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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404740/in-vitro-models-to-study-human-lung-development-disease-and-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Alyssa J Miller, Jason R Spence
The main function of the lung is to support gas exchange, and defects in lung development or diseases affecting the structure and function of the lung can have fatal consequences. Most of what we currently understand about human lung development and disease has come from animal models. However, animal models are not always fully able to recapitulate human lung development and disease, highlighting an area where in vitro models of the human lung can compliment animal models to further understanding of critical developmental and pathological mechanisms...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404739/feeding-your-baby-in-utero-how-the-uteroplacental-circulation-impacts-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Joanna L James, Lawrence W Chamley, Alys R Clark
The utero-placental circulation links the maternal and fetal circulations during pregnancy, ensuring adequate gas and nutrient exchange, and consequently fetal growth. However, our understanding of this circulatory system remains incomplete. Here, we discuss how the utero-placental circulation is established, how it changes dynamically during pregnancy, and how this may impact on pregnancy success, highlighting how we may address knowledge gaps through advances in imaging and computational modeling approaches...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404738/microbiotal-host-interactions-and-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Blair Mell, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (BP), has been extensively researched over decades and clearly demonstrated to be caused due to a combination of host genetic and environmental factors. Although much research remains to be conducted to pin-point the precise genetic elements on the host genome that control BP, new lines of evidence are emerging to indicate that, besides the host genome, the genomes of all indigenous commensal micro-organisms, collectively referred to as the microbial metagenome or microbiome, are important, but largely understudied, determinants of BP...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404737/reprogramming-interferon-regulatory-factor-signaling-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Yaxing Zhang, Hongliang Li
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins expressed not only in immune cells but also in other tissues and organs outside the immune system. In this review, we discuss mechanisms responsible for IRF-mediated innate immune responses and the function and mechanism of IRFs in cardiometabolic diseases. We focus on the role of IRFs in innate immunity and cardiometabolic homeostasis, and highlight reprogrammed IRF signaling.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404736/the-link-between-adipose-tissue-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-signaling-and-obesity-associated-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Monica T J Schütten, Alfons J H M Houben, Peter W de Leeuw, Coen D A Stehouwer
Obese individuals frequently develop hypertension, which is for an important part attributable to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) overactivity. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical evidence on the involvement of dysfunctional adipose tissue in RAAS activation and on the renal, central, and vascular mechanisms linking RAAS components to obesity-associated hypertension.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404735/pathophysiology-of-aortic-valve-stenosis-is-it-both-fibrocalcific-and-sex-specific
#6
REVIEW
Yoginee Sritharen, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hartzell V Schaff, Grace Casaclang-Verzosa, Jordan D Miller
Our understanding of the fundamental biology and identification of efficacious therapeutic targets in aortic valve stenosis has lagged far behind the fields of atherosclerosis and heart failure. In this review, we highlight the most clinically relevant problems facing men and women with fibrocalcific aortic valve stenosis, discuss the fundamental biology underlying valve calcification and fibrosis, and identify key molecular points of intersection with sex hormone signaling.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404734/physiology-in-perspective-the-importance-of-integrative-physiology
#7
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228483/new-concepts-and-mechanisms-of-platelet-activation-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Brian Estevez, Xiaoping Du
Upon blood vessel injury, platelets are exposed to adhesive proteins in the vascular wall and soluble agonists, which initiate platelet activation, leading to formation of hemostatic thrombi. Pathological activation of platelets can induce occlusive thrombosis, resulting in ischemic events such as heart attack and stroke, which are leading causes of death globally. Platelet activation requires intracellular signal transduction initiated by platelet receptors for adhesion proteins and soluble agonists. Whereas many platelet activation signaling pathways have been established for many years, significant recent progress reveals much more complex and sophisticated signaling and amplification networks...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228482/physical-activity-aging-and-physiological-function
#9
REVIEW
Stephen D R Harridge, Norman R Lazarus
