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Current Alzheimer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524007/the-proinflammatory-cytokine-gitrl-contributes-to-trail-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-the-hcn-2-human-neuronal-cell-line
#1
Giulia Di Benedetto, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Nicole Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe Nocentini, Rodolfo Bianchini, Carlo Riccardi, Renato Bernardini, Giuseppina Cantarella
Cytokines belonging to the TNF superfamily play a relevant role in neurodegenerative processes. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), released during neuronal injury, has proven to potently mediate and sustain neurotoxic processes leading to neuronal death. Similarly to TRAIL, the cytokine Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL) is able to transduce proapoptotic signals. In spite of the array of reports suggesting relationships between TRAIL and other cytokines, scanty data are, so far, available about a GITRL/TRAIL crosstalk...
May 18, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521669/ppars-in-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-pathways
#2
E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, B D'Angelo, S Selli, V Castelli, R Ippoliti, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are lipid sensors activate by dietary lipids or their metabolites, mainly fatty acids and eicosanoids , that play critical roles in CNS biology, since brain has a very high lipid content and has the higher energetic metabolism in the body. In neurodegenerative diseases in addition to metabolic impariment also neuroinflammation is observed and PPARs are also closely linked to inflammatory process. Several studies have revealed a complicated relationship between the innate immune response and tissue metabolism...
May 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521676/the-ultimate-outlier-transitional-care-for-persons-with-dementia-and-bpsd
#3
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Colleen A Ray, Tasmia Hai, Cristina Marcu, Brandy L Callahan, Morris Freedman
BACKGROUND: Transitional care units aim to assist caregivers who cannot manage the care for persons with dementia who manifest behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). However, there is a dearth in research on such care units. OBJECTIVE: The current study reviewed one specialized transitional unit to better understand the characteristics of the persons with dementia and behavioral symptoms entering such unit. The study also looked at the change in terms of (a) BPSD, (b) use of psychotropic medications and (c) function of the patients in this unit...
May 15, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482786/nanotechnology-based-theranostic-approaches-in-alzheimer-s-disease-management-current-status-and-future-perspective
#4
Javed Ahmad, Sohail Akhter, Md Rizwanullah, Mohammad Ahmed Khan, Lucie Pigeon, Richard T Addo, Nigel H Greig, Patrick Midoux, Chantal Pichon, Mohammad Amjad Kamal
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a cognitive dysfunction/dementia state amongst the elders is characterized by irreversible neurodegeneration due to varied pathophysiology. Up till now, anti-AD drugs having different pharmacology have been developed and used in clinic. Yet, these medications are not curative and only lowering the AD associated symptoms. Improvement in treatment outcome required drug targeting across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the central nervous system (CNS) in optimal therapeutic concentration...
May 8, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474570/targeting-pparalpha-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Barbara D Orio, Anna Fracassi, Maria Paola Cerù, Sandra Moreno
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive decline are yet to be fully elucidated. The so-called "amyloid cascade hypothesis" has long been the prevailing paradigm for causation of disease, and today being revisited in relation to other pathogenic pathways, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and lipid and glucose dysmetabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in the CNS and regulate many physiological processes, such as energy metabolism, neurotransmission, redox homeostasis, autophagy and cell cycle...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474569/the-involvement-of-post-translational-modifications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
S Marcelli, Massimo Corbo, Filomena Iannuzzi, Lucia Negri, Fabio Blandini, Robert Nisticò, M Feligioni
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder recognized as the most common cause of chronic dementia among the ageing population. AD is histopathologically characterized by progressive loss of neurons and deposits of insoluble proteins, primarily composed of amyloid-β pelaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Several molecular processes contribute to the formation of AD cellular hallmarks. Among them, post-translational modifications (PTMs) represent an attractive mechanism underlying the formation of covalent bonds between chemical groups/peptides to target proteins, which ultimately result modified in their function...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474568/lipid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Amira Zarrouk, Meryam Debbabi, Maryem Bezine, El Mostafa Karym, Asmaa Badreddine, Olivier Rouaud, Thibault Moreau, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Mohamed El Ayeb, Boubker Nasser, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia. It is characterized by three successive stages (preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia), which are determined with a panel of complementary tests including behavioral and biochemical tests and imaging methods. Currently accepted biomarkers of AD include levels of brain chemicals related to amyloid or tau, and imaging-derived estimates of the size and metabolic activity of specific brain regions. At the moment, the pathogenesis of AD is still poorly understood but some studies support a link between lipid metabolism disorders and AD...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474567/reduced-mitochondrial-activity-is-early-and-steady-in-the-entorhinal-cortex-but-it-is-mainly-unmodified-in-the-frontal-cortex-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Mercedes Armand-Ugon, Belen Ansoleaga, Sara Berjaoui, Isidro Ferrer
Background It is well established that mitochondrial damage plays a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies carried out in humans barely contemplate regional differences with disease progression. Objective To study the expression of selected nuclear genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial complexes and the activity of mitochondrial complexes in AD, in two regions: the entorhinal cortex (EC) and frontal cortex area 8 (FC). Methods Frozen samples from 148 cases processed for gene expression by qRT-PCR and determination of individual activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, IV and V using commercial kits and home-made assays...
