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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708050/breathtaking-songs-coordinating-the-neural-circuits-for-breathing-and-singing
#1
Marc F Schmidt, Franz Goller
The vocal behavior of birds is remarkable for its diversity, and songs can feature elaborate characteristics such as long duration, rapid temporal pattern, and broad frequency range. The respiratory system plays a central role in generating the complex song patterns that must be integrated with its life-sustaining functions. Here, we explore how precise coordination between the neural circuits for breathing and singing is fundamental to production of these remarkable behaviors.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708049/cardiovascular-physiology-of-dinosaurs
#2
Roger S Seymour
Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head?
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708048/cephalopod-susceptibility-to-asphyxiation-via-ocean-incalescence-deoxygenation-and-acidification
#3
Brad A Seibel
Squids are powerful swimmers with high metabolic rates despite constrained oxygen uptake and transport. They have evolved novel physiological strategies for survival in extreme environments that provide insight into their susceptibility to asphyxiation under anthropogenic ocean incalescence (warming), deoxygenation, and acidification. Plasticity of ecological and physiological traits, in conjunction with vertical and latitudinal mobility, may explain their evolutionary persistence and ensure their future survival...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708047/physiological-challenges-to-fishes-in-a-warmer-and-acidified-future
#4
Göran E Nilsson, Sjannie Lefevre
With the projected levels of global warming and ocean acidification, fishes have to face warmer waters with CO2 levels that are the highest in over 30 million years. The resultant rise in body temperature means that metabolic rates of fish will increase, and some may become energetically compromised. No less worrying, and maybe more surprising, is that rising CO2 concentrations appear to trigger pH regulatory mechanisms that disrupts neural ion gradients, leading to altered neurotransmitter function and maladaptive behavioral changes...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708046/primate-torpor-expression-ghost-of-the-climatic-past
#5
Kathrin H Dausmann, Lisa Warnecke
Torpor, the controlled depression of virtually all bodily function during scarce periods, was verified in primates under free-ranging conditions less than two decades ago. The large variety of different torpor patterns found both within and among closely related species is particularly remarkable. To help unravel the cause of these variable patterns, our review investigates primate torpor use within an evolutionary framework. First, we provide an overview of heterothermic primate species, focusing on the Malagasy lemurs, and discuss their use of daily torpor or hibernation in relation to habitat type and climatic conditions...
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708045/evolutionary-medicine-the-ongoing-evolution-of-human-physiology-and-metabolism
#6
Frank Rühli, Katherine van Schaik, Maciej Henneberg
The field of evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary principles to understand changes in human anatomy and physiology that have occurred over time in response to environmental changes. Through this evolutionary-based approach, we can understand disease as a consequence of anatomical and physiological "trade-offs" that develop to facilitate survival and reproduction. We demonstrate how diachronic study of human anatomy and physiology is fundamental for an increased understanding of human health and disease.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708044/physiology-in-perspective-we-learn-from-evolutionary-comparative-physiology
#7
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708043/integration-and-inspiration-a-spartan-s-take-on-physiology
#8
Brian Whaley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708042/challenges-opportunities-and-the-future-of-physiological-publications-in-the-hype-cycle
#9
David J Paterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708041/aps-takes-a-look-in-the-mirror
#10
Jane F Reckelhoff, Dennis Brown, Patricia E Molina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511463/negative-news-cl-and-hco3-in-the-vascular-wall
#11
REVIEW
Ebbe Boedtkjer, Vladimir V Matchkov, Donna M B Boedtkjer, Christian Aalkjaer
Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) are the most prevalent membrane-permeable anions in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the vascular wall. Outwardly directed electrochemical gradients for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) permit anion channel opening to depolarize vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Transporters and channels for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) also modify vascular contractility and structure independently of membrane potential. Transport of HCO3 (-) regulates intracellular pH and thereby modifies the activity of enzymes, ion channels, and receptors...
