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Current Alzheimer Research

Prapimpun Wongchitrat, Nattaporn Pakpian, Kuntida Kitidee, Kamonrat Phopin, Pornpatr A Dharmasaroja, Piyarat Govitrapong
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly populations. Changes in the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzymes directly affect the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, a neuropathological hallmark of AD. OBJECTIVE: We used peripheral blood from AD patients to investigate the expression of genes related to APP-processing [(β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), presenilin1 (PSEN1), and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase family 10 (ADAM10) and 17 (ADAM17)] and the epigenetic genes sirtuin (SIRT)1-3, which regulate Aβ production...
November 8, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Xing Li, Xiaoqin Run, Zhen Wei, Kuan Zeng, Zhihou Liang, Fang Huang, Dan Ke, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Xiaochuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidences suggest that elderly individuals are at increased risk of cognitive decline after general anesthesia. General anesthesia is also believed to be a risk factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intranasal administration of insulin, which delivers the drug directly into the brain, improves memory and cognition in both animal studies and small clinical trials. However, how insulin treatment improves cognitive function is poorly understood...
October 31, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Vladimiro Artuso, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Soraya Moradi-Bachiller, Federica Fusco, Stefano Curtolo, Ignazio Roiter, Gianluigi Forloni, Diego Albani
BACKGROUND: Presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) is a component of the g-secretase complex involved in b-amyloid precursor protein (AbPP) processing. Usually Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations in the PSEN-1 gene lead to early onset and increase the production of the aggregation-prone peptide Ab42. However, the PSEN-1 E318G variant has an unclear pathogenic role, and was recently reported as a genetic risk factor for AD. In particular, E318G variant presence correlated with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau)...
October 31, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Maxime François, Caroline Felicity Bull, Michael Felix Fenech, Wayne Richard Leifert
INTRODUCTION: Aging is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. METHODS: To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease...
October 21, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Yaojing Chen, Di Qi, Ting Qin, Kewei Chen, Meishan Ai, Xin Li, He Li, Junying Zhang, Haohao Mao, Yiru Yang, Zhanjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Among the protective factors for cognitive decline related to aging and Alzheimer's disease, education level is one of the most prominent. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of education on cognition remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to systematically assess the role of functional connectivity (FC) of resting-state brain networks playing in the cognition-protection effect of education. METHODS: Data from a battery of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging in resting-state were acquired in 77 cognitively normal elderly participants from local communities in Beijing, China...
October 21, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Zhenkui Ren, Mei Yang, Zhizhong Guan, Wenfeng Yu
Background β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and astrocytes can significantly inhibit Aβ aggregation. Astrocytic α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) upregulation detected in AD brains was closely associated with Aβ deposits. However, the relationships between the astrocytic α7 nAChRs and Aβ aggregation remain unclear. Methods The Aβ oligomers levels in astrocytic cell lysates and culture medium were measured after treatment with nicotine or co-treatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor...
October 21, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
J Stenzel, C Ruhlmann, T Lindner, S Polei, S Teipel, J Kurth, A Rominger, B J Krause, B Vollmar, A Kuhla
BACKGROUND: Positron-emission-tomography (PET) using 18F labeled florbetaben allows non-invasive in vivo-assessment of amyloid beta (Aβ), a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In preclinical research, [18F]-florbetaben-PET has already been used to test the amyloid-lowering potential of new drugs, both in humans and in transgenic models of cerebral amyloidosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial pattern of cerebral uptake of [18F]-florbetaben in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD in comparison to histologically determined number and size of cerebral Aβ plaques...
October 21, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Cassandra Morrison, Sheida Rabipour, Vanessa Taler, Christine Sheppard, Frank Knoefel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are correlated with increasing age and become more pronounced for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conventional methods to diagnose cognitive decline (i.e., neuropsychological testing and clinical judgment) can lead to false positives. Tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) offer more refined, objective measures of indexing electrophysiological changes associated with healthy aging, MCI, and AD...
October 21, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Tadanori Hamano, Kouji Hayashi, Norimichi Shirafuji, Yasunari Nakamoto
The pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involve the deposition of abnormally misfolded proteins, amyloid β protein (Aβ) and tau protein. Aβ comprises senile plaques, and tau aggregates form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), both of which are hallmarks of AD. Autophagy is the main conserved pathway for the degeneration of aggregated proteins, Aβ ,tau and dysfunctional organelles in the cell. Many animal model studies have demonstrated that autophagy normally functions as the protective factor against AD progression associated with intracytoplasmic toxic Aβ and tau aggregates...
October 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
M Kutova, J Mrzílkova, J Riedlova, P Zach
BACKGROUND: There are several cortical areas related to the limbic system that form the output from the hippocampal formation whose cellular and morphological features are important for the onset and progression of the AD. We hypothesised that there would be a significant difference in the size of cortical pyramidal neurons and that there would also be hemispheric asymmetry between Alzheimer disease subjects and controls. These differences would potentially be accompanied by an increase in the numbers of Fluoro-Jade B-positive degenerating cortical neurons and a corresponding decrease in the numbers of DAPI-stained cortical neuronal nuclei in subjects with AD compared to controls...
