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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927806/sleep-neurophysiological-dynamics-through-the-lens-of-multitaper-spectral-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Prerau, Ritchie E Brown, Matt T Bianchi, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Patrick L Purdon
During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs...
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927805/transmission-of-metabolic-dysfunction-across-generations
#2
REVIEW
Kathleen Jaeger, Jessica L Saben, Kelle H Moley
Recent human and animal studies investigating the roles of the genome, epigenome, and environmental cues have identified associations between offspring predisposition to life-long obesity/metabolic disease and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This review explores the mechanisms by which maternal exposures impair the health of not only the next generation but also potentially future generations of offspring.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927804/obstacles-to-translating-genotype-phenotype-correlates-in-metabolic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Anu Sharma, Adrian Vella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a polygenic disease with a variable phenotype. Many genetic associations have been described; however, understanding their underlying pathophysiological role in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is important for development of future therapeutic targets. Here, we review the physiological mechanisms of diabetes-associated variants that affect glycemia.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927803/dating-the-heart-exploring-cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Evan Graham, Olaf Bergmann
Regenerative mechanisms reported in the hearts of lower vertebrates have been recapitulated in the mammalian milieu, and recent studies have provided strong evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans. These findings speak to an emerging consensus that adult mammalian cardiomyocytes do have the ability to divide, and it stands to reason that enrichment of this innate proliferative capacity should prove essential for complete cardiac regeneration.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927802/expression-and-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-vascular-endothelium
#5
REVIEW
Livius V d'Uscio, Tongrong He, Zvonimir S Katusic
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is evolutionary conserved protein expressed in endothelial cells of cerebral and peripheral arteries. In this review, we discuss mechanisms responsible for expression and proteolytic cleavage of APP in endothelial cells. We focus on physiological and pathological implications of APP expression in vascular endothelium.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927801/physiological-aging-links-among-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-diabetes-and-frailty
#6
REVIEW
Michael B Stout, Jamie N Justice, Barbara J Nicklas, James L Kirkland
Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927800/physiology-in-perspective-aging-and-underlying-pathophysiology
#7
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927799/struggles-to-establish-a-career-in-physiology-as-a-junior-faculty-member-in-nigeria
#8
EDITORIAL
Abimbola John Idowu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927798/rio-2017-is-shaping-up-as-a-great-world-congress
#9
EDITORIAL
Denis Noble, Julie Chan, Penny Hansen, Walter Boron, Peter Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708050/breathtaking-songs-coordinating-the-neural-circuits-for-breathing-and-singing
#10
Marc F Schmidt, Franz Goller
The vocal behavior of birds is remarkable for its diversity, and songs can feature elaborate characteristics such as long duration, rapid temporal pattern, and broad frequency range. The respiratory system plays a central role in generating the complex song patterns that must be integrated with its life-sustaining functions. Here, we explore how precise coordination between the neural circuits for breathing and singing is fundamental to production of these remarkable behaviors.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708049/cardiovascular-physiology-of-dinosaurs
#11
Roger S Seymour
Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head?
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708048/cephalopod-susceptibility-to-asphyxiation-via-ocean-incalescence-deoxygenation-and-acidification
#12
Brad A Seibel
Squids are powerful swimmers with high metabolic rates despite constrained oxygen uptake and transport. They have evolved novel physiological strategies for survival in extreme environments that provide insight into their susceptibility to asphyxiation under anthropogenic ocean incalescence (warming), deoxygenation, and acidification. Plasticity of ecological and physiological traits, in conjunction with vertical and latitudinal mobility, may explain their evolutionary persistence and ensure their future survival...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708047/physiological-challenges-to-fishes-in-a-warmer-and-acidified-future
#13
Göran E Nilsson, Sjannie Lefevre
With the projected levels of global warming and ocean acidification, fishes have to face warmer waters with CO2 levels that are the highest in over 30 million years. The resultant rise in body temperature means that metabolic rates of fish will increase, and some may become energetically compromised. No less worrying, and maybe more surprising, is that rising CO2 concentrations appear to trigger pH regulatory mechanisms that disrupts neural ion gradients, leading to altered neurotransmitter function and maladaptive behavioral changes...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708046/primate-torpor-expression-ghost-of-the-climatic-past
#14
Kathrin H Dausmann, Lisa Warnecke
Torpor, the controlled depression of virtually all bodily function during scarce periods, was verified in primates under free-ranging conditions less than two decades ago. The large variety of different torpor patterns found both within and among closely related species is particularly remarkable. To help unravel the cause of these variable patterns, our review investigates primate torpor use within an evolutionary framework. First, we provide an overview of heterothermic primate species, focusing on the Malagasy lemurs, and discuss their use of daily torpor or hibernation in relation to habitat type and climatic conditions...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708045/evolutionary-medicine-the-ongoing-evolution-of-human-physiology-and-metabolism
#15
Frank Rühli, Katherine van Schaik, Maciej Henneberg
The field of evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary principles to understand changes in human anatomy and physiology that have occurred over time in response to environmental changes. Through this evolutionary-based approach, we can understand disease as a consequence of anatomical and physiological "trade-offs" that develop to facilitate survival and reproduction. We demonstrate how diachronic study of human anatomy and physiology is fundamental for an increased understanding of human health and disease.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708044/physiology-in-perspective-we-learn-from-evolutionary-comparative-physiology
#16
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708043/integration-and-inspiration-a-spartan-s-take-on-physiology
#17
Brian Whaley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708042/challenges-opportunities-and-the-future-of-physiological-publications-in-the-hype-cycle
#18
David J Paterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708041/aps-takes-a-look-in-the-mirror
#19
Jane F Reckelhoff, Dennis Brown, Patricia E Molina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511463/negative-news-cl-and-hco3-in-the-vascular-wall
#20
REVIEW
Ebbe Boedtkjer, Vladimir V Matchkov, Donna M B Boedtkjer, Christian Aalkjaer
Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) are the most prevalent membrane-permeable anions in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the vascular wall. Outwardly directed electrochemical gradients for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) permit anion channel opening to depolarize vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Transporters and channels for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) also modify vascular contractility and structure independently of membrane potential. Transport of HCO3 (-) regulates intracellular pH and thereby modifies the activity of enzymes, ion channels, and receptors...
September 2016: Physiology
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