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Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791065/risk-factors-of-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonaemia-in-chinese-paediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#1
Xu Zhu, Xinlin Li, Ti Zhang, Limei Zhao
The present study was aimed at identifying genetic and non-genetic risk factors for valproic acid (VPA)-induced hyperammonaemia in Chinese paediatric patients with epilepsy. A total of 210 epileptic patients, treated with VPA as monotherapy, were enrolled and classified into hyperammonaemia and control groups according to their blood ammonia level (cut-off value 50 μmol/L). Serum concentrations of VPA and its major metabolites were simultaneously determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
May 23, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788535/cyp2a5-promoter-based-gene-reporter-assay-a-novel-design-of-cell-based-bioassay-for-toxicity-prediction
#2
A'edah Abu-Bakar, Hao Hu, Matti A Lang
The murine cytochrome P450 2a5 (Cyp2a5) gene is regulated by complex interactions of various stress-activated transcription factors (TFs). Elevated Cyp2a5 transcription under chemical-induced stress conditions is achieved by interplay between the various TFs-including as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 wild-type (Nrf2)-at the "stress-responding" cluster of response elements on the Cyp2a5 promoter, as well as through mRNA stabilisation mediated by interaction of the stress-activated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) with the 3'UTR of the CYP2A5 mRNA...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788532/the-effect-of-adding-magnesium-sulfate-to-epidural-bupivacaine-and-morphine-on-post-thoracotomy-pain-management-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#3
Behrooz Farzanegan, Mahdi Zangi, Kimia Saeedi, Ali Khalili, Mehdi Rajabi, Alireza Jahangirifard, Habib Emami, Amir Ali Mahboobipour, Shadi Baniasadi
Post-thoracotomy pain is very severe and may cause pulmonary complications. Thoracic epidural analgesia can greatly decrease the pain experience and its consequences. However, finding new methods to decrease the amount of administered opioids is an important issue of research. We aimed to evaluate the effect of adding epidural magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine and morphine on pain control and the amount of opioid consumption after thoracotomy. Eighty patients undergoing thoracotomy at a tertiary cardiothoracic referral centre were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786956/rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-c-pathways-are-responsible-for-enhanced-carbachol-contraction-in-permeabilized-detrusor-in-a-rat-model-of-cystitis
#4
Merve Denizalti, N Tugba Durlu-Kandilci, G Simsek, T Emrah Bozkurt, Inci Sahin-Erdemli
Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by detrusor overactivity and chronic inflammation of the bladder. The mechanisms responsible for the altered smooth muscle contractility remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of intracellular signalling pathways in carbachol-induced detrusor contraction in a rat model of interstitial cystitis. Cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg, dissolved in saline) was injected to rats (Sprague-Dawley, female, 200-250 g) intraperitoneally once a day on days 1, 4 and 7 to induce interstitial cystitis...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#5
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786949/the-qsofa-score-a-simple-and-accurate-predictor-of-outcomes-in-patients-with-glyphosate-herbicide-poisoning
#6
Yongsoo Cho, Byeongjo Chun, Jeongmi Moon
This study aimed to investigate whether the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score at emergency department (ED) presentation can help improve the risk assessment of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GlySH) poisoning complications. A total of 150 patients presenting with acute glyphosate herbicide ingestion were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The qSOFA scores at presentation, ΔqSOFA (calculated by subtracting the worst qSOFA score from 1 hr after admission from the qSOFA score at presentation), baseline characteristics, clinical courses and outcomes were collected and analysed...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781562/il-6-triggers-the-migration-and-invasion-of-oestrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-cells-via-regulation-of-hippo-pathways
#7
Lingmi Hou, Shaoli Xie, Guanwu Li, Bin Xiong, Yanchun Gao, Xiaobo Zhao, Jiani Hu, Shishan Deng, Jun Jiang
Breast cancer is one of the major challenges for women's health. However, the role and mechanisms of interleukins (ILs) on the progression of breast cancer are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly increased in oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells. Increased expression of IL-6 was observed in 83.9% (26/31) ER- breast cancer tissues as compared with their matched adjacent normal tissues. In vitro studies indicated that IL-6 can significantly promote the migration and invasion of ER- breast cancer cells via increasing the dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of YAP in breast cancer cells...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#8