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511462/ion-channels-in-endothelial-responses-to-fluid-shear-stress
#12
REVIEW
Kristin A Gerhold, Martin A Schwartz
Fluid shear stress is an important environmental cue that governs vascular physiology and pathology, but the molecular mechanisms that mediate endothelial responses to flow are only partially understood. Gating of ion channels by flow is one mechanism that may underlie many of the known responses. Here, we review the literature on endothelial ion channels whose activity is modulated by flow with an eye toward identifying important questions for future research.
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511461/regulatory-roles-of-fluctuation-driven-mechanotransduction-in-cell-function
#13
REVIEW
Béla Suki, Harikrishnan Parameswaran, Jasmin Imsirovic, Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki
Cells in the body are exposed to irregular mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the so-called fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction in which stresses stretching cells vary on a cycle-by-cycle basis. We argue that such mechanotransduction is an emergent network phenomenon and offer several potential mechanisms of how it regulates cell function. Several examples from the vasculature, the lung, and tissue engineering are discussed. We conclude with a list of important open questions.
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511460/endothelial-transcytosis-of-insulin-does-it-contribute-to-insulin-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Warren L Lee, Amira Klip
Most research on insulin resistance has focused on impaired signaling at the level of target tissues like skeletal muscle. Insulin delivery is also important and includes recruitment and perfusion of capillaries bearing insulin, but also the transit of insulin across the capillary endothelium. The mechanisms of this second stage (insulin transcytosis) and whether it contributes to insulin resistance remain uncertain.
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511459/gut-microbiota-modulation-of-host-physiology-in-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Vandana Nehra, Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Purna C Kashyap, Jeffrey A Woods
Many factors are involved in weight gain and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity. The gut microbiota has been of particular interest in recent years, since both human and animal studies have increased our understanding of the delicate symbiosis between the trillions of microbes that reside in the GI tract and the host. It has been suggested that disruption of this mutual tolerance may play a significant role in modulating host physiology during obesity. Environmental influences such as diet, exercise, and early life exposures can significantly impact the composition of the microbiota, and this dysbiosis can in turn lead to increased host adiposity via a number of different mechanisms...
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488743/regulation-of-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-function-by-interstitial-cells
#16
REVIEW
Kenton M Sanders, Yoshihiko Kito, Sung Jin Hwang, Sean M Ward
Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488742/physiology-in-perspective-the-body-s-tubes-sustain-life-but-underlie-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252165/residual-force-enhancement-following-eccentric-contractions-a-new-mechanism-involving-titin
#18
REVIEW
W Herzog, G Schappacher, M DuVall, T R Leonard, J A Herzog
Eccentric muscle properties are not well characterized by the current paradigm of the molecular mechanism of contraction: the cross-bridge theory. Findings of force contributions by passive structural elements a decade ago paved the way for a new theory. Here, we present experimental evidence and theoretical support for the idea that the structural protein titin contributes to active force production, thereby explaining many of the unresolved properties of eccentric muscle contraction.
July 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252164/viewing-extrinsic-proteotoxic-stress-through-the-lens-of-amyloid-cardiomyopathy
#19
REVIEW
Valerie Sapp, Mohit Jain, Ronglih Liao
Proteotoxicity refers to toxic stress caused by misfolded proteins of extrinsic or intrinsic origin and plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we provide an overview of the current understanding of mechanisms underlying proteotoxicity and its contribution in the pathogenesis of amyloid cardiomyopathy.
July 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252163/linking-gut-microbiota-and-inflammation-to-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#20
REVIEW
M J A Saad, A Santos, P O Prada
Obesity and insulin resistance are the major predisposing factors to comorbidities, such as Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. The prevalence of obesity is still increasing worldwide and now affects a large number of individuals. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance/obesity. The human intestine is colonized by ∼100 trillion bacteria, which constitute the gut microbiota...
July 2016: Physiology
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