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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021365/lactic-acid-no-longer-an-inert-and-end-product-of-glycolysis
#1
REVIEW
Shiren Sun, Heng Li, Jianghua Chen, Qi Qian
For decades, lactic acid has been considered a dead-end product of glycolysis. Research in the last 20+ years has shown otherwise. Through its transporters (MCTs) and receptor (GPR81), lactic acid plays a key role in multiple cellular processes, including energy regulation, immune tolerance, memory formation, wound healing, ischemic tissue injury, and cancer growth and metastasis. We summarize key findings of lactic acid signaling, functions, and many remaining questions.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021364/lymphatic-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Wanshu Ma, Guillermo Oliver
The lymphatic vasculature is crucial for maintaining tissue-fluid homeostasis, providing immune surveillance and mediating lipid absorption. The lymphatic vasculature is tightly associated with the blood vasculature, although it exhibits distinct morphological and functional features. Endothelial cells (ECs) lineage fate specification is determined during embryonic development; however, accumulating evidence suggests that differentiated ECs exhibit remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms promoting lymphatic cell fate specification in the mammalian embryo...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021363/novel-and-unexpected-functions-of-sglts
#3
REVIEW
Ernest M Wright, Chiara Ghezzi, Donald D F Loo
It has been 30 years since the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was cloned, and, in the intervening years, there have been many advances that have influenced physiology and medicine. Among the first was that SGLT1 is the founding member of the human gene family SLC5, containing 11 diverse transporters and a glucose sensor. Equally surprising was that SGLTs are members of a structural family of cotransporters and exchangers in different gene families. This led to the conclusion that these proteins operate by a mechanism where transport involves the opening and closing of external and internal gates...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021362/chloride-channels-take-center-stage-in-acute-regulation-of-excitability-in-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-fatigue
#4
REVIEW
Ole Bækgaard Nielsen, Frank Vincenzo de Paoli, Anders Riisager, Thomas Holm Pedersen
Initiation and propagation of action potentials in muscle fibers is a key element in the transmission of activating motor input from the central nervous system to their contractile apparatus, and maintenance of excitability is therefore paramount for their endurance during work. Here, we review current knowledge about the acute regulation of ClC-1 channels in active muscles and its importance for muscle excitability, function, and fatigue.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021361/running-changes-the-brain-the-long-and-the-short-of-it
#5
REVIEW
Carmen Vivar, Henriette van Praag
Exercise is a simple intervention that profoundly benefits cognition. In rodents, running increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for memory. We describe the dynamic changes in new neuron number and afferent connections throughout their maturation. We highlight the effects of exercise on the neurotransmitter systems involved, with a focus on the role of glutamate and acetylcholine in the initial development of new neurons in the adult brain.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021360/physiology-in-perspective-physiology-provides-insight-into-health
#6
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978630/the-100th-anniversary-of-the-russian-pavlov-physiological-society
#7
EDITORIAL
Richard E Brown, Zoltán Molnár, Ludmila Filaretova, Mikhail Ostrovsky, Marco Piccolino, Lorenzo Lorusso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978629/aps-the-times-they-are-a-changin
#8
EDITORIAL
Dennis Brown, Jeff M Sands, Jane F Reckelhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814499/therapeutic-stimulation-for-restoration-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Aiva Ievins, Chet T Moritz
Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814498/both-ways-at-once-keeping-small-airways-clean
#10
REVIEW
Paul M Quinton
The small airways of the lungs are under constant assault from the pathogens and debris in the air that they must conduct to alveoli. Although hygiene is of paramount importance for respiratory health, the underlying principles of airway clearance have not been well integrated or established. Newly emerging concepts of simultaneous absorption and secretion of airway surface liquid (ASL) and the role of [Formula: see text] in the maturation of mucins have advanced from experimental evidence as well as observations from the congenital disease cystic fibrosis (CF) to present a novel model that integrates microanatomy with organ physiology to meet the constant challenge of cleaning small airways...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#11
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814496/cardiometabolic-features-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-role-of-androgens
#12
REVIEW
Licy L Yanes Cardozo, Damian G Romero, Jane F Reckelhoff
