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Current Alzheimer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443508/nutritional-deficiency-in-early-life-facilitates-aging-associated-cognitive-decline
#1
Yu Kang, Yun Zhang, Zijuan Feng, Mingjing Liu, Yanhua Li, Huan Yang, Dan Wang, Lingling Zheng, Dandan Lou, Liangping Cheng, Chunjiang Chen, Weitao Zhou, Yi Feng, Xiaoyong Li, Jianzhong Duan, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Yuhang Liu, Xin Wang, Bo Deng, Chenghui Liu, Xiuqing Yao, Chi Zhu, Chunrong Liang, Xiaolong Zeng, Sisi Ren, Qunying Li, Yin Zhong, Yong Zhang, Jun Kang, Yong Yan, Huaqing Meng, Zhaohui Zhong, Weihui Zhou, Yanjiang Wang, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is important for the fetal developmental programming. Nutritional deficiency in early life could increase the susceptibility to many aging-related disorders including cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the effect of early famine exposure on aging-associated cognitive function. METHODS: We recruited 6790 subjects born between 1956 to 1964 during which the Great Chinese Famine occurred (1959-1961)...
April 24, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413988/cognitive-mechanisms-in-decision-making-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-disease
#2
Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, María Pilar Salguero-Alcañiz, Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Susana Paíno-Quesada
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's dementia is characterized by significant cortical and subcortical atrophy, causing diverse neuropsychological deficits. According to the somatic marker hypothesis, the areas responsible for generating the somatic markers that anticipate the consequences of a decision and thereby optimize the process would be affected in these patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this experiment is to study the decision-making processes in Alzheimer type dementia patients to determine potential deficits in these processes as a result of the disease, aside from the cognitive impairment that is typical of aging...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#3
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413986/tau-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-strategies
#4
Yu Gao, Lin Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most important progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by cognitive and behavioral disabilities. Nowadays, tau, as a microtubule-associated protein and a principle neuropathological hallmark of AD, provides us a neoteric perspective to explore further aetiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategy. The hyperphosphorylation and abnormal aggregation of tau, combined with its decreased clearance, form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and exert neurotoxicity in AD. Recent investigations aim to prevent the deposition of NFT and accelerate the clearance of NFT...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413985/salvianolic-acid-b-decreases-the-generation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-by-modulating-bace1-activity
#5
Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan, Venkat Reddy Chirasani, Sravan Gopalakrishnan Shetty, Ashok Iyaswamy, Sandeep Malampati, Juxian Song, Liangfeng Liu, Jiandong Huang, Sanjib Senapati, Min Li
Generation and accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide after proteolytic processing of the full length amyloid precursor protein (FL-APP) by β-secretase (β-site APP cleaving enzyme or BACE1) and β -secretase is a main causal factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, inhibition of BACE1, a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of Aβ, is an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. Recent studies suggest that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) isolated from the radix of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and liver diseases in China...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413984/prevalence-of-frailty-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Gotaro Kojima, Ann Liljas, Steve Iliffe, Kate Walters
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis as a consequence of age-related decreased physiological reserves. Although physical frailty and cognitive impairment have been shown to be associated, evidence on the prevalence of frailty in Alzheimer's disease is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review on the prevalence of frailty and to combine the data to synthesize the pooled prevalence of physical frailty among patients with Alzheimer's disease...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413983/peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-control-ccl4-and-cxcl10-levels-in-a-human-blood-brain-barrier-model
#7
Julie Vérité, Thierry Janet, Adrien Julian, Damien Chassaing, Guylène Page, Marc Paccalin
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a neuroinflammation triggering chemoattractant signals towards peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in turn could reduce amyloid plaques after transmigration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). But the chemotactic environment remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze five chemokines known to be involved in AD in three different cellular models to better understand the cellular and molecular interactions in the BBB...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413982/optimizing-adas-cog-worksheets-a-survey-of-clinical-trial-raters-perceptions
#8
Stephen M Meyer, Kristina A Bertzos, Magdalena Perez, Donald Connor, Kimberly Schafer, Sarah Walter
The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) remains the most widely used test of longitudinal cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. Unlike most neuropsychological tests, the ADAS-Cog source documentation worksheets are not uniform across clinical trials, and vary by document layout, inclusion of administration and/or scoring instructions, and documentation of subtest scoring (e.g., recording correct versus incorrect scores), among other differences. Many ADAS-Cog test administrators (raters) participate in multiple AD trials and switching between different ADAS-Cog worksheets may increase the likelihood of administration and/or scoring mistakes that lessen the reliability of the instrument...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413981/default-mode-network-connectivity-and-related-white-matter-disruption-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-concurrent-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Di Qi, Ailin Wang, Yaojing Chen, Kewei Chen, Sisi Zhang, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Lin Ai, Zhanjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: As a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) itself causes cognitive impairment and has higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the cognition especially the episodic memory difference, the DMN functional connectivity and DMN-related white matter integrity in patients with both T2DM and amnestic MCI (T2DM-MCI) as compared to patients with T2DM only. METHOD: Focusing especially on T2DM population, we investigated the default mode network (DMN) through resting functional magnetic resonance imaging among 22 elderly T2DM-MCI patients and 24 elderly T2DM patients...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356048/diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-of-retinal-biomarkers-in-early-on-set-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Sahar Shariflou, Dana Georgevsky, Hussein Mansour, Mahdie Rezaeian, Nafiseh Hosseini, Fathima Gani, Vivek Gupta, Nady Braidy, S Mojtaba Golzan
Accumulating evidence suggests that the eye can be used in the assessment of early on-set Alzheimer's disease (AD). The eye offers a natural window to the brain through the retina. The retina and brain share common developmental origins and patho-physiological origins and mechanisms, having been sequestered from it during early development, but retaining its connections with the brain via the optic nerve. Therefore, it is well understood that neurological abnormalities have a direct profound impact on the retina...
