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Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326680/the-effect-of-desmopressin-on-the-amount-of-bleeding-and-transfusion-requirements-in-patients-undergoing-heart-transplant-surgery
#1
Alireza Jahangirifard, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Zargham Hosein Ahmadi, Mohammad Forozeshfard
One of the most common risks after a heart transplant is bleeding. In this study, the effect of desmopressin administration on the amount of bleeding and transfusion requirements following heart transplant surgery was investigated. In a double-blind clinical trial, 48 patients who were candidates for heart transplant surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. In the intervention group, patients received desmopressin 0.3 μg/kg, 30 min. before surgery. Patients in the control group received normal saline at the same amount and time...
March 22, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317271/baclofen-and-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-real-risk-of-severe-self-poisoning
#2
David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Ali Touré, Anais Garnier, Alain Turcant, Gaël Le Roux
Baclofen is often prescribed in high doses to fight cravings experienced by alcohol-dependent patients. Such an increase in the availability of baclofen is concerning. This study aimed to determine the change in number and profile of self-poisoning with baclofen over time, since baclofen has become increasingly popular, in order to describe the severity of self-poisoning with baclofen and to focus on co-existing alcohol use disorders and psychiatric illnesses determine predictors of severity. This was a retrospective study of self-poisoning with baclofen as reported by the western France Poison Control Center (PCC), which represents a population of more than 12 million people from January 2008 to March 2014...
March 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299900/development-of-a-robust-mammalian-cell-based-assay-for-studying-recombinant-%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-1-3-%C3%AE-gabaa-receptor-subtypes
#3
Christina B Falk-Petersen, Rikke Søgaard, Kenneth L Madsen, Anders B Klein, Bente Frølund, Petrine Wellendorph
δ-Containing GABAA receptors are located extrasynaptically and mediate tonic inhibition. Their involvement in brain physiology positions them as interesting drug targets. There is thus a continued interest in establishing reliable recombinant expression systems for δ-containing GABAA receptors. Inconveniently, the recombinant expression of especially α4 β1/3 δ receptors has been found to be notoriously difficult, due to mixed receptor populations and/or stoichiometries and differential pharmacology depending on the expression system used...
March 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294541/the-european-environmental-mutagenesis-and-genomics-society-annual-meeting-14-18-august-2016-copenhagen-denmark
#4
EDITORIAL
Jørn A Holme, Roland Froetschl, Lisbeth E Knudsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296278/do-not-forget-gastrointestinal-decontamination-in-the-early-management-of-lithium-poisoning
#5
LETTER
Dominique Vodovar, Bruno Mégarbane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273397/associations-of-cyp2c9-and-cyp2a6-polymorphisms-with-the-concentrations-of-valproate-and-its-hepatotoxin-metabolites-and-vpa-induced-hepatotoxicity
#6
Mingming Zhao, Ti Zhang, Guofei Li, Feng Qiu, Yaxin Sun, Limei Zhao
The aim of this study was to compare genetic polymorphisms and concentrations of hepatotoxic metabolites in patients with epilepsy and liver injury and those with normal liver function receiving valproate monotherapy to identify risk factors for VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. A total of 279 Chinese patients with epilepsy were divided into an abnormal liver function (ANLFT) group (n=79) and a normal liver function (NLFT) group (n=200). PCR-RFLP, nested-PCR and direct sequencing were applied to identify the frequency of 8 SNPs in candidate genes...
March 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273396/statin-use-correlates-with-reduced-risk-of-pyogenic-liver-abscess-a-population-based-case-control-study
#7
Kuan-Fu Liao, Kao-Chi Cheng, Cheng-Li Lin, Shih-Wei Lai
Little research is available on the relationship between statin use and pyogenic liver abscess. The objective of the study was to determine whether prior use of statins is associated with pyogenic liver abscess. This case-control study was conducted to analyse the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 1828 participants aged 20 to 84 years with first-episode of pyogenic liver abscess from 2000 to 2013 as the cases and 1828 randomly selected participants without pyogenic liver abscess matched with sex, age and index year as the controls...
March 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271604/response-to-do-not-forget-gastrointestinal-decontamination-in-the-early-management-of-lithium-poisoning
#8
LETTER
Nasim Zamani, Maryam Paeezi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256105/cis-nerolidol-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-cell-death-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-through-extensive-cyp2c19-and-cyp1a2-oxidation
#9
Bruna Isabela Biazi, Thalita Alves Zanetti, Adrivanio Baranoski, Amanda Cristina Corveloni, Mário Sérgio Mantovani
Of late, many studies are attempting to find new molecules with anti-cancer properties, especially those with the capability to inhibit cell growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate nerolidol, a plant-based compound, as its cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, antiproliferative and apoptotic induction, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and RT-qPCR of transcripts related to those pathways in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2/C3A). Only cis-nerolidol (C-NER) demonstrated cytotoxicity (100 to 250 μM) activity and was selected to conduct the following experiments...