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753315/potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-to-older-patients-criteria-prevalence-and-an-intervention-to-reduce-it-the-prescription-peer-academic-detailing-rx-pad-study-a-cluster-randomized-educational-intervention-in-norwegian-general-practice
#9
Sture Rognstad, Mette Brekke, Svein Gjelstad, Jørund Straand, Arne Fetveit
Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (PIP) is drug treatment, which in general, at the group level for a median/mean patient, can be considered unfavorable meaning that the risks commonly may outweigh the benefits. This MiniReview reports and discusses the main findings in a large cluster-randomized educational intervention in Norwegian general practice, aimed at reducing the prevalence of PIPs to patients ≥ 70 years (The Rx-PAD study). Targets for the intervention were general practitioners (GPs) in continuing medical education (CME) groups receiving educational outreach visits (i...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753314/allosteric-and-orthosteric-activators-of-mglur8-differentially-affect-the-chemotherapeutic-induced-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cell-damage-the-impact-of-cell-differentiation-state
#10
Danuta Jantas, Beata Grygier, Justyna Zatorska, Władysław Lasoń
The participation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in cancer growth and progression is still an understudied issue. Based on our recent data on high expression of mGluR8 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, in the present study we evaluated the effect of an mGluR8-specific positive allosteric modulator (PAM: AZ12216052) and orthosteric agonist ((S)-3,4-DCPG) on chemotherapeutic (doxorubicin, irinotecan or cisplatin)-evoked cell damage in undifferentiated (UN-) and retinoic acid-differentiated (RA-) SH-SY5Y cells...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753312/impact-of-aspirin-on-warfarin-control-as-measured-by-time-in-therapeutic-range
#11
Michelle L Boyce, Alexa Zayac, Arie Davis, Tony Badrick, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Nijole Bernaitis
Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely prescribed for a variety of thromboembolic indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the prevention of stroke associated for atrial fibrillation (AF).1 Warfarin requires ongoing monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) due to a narrow therapeutic index and interactions with numerous drugs.2 The time in therapeutic range (TTR) is often used to indicate the quality of warfarin therapy due to the established correlation between higher mean TTR and reduced complications such as bleeding and thromboembolism...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753311/peritoneal-and-systemic-responses-of-obese-type-ii-diabetic-rats-to-chronic-exposure-to-a-hyperbranched-polyglycerol-based-dialysis-solution
#12
Bo La Han, Qiunong Guan, Irina Chafeeva, Asher A Mendelson, Gerald da Roza, Richard Liggins, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Caigan Du
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is commonly observed among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) is a promising glucose-sparing osmotic agent for PD. However, the biocompatibility of a HPG-based PD solution (HPG) in subjects with MetS has not been investigated. This study compared the local and systemic effects of a HPG solution with conventional Physioneal (PYS) and Icodextrin (ICO) PD solutions in rats with MetS. Obese type 2 diabetic ZSF1 rats received a daily intraperitoneal injection of PD solutions (10 mL) for 3 months...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753302/contribution-of-hepatic-retinaldehyde-dehydrogenase-induction-to-impairment-of-glucose-metabolism-by-high-fat-diet-feeding-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Jiong Xu, Mian Zhang, Xiangping Zhang, Hanyu Yang, Binbin Sun, Zhongjian Wang, Yaqian Zhou, Shuting Wang, Xiaodong Liu, Li Liu
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with overexpression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1). We aimed to investigate the roles of hepatic RALDH1 induction in glucose metabolism impairment using mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed with HFD for 8 weeks and treated with RALDH inhibitor citral for another 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pyruvate tolerance test (PTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were operated. Expressions of Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), glucokinase (GCK) and RALDH1 were measured...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736913/effects-of-caffeine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats
#14
Melissa S Assis, Aluízio C Soares, Dircilei N de Sousa, João Eudes-Filho, Lilian Rosana F Faro, Fabiana P Carneiro, Mônica V da Silva, Andrea B Motoyama, Greice Maria R de Souza, Stéphanie Marchiori, Nadyelle T de Lima, Raphael Boëchat-Barros, Vania M Ferreira
There are many studies that have sought to find drug therapies to prevent harm arising from sepsis. Such studies have represented a progress in the support to septic patients and also in the development of new pharmacological alternatives. Our interest was to investigate the caffeine effect on sepsis behavioural and memory impairments. Male rats were anaesthetized and the surgery was made to allow exposure of the cecum, which was then squeezed to extrude a small amount of faeces from the perforation site, which was later placed back into the peritoneal cavity...