March 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356047/is-vegf-a-key-target-of-cotinine-and-other-potential-therapies-against-alzheimer-disease
#11
Valentin Echeverria, George E Barreto, Marco Ávila-Rodriguez, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a neuroprotective cytokine that promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the brain. In animal models, it has been shown that environmental enrichment and exercise, two non-pharmacological interventions that are beneficial decreasing the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) and depressive-like behavior, enhance hippocampal VEGF expression and neurogenesis. Furthermore, the stimulation of VEGF expression promotes neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity processes such as neurogenesis...
March 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356046/white-matter-integrity-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-multimodal-structural-mri-study
#12
Yao Wang, Wenwei Cao, Yawen Sun, Xue Chen, Weina Ding, Qun Xu, Yan Zhou, Jianrong Xu, Shiteng Suo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disruption of white matter (WM) integrity in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) with multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to explore the relationships between WM damage, structural network disruptions, and general cognitive function decline. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with SVCI and twenty control subjects underwent structural MRI scans and neuropsychological assessment. WM volume (WMV), WM hyperintensities (WMH), lacunar infarcts (LI), diffusion tensor imaging parameters and structural network characteristics were compared between two groups...
March 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317487/impact-of-cytokines-and-chemokines-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathological-hallmarks
#13
Catarina Domingues, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of β-amyloid peptides, which deposit as senile plaques, and of TAU protein, which forms neurofibrillary tangles. It is now widely accepted that neuroinflammation is implicated in AD pathogenesis. Indeed, inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) can impact on the Alzheimer´s amyloid precursor protein by affecting its expression levels and amyloidogenic processing and/or β-amyloid aggregation...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317486/abnormal-clock-gene-expression-and-locomotor-activity-rhythms-in-two-month-old-female-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#14
Olaide Oyegbami, Hilary M Collins, Marie C Pardon, Fran Jp Ebling, David M Heery, Paula M Moran
In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is also characterized by agitation and disruptions in activity and sleep. These symptoms typically occur in the evening or at night and have been referred to as 'sundowning'. These symptoms are especially difficult for carers and there are no specific drug treatments. There is increasing evidence that these symptoms reflect an underlying pathology of circadian rhythm generation and transmission. We investigated whether a transgenic mouse model relevant to AD (APPswe/PS1dE9) exhibits circadian alterations in locomotor activity and expression of clock genes involved in the regulation of the circadian cycle...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317488/association-between-periodontal-health-status-and-cognitive-abilities-the-role-of-cytokine-profile-and-systemic-inflammation
#15
Marta Sochocka, Maciej Sobczyński, Aleksandra Sender-Janeczek, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Olga Błachowicz, Tomasz Tomczyk, Marek Ziętek, Jerzy Leszek
BACKGROUND: Contemporary neurobiology, periodontal medicine, and immunology are now focusing on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and systemic diseases, that also include Alzheimer's disease (AD). However a causative relationship between dementia and periodontitis has yet to be confirmed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether periodontal health status and cognitive abilities are correlated with the relative changes in systemic measures of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as a reflection of systemic inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317485/defective-insulin-signalling-mediated-by-inflammation-connects-obesity-to-alzheimer-disease-relevant-pharmacological-therapies-and-preventive-dietary-interventions
#16
Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo Toledano
Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#17
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290246/spatio-temporal-fluctuations-of-neural-dynamics-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez, María García, Miguel A Tola-Arribas, Alicia Carreres, Mónica Cano, Roberto Hornero
An accurate characterization of neural dynamics in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of paramount importance to gain further insights into the underlying neural mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on brain dynamics in prodromal AD. As a consequence, its neural substrates remain unclear. In the present research, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from patients with dementia due to AD, subjects with MCI due to AD and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed using relative power (RP) in conventional EEG frequency bands and a novel parameter useful to explore the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neural dynamics: the spectral flux (SF)...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290245/differentiated-effective-connectivity-patterns-of-the-executive-control-network-in-progressive-mci-a-potential-biomarker-for-predicting-ad
#19
Suping Cai, Yanlin Peng, Tao Chong, Yun Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Liyu Huang, Aibl Research Group
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). When observed longitudinally, some MCI patients convert to AD, while a considerable portion either remain MCI or revert to a normal functioning state. This divergence has provided some enlightenment on a potential biomarker be represented in the resting state brain activities of MCI patients with different post-hoc labels. Recent studies have shown impaired executive functions, other than typically explicated memory impairment with AD/MCI patients...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290244/kinematic-and-pressure-features-of-handwriting-and-drawing-preliminary-results-between-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-controls
#20
Josep Garre-Olmo, Marcos Faúndez-Zanuy, Karmele López-de-Ipiña, Laia Calvó-Perxas, Oriol Turró-Garriga
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative dementia of old age, and the leading chronic disease contributor to disability and dependence among older people worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline that interferes with the ability to perform the activities of daily living. Handwriting and drawing are complex human activities that entail an intricate blend of cognitive, kinesthetic, and perceptual-motor features. OBJECTIVE: To compare the kinematic characteristics of handwriting and drawing between patients with AD, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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