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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228483/new-concepts-and-mechanisms-of-platelet-activation-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Brian Estevez, Xiaoping Du
Upon blood vessel injury, platelets are exposed to adhesive proteins in the vascular wall and soluble agonists, which initiate platelet activation, leading to formation of hemostatic thrombi. Pathological activation of platelets can induce occlusive thrombosis, resulting in ischemic events such as heart attack and stroke, which are leading causes of death globally. Platelet activation requires intracellular signal transduction initiated by platelet receptors for adhesion proteins and soluble agonists. Whereas many platelet activation signaling pathways have been established for many years, significant recent progress reveals much more complex and sophisticated signaling and amplification networks...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228482/physical-activity-aging-and-physiological-function
#2
REVIEW
Stephen D R Harridge, Norman R Lazarus
Human evolution suggests that the default position for health is to be physically active. Inactivity, by contrast, has serious negative effects on health across the lifespan. Therefore, only in physically active people can the inherent aging process proceed unaffected by disuse complications. In such individuals, although the relationship between age and physiological function remains complex, function is generally superior with health, well being, and the aging process optimized.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202624/thyroid-hormone-regulation-and-insulin-resistance-insights-from-animals-naturally-adapted-to-fasting
#3
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Rudy M Ortiz
The contribution of thyroidal status in insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis has been implicated as a potential pathophysiological factor in humans, but the specific mechanisms remain largely elusive. Fasting induces changes in both thyroid hormone secretion and insulin signaling. Here, we explore how mammals that undergo natural, prolonged bouts of fasting provide unique insight into evolved physiological adaptations that allow them to tolerate such conditions despite intermittent states of reversible insulin resistance...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202623/central-role-of-metabolism-in-endothelial-cell-function-and-vascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Laura Bierhansl, Lena-Christin Conradi, Lucas Treps, Mieke Dewerchin, Peter Carmeliet
The importance of endothelial cell (EC) metabolism and its regulatory role in the angiogenic behavior of ECs during vessel formation and in the function of different EC subtypes determined by different vascular beds has been recognized only in the last few years. Even more importantly, apart from a role of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in EC dysfunction, deregulations of EC metabolism in disease only recently received increasing attention. Although comprehensive metabolic characterization of ECs still needs further investigation, the concept of targeting EC metabolism to treat vascular disease is emerging...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202622/the-hypertension-pandemic-an-evolutionary-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Bernard C Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Hypertension affects over 1.2 billion individuals worldwide and has become the most critical and expensive public health problem. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic factors together with risk-conferring behaviors. The cause of the disease is identified in ∼10% of the cases (secondary hypertension), but in 90% of the cases no etiology is found (primary or essential hypertension). For this reason, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure in normal and hypertensive patients is the aim of very active experimental and clinical research...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202621/potassium-homeostasis-the-knowns-the-unknowns-and-the-health-benefits
#6
REVIEW
Alicia A McDonough, Jang H Youn
Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K(+) is only 2% of total body K(+), our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K(+), low-Na(+) diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K(+) balance and the consequences for health and disease.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202620/physiology-in-perspective-homeostasis-and-evolution
#7
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179400/searching-for-and-sharing-research-in-the-information-age-a-trainee-s-perspective
#8
EDITORIAL
Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Kenny L Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148550/iups-38th-world-congress-in-the-rhythms-of-life
#9
EDITORIAL
Benedito H Machado, Vagner R Antunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927806/sleep-neurophysiological-dynamics-through-the-lens-of-multitaper-spectral-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Prerau, Ritchie E Brown, Matt T Bianchi, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Patrick L Purdon
During sleep, cortical and subcortical structures within the brain engage in highly structured oscillatory dynamics that can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The ability to accurately describe changes in sleep state from these oscillations has thus been a major goal of sleep medicine. While numerous studies over the past 50 years have shown sleep to be a continuous, multifocal, dynamic process, long-standing clinical practice categorizes sleep EEG into discrete stages through visual inspection of 30-s epochs...
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927805/transmission-of-metabolic-dysfunction-across-generations
#11
REVIEW
Kathleen Jaeger, Jessica L Saben, Kelle H Moley
Recent human and animal studies investigating the roles of the genome, epigenome, and environmental cues have identified associations between offspring predisposition to life-long obesity/metabolic disease and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This review explores the mechanisms by which maternal exposures impair the health of not only the next generation but also potentially future generations of offspring.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927804/obstacles-to-translating-genotype-phenotype-correlates-in-metabolic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Anu Sharma, Adrian Vella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a polygenic disease with a variable phenotype. Many genetic associations have been described; however, understanding their underlying pathophysiological role in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is important for development of future therapeutic targets. Here, we review the physiological mechanisms of diabetes-associated variants that affect glycemia.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927803/dating-the-heart-exploring-cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Evan Graham, Olaf Bergmann
Regenerative mechanisms reported in the hearts of lower vertebrates have been recapitulated in the mammalian milieu, and recent studies have provided strong evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans. These findings speak to an emerging consensus that adult mammalian cardiomyocytes do have the ability to divide, and it stands to reason that enrichment of this innate proliferative capacity should prove essential for complete cardiac regeneration.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927802/expression-and-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-vascular-endothelium
#14
REVIEW
Livius V d'Uscio, Tongrong He, Zvonimir S Katusic
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is evolutionary conserved protein expressed in endothelial cells of cerebral and peripheral arteries. In this review, we discuss mechanisms responsible for expression and proteolytic cleavage of APP in endothelial cells. We focus on physiological and pathological implications of APP expression in vascular endothelium.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927801/physiological-aging-links-among-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-diabetes-and-frailty
#15
REVIEW
Michael B Stout, Jamie N Justice, Barbara J Nicklas, James L Kirkland
Advancing age is associated with progressive declines in physiological function that lead to overt chronic disease, frailty, and eventual mortality. Importantly, age-related physiological changes occur in cellularity, insulin-responsiveness, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Although the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction are multifactorial, the consequences result in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, immune cell infiltration, an accumulation of senescent cells, and an increase in senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927800/physiology-in-perspective-aging-and-underlying-pathophysiology
#16
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927799/struggles-to-establish-a-career-in-physiology-as-a-junior-faculty-member-in-nigeria
#17
EDITORIAL
Abimbola John Idowu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927798/rio-2017-is-shaping-up-as-a-great-world-congress
#18
EDITORIAL
Denis Noble, Julie Chan, Penny Hansen, Walter Boron, Peter Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708050/breathtaking-songs-coordinating-the-neural-circuits-for-breathing-and-singing
#19
Marc F Schmidt, Franz Goller
The vocal behavior of birds is remarkable for its diversity, and songs can feature elaborate characteristics such as long duration, rapid temporal pattern, and broad frequency range. The respiratory system plays a central role in generating the complex song patterns that must be integrated with its life-sustaining functions. Here, we explore how precise coordination between the neural circuits for breathing and singing is fundamental to production of these remarkable behaviors.
November 1, 2016: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708049/cardiovascular-physiology-of-dinosaurs
#20
Roger S Seymour
Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head?
November 1, 2016: Physiology
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