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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109826/physiological-consequences-of-coronary-arteriolar-dysfunction-and-its-influence-on-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Hassan Allaqaband, David D Gutterman, Andrew O Kadlec
To date, the major focus of diagnostic modalities and interventions to treat coronary artery disease has been the large epicardial vessels. Despite substantial data showing that microcirculatory dysfunction is a strong predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, very little research has gone into developing techniques for in vivo diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve microcirculatory function. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of coronary arteriolar dysfunction, define its prognostic implications, evaluate the diagnostic modalities available, and provide speculation on current and potential therapeutic opportunities...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109825/hypoxia-signaling-in-vascular-homeostasis
#2
Glenn Marsboom, Jalees Rehman
Hypoxia signaling in the vasculature controls vascular permeability, inflammation, vascular growth, and repair of vascular injury. In this review, we summarize recent insights in this burgeoning field and highlight the importance of studying the heterogeneity of hypoxia responses among individual patients, distinct vascular beds, and even individual vascular cells.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109824/the-neurobiological-basis-of-sleep-and-sleep-disorders
#3
William J Joiner
The functions of sleep remain a mystery. Yet they must be important since sleep is highly conserved, and its chronic disruption is associated with various metabolic, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will cover our evolving understanding of the mechanisms by which sleep is controlled and the complex relationship between sleep and disease states.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109823/defining-the-rhythmogenic-elements-of-mammalian-breathing
#4
Jan-Marino Ramirez, Nathan Baertsch
Breathing's remarkable ability to adapt to changes in metabolic, environmental, and behavioral demands stems from a complex integration of its rhythm-generating network within the wider nervous system. Yet, this integration complicates identification of its specific rhythmogenic elements. Based on principles learned from smaller rhythmic networks of invertebrates, we define criteria that identify rhythmogenic elements of the mammalian breathing network and discuss how they interact to produce robust, dynamic breathing...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109822/monogenic-intestinal-epithelium-defects-and-the-development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Gabriella Leung, Aleixo M Muise
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These IBD genes can generally be grouped into genes causing either primary immunodeficiency or intestinal epithelial defects (the focus of this review)...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109821/oxidative-stress-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-developmental-programming-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
Cetewayo S Rashid, Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109820/physiology-in-perspective-the-breath-of-life
#7
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897303/t-cells-and-hypertension-solved-and-unsolved-mysteries-regarding-the-female-rat
#8
Amrita V Pai, Taylor Maddox, Kathryn Sandberg
T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897302/orai-channels-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Baptiste Rode, Marc A Bailey, Roger Marthan, David J Beech, Christelle Guibert
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and fatal disease that lacks treatments. Its pathophysiology involves pulmonary artery hyperreactivity, endothelial dysfunction, wall remodelling, inflammation, and thrombosis, which could all depend on ORAI Ca2+ channels. We review the knowledge about ORAI channels in pulmonary artery and discuss the interest to target them in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897301/physiology-in-perspective-physiology-is-alive-and-well
#10
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897300/neurons-and-glia-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-epithelial-barrier-function
#11
Nathalie Vergnolle, Carla Cirillo
The intestinal epithelial barrier is the largest exchange surface between the body and the external environment. Its functions are regulated by luminal, and also internal, components including the enteric nervous system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the digestive "neuronal-glial-epithelial unit" on epithelial barrier function.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897299/carotid-bodies-and-the-integrated-cardiorespiratory-response-to-hypoxia
#12
Bruce G Lindsey, Sarah C Nuding, Lauren S Segers, Kendall F Morris
Advances in our understanding of brain mechanisms for the hypoxic ventilatory response, coordinated changes in blood pressure, and the long-term consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia as in sleep apnea, such as hypertension and heart failure, are giving impetus to the search for therapies to "erase" dysfunctional memories distributed in the carotid bodies and central nervous system. We review current network models, open questions, sex differences, and implications for translational research...
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873600/dissecting-the-meanings-of-physiology-to-assess-the-vitality-of-the-discipline
#13
Maƫl Lemoine, Thomas Pradeu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873599/consideration-for-circadian-physiology-in-rodent-research
#14
Aleksey V Matveyenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873598/central-dogma-or-central-debate
#15
Denis Noble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638185/glucose-lowering-strategies-for-cardiac-benefits-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#16
Harpreet S Bajaj, Bernard Zinman
Recent trials in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have shown cardiovascular benefits with specific GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. We discuss the landscape of outcome trials in T2D from a pathophysiology viewpoint, review current knowledge gaps in underlying mechanisms, propose a caloric fuel routing hypothesis, and highlight areas of future research.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638184/impaired-autophagy-in-motor-neurons-a-final-common-mechanism-of-injury-and-death
#17
Maria A Gonzalez Porras, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Autophagy is a cellular digestion process that contributes to cellular homeostasis and adaptation by the elimination of proteins and damaged organelles. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron disorders. Herein, we review emerging evidence indicating the roles of autophagy in physiological motor neuron processes and its function in specific compartments. Moreover, we discuss the involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, including spinal cord injury and aging, and recent developments that offer promising therapeutic approaches to mitigate effects of dysregulated autophagy in health and disease...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638183/the-birth-and-death-of-platelets-in-health-and-disease
#18
Fred G Pluthero, Walter H A Kahr
Blood platelets are involved in a wide range of physiological responses and pathological processes. Recent studies have considerably advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of platelet production and clearance, revealing new connections between the birth and death of these tiny, abundant cells. Key insights have also been gained into how physiological challenges such as inflammation, infection, and chemotherapy can affect megakaryocytes, the cells that produce platelets.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616880/is-adenosine-action-common-ground-for-nrem-sleep-torpor-and-other-hypometabolic-states
#19
Alessandro Silvani, Matteo Cerri, Giovanna Zoccoli, Steven J Swoap
This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616879/physiology-in-perspective-seeking-solutions-to-biological-questions
#20
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Physiology
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