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Current Alzheimer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317487/impact-of-cytokines-and-chemokines-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathological-hallmarks
#1
Catarina Domingues, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of β-amyloid peptides, which deposit as senile plaques, and of TAU protein, which forms neurofibrillary tangles. It is now widely accepted that neuroinflammation is implicated in AD pathogenesis. Indeed, inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) can impact on the Alzheimer´s amyloid precursor protein by affecting its expression levels and amyloidogenic processing and/or β-amyloid aggregation...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317486/abnormal-clock-gene-expression-and-locomotor-activity-rhythms-in-two-month-old-female-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#2
Olaide Oyegbami, Hilary M Collins, Marie C Pardon, Fran Jp Ebling, David M Heery, Paula M Moran
In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is also characterized by agitation and disruptions in activity and sleep. These symptoms typically occur in the evening or at night and have been referred to as 'sundowning'. These symptoms are especially difficult for carers and there are no specific drug treatments. There is increasing evidence that these symptoms reflect an underlying pathology of circadian rhythm generation and transmission. We investigated whether a transgenic mouse model relevant to AD (APPswe/PS1dE9) exhibits circadian alterations in locomotor activity and expression of clock genes involved in the regulation of the circadian cycle...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317488/association-between-periodontal-health-status-and-cognitive-abilities-the-role-of-cytokine-profile-and-systemic-inflammation
#3
Marta Sochocka, Maciej Sobczyński, Aleksandra Sender-Janeczek, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Olga Błachowicz, Tomasz Tomczyk, Marek Ziętek, Jerzy Leszek
BACKGROUND: Contemporary neurobiology, periodontal medicine, and immunology are now focusing on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and systemic diseases, that also include Alzheimer's disease (AD). However a causative relationship between dementia and periodontitis has yet to be confirmed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether periodontal health status and cognitive abilities are correlated with the relative changes in systemic measures of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as a reflection of systemic inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317485/defective-insulin-signalling-mediated-by-inflammation-connects-obesity-to-alzheimer-disease-relevant-pharmacological-therapies-and-preventive-dietary-interventions
#4
Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo Toledano
Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#5
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290246/spatio-temporal-fluctuations-of-neural-dynamics-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez, María García, Miguel A Tola-Arribas, Alicia Carreres, Mónica Cano, Roberto Hornero
An accurate characterization of neural dynamics in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of paramount importance to gain further insights into the underlying neural mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on brain dynamics in prodromal AD. As a consequence, its neural substrates remain unclear. In the present research, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from patients with dementia due to AD, subjects with MCI due to AD and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed using relative power (RP) in conventional EEG frequency bands and a novel parameter useful to explore the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neural dynamics: the spectral flux (SF)...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290245/differentiated-effective-connectivity-patterns-of-the-executive-control-network-in-progressive-mci-a-potential-biomarker-for-predicting-ad
#7
Suping Cai, Yanlin Peng, Tao Chong, Yun Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Liyu Huang, Aibl Research Group
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). When observed longitudinally, some MCI patients convert to AD, while a considerable portion either remain MCI or revert to a normal functioning state. This divergence has provided some enlightenment on a potential biomarker be represented in the resting state brain activities of MCI patients with different post-hoc labels. Recent studies have shown impaired executive functions, other than typically explicated memory impairment with AD/MCI patients...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290244/kinematic-and-pressure-features-of-handwriting-and-drawing-preliminary-results-between-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-controls
#8
Josep Garre-Olmo, Marcos Faúndez-Zanuy, Karmele López-de-Ipiña, Laia Calvó-Perxas, Oriol Turró-Garriga
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative dementia of old age, and the leading chronic disease contributor to disability and dependence among older people worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline that interferes with the ability to perform the activities of daily living. Handwriting and drawing are complex human activities that entail an intricate blend of cognitive, kinesthetic, and perceptual-motor features. OBJECTIVE: To compare the kinematic characteristics of handwriting and drawing between patients with AD, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290243/motif-discovery-in-speech-application-to-monitoring-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Peter Garrard, Vanda Nemes, Dragana Nikolic, Anna Barney
BACKGROUND: Perseveration - repetition of words, phrases or questions in speech - is commonly described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Measuring perseveration is difficult, but may index cognitive performance, aiding diagnosis and disease monitoring. Continuous recording of speech would produce a large quantity of data requiring painstaking manual analysis, and risk violating patients' and others' privacy. A secure record and an automated approach to analysis are required. OBJECTIVES: To record bone-conducted acoustic energy fluctuations from a subject's vocal apparatus using an accelerometer, to describe the recording and analysis stages in detail, and demonstrate that the approach is feasible in AD...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#10
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219318/gender-and-pathology-specific-effect-of-apolipoprotein-e-genotype-on-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Julia Kim, Corinne E Fischer, Tom A Schweizer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis is one of the common clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the pathophysiology behind psychosis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, Lewy body pathology, and psychosis in AD. METHODS: The data was obtained from the National Alzheimer's disease Coordinating Centre (NACC), using the Uniform Data Set and the Neuropathology Data Set...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176625/molecular-targets-of-tannic-acid-in-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#12
Nady Braidy, Bat-Erdene Jugder, Anne Poljak, Tharusha Jayasena, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Perminder Sachdev, Ross Grant
Tannic acid (TA) is a naturally occurring plant-derived polyphenol found in several herbaceous and woody plants, including legumes, sorghum, beans, bananas, persimmons, rasberries, wines and a broad selection of teas. Clinically, TA has strong antioxidant/free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral/bacterial, and anti-carcinogenic properties.. While the aetiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unclear, this complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder remains the most common form of dementia, and is a growing public health concern worldwide...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215174/the-inverse-relationship-between-cancer-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-possible-mechanism
#13
Daniel W Nixon
Cancer and Alzheimer's disease are both associated with aging, but do not often occur together in the same patient, regardless of age. The underlying reason for this unexpected clinical observation is not known, but body weight might provide a clue. Obesity is a shared risk factor for both diseases, and the many properties of fat-produced adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, are now becoming clear. Normally, these adipokines are involved in energy intake, glucose metabolism and other physiologic processes, but they also have activities that can promote disease...