May 4, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462717/genetic-features-of-mapt-grn-c9orf72-and-chchd10-gene-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-frontotemporal-dementia
#9
Xiang-Qian Che, Qian-Hua Zhao, Yue Huang, Xia Li, Ru-Jing Ren, Sheng-Di Chen, Gang Wang, Qi-Hao Guo
Mutations in microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN), chromosome 9 open-reading frame 72 (C9orf72) and CHCHD10 genes have been reported causing frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in different populations. However, collective analysis of mutations in these four genes in Chinese FTD patients has not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the geneticfeatures of Chinese patients with MAPT, PGRN, C9orf72 or CHCHD10 gene mutations in a FTD cohort recruited from multi clinical centers in Shanghai metropolitan areas, China...
April 25, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443508/nutritional-deficiency-in-early-life-facilitates-aging-associated-cognitive-decline
#10
Yu Kang, Yun Zhang, Zijuan Feng, Mingjing Liu, Yanhua Li, Huan Yang, Dan Wang, Lingling Zheng, Dandan Lou, Liangping Cheng, Chunjiang Chen, Weitao Zhou, Yi Feng, Xiaoyong Li, Jianzhong Duan, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Yuhang Liu, Xin Wang, Bo Deng, Chenghui Liu, Xiuqing Yao, Chi Zhu, Chunrong Liang, Xiaolong Zeng, Sisi Ren, Qunying Li, Yin Zhong, Yong Zhang, Jun Kang, Yong Yan, Huaqing Meng, Zhaohui Zhong, Weihui Zhou, Yanjiang Wang, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is important for the fetal developmental programming. Nutritional deficiency in early life could increase the susceptibility to many aging-related disorders including cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the effect of early famine exposure on aging-associated cognitive function. METHODS: We recruited 6790 subjects born between 1956 to 1964 during which the Great Chinese Famine occurred (1959-1961)...
