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Current Alzheimer Research

Alessandro Trebbastoni, Letizia Imbriano, Livia Podda, Lidia Rendace, Maria Luisa Sacchetti, Alessandra Campanelli, Fabrizia D Antonio, Carlo de Lena
BACKGROUND: Cognitive training (CT) is a non-pharmacological intervention based on a set of tasks that reflect specific cognitive functions. CT is aimed at improving cognition in patients with cognitive impairment, though no definitive conclusions have yet been drawn on its efficacy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a CT program designed to improve cognition in AD patients. METHOD: This is a randomized, controlled, single-blind, longitudinal trial with a no-treatment control condition in mild-to-moderate AD...
November 12, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Michele Lauriola, Giulia Paroni, Filomena Ciccone, Grazia D Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the human brain, its pathogenic role has yet to be completely clarified. Aβ moves from the blood-brain barrier to the plasma and an increased Aβ production in brain could be associated with higher Aβ concentrations in blood. A recent study has evaluated Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels in human red blood cells (RBCs) with evidence of age-dependent higher Aβ concentration in RBCs...
November 10, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Kiyomi Nishimaki, Takashi Asada, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Etsuko Nakajima, Chiaki Ikejima, Takashi Yokota, Naomi Kamimura, Shigeo Ohta
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We previously reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant. OBJECTIVE: We assess the effects of drinking H2-water (water infused with H2) on oxidative stress model mice and subjects with MCI. METHODS: Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were used as a dementia model...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Wen-Ying Qiu, Qian Yang, Wanying Zhang, Naili Wang, Di Zhang, Yue Huang, Chao Ma
Background The pathological diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) updated by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) in 2012 has been widely adopted, but the clinicopathological relevance remained obscure in Chinese population. Objective This study aims to investigate the correlations between the antemortem clinical cognitive performances and the postmortem neuropathological changes in the aging and AD brains collected in a human brain bank in China. Method A total of 52 human brains with antemortem cognitive status information [Everyday Cognition (ECog)] were collected through the willed donation program by CAMS/PUMC Human Brain Bank...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Nishant Verma, S Natasha Beretvas, Belen Pascual, Joseph C Masdeu, Mia K Markey, The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Combining optimized cognitive (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, ADAS-Cog) and atrophy markers of Alzheimer's disease for tracking progression in clinical trials may provide greater sensitivity than currently used methods, which have yielded negative results in multiple recent trials. Furthermore, it is critical to clarify the relationship among the subcomponents yielded by cognitive and imaging testing, to address the symptomatic and anatomical variability of Alzheimer's disease...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Sylwia Misiewicz, Adam M Brickman, Giuseppe Tosto
OBJECTIVE: Prosody, an important aspect of spoken language, is defined as the emphasis placed on certain syllables, changes in tempo or timing, and variance in pitch and intonation. Most studies investigating expression and comprehension of prosody have focused primarily on emotional prosody and less extensively on supralexical prosody. The distinction is indeed important, as the latter conveys information such as interrogative or assertive mode, whereas the former delivers emotional connotation, such as happiness, anger, and sadness...
October 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Chiara Meneghetti, Veronica Muffato, Erika Borella, Rossana De Beni
OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzes the age-related differences in map learning between young and normally-aging young-old and old-old adults in relation to individual visuo-spatial factors to specify which aspects of spatial learning are susceptible to aging. METHODS: Forty young, 40 young-old and 40 old-old participants performed a series of tasks to assess their visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) and visuo-spatial (rotation) abilities, then they studied a map...
October 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Gennaro Ruggiero, Alessandro Iavarone, Tina Iachini
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in egocentric (subject-to-object) and allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations, with a mainly allocentric impairment, characterize the first stages of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: To identify early cognitive signs of AD conversion, some studies focused on amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) by reporting alterations in both reference frames, especially the allocentric ones. However, spatial environments in which we move need the cooperation of both reference frames...
October 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Fabrizio Fasano, Micaela Mitolo, Simona Gardini, Annalena Venneri, Paolo Caffarra, Francesca Pazzaglia
OBJECTIVE: Recently, efforts have been made to combine complementary perspectives in the assessment of Alzheimer type dementia. Of particular interest is the definition of the fingerprints of an early stage of the disease known as Mild Cognitive Impairment or prodromal Alzheimer's Disease. Machine learning approaches have been shown to be extremely suitable for the implementation of such a combination. METHODS: In the present pilot study we combined the machine learning approach with structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive test assessments to classify a small cohort of 11 healthy participants and 11 patients experiencing Mild Cognitive Impairment...
October 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Corveleyn Xavier, Blampain Justine, Ott Laurent, Lavenu Isabelle, Delayen Caroline, Di Pastena Angela, Coello Yann
BACKGROUND: Great effort has been put into developing simple and feasible tools capable to detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its early clinical stage. Spatial navigation impairment occurs very early in AD and is detectable even in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the frequency of self-reported spatial navigation complaints in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), amnestic and non-amnestic MCI (aMCI, naMCI) and AD dementia and to assess whether a simple questionnaire based on these complaints may be used to detect early AD...
