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Current Alzheimer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#1
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219318/gender-and-pathology-specific-effect-of-apolipoprotein-e-genotype-on-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Julia Kim, Corinne E Fischer, Tom A Schweizer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis is one of the common clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the pathophysiology behind psychosis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, Lewy body pathology, and psychosis in AD. METHODS: The data was obtained from the National Alzheimer's disease Coordinating Centre (NACC), using the Uniform Data Set and the Neuropathology Data Set...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215174/the-inverse-relationship-between-cancer-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-possible-mechanism
#3
Daniel W Nixon
Cancer and Alzheimer's disease are both associated with aging, but do not often occur together in the same patient, regardless of age. The underlying reason for this unexpected clinical observation is not known, but body weight might provide a clue. Obesity is a shared risk factor for both diseases, and the many properties of fat-produced adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, are now becoming clear. Normally, these adipokines are involved in energy intake, glucose metabolism and other physiologic processes, but they also have activities that can promote disease...
February 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176662/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-relateted-alterations-in-hippocampal-connectivity-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-support-memory-performance
#4
Matteo De Marco, Annamaria Vallelunga, Francesca Meneghello, Susheel Varma, Alejandro Frangi, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Whether the presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates hippocampal connectivity networks in abnormal ageing has yet to be fully clarified. OBJECTIVE: Allele-dependent differences in this pattern of functional connectivity were investigated in patients with very mild neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer's type, carriers and non-carriers of the ε4 allele. METHOD: A seed-based connectivity approach was used. The two groups were similar in demographics, volumetric measures of brain-structure, and cognitive profiles...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176625/protective-effects-of-huang-lian-jie-du-tang-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-memory-deficits-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-rats
#5
Wenbin Wu, Shuling Xie, Bin Li, Kun Yang, Xuehui Liu, Baiyang Li
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration and is the most common cause of dementia. Extracellular β-amyloid deposit in senile plaques is the most characteristic pathological hallmark. β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is associated with neurodegeneration and involved in memory impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. It can also induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in neurodegeneration and immune response...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176624/vitamin-d-combined-with-resveratrol-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-samp8-mice
#6
Jinbo Cheng, Yehua Rui, Liqiang Qin, Jiaying Xu, Shufen Han, Linxi Yuan, Xuebin Yin, Zhongxiao Wan
Background Vitamin D (VD) and resveratrol (RSV) are two nutritional molecules that have reported neuroprotective effects, and findings from cellular models suggest that resveratrol could potentiate vitamin D's effects. The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related memory impairment. Objective We aimed to explore how the combination of vitamin D with resveratrol would affect memory impairments shown by SAMP8 mice, as well as the potential mechanisms...
February 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176663/gsk3%C3%AE-5-flanking-dna-methylation-and-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#7
Vincenzina Nicolia, Viviana Ciraci, Rosaria A Cavallaro, Isidre Ferrer, Sigfrido Scarpa, Andrea Fuso
BACKGROUND: The GSK3β has been associated to pathological functions in neurodegenerative diseases. This kinase is involved in hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau protein, leading to aggregation andformation of NFTs.It has clearly been shown that GSK3β is regulated at post-translational level: phosphorylation at Tyr216 activates kinase while phosphorylation at Ser9 is essential to inhibit its activity. OBJECTIVES: At present, there are contradictory findings about the possibility that GSK3β may be regulated at gene level...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#8
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164767/nanotechnology-for-alzheimer-disease
#9
Jerzy Leszek, Wai Hei Tse, Jin Zhang, Marco Fidel Ávila-Rodriguez, Vadim V Tarasov, George E Barreto, Sergey O Bachurin, Gjumrakch Aliev
Dementia of Alzheimer disease (AD) type affects memory, thinking and behavior. Researchers believe that changes in the brain may begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear and AD is diagnosed. The need to diagnose and treat the devastating disease at an early stage is critical to manage and treat AD. Unfortunately, the lack of validated biomarkers limits the possibility of the earlier stages of AD. The advance of nanotechnology could offer huge opportunities in early-stage diagnosis and well treatment of AD. Biocompatible nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 1-100 nm could be used as targeted delivery system for drugs (e...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164766/biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#10
Vasileios Mantzavinosa, Athanasios Alexiou, Nigel H Greig, Mohammad A Kamal
The dramatic increase in the population with dementia expected in the next decades is accompanied by the establishment of novel and innovated methods that will offer accurate and efficient detection of the disease in its early stages. While Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, by the time is typically diagnosed substantial neuronal loss and neuropathological lesions can damaged many brain regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the main risk factors that affect and increase Alzheimer's disease progression over time even in cases with no significant memory impairment present...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164765/commonalities-in-biological-pathways-genetics-and-cellular-mechanism-between-alzheimer-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-in-silico-updated-overview
#11
Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Gohar Mushtaq, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Nigel H Greig, Inho Choi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common and well-studied neurodegenerative disease (ND). Biological pathways, pathophysiology and genetics of AD show commonalities with other NDs viz. Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), Prion Disease and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Many of the NDs, sharing the common features and molecular mechanisms suggests that pathology may be directly comparable and be implicated in disease prevention and development of highly effective therapies...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164764/neuroinflammation-and-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-microglial-activation
