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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212894/hiv-and-cardiovascular-disease-role-of-immunometabolic-perturbations
#1
REVIEW
Eman Teer, M Faadiel Essop
The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of "immunometabolism" within the context of HIV-related immune dysregulation and cardiovascular disease onset. Here, persistent immune activation contributes to pathophysiological perturbations during early infection, resulting in immune cell metabolic reprogramming and the activation of coagulation pathways in HIV-positive individuals...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212893/comparative-physiology-of-nociception-and-pain
#2
REVIEW
Lynne U Sneddon
The study of diverse animal groups allows us to discern the evolution of the neurobiology of nociception. Nociception functions as an important alarm system alerting the individual to potential and actual tissue damage. All animals possess nociceptors, and, in some animal groups, it has been demonstrated that there are consistent physiological mechanisms underpinning the nociceptive system. This review considers the comparative biology of nociception and pain from an evolutionary perspective.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212892/the-underlying-genetics-of-drosophila-circadian-behaviors
#3
REVIEW
D Lorena Franco, Lia Frenkel, M Fernanda Ceriani
Life is shaped by circadian clocks. This review focuses on how behavioral genetics in the fruit fly unveiled what is known today about circadian physiology. We will briefly summarize basic properties of the clock and focus on some clock-controlled behaviors to highlight how communication between central and peripheral oscillators defines their properties.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212891/bypassing-border-control-nuclear-envelope-rupture-in-disease
#4
REVIEW
Gaëlle Houthaeve, Joke Robijns, Kevin Braeckmans, Winnok H De Vos
Recent observations in laminopathy patient cells and cancer cells have revealed that the nuclear envelope (NE) can transiently rupture during interphase. NE rupture leads to an uncoordinated exchange of nuclear and cytoplasmic material, thereby deregulating cellular homeostasis. Moreover, concurrently inflicted DNA damage could prime rupture-prone cells for genome instability. Thus, NE rupture may represent a novel pathogenic mechanism that has far-reaching consequences for cell and organism physiology.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212889/stem-cell-differentiation-is-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-mechanics
#6
REVIEW
Lucas R Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells mechanosense the stiffness of their microenvironment, which impacts differentiation. Although tissue hydration anti-correlates with stiffness, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is clearly transduced into gene expression via adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins that tune fates. Cytoskeletal reorganization of ECM can create heterogeneity and influence fates, with fibrosis being one extreme.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212888/physiology-in-perspective-stem-cells-and-regenerative-physiology
#7
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212887/reply-to-robergs-et-al
#8
EDITORIAL
Qi Qian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212886/lactate-not-lactic-acid-is-produced-by-cellular-cytosolic-energy-catabolism
#9
EDITORIAL
Robert A Robergs, Craig R McNulty, Geoffrey M Minett, Justin Holland, Gabriel Trajano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212885/global-status-of-physiology-in-research-education-and-outreach
#10
EDITORIAL
Jayasree Sengupta, Susan M Barman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212884/return-physiology-to-center-stage-some-personal-thoughts
#11
EDITORIAL
Julie Y H Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212883/half-a-century-of-iups
#12
EDITORIAL
Denis Noble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021365/lactic-acid-no-longer-an-inert-and-end-product-of-glycolysis
#13
REVIEW
Shiren Sun, Heng Li, Jianghua Chen, Qi Qian
For decades, lactic acid has been considered a dead-end product of glycolysis. Research in the last 20+ years has shown otherwise. Through its transporters (MCTs) and receptor (GPR81), lactic acid plays a key role in multiple cellular processes, including energy regulation, immune tolerance, memory formation, wound healing, ischemic tissue injury, and cancer growth and metastasis. We summarize key findings of lactic acid signaling, functions, and many remaining questions.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021364/lymphatic-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-development-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Wanshu Ma, Guillermo Oliver
The lymphatic vasculature is crucial for maintaining tissue-fluid homeostasis, providing immune surveillance and mediating lipid absorption. The lymphatic vasculature is tightly associated with the blood vasculature, although it exhibits distinct morphological and functional features. Endothelial cells (ECs) lineage fate specification is determined during embryonic development; however, accumulating evidence suggests that differentiated ECs exhibit remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms promoting lymphatic cell fate specification in the mammalian embryo...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021363/novel-and-unexpected-functions-of-sglts
#15
REVIEW
Ernest M Wright, Chiara Ghezzi, Donald D F Loo
It has been 30 years since the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was cloned, and, in the intervening years, there have been many advances that have influenced physiology and medicine. Among the first was that SGLT1 is the founding member of the human gene family SLC5, containing 11 diverse transporters and a glucose sensor. Equally surprising was that SGLTs are members of a structural family of cotransporters and exchangers in different gene families. This led to the conclusion that these proteins operate by a mechanism where transport involves the opening and closing of external and internal gates...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021362/chloride-channels-take-center-stage-in-acute-regulation-of-excitability-in-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-fatigue
#16
REVIEW
Ole Bækgaard Nielsen, Frank Vincenzo de Paoli, Anders Riisager, Thomas Holm Pedersen
Initiation and propagation of action potentials in muscle fibers is a key element in the transmission of activating motor input from the central nervous system to their contractile apparatus, and maintenance of excitability is therefore paramount for their endurance during work. Here, we review current knowledge about the acute regulation of ClC-1 channels in active muscles and its importance for muscle excitability, function, and fatigue.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021361/running-changes-the-brain-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#17
REVIEW
Carmen Vivar, Henriette van Praag
Exercise is a simple intervention that profoundly benefits cognition. In rodents, running increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for memory. We describe the dynamic changes in new neuron number and afferent connections throughout their maturation. We highlight the effects of exercise on the neurotransmitter systems involved, with a focus on the role of glutamate and acetylcholine in the initial development of new neurons in the adult brain.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021360/physiology-in-perspective-physiology-provides-insight-into-health
#18
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978630/the-100th-anniversary-of-the-russian-pavlov-physiological-society
#19
EDITORIAL
Richard E Brown, Zoltán Molnár, Ludmila Filaretova, Mikhail Ostrovsky, Marco Piccolino, Lorenzo Lorusso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978629/aps-the-times-they-are-a-changin
#20
EDITORIAL
Dennis Brown, Jeff M Sands, Jane F Reckelhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
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