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Current Alzheimer Research

Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Jochen R Thyrian, Stefan Klöppel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. METHOD: Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Katinka Reiner, Tilly Eichler, Johannes Hertel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Jochen René Thyrian
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to determine accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) in detecting probable dementia as compared to the multi-domain dementia screening test DemTect. METHODS: The sample was derived from the general practitioner (GP)-based, cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania). Selected from 6.440 patients systematically screened for dementia in primary care, we examined three groups (a,b,c) where the CDT (as index test) as well as the DemTect (as reference standard) were available...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Tilly Eichler, Jochen René Thyrian, Johannes Hertel, Steffen Richter, Bernhard Michalowsky, Diana Wucherer, Adina Dreier, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Main objective was to analyze the associations of patient variables (depression, quality of life, anti-dementia drug treatment, knowledge about dementia) with the assignment of a formal diagnosis of dementia to community-dwelling primary care patients who have screened positive for dementia. METHODS: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner based randomized controlled intervention trial...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Amanda Harrawood, Nicole R Fowler, Anthony J Perkins, Michael A LaMantia, Malaz A Boustani
OBJECTIVES: To measure older adults acceptability of dementia screening and assess screening test results of a racially diverse sample of older primary care patients in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of primary care patients aged 65 and older. SETTING: Urban and suburban primary care clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2008 to 2009. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-four primary care patients without a documented diagnosis of dementia...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Pia Erdmann, Martin Langanke
Based on an analysis of the potential consequences of disclosing AD suspicions from respective research and using the research ethical principle of non-maleficence, the authors of this paper argue for the thesis that the benefits of early AD detection in research outweigh the risk of potential adverse effects only in cases where studies are conducted with symptomatic people actively seeking for support, e. g. as they utilize the services of memory clinics. In the case of non-symptomatic volunteers, the result of the risk-benefit-assessment seems to be less distinctive...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Toby Smith, Jane Cross, Fiona Poland, Abbey Brookes, Ian Maidment, Bridget Penhale, Ken Laidlaw, Chris Fox
BACKGROUND: Primary care services frequently provide the initial contact between people with dementia and health service providers. Early diagnosis and screening programmes have been suggested as a possible strategy to improve the identification of such individuals and treatment and planning health and social care support. OBJECTIVE: To determine what early diagnostic and screening programmes have been adopted in primary care practice, to explore who should deliver these and to determine the possible positive and negative effects of an early diagnostic and screening programme for people with dementia in primary care...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Lymarie Millian-Morell, Tomás López-Alburquerque, Andrea Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Juan Carro, Juan José G Meilán, Francisco Martínez-Sánchez, Consuelo Sancho, Dolores E López
BACKGROUND: Sensorimotor integration mechanisms can be affected by many factors, among which are those involving neuromuscular disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by well-known motor symptoms, among which lately have been included motor speech deficits. Measurement of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and its modulations (prepulse inhibition and prepulse facilitation, PPI and PPF respectively) represent a simple and quantifiable tool to assess sensorimotor function. However, it remains unknown whether measures of the PPI and PPF are associated with motor speech deficits in PD...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
R Businaro, M Corsi, R Asprino, C Di Lorenzo, D Laskin, R M Corbo, S Ricci, A Pinto
Most of the recent reports suggest that inflammatory mediators play a central role in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that the conditions leading to a chronic low-grade inflammation, such as stress, depression, obesity and metabolic syndrome, increase the odds of developing Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD. Microglia cells are the main actors in the AD process: stimuli from the microenvironment may induce microglia cells to switch to a classically activated inflammatory phenotype M1, or, on the contrary to an alternatively activated M2 phenotype characterized by the secretion of different types of cytokines...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Priya Gupta, Surajit Bhattacharjee, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Garima Sharma, Sang-Soo Lee, Chiranjib Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which generally affects people who are more than 60 years of age. The disease is clinically characterised by dementia, loss of cognitive functions and massive neurodegeneration. The presence of neurofibrilary tangles and amyloid plaques in the hippocampal region of the brain are the hallmarks of the disease. Current therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic and disease modifying, none of which provide any permanent solution or cure for the disease...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Kuan Zeng, Mengzhu Li, Jichang Hu, Yacoubou Abdoul Razak Mahaman, Jian Bao, Fang Huang, Yiyuan Xia, Xinghua Liu, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Yang Yang, Rong Liu, Xiaochuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has shown the neuroprotective effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the protection against the Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, it is not completedly clear whether EGb761 attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation, another of the most prominent mechanisms underlying the pathology of AD. METHODS: we employed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) to mimic AD like pathological alterations and memory deficits in rats as model, and injected EGb761 with or after HHcy injection as prevention and treatment, injected saline as control...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Winnie Qian, Corinne E Fischer, Tom A Schweizer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a common phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The APOE ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of AD, but it's association with psychosis remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between psychosis, subdivided into delusions and hallucinations, as well as APOE ε4 allele on cognitive and functional outcomes. Secondarily, we investigated the associations between APOE ε4, Lewy bodies, and psychosis...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