April 24, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413988/cognitive-mechanisms-in-decision-making-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-disease
#11
Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, María Pilar Salguero-Alcañiz, Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Susana Paíno-Quesada
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's dementia is characterized by significant cortical and subcortical atrophy, causing diverse neuropsychological deficits. According to the somatic marker hypothesis, the areas responsible for generating the somatic markers that anticipate the consequences of a decision and thereby optimize the process would be affected in these patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this experiment is to study the decision-making processes in Alzheimer type dementia patients to determine potential deficits in these processes as a result of the disease, aside from the cognitive impairment that is typical of aging...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#12
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413986/tau-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
Yu Gao, Lin Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most important progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by cognitive and behavioral disabilities. Nowadays, tau, as a microtubule-associated protein and a principle neuropathological hallmark of AD, provides us a neoteric perspective to explore further aetiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategy. The hyperphosphorylation and abnormal aggregation of tau, combined with its decreased clearance, form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and exert neurotoxicity in AD. Recent investigations aim to prevent the deposition of NFT and accelerate the clearance of NFT...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413985/salvianolic-acid-b-decreases-the-generation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-by-modulating-bace1-activity
#14
Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan, Venkat Reddy Chirasani, Sravan Gopalakrishnan Shetty, Ashok Iyaswamy, Sandeep Malampati, Juxian Song, Liangfeng Liu, Jiandong Huang, Sanjib Senapati, Min Li
Generation and accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide after proteolytic processing of the full length amyloid precursor protein (FL-APP) by β-secretase (β-site APP cleaving enzyme or BACE1) and β -secretase is a main causal factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, inhibition of BACE1, a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of Aβ, is an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. Recent studies suggest that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) isolated from the radix of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and liver diseases in China...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413984/prevalence-of-frailty-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Gotaro Kojima, Ann Liljas, Steve Iliffe, Kate Walters
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis as a consequence of age-related decreased physiological reserves. Although physical frailty and cognitive impairment have been shown to be associated, evidence on the prevalence of frailty in Alzheimer's disease is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review on the prevalence of frailty and to combine the data to synthesize the pooled prevalence of physical frailty among patients with Alzheimer's disease...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413983/peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-control-ccl4-and-cxcl10-levels-in-a-human-blood-brain-barrier-model
#16
Julie Vérité, Thierry Janet, Adrien Julian, Damien Chassaing, Guylène Page, Marc Paccalin
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a neuroinflammation triggering chemoattractant signals towards peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in turn could reduce amyloid plaques after transmigration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). But the chemotactic environment remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze five chemokines known to be involved in AD in three different cellular models to better understand the cellular and molecular interactions in the BBB...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413982/optimizing-adas-cog-worksheets-a-survey-of-clinical-trial-raters-perceptions
#17
Stephen M Meyer, Kristina A Bertzos, Magdalena Perez, Donald Connor, Kimberly Schafer, Sarah Walter
The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) remains the most widely used test of longitudinal cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. Unlike most neuropsychological tests, the ADAS-Cog source documentation worksheets are not uniform across clinical trials, and vary by document layout, inclusion of administration and/or scoring instructions, and documentation of subtest scoring (e.g., recording correct versus incorrect scores), among other differences. Many ADAS-Cog test administrators (raters) participate in multiple AD trials and switching between different ADAS-Cog worksheets may increase the likelihood of administration and/or scoring mistakes that lessen the reliability of the instrument...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413981/default-mode-network-connectivity-and-related-white-matter-disruption-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-concurrent-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Di Qi, Ailin Wang, Yaojing Chen, Kewei Chen, Sisi Zhang, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Lin Ai, Zhanjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: As a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) itself causes cognitive impairment and has higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the cognition especially the episodic memory difference, the DMN functional connectivity and DMN-related white matter integrity in patients with both T2DM and amnestic MCI (T2DM-MCI) as compared to patients with T2DM only. METHOD: Focusing especially on T2DM population, we investigated the default mode network (DMN) through resting functional magnetic resonance imaging among 22 elderly T2DM-MCI patients and 24 elderly T2DM patients...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356048/diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-of-retinal-biomarkers-in-early-on-set-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Sahar Shariflou, Dana Georgevsky, Hussein Mansour, Mahdie Rezaeian, Nafiseh Hosseini, Fathima Gani, Vivek Gupta, Nady Braidy, S Mojtaba Golzan
Accumulating evidence suggests that the eye can be used in the assessment of early on-set Alzheimer's disease (AD). The eye offers a natural window to the brain through the retina. The retina and brain share common developmental origins and patho-physiological origins and mechanisms, having been sequestered from it during early development, but retaining its connections with the brain via the optic nerve. Therefore, it is well understood that neurological abnormalities have a direct profound impact on the retina...
March 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356047/is-vegf-a-key-target-of-cotinine-and-other-potential-therapies-against-alzheimer-disease
#20
Valentin Echeverria, George E Barreto, Marco Ávila-Rodriguez, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a neuroprotective cytokine that promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the brain. In animal models, it has been shown that environmental enrichment and exercise, two non-pharmacological interventions that are beneficial decreasing the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) and depressive-like behavior, enhance hippocampal VEGF expression and neurogenesis. Furthermore, the stimulation of VEGF expression promotes neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity processes such as neurogenesis...
March 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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