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenemia is present in a significant fraction (~80%) of women with PCOS. Increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is frequently observed in PCOS women. The present review aims to highlight the key role of androgens in mediating the negative cardiometabolic profile observed in PCOS women.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814495/right-ventricular-pulmonary-vascular-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Diana M Tabima, Jennifer L Philip, Naomi C Chesler
Accurate and comprehensive evaluation of right ventricular (RV)-pulmonary vascular (PV) interactions is critical to the assessment of cardiopulmonary function, dysfunction, and failure. Here, we review methods of quantifying RV-PV interactions and experimental results from clinical trials as well as large- and small-animal models based on pressure-volume analysis. We conclude by outlining critical gaps in knowledge that should drive future studies.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794214/physiology-in-perspective-the-value-of-integrative-physiology
#14
EDITORIAL
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615316/orai-calcium-channels
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed Trebak, James W Putney
In this review article, we discuss the different gene products and translational variants of ORAI proteins and their contribution to the makeup of different native calcium-conducting channels with distinct compositions and modes of activation. We also review the different modes of regulation of these distinct calcium channels and their impact on downstream cellular signaling controlling important physiological functions.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615315/hyperresponsiveness-relating-the-intact-airway-to-the-whole-lung
#16
REVIEW
Kenneth R Lutchen, Peter D Paré, Chun Y Seow
We relate changes of the airway wall to the response of the intact airway and the whole lung. We address how mechanical conditions and specific structural changes for an airway contribute to hyperresponsiveness resistant to deep inspiration. This review conveys that the origins of hyperresponsiveness do not devolve into an abnormality at single structural level but require examination of the complex interplay of all the parts.
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615314/mitochondria-and-reactive-oxygen-species-contribute-to-neurogenic-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Samuel H H Chan, Julie Y H Chan
Beyond its primary role as fuel generators, mitochondria are engaged in a variety of cellular processes, including redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, may have a profound impact on high-energy-demanding organs such as the brain. Here, we review the roles of mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, and their associated signaling in cellular redox homeostasis, and illustrate their contributions to the oxidative stress-related neural mechanism of hypertension, focusing on specific brain areas that are involved in the generation or modulation of sympathetic outflows to the cardiovascular system...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615313/metabolic-regulation-of-angiogenesis-in-diabetes-and-aging
#18
REVIEW
Naoki Sawada, Zolt Arany
Impaired angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction are hallmarks of diabetes and aging. Clinical efforts at promoting angiogenesis have largely focused on growth factor pathways, with mixed results. Recently, a new repertoire of endothelial intracellular molecules critical to endothelial metabolism has emerged as playing an important role in regulating angiogenesis. This review thus focuses on the emerging importance and therapeutic potential of these proteins and of endothelial bioenergetics in diabetes and aging...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615312/stem-cells-in-repair-of-gastrointestinal-epithelia
#19
REVIEW
Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Matthias Zilbauer, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers
Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh luminal environment, replenishment of new epithelial cells is essential to maintain organ structure and function during routine turnover and injury repair. Tissue-specific adult stem cells in the GI tract serve as a continuous source for this immense regenerative activity...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615311/modeling-physiological-events-in-2d-vs-3d-cell-culture
#20
REVIEW
Kayla Duval, Hannah Grover, Li-Hsin Han, Yongchao Mou, Adrian F Pegoraro, Jeffery Fredberg, Zi Chen
Cell culture has become an indispensable tool to help uncover fundamental biophysical and biomolecular mechanisms by which cells assemble into tissues and organs, how these tissues function, and how that function becomes disrupted in disease. Cell culture is now widely used in biomedical research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and industrial practices. Although flat, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture has predominated, recent research has shifted toward culture using three-dimensional (3D) structures, and more realistic biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments...
July 2017: Physiology
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