Human evolution suggests that the default position for health is to be physically active. Inactivity, by contrast, has serious negative effects on health across the lifespan. Therefore, only in physically active people can the inherent aging process proceed unaffected by disuse complications. In such individuals, although the relationship between age and physiological function remains complex, function is generally superior with health, well being, and the aging process optimized.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202624/thyroid-hormone-regulation-and-insulin-resistance-insights-from-animals-naturally-adapted-to-fasting
#10
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Rudy M Ortiz
The contribution of thyroidal status in insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis has been implicated as a potential pathophysiological factor in humans, but the specific mechanisms remain largely elusive. Fasting induces changes in both thyroid hormone secretion and insulin signaling. Here, we explore how mammals that undergo natural, prolonged bouts of fasting provide unique insight into evolved physiological adaptations that allow them to tolerate such conditions despite intermittent states of reversible insulin resistance...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202623/central-role-of-metabolism-in-endothelial-cell-function-and-vascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Laura Bierhansl, Lena-Christin Conradi, Lucas Treps, Mieke Dewerchin, Peter Carmeliet
The importance of endothelial cell (EC) metabolism and its regulatory role in the angiogenic behavior of ECs during vessel formation and in the function of different EC subtypes determined by different vascular beds has been recognized only in the last few years. Even more importantly, apart from a role of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in EC dysfunction, deregulations of EC metabolism in disease only recently received increasing attention. Although comprehensive metabolic characterization of ECs still needs further investigation, the concept of targeting EC metabolism to treat vascular disease is emerging...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202622/the-hypertension-pandemic-an-evolutionary-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Bernard C Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Hypertension affects over 1.2 billion individuals worldwide and has become the most critical and expensive public health problem. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic factors together with risk-conferring behaviors. The cause of the disease is identified in ∼10% of the cases (secondary hypertension), but in 90% of the cases no etiology is found (primary or essential hypertension). For this reason, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure in normal and hypertensive patients is the aim of very active experimental and clinical research...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202621/potassium-homeostasis-the-knowns-the-unknowns-and-the-health-benefits
#13
REVIEW
Alicia A McDonough, Jang H Youn
Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K(+) is only 2% of total body K(+), our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K(+), low-Na(+) diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K(+) balance and the consequences for health and disease.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202620/physiology-in-perspective-homeostasis-and-evolution
#14
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179400/searching-for-and-sharing-research-in-the-information-age-a-trainee-s-perspective
#15
EDITORIAL
Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Kenny L Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148550/iups-38th-world-congress-in-the-rhythms-of-life
#16
EDITORIAL
Benedito H Machado, Vagner R Antunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927806/sleep-neurophysiological-dynamics-through-the-lens-of-multitaper-spectral-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Prerau, Ritchie E Brown, Matt T Bianchi, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Patrick L Purdon
During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs...
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927805/transmission-of-metabolic-dysfunction-across-generations
#18
REVIEW
Kathleen Jaeger, Jessica L Saben, Kelle H Moley
Recent human and animal studies investigating the roles of the genome, epigenome, and environmental cues have identified associations between offspring predisposition to life-long obesity/metabolic disease and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This review explores the mechanisms by which maternal exposures impair the health of not only the next generation but also potentially future generations of offspring.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927804/obstacles-to-translating-genotype-phenotype-correlates-in-metabolic-disease
#19
REVIEW
Anu Sharma, Adrian Vella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a polygenic disease with a variable phenotype. Many genetic associations have been described; however, understanding their underlying pathophysiological role in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is important for development of future therapeutic targets. Here, we review the physiological mechanisms of diabetes-associated variants that affect glycemia.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927803/dating-the-heart-exploring-cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
Evan Graham, Olaf Bergmann
Regenerative mechanisms reported in the hearts of lower vertebrates have been recapitulated in the mammalian milieu, and recent studies have provided strong evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans. These findings speak to an emerging consensus that adult mammalian cardiomyocytes do have the ability to divide, and it stands to reason that enrichment of this innate proliferative capacity should prove essential for complete cardiac regeneration.
January 2017: Physiology
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