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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638185/glucose-lowering-strategies-for-cardiac-benefits-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#1
Harpreet S Bajaj, Bernard Zinman
Recent trials in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have shown cardiovascular benefits with specific GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. We discuss the landscape of outcome trials in T2D from a pathophysiology viewpoint, review current knowledge gaps in underlying mechanisms, propose a caloric fuel routing hypothesis, and highlight areas of future research.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638184/impaired-autophagy-in-motor-neurons-a-final-common-mechanism-of-injury-and-death
#2
Maria A Gonzalez Porras, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Autophagy is a cellular digestion process that contributes to cellular homeostasis and adaptation by the elimination of proteins and damaged organelles. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron disorders. Herein, we review emerging evidence indicating the roles of autophagy in physiological motor neuron processes and its function in specific compartments. Moreover, we discuss the involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, including spinal cord injury and aging, and recent developments that offer promising therapeutic approaches to mitigate effects of dysregulated autophagy in health and disease...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638183/the-birth-and-death-of-platelets-in-health-and-disease
#3
Fred G Pluthero, Walter H A Kahr
Blood platelets are involved in a wide range of physiological responses and pathological processes. Recent studies have considerably advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of platelet production and clearance, revealing new connections between the birth and death of these tiny, abundant cells. Key insights have also been gained into how physiological challenges such as inflammation, infection, and chemotherapy can affect megakaryocytes, the cells that produce platelets.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616880/is-adenosine-action-common-ground-for-nrem-sleep-torpor-and-other-hypometabolic-states
#4
Alessandro Silvani, Matteo Cerri, Giovanna Zoccoli, Steven J Swoap
This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616879/physiology-in-perspective-seeking-solutions-to-biological-questions
#5
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616878/integrating-competing-demands-of-osmoregulatory-and-thermoregulatory-homeostasis
#6
Michael J McKinley, Davide Martelli, Glenn L Pennington, David Trevaks, Robin M McAllen
Mammals are characterized by a stable core body temperature. When maintenance of core temperature is challenged by ambient or internal heat loads, mammals increase blood flow to the skin, sweat and/or pant, or salivate. These thermoregulatory responses enable evaporative cooling at moist surfaces to dissipate body heat. If water losses incurred during evaporative cooling are not replaced, body fluid homeostasis is challenged. This article reviews the way mammals balance thermoregulation and osmoregulation.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412062/vagal-interoceptive-modulation-of-motivated-behavior
#7
J W Maniscalco, L Rinaman
In addition to regulating the ingestion and digestion of food, sensory feedback from gut to brain modifies emotional state and motivated behavior by subconsciously shaping cognitive and affective responses to events that bias behavioral choice. This focused review highlights evidence that gut-derived signals impact motivated behavior by engaging vagal afferents and central neural circuits that generally serve to limit or terminate goal-directed approach behaviors, and to initiate or maintain behavioral avoidance...
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412061/circadian-etiology-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Naureen Javeed, Aleksey V Matveyenko
The epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus necessitates development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to attenuate expansion of this debilitating disease. Evidence links the circadian system to various aspects of diabetes pathophysiology and treatment. The aim of this review will be to outline the rationale for therapeutic targeting of the circadian system in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and consequent metabolic comorbidities.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412060/physiology-in-perspective-homeostasis-and-survival
#9
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412059/role-of-astrocytic-mitochondria-in-limiting-ischemic-brain-injury
#10
Evelyn K Shih, Michael B Robinson
Until recently, astrocyte processes were thought to be too small to contain mitochondria. However, it is now clear that mitochondria are found throughout fine astrocyte processes and are mobile with neuronal activity resulting in positioning near synapses. In this review, we discuss evidence that astrocytic mitochondria confer selective resiliency to astrocytes during ischemic insults and the functional significance of these mitochondria for normal brain function.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412058/the-metabolic-flexibility-of-hovering-vertebrate-nectarivores
#11
Kenneth C Welch, Alexander M Myrka, Raafay Syed Ali, Morag F Dick
Foraging hummingbirds and nectar bats oxidize both glucose and fructose from nectar at exceptionally high rates. Rapid sugar flux is made possible by adaptations to digestive, cardiovascular, and metabolic physiology affecting shared and distinct pathways for the processing of each sugar. Still, how these animals partition and regulate the metabolism of each sugar and whether this occurs differently between hummingbirds and bats remain unclear.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412057/mitophagy-in-cardiomyocytes-and-in-platelets-a-major-mechanism-of-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Weilin Zhang, Chuyan Chen, Jun Wang, Lei Liu, Yubin He, Quan Chen
Mitophagy, a process that selectively removes damaged organelles by autolysosomal degradation, is an early cellular response to ischemia. Mitophagy is activated in both cardiomyocytes and platelets during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and heart disease conditions. We focus on the molecular regulation of mitophagy and highlight the role of mitophagy in cardioprotection.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412056/breathing-motor-control-of-diaphragm-muscle
#13
Matthew J Fogarty, Carlos B Mantilla, Gary C Sieck
Breathing occurs without thought but is controlled by a complex neural network with a final output of phrenic motor neurons activating diaphragm muscle fibers (i.e., motor units). This review considers diaphragm motor unit organization and how they are controlled during breathing as well as during expulsive behaviors.
March 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212894/hiv-and-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-immunometabolic-perturbations
#14
REVIEW
Eman Teer, M Faadiel Essop
The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of "immunometabolism" within the context of HIV-related immune dysregulation and cardiovascular disease onset. Here, persistent immune activation contributes to pathophysiological perturbations during early infection, resulting in immune cell metabolic reprogramming and the activation of coagulation pathways in HIV-positive individuals...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212893/comparative-physiology-of-nociception-and-pain
#15
REVIEW
Lynne U Sneddon
The study of diverse animal groups allows us to discern the evolution of the neurobiology of nociception. Nociception functions as an important alarm system alerting the individual to potential and actual tissue damage. All animals possess nociceptors, and, in some animal groups, it has been demonstrated that there are consistent physiological mechanisms underpinning the nociceptive system. This review considers the comparative biology of nociception and pain from an evolutionary perspective.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212892/the-underlying-genetics-of-drosophila-circadian-behaviors
#16
REVIEW
D Lorena Franco, Lia Frenkel, M Fernanda Ceriani
Life is shaped by circadian clocks. This review focuses on how behavioral genetics in the fruit fly unveiled what is known today about circadian physiology. We will briefly summarize basic properties of the clock and focus on some clock-controlled behaviors to highlight how communication between central and peripheral oscillators defines their properties.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212891/bypassing-border-control-nuclear-envelope-rupture-in-disease
#17
REVIEW
Gaƫlle Houthaeve, Joke Robijns, Kevin Braeckmans, Winnok H De Vos
Recent observations in laminopathy patient cells and cancer cells have revealed that the nuclear envelope (NE) can transiently rupture during interphase. NE rupture leads to an uncoordinated exchange of nuclear and cytoplasmic material, thereby deregulating cellular homeostasis. Moreover, concurrently inflicted DNA damage could prime rupture-prone cells for genome instability. Thus, NE rupture may represent a novel pathogenic mechanism that has far-reaching consequences for cell and organism physiology.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212889/stem-cell-differentiation-is-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-mechanics
#19
REVIEW
Lucas R Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells mechanosense the stiffness of their microenvironment, which impacts differentiation. Although tissue hydration anti-correlates with stiffness, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is clearly transduced into gene expression via adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins that tune fates. Cytoskeletal reorganization of ECM can create heterogeneity and influence fates, with fibrosis being one extreme.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212888/physiology-in-perspective-stem-cells-and-regenerative-physiology
#20
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
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