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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100855/trace-elements-as-an-activator-of-antioxidant-enzymes
#1
Marta Wołonciej, Elżbieta Milewska, Wiesława Roszkowska-Jakimiec
Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100854/the-role-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-pathogenesis-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
Magdalena Szaryńska, Agata Olejniczak, Zbigniew Kmieć
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer, accounting for about 10% of total adult malignancies worldwide. The majority of CRC cases are diagnosed at the late stage; thus the investigation of the pathogenesis of early-stage disease and its detection could prevent formation of metastasis, a leading cause of death. This review highlights the recent progress in the understanding of the development of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the colon epithelium and mechanisms of their proliferation...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100853/antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-bioactive-phytochemicals-from-cranberry
#3
Monika Baranowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
In the rational human diet, the important role of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of bioactive phytochemicals, is emphasized. Among fruits particular attention, due to a number of documented health-promoting properties, is focused on cranberry. This fruit is characterized by the high content of antioxidant phenolic compounds, which may support the natural antioxidant defense system of the body in the prevention of damage caused by oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, cranberry is suggested for the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer, whose etiology is associated directly with oxidative stress...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100852/allergenicity-of-milk-of-different-animal-species-in-relation-to-human-milk
#4
Robert Pastuszka, Joanna Barłowska, Zygmunt Litwińczuk
Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk) and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50%) than cow milk (about 20%), and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100851/effects-of-propofol-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-selected-parts-of-the-brain-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#5
Ewa Romuk, Wioletta Szczurek, Przemysław Nowak, Marta Skowron, Bernard Prudel, Edyta Hudziec, Ewa Chwalińska, Ewa Birkner
INTRODUCTION: Propofol is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia. This drug has antioxidant properties, which are partly caused by a phenolic structure similar to α-tocopherol. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propofol on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in rats with experimental Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIAL/METHODS: The experiment was performed on 24 male Wistar rats assigned to the following groups: 1 - control; 2 - PD; 3 - PD with propofol...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100850/molecular-characteristic-and-physiological-role-of-dopa-decarboxylase
#6
Joanna Guenter, Robert Lenartowski
The enzyme DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC) plays an important role in the dopaminergic system and participates in the uptake and decarboxylation of amine precursors in the peripheral tissues. Apart from catecholamines, DDC catalyses the biosynthesis of serotonin and trace amines. It has been shown that the DDC amino acid sequence is highly evolutionarily conserved across many species. The activity of holoenzyme is regulated by stimulation/blockade of membrane receptors, phosphorylation of serine residues, and DDC interaction with regulatory proteins...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100849/the-role-genes-encoding-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-kirs-and-their-ligands-in-susceptibility-to-and-progression-of-hiv-infection
#7
Olga Błachowicz, Katarzyna Zwolińska
NK cells are a part of the innate antiviral response. Their activity is regulated by signals from the surface receptors. Some of them, known as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), determine the quality and intensity of the immunological response, together with their ligands (HLA class I). KIR genes are very polymorphic, and this is reflected in the NK activity modulation. The stimulation of NK cells, especially in the early stages of the infection, can reduce the transmission of HIV or slow down the progression of infection...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100848/influence-of-28-o-propynoylbetulin-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-melanotic-and-amelanotic-human-melanoma-cells
#8
Anna Kaps, Ewa Chodurek, Arkadiusz Orchel, Marzena Jaworska-Kik, Ewa Bębenek, Stanisław Boryczka, Janusz Kasperczyk
INTRODUCTION: A relatively new approach in treatment of malignant melanoma is the use of betulin and its synthetic derivatives that have anticancer properties. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an acetylenic derivative of betulin, 28-O-propynoylbetulin, on cell growth and apoptosis induction in human melanotic and amelanotic melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The A2058 and C32 cell lines were incubated with 28-O-propynoylbetulin (working solutions from 0...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100847/genetic-background-of-aberrant-thermogenin-expression-ucp1-in-obesity-leading-to-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Małgorzata Stosio, Agata Witkowicz, Anna Kowalska, Lidia Karabon
Cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances individually and interdependently lead to chronic pathological conditions observed in cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs). In Europe, the morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease are the highest among all diseases. Therefore, it seems important to search for new and alternative therapies for obesity, which is the main cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CD). Great attention has been paid to the role of brown adipose tissue in fat burning and the possibility of transformation of the white adipose tissue to cells with brown adipose tissue function as a potential form of treatment of obesity...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100846/regulatory-lymphocytes-in-thyroid-orbitopathy-and-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#10
Marta Siomkajło, Jarosław Dybko, Jacek Daroszewski
