuetos, Carmen Martnez
BACKGROUND: The expressive difficulties in patients with Alzheimer's dementia have been extensively studied, mainly in oral language. However, the deterioration of their writing processes has received much less attention. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to examine the decline of the performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease in both oral and written picture naming tasks. METHOD: Sixty-four participants (half with Alzheimer's disease and half healthy elderly) were compared in the oral and written versions of a picture naming task...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Friedrich Leblhuber, Kostja Steiner, Burkhard Schuetz, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in the elderly can cause a leaky gut, which may result in silent systemic inflammation and promote neuroinflammation - a relevant pathomechanism in the early course of Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: The rebalancing of the microbiome could benefically impact on gut inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: In this study, routine laboratory tests in twenty outpatients (9 females, 11 males, aged 77...
August 13, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Jacqueline C Dominguez, Maria Clarissa O Del Moral, Jeshya Obeso A Chio, Ma Fe P de Guzman, Boots P Natividad, Jay-Pee M Decena, Maryanne Jenelle Y Montalvo, Macario Reandelar, Kieu T T Phung
BACKGROUND: People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are considered a high-risk population for developing dementia and therefore potential targets for preventive interventions. So far, no pharmacological interventions have proven to be effective. Latest evidence has laid the groundwork for the hypothesis that dancing can have beneficial effect on cognition by improving neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether a structured modular ballroom dance intervention (INDAK) could improve cognition among Filipino older persons with MCI...
July 31, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Gunjan Manocha, Atreyi Ghatak, Kendra Puig, Colin Combs
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with age-associated central nervous system degeneration and dementia. This decline in function correlates with deposition of Aβ peptide containing plaques and associated reactive gliosis. The inflammatory phenotype of microglia, in particular, is often considered detrimental to cognitive function in AD. In addition to the changes in the CNS, altered immune changes in the periphery have recently been observed in AD suggesting a critical immune-related communication between the periphery and the brain...
July 31, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Syed Waseem Bihaqi, Bothaina Alansi, Anwar M Masoud, Foqia Mushtaq, Gehad M Subaiea, Nasser H Zawia
BACKGROUND: Previously we have shown that developmental exposure to developmental exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) resulted in latent cognitive impairment, upregulation of biomarkers and pathology associated with both the tau and amyloid pathways, however, the impact on α-Syn and its relationship to these pathways and their connection to cognitive performance warrant further elucidation. OBJECTIVE: The present study determined the impact of developmental Pb exposure on the α-Syn pathways in a mouse model knock-out for murine tau gene and in differentiated human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cell line exposed to series of Pb concentration...
July 31, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Slavka Hamulakova, Ladislav Janovec, Ondrej Soukup, Daniel Jun, Jana Janockova, Martina Hrabinova, Vendula Sepsova, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: The design of new heterodimeric dual binding site acetylcholinesterase inhibitors constitutes the main goal directed to the development of new anticholinesterase agents with expanded pharmacological profile. Multi-target compounds are usually designed by combining in a hybrid molecule two or more pharmacophoric moieties that are known to enable interaction with the selected molecular targets. METHODS: All compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity on human AChE/BChE...
July 10, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Mohamad El Haj
OBJECTIVES: research suggests beneficial effects of minimal interference on item memory in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a study to test whether these beneficial effects extend to source memory, i.e., the ability to remember the episodic context in which an information was previously acquired. METHODS: twenty-six mild AD participants and 28 controls manipulated six objects or watched the experimenter manipulating six other objects. After immediate item recall ("what were the items?") and source recall ("by whom the items were previously manipulated?"), an interference or a minimal interference condition was administrated...
July 10, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
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