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Preventing Chronic Disease

Michael J Parks, John H Kingsbury, Raymond G Boyle, Sharrilyn Evered
We examined prevalence and predictors of comprehensive smoke-free household rules (ie, smoke-free homes and cars) among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota. Data came from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey; weighted analyses consisted of descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Most adult smokers implemented home-only smoke-free rules (43%) while most nonsmokers implemented comprehensive smoke-free rules (home and car; 85%). Comprehensive smoke-free rules were more common among people with high socioeconomic status (SES), married people, and people who did not live with a smoker; those with a child in the home were more likely to implement smoke-free homes but not smoke-free cars...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Jenifer E Clapp, Sarah A Niederman, Elizabeth Leonard, Christine J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Rica Dela Cruz, Jeanolivia Grant, Julia E Heck, Haley L Cash
INTRODUCTION: Although other studies have found evidence for perinatal health disparities among Pacific Islanders in other regions, no studies have evaluated racial/ethnic disparities in adverse perinatal health outcomes in the small US island territory of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). METHODS: We used retrospective cohort data on 8,427 singleton births from 2007 to 2014 at the Commonwealth Healthcare Corporation (CHCC), the only hospital in the CNMI...
March 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Robert A Hahn, Man-Huei Chang, R Gibson Parrish, Steven M Teutsch, Wanda K Jones
INTRODUCTION: We analyzed trends in US female mortality rates by decade from 1900 through 2010, assessed age and racial differences, and proposed explanations and considered implications. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study of trends in mortality rates from major causes of death for females in the United States from 1900 through 2010. We analyzed all-cause unadjusted death rates (UDRs) for males and females and for white and nonwhite males and females from 1900 through 2010...
March 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Cynthia M Mojica, Deborah Parra-Medina, Sally Vernon
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, is also among the most preventable cancers. However, Latino men are less likely than non-Latino men to engage in preventive screening. Compared with 60% of non-Latino white men and women, only 42% of Latino men are up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines, which may result in diagnosis at advanced disease stages and increased deaths. We evaluated the literature on colorectal cancer screening interventions among Latino men to characterize intervention components effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening...
March 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Steven M Smith, Kathryn McAuliffe, Jaclyn M Hall, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthew J Gurka, Temple O Robinson, Ralph L Sacco, Carl Pepine, Elizabeth Shenkman, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is highly prevalent in Florida, but surveillance through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is limited to self-reported hypertension and does not capture data on undiagnosed hypertension or measure blood pressure. We aimed to characterize the hypertensive population in the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium by using electronic health records and provide proof-of-concept for using routinely collected clinical data to augment surveillance efforts...
March 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Anna E Greer, Ann Knausenberger
We examined the relative importance of 23 community issues among elected officials and health directors in Connecticut in 2016. For this cross-sectional study, 74 elected officials (40.7% response rate) and 47 health directors (62.7% response rate), who were purposively sampled, completed a questionnaire to rate their perceived importance of 23 community issues. Eight of these issues were related to active living, healthy eating, or obesity. We used χ2 tests to evaluate differences in responses. Compared with elected officials, health directors significantly more often perceived obesity, access to healthy groceries, poor nutrition, lack of pedestrian walkways, and pedestrian safety as important...
March 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Marcie Berman, Frances Bozsik, Robin P Shook, Emily Meissen-Sebelius, Deborah Markenson, Shelly Summar, Emily DeWit, Jordan A Carlson
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Policy, systems, and environmental approaches are recommended for preventing childhood obesity. The objective of our study was to evaluate the Healthy Lifestyles Initiative, which aimed to strengthen community capacity for policy, systems, and environmental approaches to healthy eating and active living among children and families. INTERVENTION APPROACH: The Healthy Lifestyles Initiative was developed through a collaborative process and facilitated by community organizers at a local children's hospital...
February 22, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
John Heintzman, Brigit Hatch, Gloria Coronado, David Ezekiel, Stuart Cowburn, Octavio Escamilla-Sanchez, Miguel Marino
INTRODUCTION: Hispanic women in the United States have an elevated risk of cervical cancer, but the existing literature does not reveal why this disparity persists. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 17,828 low-income women aged 21 to 64 years seeking care at Oregon community health centers served by a hosted, linked electronic health record during 2009 through 2013. We assessed the odds of having had Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and receiving human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, by race/ethnicity, insurance status, and language...
February 22, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Philip M Massey, Alex Budenz, Amy Leader, Kara Fisher, Ann C Klassen, Elad Yom-Tov
INTRODUCTION: We conducted this study to quantify how health professionals use Twitter to communicate about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS: We collected 193,379 tweets from August 2014 through July 2015 that contained key words related to HPV vaccine. We classified all tweets on the basis of user, audience, sentiment, content, and vaccine characteristic to examine 3 groups of tweets: 1) those sent by health professionals, 2) those intended for parents, and 3) those sent by health professionals and intended for parents...