Thyroid orbitopathy (OT), as an organ‑specific autoimmune disease, is a result of immune dysregulation leading to loss of control over inflammation directed against self‑antigens. The source of the autoreactive lymphocytes is the impairment of central tolerance as well as their induction on the periphery by modified or sequestered by that time antigens. Active suppression by the various subpopulations of regulatory lymphocytes (Lreg) acts as a counterbalance to the proinflammatory factors and is aimed at dampening pathological reaction...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100845/role-of-prometastatic-factors-in-gastric-cancer-development
#11
Marta Tkacz, Maciej Tarnowski, Marzena Staniszewska, Andrzej Pawlik
The second half of the 20th century has seen a sharp worldwide decline in both the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. Despite this, gastric cancer is the most common cause of mortality in the world. It is closely related to the commonly asymptomatic course at the beginning and delayed diagnosis. Approximately 90‑97% of stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas, which may be subdivided histologically into two categories - intestinal type, and diffuse type. Cancer metastasis is a complex multi‑step process that is closely associated with tumor phenotype...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100844/phospholipids-and-products-of-their-hydrolysis-as-dietary-preventive-factors-for-civilization-diseases
#12
Karol Parchem, Agnieszka Bartoszek
The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#13
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100842/prognostic-value-of-thymidine-kinase-activity-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
Piotr Stelmach, Jerzy Z Błoński
Thymidine kinase (TK) activity is a marker of biological activity that allows the indolent and aggressive forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to be distinguished. The aims of the study were to determine the relationship between TK activity and clinical status and prognosis, as well as to compare its activity with that of other prognostic and predictive factors. TK activity was measured in patient sera at the time of diagnosis using the DiviTum method, with the mean value being 439 Du/L. A correlation was found between TK activity and risk of disease progression (p=0...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100841/cannabinoids-a-new-weapon-against-cancer
#15
Małgorzata Pokrywka, Joanna Góralska, Bogdan Solnica
Cannabis has been cultivated by man since Neolithic times. It was used, among others for fiber and rope production, recreational purposes and as an excellent therapeutic agent. The isolation and characterization of the structure of one of the main active ingredients of cannabis - Δ9 - tetrahydrocannabinol as well the discovery of its cannabinoid binding receptors CB1 and CB2, has been a milestone in the study of the possibilities of the uses of Cannabis sativa and related products in modern medicine. Many scientific studies indicate the potential use of cannabinoids in the fight against cancer...
December 29, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026831/the-role-of-ykl-40-in-a-cancerous-process
#16
Agnieszka Rusak, Karolina Jabłońska, Piotr Dzięgiel
YKL-40 is a secretory protein secreted among others by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Due to the structural homology this protein was classified to chitinases family CLP (chitinase - like protein) and to 18 of glycosyl hydrolase family, but it has no catalytic function. Elevated levels of YKL-40 in serum is observed in the inflammatory diseases of various aetiology and in cancers, such as breast, ovarian, colon or lung. The results of many studies suggest a significant relationship of YKL-40 with progression of cancer: incidence of metastases, shorter relapse-free survival and shorter overall survival...
December 27, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026830/cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-in-the-regulation-of-the-cell-function
#17
Małgorzata Zbrojkiewicz, Leszek Śliwiński
Intracellular concentration of cGMP depends on the activity of guanylate cyclase, responsible for its synthesis, on the activity of cyclic nucleotide degrading enzymes - phosphodiesterases (PDEs). There are two forms of guanylate cyclase: the membrane-bound cyclase and the soluble form. The physiological activators of the membrane guanylate cyclase are natriuretic peptides (NPs), and of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Intracellular cGMP signaling pathways arise from its direct effect on the activity of G protein kinases, phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide dependent cation channels...
December 27, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026829/retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-as-the-causative-factor-and-marker-of-vascular-injury-related-to-insulin-resistance
#18
Marcin Majerczyk, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Jerzy Chudek
One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4). The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026828/microevolution-of-bcg-substrains
#19
Katarzyna Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Anna Lutyńska
Tuberculosis was, and still is, one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Thus it still remains a public health priority. Nonetheless, without a newly developed vaccine, it is rather unlikely to be easily resolved. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG) has been used for nearly 100 years. Currently a variety of BCG substrains are used by many manufacturers in the world. All these substrains were obtained from a single parental strain of Mycobacterium bovis. Attempts to explain the complete mechanisms of attenuation, as well as tracing the microevolution resulting from the different distribution time and conditions of production of BCG vaccines in the different parts of the world, might explain the differences in the observed efficacy of vaccines produced with different substrains...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026827/insulin-resistance-and-chronic-inflammation
#20
Natalia Matulewicz, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
Insulin resistance is a condition of reduced biological response to insulin. Growing evidence indicates the role of the chronic low-grade inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by increased lipolysis with the excessive release of free fatty acids, and is also a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Both these factors may inhibit insulin action. Proinflammatory cytokines exert their effect by stimulating major inflammatory NFκB and JNK pathways within the cells...
December 20, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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