May 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734517/rosuvastatin-induced-rhabdomyolysis-possible-role-of-ticagrelor-and-patients-pharmacogenetic-profile
#15
Majda Vrkić Kirhmajer, Viola Macolić Šarinić, Livija Šimičević, Iva Ladić, Krešimir Putarek, Ljiljana Banfić, Nada Božina
Up to the beginning of 2018, a total of eight cases describing rare but clinically important drug interactions between rosuvastatin and ticagrelor which resulted in rhabdomyolysis have been noted in the Global World Health Organization (WHO) adverse drug reaction (ADR) database (VigiBase) as well as in available literature. There are several possible factors which could contribute to the onset of rhabdomyolysis: old age, initially excessive rosuvastatin dose, drug-drug interactions (DDI) on metabolic enzymes (CYPs and UGTs) and drug transporter levels (ABCB1, ABCG2, OATP1B1) and pharmacogenetic predisposition...
May 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732733/oral-immunosuppressive-treatment-of-myasthenia-gravis-in-denmark-a-nationwide-drug-utilization-study-1996-2013
#16
Emil Greve Pedersen, Jesper Hallas, Anton Pottegård, Stine Munk Hald, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen, David Gaist
Although immunosuppressants in the treatment of myasthenia have been available for several decades, population-based studies describing drug utilization in myasthenia patients are scarce. We aimed in this study to describe the treatment of myasthenia in Denmark in more recent years with emphasis on use of oral immunosuppressant agents. We identified a nationwide cohort of incident myasthenia patients in Denmark from 1996 to 2013 and tracked their use of drugs over the entire period using data from nationwide registers...
May 6, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723934/multifaceted-pharmacist-led-interventions-in-the-hospital-setting-a-systematic-review
#17
Helene Skjøt-Arkil, Carina Lundby Olesen, Lene Juel Kjeldsen, Diana Mark Skovgårds, Anna Birna Almarsdóttir, Tue Kjølhede, Tina Hoff Duedahl, Anton Pottegård, Trine Graabaek
Clinical pharmacy services often comprise complex interventions. In this MiniReview, we conducted a systematic review aiming to evaluate the impact of multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions in a hospital setting. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and CINAHL for peer-reviewed articles published from 2006 to 1 March 2018. Controlled trials concerning hospitalized patients in any setting receiving patient-related multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions were considered. All types of outcomes were accepted...
May 3, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723928/effect-of-abcb1-c3435t-polymorphism-on-pharmacokinetics-of-antipsychotics-and-antidepressants
#18
Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Carmen Belmonte, Manuel Román, Dolores Ochoa, Carolina Jiang-Zheng, Dora Koller, Gina Mejía, Pablo Zubiaur, Aneta Wojnicz, Francisco Abad-Santos
P-glycoprotein, encoded by ABCB1, is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump which exports substances outside the cell. Some studies described connections between C3435T polymorphism T allele and lower P-glycoprotein expression; therefore homozygous T/T could show higher plasma levels. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of C3435T on pharmacokinetics of 4 antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and aripiprazole) and 4 antidepressants (trazodone, sertraline, agomelatine and citalopram). The study included 473 healthy volunteers receiving a single oral dose of one of these drugs, genotyped by real-time PCR...
May 3, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719125/murrayanine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-and-protects-mice-from-sepsis-associated-organ-failure
#19
Shilpa Gupta, Vidushi Khajuria, Abubakar Wani, Yedukondalu Nalli, Asha Bhagat, Asif Ali, Zabeer Ahmed
Murrayanine (MK) is the main compound isolated from Murraya Koenigii, an aromatic plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, also known as curry leaf tree. Murrayanine was reported to possess potential antioxidant, anti-mycobacterial and anti-fungal effects. However, its effect in sepsis remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of MK using both in vitro and in vivo assay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 2, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719121/a-focus-on-macitentan-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Martin Bedan, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Ulf Simonsen, Manfred Infanger, Marcus Krüger
The approval of macitentan has increased the number of pharmacological treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here, we review the effect on PAH of macitentan compared to other endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs). Drugs targeting the endothelin (ET) pathway include the selective ETA receptor antagonist ambrisentan, the ETA /ETB receptor antagonists bosentan and macitentan which were recently approved for PAH treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 2, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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