February 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176662/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-relateted-alterations-in-hippocampal-connectivity-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-support-memory-performance
#14
Matteo De Marco, Annamaria Vallelunga, Francesca Meneghello, Susheel Varma, Alejandro Frangi, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Whether the presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates hippocampal connectivity networks in abnormal ageing has yet to be fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: Allele-dependent differences in this pattern of functional connectivity were investigated in patients with very mild neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer's type, carriers and non-carriers of the ε4 allele. METHOD: A seed-based connectivity approach was used. The two groups were similar in demographics, volumetric measures of brain-structure, and cognitive profiles...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176624/vitamin-d-combined-with-resveratrol-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-samp8-mice
#15
Jinbo Cheng, Yehua Rui, Liqiang Qin, Jiaying Xu, Shufen Han, Linxi Yuan, Xuebin Yin, Zhongxiao Wan
Background Vitamin D (VD) and resveratrol (RSV) are two nutritional molecules that have reported neuroprotective effects, and findings from cellular models suggest that resveratrol could potentiate vitamin D's effects. The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related memory impairment. Objective We aimed to explore how the combination of vitamin D with resveratrol would affect memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice, as well as the potential mechanisms...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176663/gsk3%C3%AE-5-flanking-dna-methylation-and-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#16
Vincenzina Nicolia, Viviana Ciraci, Rosaria A Cavallaro, Isidre Ferrer, Sigfrido Scarpa, Andrea Fuso
BACKGROUND: The GSK3β has been associated to pathological functions in neurodegenerative diseases. This kinase is involved in hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau protein, leading to aggregation andformation of NFTs.It has clearly been shown that GSK3β is regulated at post-translational level: phosphorylation at Tyr216 activates kinase while phosphorylation at Ser9 is essential to inhibit its activity. OBJECTIVES: At present, there are contradictory findings about the possibility that GSK3β may be regulated at gene level...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#17
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164767/nanotechnology-for-alzheimer-disease
#18
Jerzy Leszek, G M Ashraf, Wai Hei Tse, Jin Zhang, K Gasiorowski, Marco Fidel Ávila-Rodriguez, Vadim V Tarasov, George E Barreto, S G Klochkov, Sergey O Bachurin, Gjumrakch Aliev
Dementia of Alzheimer disease (AD) type affects memory, thinking and behavior. Researchers believe that changes in the brain may begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear and AD is diagnosed. The need to diagnose and treat the devastating disease at an early stage is critical to manage and treat AD. Unfortunately, the lack of validated biomarkers limits the possibility of the earlier stages of AD. The advance of nanotechnology could offer huge opportunities in early-stage diagnosis and well treatment of AD. Biocompatible nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 1-100 nm could be used as targeted delivery system for drugs (e...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164766/biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#19
Vasileios Mantzavinosa, Athanasios Alexiou, Nigel H Greig, Mohammad A Kamal
The dramatic increase in the population with dementia expected in the next decades is accompanied by the establishment of novel and innovated methods that will offer accurate and efficient detection of the disease in its early stages. While Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, by the time is typically diagnosed substantial neuronal loss and neuropathological lesions can damaged many brain regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the main risk factors that affect and increase Alzheimer's disease progression over time even in cases with no significant memory impairment present...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164765/commonalities-in-biological-pathways-genetics-and-cellular-mechanism-between-alzheimer-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-in-silico-updated-overview
#20
Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Nigel H Greig, Inho Choi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common and well-studied neurodegenerative disease (ND). Biological pathways, pathophysiology and genetics of AD show commonalities with other NDs viz. Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), Prion Disease and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Many of the NDs, sharing the common features and molecular mechanisms suggests that pathology may be directly comparable and be implicated in disease prevention and development of highly effective therapies...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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