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Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303778/loss-of-ovarian-hormones-and-accelerated-somatic-and-mental-aging
#1
Walter A Rocca, Liliana Gazzuola Rocca, Carin Y Smith, Brandon R Grossardt, Stephanie S Faubion, Lynne T Shuster, James L Kirkland, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Marissa J Schafer, Michelle M Mielke, Kejal Kantarci, Elizabeth A Stewart, Virginia M Miller
Bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women is a unique condition causing the abrupt and premature loss of ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Bilateral oophorectomy causes an alteration of several fundamental aging processes at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels, leading to multimorbidity, frailty, and reduced survival. However, many questions remain unanswered.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303777/aps-moving-forward-to-aid-our-membership
#2
Jeff M Sands, Meredith Hay, Dennis Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303776/energy-constraint-as-a-novel-mechanism-linking-exercise-and-health
#3
Herman Pontzer
Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced downregulation improves health at moderate levels of physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme workloads.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303775/conflict-and-compromise-using-reversible-remodeling-to-manage-competing-physiological-demands-at-the-fish-gill
#4
Kathleen M Gilmour, Steve F Perry
The structural features of the fish gill necessary for oxygen uptake also favor undesirable, passive movements of ions and water. Reversible gill remodeling is one solution to this conflict. Cell masses that limit functional surface area are lost when oxygen availability decreases in hypoxia or oxygen demand increases with exercise or high temperature. However, much remains to be learned about how widespread reversible gill remodeling is among fish species, and how and why it occurs.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303774/physiology-in-perspective-understanding-the-aging-process
#5
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303773/the-difference-%C3%AE-cells-make-in-glucose-control
#6
Mark O Huising, Talitha van der Meulen, Jessica L Huang, Mohammad S Pourhosseinzadeh, Glyn M Noguchi
The role of beta and α-cells to glucose control are established, but the physiological role of δ-cells is poorly understood. Delta-cells are ideally positioned within pancreatic islets to modulate insulin and glucagon secretion at their source. We review the evidence for a negative feedback loop between delta and β-cells that determines the blood glucose set point and suggest that local δ-cell-mediated feedback stabilizes glycemic control.
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303772/pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-pancreatic-progenitors-and-%C3%AE-like-cells-for-type-1-diabetes-treatment
#7
Rangarajan Sambathkumar, Adriana Migliorini, Maria Cristina Nostro
In this review, we focus on the processes guiding human pancreas development and provide an update on methods to efficiently generate pancreatic progenitors (PPs) and β-like cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Furthermore, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of using PPs and β-like cell for cell replacement therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes with respect to cell manufacturing, engrafting, functionality, and safety. Finally, we discuss the identification and use of specific cell surface markers to generate safer populations of PPs for clinical translation and to study the development of PPs in vivo and in vitro...
November 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109826/physiological-consequences-of-coronary-arteriolar-dysfunction-and-its-influence-on-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Hassan Allaqaband, David D Gutterman, Andrew O Kadlec
To date, the major focus of diagnostic modalities and interventions to treat coronary artery disease has been the large epicardial vessels. Despite substantial data showing that microcirculatory dysfunction is a strong predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, very little research has gone into developing techniques for in vivo diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve microcirculatory function. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of coronary arteriolar dysfunction, define its prognostic implications, evaluate the diagnostic modalities available, and provide speculation on current and potential therapeutic opportunities...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109825/hypoxia-signaling-in-vascular-homeostasis
#9
Glenn Marsboom, Jalees Rehman
Hypoxia signaling in the vasculature controls vascular permeability, inflammation, vascular growth, and repair of vascular injury. In this review, we summarize recent insights in this burgeoning field and highlight the importance of studying the heterogeneity of hypoxia responses among individual patients, distinct vascular beds, and even individual vascular cells.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109824/the-neurobiological-basis-of-sleep-and-sleep-disorders
#10
William J Joiner
The functions of sleep remain a mystery. Yet they must be important since sleep is highly conserved, and its chronic disruption is associated with various metabolic, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will cover our evolving understanding of the mechanisms by which sleep is controlled and the complex relationship between sleep and disease states.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109823/defining-the-rhythmogenic-elements-of-mammalian-breathing
#11
Jan-Marino Ramirez, Nathan Baertsch
Breathing's remarkable ability to adapt to changes in metabolic, environmental, and behavioral demands stems from a complex integration of its rhythm-generating network within the wider nervous system. Yet, this integration complicates identification of its specific rhythmogenic elements. Based on principles learned from smaller rhythmic networks of invertebrates, we define criteria that identify rhythmogenic elements of the mammalian breathing network and discuss how they interact to produce robust, dynamic breathing...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109822/monogenic-intestinal-epithelium-defects-and-the-development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Gabriella Leung, Aleixo M Muise
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These IBD genes can generally be grouped into genes causing either primary immunodeficiency or intestinal epithelial defects (the focus of this review)...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109821/oxidative-stress-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-developmental-programming-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
Cetewayo S Rashid, Amita Bansal, Rebecca A Simmons
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109820/physiology-in-perspective-the-breath-of-life
#14
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897303/t-cells-and-hypertension-solved-and-unsolved-mysteries-regarding-the-female-rat
#15
Amrita V Pai, Taylor Maddox, Kathryn Sandberg
T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897302/orai-channels-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Baptiste Rode, Marc A Bailey, Roger Marthan, David J Beech, Christelle Guibert
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and fatal disease that lacks treatments. Its pathophysiology involves pulmonary artery hyperreactivity, endothelial dysfunction, wall remodelling, inflammation, and thrombosis, which could all depend on ORAI Ca2+ channels. We review the knowledge about ORAI channels in pulmonary artery and discuss the interest to target them in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897301/physiology-in-perspective-physiology-is-alive-and-well
#17
Gary C Sieck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897300/neurons-and-glia-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-epithelial-barrier-function
#18
Nathalie Vergnolle, Carla Cirillo
The intestinal epithelial barrier is the largest exchange surface between the body and the external environment. Its functions are regulated by luminal, and also internal, components including the enteric nervous system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the digestive "neuronal-glial-epithelial unit" on epithelial barrier function.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897299/carotid-bodies-and-the-integrated-cardiorespiratory-response-to-hypoxia
#19
Bruce G Lindsey, Sarah C Nuding, Lauren S Segers, Kendall F Morris
Advances in our understanding of brain mechanisms for the hypoxic ventilatory response, coordinated changes in blood pressure, and the long-term consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia as in sleep apnea, such as hypertension and heart failure, are giving impetus to the search for therapies to "erase" dysfunctional memories distributed in the carotid bodies and central nervous system. We review current network models, open questions, sex differences, and implications for translational research...
July 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873600/dissecting-the-meanings-of-physiology-to-assess-the-vitality-of-the-discipline
#20
Maël Lemoine, Thomas Pradeu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
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