March 2, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256104/haemodynamic-influences-of-bisoprolol-in-hypertensive-middle-aged%C3%A2-men-a%C3%A2-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#10
Lauri Suojanen, Antti Haring, Antti Tikkakoski, Jenni K Koskela, Anna M Tahvanainen, Heini Huhtala, Mika Kähönen, Kalle Sipilä, Arttu Eräranta, Jukka T Mustonen, Kari Kivistö, Ilkka H Pörsti
Treatment with beta-blockers appears to show inferior reduction of central versus peripheral blood pressure. We aimed to examine simultaneous changes in central and peripheral blood pressure, vascular resistance, cardiac function and arterial stiffness during beta-blockade. Haemodynamics were investigated after 3 weeks of bisoprolol treatment (5 mg/d) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in never-treated 16 Caucasian males with grade I-II primary hypertension using continuous tonometric pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography...
March 2, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244246/cobalt-ii-chloride-modifies-the-phenotype-of-macrophage-activation
#11
Mona Kumanto, Erja-Leena Paukkeri, Riina Nieminen, Eeva Moilanen
Cobalt (Co) is vital for cells in trace amounts, but excessive exposure to Co is possible due to surgical devices such as artificial metal-on-metal joints. Cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl2 ) has also been shown to imitate hypoxic conditions in cells by stabilizing the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible immunomodulatory action of CoCl2 by investigating its effects on the expression of inflammatory genes in macrophages. The following factors were assessed: inducible nitric oxidase synthase (iNOS), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), arginase-1 and HIF-1α...
February 28, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244216/the-choice-of-euthanasia-method-affects-metabolic-serum-biomarkers
#12
Pierozan Paula, Jernerén Fredrik, Ransome Yusuf, Karlsson Oskar
The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats...
February 28, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244203/decrease-in-long-chain-acylcarnitine-tissue-content-determines-the-duration-of-and-correlates-with-the-cardioprotective-effect-of-methyl-gbb
#13
Janis Kuka, Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Helena Cirule, Solveiga Grinberga, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Maija Dambrova, Edgars Liepinsh
Ischaemia in the heart is accompanied by the accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) which is one of the multiple factors that contribute to the ischaemia-reperfusion damage development. Long-term pre-treatment that decreases carnitine and LCAC contents also reduces ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) damage; however, the duration of the post-treatment effects is not known. The aim of the study was to assess the post-treatment effects of the carnitine transport (OCTN2) inhibitor, methyl-GBB, on LCAC content and the duration of its cardioprotective effect...
February 28, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235161/shortage-of-digitoxin-and-switching-to-digoxin-in-norway-a-retrospective-study-of-blood-samples-submitted-to-a-clinical-pharmacology-laboratory
#14
Jan Schjøtt, Hilde Marie Torgauten, Tormod Karlsen Bjånes
Drug shortages occur frequently and they can affect patient safety [1-3]. Shortage involves medicines used in cancer, anaesthesia and in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases and life-threatening conditions [1-3]. The potential for medication errors increases during drug shortages due to prescribing of unfamiliar agents [4]. This problem was highlighted with digitalis glycosides in Norway 2012. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229534/letter-to-the-editor
#15
LETTER
Adriana Oller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#16
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#17
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208233/neonatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-impair-learning-behaviour-by-disrupting-hippocampal-organization-in-male-swiss-albino-mice
#18
Rakesh Bhaskar, Ashish K Mishra, Banalata Mohanty
Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63...
February 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165667/use-of-moderate-intensity-statins-for-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-level-above-190-mg-dl-at-baseline-in-koreans
#19
Hun-Sung Kim, Hyeseon Lee, Sue Hyun Lee, Yoo Jin Jeong, Tong Min Kim, So Jung Yang, Sun Jung Baik, Hyunah Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, In-Young Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ju Han Kim
The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline recommends high-intensity statin therapy for a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level by >50% among patients with baseline values of ≥190 mg/dL (approximately 4.872 mmol/L); however, this value should be modified before applying it to Korean populations. We investigated the statin-specific LDL-C-lowering effects in Korean patients with baseline LDL-C value ≥ 4.872 mmol/L. Data of patients prescribed a statin for the first time from January 2009 to December 2013 were assessed...
February 6, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164442/odense-pharmacoepidemiological-database-oped-a-review-of-use-and-content
#20
Jesper Hallas, Maja Hellfritzsch, Morten Rix, Morten Olesen, Mette Reilev, Anton Pottegård
The Odense University Pharmacoepidemiological Database (OPED) is a prescription database established in 1990 by the University of Southern Denmark, covering reimbursed prescriptions from the county of Funen in Denmark and the region of Southern Denmark (1.2 million inhabitants). It is still active and thereby has more than 25 years' of continuous coverage. In this MiniReview, we review its history, content, quality, coverage, governance and some of its uses. OPED's data include the Danish Civil Registration Number (CPR), which enables unambiguous linkage with virtually all other health-related registers in Denmark...
February 5, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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