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Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892899/endogenous-mechanisms-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-generation
#1
Agata Sarniak, Joanna Lipińska, Karol Tytman, Stanisława Lipińska
The main cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is mitochondrial respiratory chain and active NADPH responsible for "respiratory burst" of phagocytes. Whatsmore ROS are produced in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, with the participation of xanthine and endothelial oxidase and during autoxidation process of small molecules. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main cellular source of ROS. It is considered that in aerobic organisms ROS are mainly formed during normal oxygen metabolism, as byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation, during the synthesis of ATP...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892898/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-and-excess-of-fatty-acids-in-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska, Sławomir Grycel, Marta Chacińska, Piotr Zabielski
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Consumption of a high-fat diet rich in saturated fats (HFD) and obesity are associated with accumulation of intramuscular lipids that leads to several disorders, e.g. insulin resistance (IRes) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The mechanism underlying the induction of IRes is still unknown. It was speculated that accumulation of intramuscular triacylglycerols (TAG) is linked to induction of IRes. Now, research focuses on bioactive lipids: long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides (Cer)...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892897/the-importance-of-selected-spices-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Bartosz Kulczyński, Anna Gramza-Michałowska
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892896/c-reactive-protein-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-factor-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#4
Dorota Mańkowska-Wierzbicka, Jacek Karczewski, Barbara Poniedziałek, Małgorzata Grzymisławska, Rafał Staszewski, Aleksandra Królczyk, Agnieszka Dobrowolska, Marian Grzymisławski
AIM: The study aimed to evaluate high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) as a diagnostic and predictive marker in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL/METHODS: Medical history of 106 patients with IBD revealed hsCRP concentrations at diagnosis and during the follow-up period. RESULTS: The study showed that the majority of investigated patients had elevated hsCRP concentrations at diagnosis, although the mean concentration was much higher in the group of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) than the group with ulcerative colitis (UC) (P<0...
November 7, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892895/prothymosin-alpha-and-ki-67-expression-in-pituitary-adenomas
#5
Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka, Grzegorz Sokołowski, Agata Bałdys-Waligórska, Dariusz Adamek, Edyta Radwańska, Filip Gołkowski
INTRODUCTION: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA), a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation. MATERIAL/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56%) and 12 males (44%) with a mean age of 58...
November 7, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892894/overuse-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-its-consequences
#6
Marcin Kazberuk, Szymon Brzósko, Tomasz Hryszko, Beata Naumnik
Direct inhibition of H+ ion excretion to the gastric lumen makes proton pump inhibitors (PPI) the most effective drugs against gastric acid-related diseases. Over recent years usage of proton pump inhibitors has increased dramatically. Due to the low costs, high efficacy and rarity of adverse effects, their use is prevalent and often it does not correspond with existing medical guidelines. The literature lists stress ulcer prophylaxis among patients with low risk of bleeding, routine 'gastroprotective' medication during treatment and non-specific abdominal symptoms as the most common patterns of off-label PPI use...
October 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892893/photoprotective-and-radioprotective-properties-of-nitroxides-and-their-application-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Marcin Lewandowski, Krzysztof Gwoździński
Nitroxides are a group of stable organic radicals of low molecular weight having a nitroxyl group > N-.O, which has an unpaired electron. The presence of this group allows a nitroxide to participate in redox reactions. They serve as mimics of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and have stimulative properties towards haemoproteins with catalase-like activity. Nitroxides oxidize Fe (II) to Fe (III) preventing the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions. As the radicals have the ability to scavenge other free radicals. Nitroxides are not immunogenic, and mutagenic and do not show toxicity to the human cells...
October 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892892/impact-of-lymphocyte-culture-media-on-the-number-of-metaphases-and-chromosome-band-resolution
#8
Piotr Chomik, Magdalena Gryzinska, Justyna Batkowska, Grazyna Jezewska-Witkowska, Janusz Kocki
A special type of differential staining of chromosomes is replication banding. This staining technique reveals the band pattern characteristic of each homologous pair of chromosomes, which is a reflection of heterogeneous euchromatin structure. Banding enables identification of homologous chromosomes and detection of chromosomal aberrations, both structural and numerical. Slide preparation requires knowledge of many techniques, and the procedure is often different for each laboratory. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of selected media for lymphocyte cultures on the number of metaphases and the band resolution of chromosomes...
October 10, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708212/paxillin-and-its-role-in-the-aging-process-of-skin-cells
#9
Anna Skoczyńska, Elżbieta Budzisz, Kasjana Podgórna, Helena Rotsztejn
Morphology of senescent cells is constantly changing at the molecular level, which in turn leads to disruption of their function. It is connected with reduced ability to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and leads to the dysfunction of integrin adhesion molecules and adhesion clusters. In skin, these factors cause a loss of communication between the extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. This contributes to the appearance of signs of aging. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the very important molecule such as paxillin, which is an adaptor protein with mass of 68 kDa...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708211/can-mutations-in-the-gene-encoding-transcription-factor-eklf-erythroid-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-protect-us-against-infectious-and-parasitic-diseases
#10
Krzysztof Mikołajczyk, Radosław Kaczmarek, Marcin Czerwiński
Transcription factor EKLF (Erythroid Krüppel-Like Factor) belongs to the group of Krüppellike factors, which regulate proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis of mammalian cells. EKLF factor is present in erythroid cells, where it participates in regulation of hematopoiesis, expression of genes encoding transmembrane proteins (including blood group antigens), and heme biosynthesis enzymes. It is also a key factor in downregulation of γ-globins and activation of β-globin gene expression...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708210/immunoregulatory-action-of-melatonin-the-mechanism-of-action-and-the-effect-on-inflammatory-cells
#11
Sylwia Mańka, Ewa Majewska
Literature data indicate a significant immunoregulatory role of melatonin. Melatonin exerts an effect directly affecting leucocytes bearing specific melatonin receptors or indirectly by means of melatonin regulating other hormones, opioids or cytokines. Despite numerous experiments, the influence of the hormone on the immune system is still controversial. Melatonin affects the immune response acting as both an activator and an inhibitor of the inflammatory process. The hormone acts as an "immunological buffer" activating impaired immunity in immunosuppression, chronic stress or old age as well as suppressing overreaction of the immune system...
