journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Physiology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814499/therapeutic-stimulation-for-restoration-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Aiva Ievins, Chet T Moritz
Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814498/both-ways-at-once-keeping-small-airways-clean
#2
REVIEW
Paul M Quinton
The small airways of the lungs are under constant assault from the pathogens and debris in the air that they must conduct to alveoli. Although hygiene is of paramount importance for respiratory health, the underlying principles of airway clearance have not been well integrated or established. Newly emerging concepts of simultaneous absorption and secretion of airway surface liquid (ASL) and the role of [Formula: see text] in the maturation of mucins have advanced from experimental evidence as well as observations from the congenital disease cystic fibrosis (CF) to present a novel model that integrates microanatomy with organ physiology to meet the constant challenge of cleaning small airways...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#3
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814496/cardiometabolic-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-role-of-androgens
#4
REVIEW
Licy L Yanes Cardozo, Damian G Romero, Jane F Reckelhoff
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenemia is present in a significant fraction (~80%) of women with PCOS. Increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is frequently observed in PCOS women. The present review aims to highlight the key role of androgens in mediating the negative cardiometabolic profile observed in PCOS women.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814495/right-ventricular-pulmonary-vascular-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Diana M Tabima, Jennifer L Philip, Naomi C Chesler
Accurate and comprehensive evaluation of right ventricular (RV)-pulmonary vascular (PV) interactions is critical to the assessment of cardiopulmonary function, dysfunction, and failure. Here, we review methods of quantifying RV-PV interactions and experimental results from clinical trials as well as large- and small-animal models based on pressure-volume analysis. We conclude by outlining critical gaps in knowledge that should drive future studies.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794214/physiology-in-perspective-the-value-of-integrative-physiology
#6
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615316/orai-calcium-channels
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed Trebak, James W Putney
In this review article, we discuss the different gene products and translational variants of ORAI proteins and their contribution to the makeup of different native calcium-conducting channels with distinct compositions and modes of activation. We also review the different modes of regulation of these distinct calcium channels and their impact on downstream cellular signaling controlling important physiological functions.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615315/hyperresponsiveness-relating-the-intact-airway-to-the-whole-lung
#8
REVIEW
Kenneth R Lutchen, Peter D Paré, Chun Y Seow
We relate changes of the airway wall to the response of the intact airway and the whole lung. We address how mechanical conditions and specific structural changes for an airway contribute to hyperresponsiveness resistant to deep inspiration. This review conveys that the origins of hyperresponsiveness do not devolve into an abnormality at single structural level but require examination of the complex interplay of all the parts.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615314/mitochondria-and-reactive-oxygen-species-contribute-to-neurogenic-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Samuel H H Chan, Julie Y H Chan
Beyond its primary role as fuel generators, mitochondria are engaged in a variety of cellular processes, including redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, may have a profound impact on high-energy-demanding organs such as the brain. Here, we review the roles of mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, and their associated signaling in cellular redox homeostasis, and illustrate their contributions to the oxidative stress-related neural mechanism of hypertension, focusing on specific brain areas that are involved in the generation or modulation of sympathetic outflows to the cardiovascular system...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615313/metabolic-regulation-of-angiogenesis-in-diabetes-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Naoki Sawada, Zolt Arany
Impaired angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction are hallmarks of diabetes and aging. Clinical efforts at promoting angiogenesis have largely focused on growth factor pathways, with mixed results. Recently, a new repertoire of endothelial intracellular molecules critical to endothelial metabolism has emerged as playing an important role in regulating angiogenesis. This review thus focuses on the emerging importance and therapeutic potential of these proteins and of endothelial bioenergetics in diabetes and aging...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615312/stem-cells-in-repair-of-gastrointestinal-epithelia
#11
REVIEW
Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Matthias Zilbauer, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers
Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh luminal environment, replenishment of new epithelial cells is essential to maintain organ structure and function during routine turnover and injury repair. Tissue-specific adult stem cells in the GI tract serve as a continuous source for this immense regenerative activity...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615311/modeling-physiological-events-in-2d-vs-3d-cell-culture
#12
REVIEW
Kayla Duval, Hannah Grover, Li-Hsin Han, Yongchao Mou, Adrian F Pegoraro, Jeffery Fredberg, Zi Chen
Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615310/physiology-in-perspective-structure-and-function-anatomy-and-physiology-are-integral
#13
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592409/undergraduate-and-medical-school-physiology-education-in-the-united-states
#14
EDITORIAL
Robert G Carroll, Dee U Silverthorn, Erica A Wehrwein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404740/in-vitro-models-to-study-human-lung-development-disease-and-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Alyssa J Miller, Jason R Spence
The main function of the lung is to support gas exchange, and defects in lung development or diseases affecting the structure and function of the lung can have fatal consequences. Most of what we currently understand about human lung development and disease has come from animal models. However, animal models are not always fully able to recapitulate human lung development and disease, highlighting an area where in vitro models of the human lung can compliment animal models to further understanding of critical developmental and pathological mechanisms...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404739/feeding-your-baby-in-utero-how-the-uteroplacental-circulation-impacts-pregnancy
#16
REVIEW
Joanna L James, Lawrence W Chamley, Alys R Clark
The utero-placental circulation links the maternal and fetal circulations during pregnancy, ensuring adequate gas and nutrient exchange, and consequently fetal growth. However, our understanding of this circulatory system remains incomplete. Here, we discuss how the utero-placental circulation is established, how it changes dynamically during pregnancy, and how this may impact on pregnancy success, highlighting how we may address knowledge gaps through advances in imaging and computational modeling approaches...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404738/microbiotal-host-interactions-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Blair Mell, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Hypertension, or elevated blood pressure (BP), has been extensively researched over decades and clearly demonstrated to be caused due to a combination of host genetic and environmental factors. Although much research remains to be conducted to pin-point the precise genetic elements on the host genome that control BP, new lines of evidence are emerging to indicate that, besides the host genome, the genomes of all indigenous commensal micro-organisms, collectively referred to as the microbial metagenome or microbiome, are important, but largely understudied, determinants of BP...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404737/reprogramming-interferon-regulatory-factor-signaling-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Yaxing Zhang, Hongliang Li
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins expressed not only in immune cells but also in other tissues and organs outside the immune system. In this review, we discuss mechanisms responsible for IRF-mediated innate immune responses and the function and mechanism of IRFs in cardiometabolic diseases. We focus on the role of IRFs in innate immunity and cardiometabolic homeostasis, and highlight reprogrammed IRF signaling.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404736/the-link-between-adipose-tissue-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-signaling-and-obesity-associated-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Monica T J Schütten, Alfons J H M Houben, Peter W de Leeuw, Coen D A Stehouwer
Obese individuals frequently develop hypertension, which is for an important part attributable to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) overactivity. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical evidence on the involvement of dysfunctional adipose tissue in RAAS activation and on the renal, central, and vascular mechanisms linking RAAS components to obesity-associated hypertension.
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404735/pathophysiology-of-aortic-valve-stenosis-is-it-both-fibrocalcific-and-sex-specific
#20
REVIEW
Yoginee Sritharen, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hartzell V Schaff, Grace Casaclang-Verzosa, Jordan D Miller
Our understanding of the fundamental biology and identification of efficacious therapeutic targets in aortic valve stenosis has lagged far behind the fields of atherosclerosis and heart failure. In this review, we highlight the most clinically relevant problems facing men and women with fibrocalcific aortic valve stenosis, discuss the fundamental biology underlying valve calcification and fibrosis, and identify key molecular points of intersection with sex hormone signaling.
May 2017: Physiology
journal
journal
40642
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"