October 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Ana Subic, Eva Zupanic, Mia von Euler, Bo Norrving, Pavla Cermakova, Dorota Religa, Bengt Winblad, Milica G Kramberger, Maria Eriksdotter, Sara Garcia-Ptacek
INTRODUCTION: Patients with dementia may be at a higher risk for death from stroke. We aimed to describe characteristics of dementia patients that died from ischemic stroke (IS) in Sweden. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal analysis of prospectively collected data of patients registered into the Swedish Dementia Registry was conducted. Data on causes of death, drugs and comorbidities were acquired from the Swedish nationwide health registers. Deaths were attributed to stroke if the death certificate contained stroke as a cause of death and the patient had a stroke registered in Riksstroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, in the year preceding death...
October 2, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Ping-Song Chou, Yi-Hui Kao, Meng-Ni Wu, Mei-Chuan Chou, Chun-Hung Chen, Ruey-Tay Lin, Yuan-Han Yang
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular pathologies and hypertension could play a vital role in Alzheimer disease (AD) progression. However, whether cerebrovascular pathologies and hypertension accelerate AD progression through an independent or interaction effect is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the interactions of cerebrovascular pathologies and hypertension on AD progression. METHOD: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to compare AD courses in patients with different severities of cerebral white matter changes (WMCs) in relation to hypertension...
October 2, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Blanka Klimova, Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: There are a few risk factors which definitely have an impact on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Those include genetics, gender, age, diabetes, head injuries, and lifestyle. Physical activity together with healthy diet is part of people's lifestyle. At present there exist several research studies showing that the physical activities can be a good intervention tool in the delay of cognitive decline in AD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to discuss a relationship between the physical activities and the delay and/or maintenance of cognitive decline in AD and the types of physical activities which are especially suitable for this delay...
October 2, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Blanka Klimova, Kamil Kuca, Petra Maresova
The incidence of both diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing and are becoming a social and economic threat worldwide. Recent research studies indicate that both diseases share some pathophysiological features and that specifically type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between diabetes mellitus and AD, explore the efficacy of selected drugs on patients with diabetes and AD, and compare the relative risk of diabetes for Alzheimer's disease within different clinical studies...
September 25, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
David Facal, Miguel Angel Ruiz Carabias, Arturo X Pereiro, Cristina Lojo-Seoane, Maria Campos-Magdaleno, Roos J Jutten, Sietske A M Sikkes, Onesimo Juncos-Rabadan
BACKGROUND: Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are complex activities which involve multiple cognitive processes, and which are expected to be susceptible to the early effects of cognitive impairment. Informant-based questionnaires are the most common tools used to assess IADL performance in dementia, but must be adjusted for use in early stages of impairment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in IADL on the continuum of cognitive decline (i...
September 25, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Blanka Klimova, Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: At present, the number of older people is growing, especially in the developed countries where the living conditions enable a longer life expectancy. However, the higher age may result in the aging diseases such as dementia out which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent. Nevertheless, to maintain them both physically and mentally active, more assistance is required. This can be done not only by their family members or their caregivers, but also with the help of different kinds of technologies aimed at their specific needs...
September 24, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
F E Reesink, D Vallez Garcia, C A Sanchez-Catasus, D E Peretti, A T Willemsen, R Boellaard, S K Meles, R B Huitema, B M de Jong, R A Dierckx, P P De Deyn
We describe the phenomenon of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in four subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the National Institute on Aging -Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) criteria, in combination with 18F-FDG PET and 11C-PiB PET imaging. 18F-FDG PET showed a pattern of cerebral metabolism with relative decrease most prominent in the frontal-parietal cortex of the left hemisphere and crossed hypometabolism of the right cerebellum. 11C-PiB PET showed symmetrical amyloid accumulation, but a lower relative tracer delivery (a surrogate of relative cerebral blood flow) in the left hemisphere...
September 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Geon-Ho Jahng, Wonmin Choi, Julius Juhyun Chung, Sang Tae Kim, Hak Young Rhee
To investigate exchangeable proton signals of A&#946; proteins of the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice by using a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MR imaging technique. </p> <p> Method: Eight non-transgenic (Tg) mice (5 young and 3 old) and twelve Tg-APPswe/PSdE9 mice (5 young and 7 old) were used in this study. CESL Z-spectra were obtained by using two saturation powers, which were ω1 = 25 Hz with TSL = 3.0 s and ω1 = 500 Hz with TSL = 150 ms, at 71 offsets with uneven intervals between the offset frequencies at Ω = ±7...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Ahsanul Haque, Abdullah Sheikh, Abdullah Al Mamun, Shozo Yano, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido, Atsushi Nagai
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is demonstrated to improve neurological performance in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study is to understand the underlying mechanism of such improvement. METHODS: Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide was infused into the lateral ventricle of adult Wister rats using osmotic pump. After 15 days of continuous infusion, a mesenchymal stem cell line (B10) was transplanted in the lateral ventricle...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Mirjana Babić Leko, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Nataša Klepac, Fran Borovečki, Lea Langer Horvat, Željka Vogrinc, Zdenko Sonicki, Patrick R Hof, Goran Šimić
BACKGROUND: Since pathological process in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain begins 20-30 years earlier than the emergence of first symptoms, early and differential diagnosis of AD should be improved. Event-related potentials (ERP) measured by electroencephalography showed diagnostic potential in AD. OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficiency of P300 and N200 potentials and reaction time (RT) with protein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, amyloid β (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, serine 199 and threonine 231 (p-tau181, p-tau199 and p-tau231), and visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) in differential diagnosis of AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients...
September 11, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
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