J J G Meilán, F Martínez-Sánchez, J Carro, N Carcavilla, O Ivanova
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified the correlation between dementia and certain vocal features, such as voice and speech changes. Vocal features may act as early markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite being present in non-pathological senescence and Mild Cognitive Impairment, especially in its amnesic subtype (aMCI), these voice- and speech-related symptoms are the first signs of AD. The purpose of this study is to verify whether these signs are related to deficits in lexical access, which appear early in AD...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
A König, A Satt, A Sorin, R Hoory, A David, P H Robert
BACKGROUND: Various types of dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are manifested as irregularities in human speech and language, which have proven to be strong predictors for the disease presence and progression. Therefore, automatic speech analytics provided by a mobile application may be a useful tool in providing additional indicators for assessment and detection of early stage dementia and MCI. METHOD: 165 participants (subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), MCI patients, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed dementia (MD) patients) were recorded with a mobile application while performing several short vocal cognitive tasks during a regular consultation...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco
During aging and in age-associated disorders, such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), learning abilities decline. Probably, disturbances in signal transduction in brain cells underlie the cognitive decline. The phosphorylation/dephosphorylation imbalance occurring in degenerating neurons was recently related to abnormal activity of one or more signal transduction pathways. AD is known to be associated with altered neuronal Ca²⁺ homeostasis, as Ca²⁺ accumulates in affected neurons leading to functional impairment...
August 28, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Isabel Hernández, Maria-Victoria Fernández, Lluis Tàrraga, Mercè Boada, Agustín Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders and the second most frequent cause of early onset dementia making it the highest number of inherited cases. METHODS: FTL is characterized by considerable variability in clinical, genetic and histopathologic features. Patients may present symptoms ranging from behavioural disturbances to different language disorders, with or without motor neuron disorders or associated parkinsonism. Atrophy in frontal and temporal lobes is the most relevant radiological finding...
July 25, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Olivier Beauchet, Helena M Blumen, Michele L Callisaya, Anne-Marie De Cock, Reto W Kressig, Velandai Srikanth, Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Joe Verghese, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: The study aims to determine the spatiotemporal gait parameters and/or their combination(s) that best differentiate between cognitively healthy individuals (CHI), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those with mild and moderate dementia, regardless of the etiology of cognitive impairment. METHODS: A total of 2099 participants (1015 CHI, 478 patients with MCI, 301 patients with mild dementia and 275 with moderate dementia) were selected from the intercontinental "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" (GOOD) initiative, which merged different databases from seven cross-sectional studies...
July 25, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Nan Li, Pinghong Hu, Tiantian Xu, Huan Chen, Xiaoying Chen, Jianwen Hu, Xifei Yang, Lei Shi, Jian-Hong Luo, Junyu Xu
BACKGROUND: Several proteins have been identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers in imaging, genetic, or proteomic studies in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and mouse models. However, biomarkers for presymptom diagnosis of AD are still under investigation, as are the presymptom molecular changes in AD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to analyzed the early proteomic changes in APPSw,Ind mice and to conduct further functional studies on interesting proteins...
July 19, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Blanka Klimova, Martin Valis, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: Research studies show a positive impact of physical activities such as dancing on the improvement of cognitive reserves of people with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore dancing efficacy on people with dementia and list the key benefits and limitations of dancing therapy for these people. METHODS: The methods used in this study include a method of literature review of available English-written sources with respect to the dancing therapy and dementia in the acknowledged databases PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, and Scopus, and a method of comparison and evaluation of their findings...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Josianne Thomazini Fukasawa, Roger Willian de Labio, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen, Lucieni Conterno de Oliveira, Elizabeth Chen, João Villares, Gustavo Tureck, Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Studies have shown that neurons are able to re-enter the cell cycle, but not enough to enable full replication. This leads to cell death and consequent neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the expression of the MAPT gene and CDK5 (the gene involved in cell cycle regulation) in brain samples from patients with AD and controls...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Sourav Kumar, Ashim Paul, Sourav Kalita, Awanish Kumar, Saurabh Srivastav, Somoday Hazra, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Bhubaneswar Mandal, Amal Chandra Mondal
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common protein misfolding neurodegenerative disorder, is one of the most common forms of dementia. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derived amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins accumulated into interneuronal spaces and plays a crucial role in the disease progression and its pathology. The aggregated Aβ exerts its neurotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in neuronal cells. OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the effects of a synthesized Pro-Drug peptide (PDp) on Aβ1-40 induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, represents one of the most effective strategies in combating human AD...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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