#12
Francesca Regen, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Erica Costantini, Marcella Reale
Microglial activation is a hallmark of neuroinflammation, seen in most acute and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions. With growing knowledge about microglia functions in surveying the brain for alterations, microglial activation is increasingly discussed in the context of disease progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. While proper microglial function is essentially required for its scavenging duties, local activation of the brain's innate immune cells also brings about many less advantageous changes, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines or degradation of neuroprotective retinoids, and may thus unnecessarily put surrounding healthy neurons in danger...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164773/apolipoprotein-e-mediated-modulation-of-adam10-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ben Shackleton, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
BACKGROUND: The APOE4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been associated with an accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain, which is produced through the sequential cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) by β- and γ-secretases. Alternatively, AβPP is also cleaved by α-secretases such as A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10). OBJECTIVE: While several studies have investigated the impact of apoE on β- and γ-secretase, interactions between apoE and α-secretases have not been fully examined...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164772/clinical-and-environmental-correlates-of-serum-bdnf-a-descriptive-study-with-plausible-implications-for-ad-research
#14
Galit Weinstein, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Bernhard Kaess, Tai C Chen, Claudia Satizabal, Faisal Rahman, Emelia J Benjamin, Vasan S Ramachandran, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through neurotrophic effects on basal cholinergic neurons. Reduced serum levels of BDND are observed among AD patients and may predict AD risk. Nevertheless, knowledge about factors associated with its levels in blood is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and demographic correlated of serum BDNF levels . METHODS: BDNF was measured from serum collected between 1992-1996 and 1998-2001 in participants from the Original and Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Study, respectively...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164771/a-role-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-in-cognitive-training
#15
Feng Lin, Kathi L Heffner, Ping Ren, Duje Tadin
BACKGROUND: Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central nervous system and vice versa. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164770/alzheimer-s-disease-and-nqo1-is-there-a-link
#16
Jamuna Chhetri, Anna E King, Nuri Gueven
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by a progressive decline in cognitive function and represents a major healthcare challenge worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathophysiological process of AD. Therefore, the physiological activation of antioxidant enzymes that respond to increased oxidative stress is thought to prevent neuropathology. One of those endogenous defences is NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164769/change-in-insr-apba2-and-ide-gene-expressions-in-brains-of-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease-patients
#17
Isabela Bazzo Da Costa, Roger Willian De Labio, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen, Gustavo Arruda Viani, Elizabeth Chen, João Villares, Gustavo Turecki, Marília De Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer L M Payão
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder, the onset of which is mainly characterized by decreased cognition, memory loss, and mental confusion. This study sought to quantify mRNA expression of the APBA2, INSR and IDE genes in brain samples from both patients with AD and controls. We investigated the mRNA expression of the APBA2, INSR and IDE genes in 150 RNA samples from the entorhinal cortex, the auditory cortex, and the hippocampus of individuals with AD and elderly controls using real time PCR...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164768/protective-effect-of-aspirin-against-oligomeric-a%C3%AE-42-induced-mitochondrial-alterations-and-neurotoxicity-in-differentiated-ec-p19-neuronal-cells
#18
Hamendra Singh Parmar, Zbynek Houdek, Martin Pesta, Vaclava Cerna, Pavel Dvorak, Jiri Hatina
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major causes of neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Many recent reports suggest involvement of mitochondrial alterations through intracellular accumulation of oligomeric Aβ. These mitochondrial alterations include increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), mt-DNA depletion, decreased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, membrane depolarization, reduced number of mitochondria etc. These all defects cumulatively caused neural toxicity and alterations in cellular energy homeostasis...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155596/inhibition-of-tau-protein-aggregation-by-rhodanine-based-compounds-solubilized-via-specific-formulation-additives-to-improve-bioavailability-and-cell-viability
#19
Marcus Pickhardt, Carmen Lawatscheck, Hans G Börner, Eckhard Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Anti-aggregation drugs play an important role in therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. We have previously developed a number of compounds that are able to inhibit the pathological aggregation of Tau protein. One common obstacle to application is the limited penetration across the plasma membranes into cells, where Tau aggregation occurs in the cytosol. We used an inducible N2a cell line which expresses the repeat domain of tau and develops tau aggregates. OBJECTIVE: Several peptide-polymer conjugates were synthesized to enhance the uptake of compounds into cells and thus to improve their biomedical application...
February 1, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124585/poor-safety-and-tolerability-hamper-reaching-a-potentially-therapeutic-dose-in-the-use-of-thalidomide-for-alzheimer-s-disease-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Boris Decourt, Denise Drumm-Gurnee, Jeffrey Wilson, Sandra Jacobson, Christine Belden, Sherye Sirrel, Michael Ahmadi, Holly Shill, Jessica Powell, Aaron Walker, Amanda Gonzales, Mimi Macias, Marwan N Sabbagh
INTRODUCTION: To date there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD). After amyloid beta immunotherapies have failed to meet primary endpoints of slowing cognitive decline in AD subjects, the inhibition of the beta-secretase BACE1 appears as a promising therapeutic approach. Pre-clinical data obtained in APP23 mice suggested that the anti-cancer drug thalidomide decreases brainBACE1 and A levels. This prompted us to develop an NIH-supported Phase IIa clinical trial to test the potential of thalidomide for AD...
January 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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