February 22, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Ann Lowenfels, Mary Jo Pattison, Anne M Martin, Cindy Ferrari
Most Americans consume more than the recommended daily level of sodium, and tools are needed to assess and improve food practices related to sodium. We describe how the Sodium Practices Assessment Tool (SPAT) was developed and used in 19 hospitals and senior meal facilities in upstate New York. Initial results identified opportunities for improvement in food preparation, presentation, and purchasing practices to reduce sodium consumption. Pre-post comparison results showed significant increases in the use of herbs, spices, unsalted butter, fruits and vegetables, and in the availability of lower-sodium foods...
February 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Thomas P O'Toole, Erin E Johnson, Matthew Borgia, Amy Noack, Jean Yoon, Elizabeth Gehlert, Jeanie Lo
INTRODUCTION: Although traditional patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are effective for patients with complex needs, it is unclear whether homeless-tailored PCMHs work better for homeless veterans. We examined the impact of enrollment in a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) homeless-tailored PCMH on health services use, cost, and satisfaction compared with enrollment in a traditional, nontailored PCMH. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, quasi-experimental, single-blinded study at 2 VHA medical centers to assess health services use, cost, and satisfaction during 12 months among 2 groups of homeless veterans: 1) veterans receiving VHA homeless-tailored primary care (Homeless-Patient Aligned Care Team [H-PACT]) and 2) veterans receiving traditional primary care services (PACT)...
February 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Kristi Roods, John Jasek, Shannon M Farley
We examined trends in hookah use among New York City middle and high school students. We calculated prevalences, linear trends, and odds ratios of ever and current hookah use, by selected demographic variables, using 2008 through 2014 data from the New York State Youth Tobacco Survey. The prevalence of ever hookah use increased overall from 2008 through 2014 (8.9% to 13.0%, P = .01); current use was stable during this period but increased across many demographic characteristics. Our results indicate a need for efforts to educate populations with increasing prevalence of hookah use as well as policies that regulate use to reduce and denormalize hookah smoking...
February 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Lindsay K Admon, Tyler N A Winkelman, Michele Heisler, Vanessa K Dalton
Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013-2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured...
February 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Larissa Calancie, Seri Anderson, Jane Branscomb, Alexsandra A Apostolico, Kristen Hassmiller Lich
Public health practitioners can use Behavior Over Time (BOT) graphs to spur discussion and systems thinking around complex challenges. Multiple large systems, such as health care, the economy, and education, affect chronic disease rates in the United States. System thinking tools can build public health practitioners' capacity to understand these systems and collaborate within and across sectors to improve population health. BOT graphs show a variable, or variables (y axis) over time (x axis). Although analyzing trends is not new to public health, drawing BOT graphs, annotating the events and systemic forces that are likely to influence the depicted trends, and then discussing the graphs in a diverse group provides an opportunity for public health practitioners to hear each other's perspectives and creates a more holistic understanding of the key factors that contribute to a trend...
February 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Anne H Gaglioti, Junjun Xu, Latrice Rollins, Peter Baltrus, Laura Kathryn O'Connell, Dexter L Cooper, Jammie Hopkins, Nisha D Botchwey, Tabia Henry Akintobi
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD...
February 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Sarah D Kowitt, Amira Osman, Leah M Ranney, Courtney Heck, Adam O Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible to future cigarette smoking...
February 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Sophia I Allen, Jonathan Foulds, Emily Wasserman, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, Jessica Yingst, Guodong Liu
We analyzed data from the 2014-2015 Pennsylvania Youth Tobacco Survey to determine prevalence of tobacco use among middle and high school students. For the first time, questions on current (past 30-day) use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in the survey. For current use, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle school students (2.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4%-3.2%), and cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among high school students (11...
February 1, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Vickie L Boothe, Leslie A Fierro, Amy Laurent, Margaret Shih
Compared with people in other developed countries, Americans live shorter lives, have more disease and disability, and lag on most population health measures. Recent research suggests that this poor comparative performance is primarily driven by profound local place-based disparities. Several initiatives successfully used sub-county life expectancy estimates to identify geographic disparities, generate widespread interest, and catalyze multisector actions. To explore the feasibility of scaling these efforts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists initiated a multiphase project - the Sub-County Assessment of Life Expectancy...
January 25, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Claudia Nau, Shiriki Kumanyika, Joel Gittelsohn, Atif Adam, Michelle S Wong, Yeeli Mui, Bruce Y Lee
INTRODUCTION: Residents of low-income communities often purchase sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) at small, neighborhood "corner" stores. Lowering water prices and increasing SSB prices are potentially complementary public health strategies to promote more healthful beverage purchasing patterns in these stores. Sustainability, however, depends on financial feasibility. Because in-store pricing experiments are complex and require retailers to take business risks, we used a simulation approach to identify profitable pricing combinations for corner stores...
January 25, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
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