October 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
D V Moretti
OBJECTIVE: The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) has been implicate in many higher cognitive processes, as visuo-motor transformations, tool use or tool making. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at major risk to develop Alzheimer' Disease (AD) an impairment of subtle visuomotor or praxic abilities is a well-known clinical feature. Enhance of the ratio of EEG alpha3/alpha2 frequency power was detected in subjects with MCI who will transform in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We explored of the association of alpha3/alpha2 power ratio with cortical size of IPL in patients with MCI...
October 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: While the angiotensin-converting enzyme degrades amyloid-β, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) may slow cognitive decline by way of cholinergic effects, by increasing brain substance P and boosting the activity of neprilysin, and by modulating glucose homeostasis and augmenting the secretion of adipokines to enhance insulin sensitivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We aimed to investigate whether ACE gene polymorphisms rs1800764 and rs4291 are associated with cognitive and functional change in patients with AD, while also taking APOE haplotypes and anti-hypertensive treatment with ACEis into account for stratification...
October 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Yuan-Han Yang, Meng-Ni Wu, Ping-Song Chou, Hui-Chen Su, Sheng-Hsiang Lin, Pi-Shan Sung
Background The longitudinal change of neuropsychological tests (NPTs) in treated Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential to understand the interplay of a therapeutic response from medication and a disease decline due to degenerative processes. The aim of our study is to investigate the annual cognitive progression as measured by commonly used NPTs in treated AD patients and to assess the potential predictors of disease progression. Methods Participants (N=455) diagnosed with AD and treated with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) or memantine at memory clinics in three hospitals in southern Taiwan from January 2009 to December 2014 were enrolled in this prospectively registered study...
October 10, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Athanasios Metaxas, Ramanan Vaitheeswaran, Katrine T Jensen, Camilla Thygesen, Laura Ilkjaer, Sultan Darvesh, Bente Finsen
Background Although mood and sleep disturbances are nearly universal among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain structures involved in non-cognitive processing remain under characterized in terms of AD pathology. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate hallmarks of AD pathology in the brainstem of the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of familial AD. Methods Fresh-frozen sections from female, 12 month old, transgenic and control B6C3 mice (n=6/genotype) were examined for amyloid burden and neurofibrillary alterations, by using 6E10 immunohistochemistry and the Gallyas silver stain, respectively...
October 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz, Sharifah Azizah Haron, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Rahimah Ibrahim, Parisa Taheri Tanjani
BACKGROUND: The findings from previous studies exploring the association between BMI and cognitive function in the elderly are conflicting. The purpose of the present study is twofold; to verify the association between BMI and cognitive functions and examine whether this association is impacted by height, when adjusted for possible covariates. METHODS: The data for this study, consisted of 2287 older adults aged 60 years and above, drawn from a nationally representative population-based survey entitled "Determinants of Wellness among Older Malaysians: A Health Promotion Perspective" conducted in 2009...
October 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Pasquale Ricci, Francesco Massoni, Lidia Ricci, Emanuela Onofri, Giuseppe Donato, Serafino Ricci
Among the myriad of factors modulating quality of life (QoL) assessments estimated in patients presenting a variety of cognitive impairments (People With Dementia - PWD), the distinctive and critical influence of diet and exercise cannot be overestimated. The present study reviews the evi-dence to confirm the association between these health-endowering agents and cognitive perfor-mance in PWD, as well as providing a correlation between MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) scores and available anthropometric data...
September 25, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
A Ortiz, F Lozano, J M Gorriz, J Ramírez, F J Martinez-Murci, For The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Feature extraction in medical image processing still remains a challenge, especially in high-dimensionality datasets, where the expected number of available samples is considerably lower than the dimension of the feature space. This is a common problem in real-world data, and, specifically, in medical image pro- cessing as, while images are composed of hundreds of thousands voxels, only a reduced number of patients are available. OBJECTIVE: Extracting descriptive and discriminative features to represent each sample (image) by a small number of features, which is particularly important in classification task, due to the curse of dimensionality problem...
September 21, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Roni Manyevitch, Matthew Protas, Sean Scarpiello, Marisa Deliso, Brittany Bass, Anthony Nanajian, Matthew Chang, Stefani M Thompson, Neil Khoury, Rachel Gonnella, Margit Trotz, D Blaine Moore, Emily Harms, George Perry, Lucy Clunes, Angélica Ortiz, Jan O Friedrich, Ian V J Murray
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently incurable and a majority of investigational drugs have failed clinical trials. One explanation for this failure may be the invalidity of hypotheses focusing on amyloid to explain AD pathogenesis. Recently, hypotheses which are centered on synaptic and metabolic dysfunction are increasingly implicated in AD. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate AD hypotheses by comparing neurotransmitter and metabolite marker concentrations in normal versus AD CSF...
September 21, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Jochen R Thyrian, Stefan Klöppel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. METHOD: Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Katinka Reiner, Tilly Eichler, Johannes Hertel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen René Thyrian
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to determine accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) in detecting probable dementia as compared to the multi-domain dementia screening test DemTect. METHODS: The sample was derived from the general practitioner (GP)-based, cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania). Selected from 6.440 patients systematically screened for dementia in primary care, we examined three groups (a,b,c) where the CDT (as index test) as well as the DemTect (as reference standard) were available...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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