October 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708209/pd1-pd1l-pathway-hla-g-and-t-regulatory-cells-as-new-markers-of-immunosuppression-in-cancers
#12
Paulina Własiuk, Maciej Putowski, Krzysztof Giannopoulos
The appropriate function of the immune system depends on the effective regulation of the immune response on multiple levels. The key element of an effective immune response to antigenic stimulation is maintaining a homeostasis between activation and inhibitory function of immunocompetent cells and molecules. In pathological conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmune diseases or cancer there are significant alterations, and prevalence of signals of one type over another. Main markers of these dysfunctions are altered expressions of molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), or changed percentages of T regulatory cells (Treg)...
October 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708208/vaccines-in-prophylaxis-of-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-the-bacteria-from-the-genus-proteus
#13
Dominika Drzewiecka, Gabriela Lewandowska
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract...
September 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708206/short-term-exposure-to-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-pm10-and-the-risk-of-heart-rhythm-abnormalities-and-stroke
#14
Małgorzata Kowalska, Krzysztof Kocot
Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708205/the-classification-structure-and-functioning-of-ago-proteins-in-eukaryotes
#15
Aleksandra Poterala, Joanna Rzeszowska-Wolny
Ago proteins are members of the highly specialized and conserved Argonaute family, primarily responsible for regulation of gene expression. As a part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) Ago proteins are responsible for binding a short RNA and cleavage/inhibition of translation of target mRNAs. Phosphorylation may work as the switch between those two functions, but the role of magnesium ion concentration is also taken into consideration. Recent reports indicate that Ago proteins can interact with an mRNA and cause inhibition of translation without the participation of a short RNA...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708204/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-immunotherapy-in-children-with-high-risk-neuroblastoma
#16
Elwira Szychot, Jarosław Peregud-Pogorzelski, Paweł Wawryków, Andrzej Brodkiewicz
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy of childhood, with the highest incidence in children younger than 4 years. The prognosis depends on many factors, such as age at diagnosis, stage of disease and molecular genetic subtype. More than 50% of children who present with the disease are deemed to have high-risk neuroblastoma. The standard therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma consists of intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, myeloablative consolidation with autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue followed by the treatment of minimal residual disease with 13-cis-retinoic acid...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668644/the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-raas-physiology-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-functioning
#17
Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Maria Sagan, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik
Secretion of renin juxtaglomerular cells into bloodstream initiates activation of an enzymatic-hormonal cascade known as the RAAS (renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system). As a result, blood pressure is increased by the means several interrelated mechanisms. Mechanism of Zjednoczoaction of this system has been known for decades, but a few previously unknown components were recently added, such as ACE-2 and Ang(1-7), and their role often seems to be opposite to that of the conventional components. Local tissue systems also have important biological functions...
September 13, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516571/role-of-omentin-and-chemerin-in-metabolic-syndrome-and-tumor-diseases
#18
Błażej Szydło, Paweł Kiczmer, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Zofia Ostrowska
For the past few years adipokines have been a center of appreciation and interest. They are biologically active molecules causing pleiotropic effects. They assist in angiogenesis, adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation, and modulate tissue sensitivity for insulin. Adipokines are produced in adipose tissue, so an abnormal quantity of this tissue leads to impaired levels of these factors. Because of their different concentrations in various conditions, it would be plausible to use them as markers for individual conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, gastric cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer...
August 12, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356598/treatment-of-renal-anca-associated-vasculitides
#19
Olumide Olatubosun Rowaiye, Mariusz Kusztal, Wacław Weyde, Marian Klinger
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are a group of small vessel vasculitides which commonly affect the kidneys, manifesting as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. In this review, we present different treatment methods (e.g. cyclophosphamide, rituximab, plasma exchange) used for remission induction and maintenance in renal AAV. We also discuss treatment options in relapsing and refractory disease and for patients with end-stage renal disease due to AAV. In addition, we enumerate the various risk factors associated with relapsing and refractory disease, quality of life impairment and decreased renal and patient survival in AAV...
June 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117110/-the-cellular-receptors-of-exogenous-rna
#20
REVIEW
Patryk Reniewicz, Joanna Zyzak, Jakub Siednienko
One of the key determinants of survival for organisms is proper recognition of exogenous and endogenous nucleic acids. Therefore, high eukaryotes developed a number of receptors that allow for discrimination between friend or foe DNA and RNA. Appearance of exogenous RNA in cytoplasm provides a signal of danger and triggers cellular responses that facilitate eradication of a pathogen. Recognition of exogenous RNA is additionally complicated by fact that large amount of endogenous RNA is present in cytoplasm Thus, number of different receptors, found in eukaryotic cells, is able to recognize that nucleic acid...
April 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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