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Mingzhi Luo, Xiang Chen, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
Time difference of arrival (TDoA) measurement is a promising approach for target localization based on a set of nodes with known positions, with high accuracy and low complexity. Common localization algorithms include the maximum-likelihood, non-linear least-squares and weighted least-squares methods. These methods have shortcomings such as high computational complexity, requiring an initial guess position, or having difficulty in finding the optimal solution. From the point of view of geometrical analysis, this study proposes two new shrinking-circle methods (SC-1 and SC-2) to solve the TDoA-based localization problem in a two-dimensional (2-D) space...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Shir Shahal, Hamootal Duadi, Yoav Linzon, Moti Fridman
Fiber micro-knots are a promising and a cheap solution for advanced fiber-based sensors. We investigated complex fiber micro-knots in theory and experiment. We compared the measured spectral response and present an analytical study of simple micro-knots with double twists, twin micro-knots, figure-eight micro-knots, and tangled micro-knots. This research brings the simple fabrication process and robustness of fiber micro-knots into the world of complex resonators which may lead to novel optical devices based on fiber micro-knots...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Francesc Alías, Joan Claudi Socoró, Ferran Orga
One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED)...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Phenix-Lan Quan, Martin Sauzade, Eric Brouzes
Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (dPCR) is a novel method for the absolute quantification of target nucleic acids. Quantification by dPCR hinges on the fact that the random distribution of molecules in many partitions follows a Poisson distribution. Each partition acts as an individual PCR microreactor and partitions containing amplified target sequences are detected by fluorescence. The proportion of PCR-positive partitions suffices to determine the concentration of the target sequence without a need for calibration...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Can Zhou, Guiling Deng, Junhui Li, Ji'an Duan
To improve the jet performance of a bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser, mathematical and simulation models were established according to the operating principle. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the simulation calculation, a viscosity model of the fluid was fitted to a fifth-order function with shear rate based on rheological test data, and the needle displacement model was fitted to a nine-order function with time based on real-time displacement test data. The results show that jet performance is related to the diameter of the nozzle outlet and the cone angle of the nozzle, and the impacts of the flow channel structure were confirmed...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Momona Yamagami, Keshia M Peters, Ivana Milovanovic, Irene Kuang, Zeyu Yang, Nanshu Lu, Katherine M Steele
Commercially available electrodes can only provide quality surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements for a limited duration due to user discomfort and signal degradation, but in many applications, collecting sEMG data for a full day or longer is desirable to enhance clinical care. Few studies for long-term sEMG have assessed signal quality of electrodes using clinically relevant tests. The goal of this research was to evaluate flexible, gold-based epidermal sensor system (ESS) electrodes for long-term sEMG recordings...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Te Chen, Long Chen, Xing Xu, Yingfeng Cai, Haobin Jiang, Xiaoqiang Sun
Exact estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is important for lateral stability and path-following control of four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle. This paper presents an effective method for longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation by observer iteration and information fusion for four-wheel independent drive electric vehicles. The electric driving wheel model is introduced into the vehicle modeling process and used for longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force reconstruction equation is obtained via model decoupling, the a Luenberger observer and high-order sliding mode observer are united for longitudinal force observer design, and the Kalman filter is applied to restrain the influence of noise...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
José M M M de Almeida, Helena Vasconcelos, Pedro A S Jorge, Luis Coelho
It is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber sensors for refractive index measurement based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) with gold nano-islands obtained by single and by repeated thermal dewetting of gold thin films. Thin films of gold deposited on silica (SiO₂) substrates and produced by different experimental conditions were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope/Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and optical means, allowing identifying and characterizing the formation of nano-islands...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
Slavisa Tomic, Marko Beko, Rui Dinis, Luís Bernardo
This work revises existing solutions for a problem of target localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), utilizing integrated measurements, namely received signal strength (RSS) and angle of arrival (AoA). The problem of RSS/AoA-based target localization became very popular in the research community recently, owing to its great applicability potential and relatively low implementation cost. Therefore, here, a comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art (SoA) solutions and their detailed analysis is presented...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Xiaoping Yang, Xueying Chen, Riting Xia, Zhihong Qian
Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm⁻neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Hongkun Li, Changbo He, Reza Malekian, Zhixiong Li
The Centrifugal compressor is a piece of key equipment for petrochemical factories. As the core component of a compressor, the blades suffer periodic vibration and flow induced excitation mechanism, which will lead to the occurrence of crack defect. Moreover, the induced blade defect usually has a serious impact on the normal operation of compressors and the safety of operators. Therefore, an effective blade crack identification method is particularly important for the reliable operation of compressors. Conventional non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) methods can detect the blade defect effectively, however, the compressors should shut down during the testing process which is time-consuming and costly...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Jabid Quiroga Mendez, Luis Mujica, Rodolfo Villamizar, Magda Ruiz
In this paper, a support stiffness monitoring scheme based on torsional guided waves for detecting loss of rigidity in a support of cylindrical structures is presented. Poor support performance in cylindrical specimens such as a pipeline setup located in a sloping terrain may produce a risky operation condition in terms of the installation integrity and the possibility of human casualties. The effects of changing the contact forces between support and the waveguide have been investigated by considering variations in the load between them...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Cristina Portalés, Sergio Casas, Jesús Gimeno, Marcos Fernández, Montse Poza
Energy-efficient Buildings (EeB) are demanded in today’s constructions, fulfilling the requirements for green cities. Pre-fab buildings, which are modularly fully-built in factories, are a good example of this. Although this kind of building is quite new, the in situ inspection is documented using traditional tools, mainly based on paper annotations. Thus, the inspection process is not taking advantage of new technologies. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the SIRAE project that aims to provide an Augmented Reality (AR) tool that can seamlessly aid in the regular processes of pre-fab building inspections to detect and eliminate the possible existing quality and energy efficiency deviations...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Wei Yang, Tinghua Ai, Wei Lu
Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS) traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Ivan Yatchev, Mehmet Sen, Iosko Balabozov, Ivan Kostov
The present paper deals with the modelling of a Hall effect current sensor with open core magnetic concentrator. 3D magnetic field modelling is carried out using the finite element method (FEM) and Comsol Multiphysics software. Two rectangular core constructions are considered. Different geometric parameters of the magnetic concentrator are varied and their influence on the sensor characteristic is studied, with the aim of reducing the dependence on the output signal on the distance to the conductor. Of the studied parameters, core window length leads to the most significant change in the sensor characteristic...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Bingquan Chu, Keqiang Yu, Yanru Zhao, Yong He
This study aimed to develop an approach for quickly and noninvasively differentiating the roasting degrees of coffee beans using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The qualitative properties of seven roasting degrees of coffee beans (unroasted, light, moderately light, light medium, medium, moderately dark, and dark) were assayed, including moisture, crude fat, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine contents. These properties were influenced greatly by the respective roasting degree. Their hyperspectral images (874⁻1734 nm) were collected using a hyperspectral reflectance imaging system...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Seonghee Cho, Kyungmin Kim, Taehoon Kim, Hyoeun Park, Jin-Moo Kim, SeungHoon Lee, YeonSu Kang, Kiyuk Chang, Chulhong Kim
Detection of cholesterol crystals (Chcs) in atherosclerosis disease is important for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Polarization microscopy (PM) has been in use traditionally for detecting Chcs, but they have difficulty in distinguishing Chcs with other crystalline materials in tissue, such as collagens. Thus, most studies using PM have been limited to studying cell-level samples. Although various methods have been proposed to detect Chcs with high specificity, most of them have low signal-to-noise ratios, a high system construction cost, and are difficult to operate due to a complex protocol...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Yu Guan, Song Lu, Dan Zhang, Yang Hu, Wei Yuan
A low-cost and easily-realized sensing device used for the detection of gas mixtures at different concentrations is presented. Its sensing part includes a small critical nozzle, a laminar structure, and a differential pressure sensor. When gas flows through the laminar structure, there is a pressure drop between both ends of it, and for different components of gas, the pressure drop is different. Based on this feature, the concentration detection is achieved. Concentration tests for two types of fire extinguishing agents CBrF₃ and C₃HF₇ are presented...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Jian-Ming Bai, Guangshe Zhao, Hai-Jun Rong, Xianhua Wang
This paper presents an approach to seeker-azimuth determination using the gyro rotor and optoelectronic sensors. In the proposed method, the gyro rotor is designed with a set of black and white right spherical triangle patterns on its surface. Two pairs of optoelectronic sensors are located symmetrically around the gyro rotor. When there is an azimuth, the stripe width covering the black and white patterns changes. The optoelectronic sensors then capture the reflected optical signals from the different black and white pattern stripes on the gyro rotor and produce the duty ratio signal...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
Jie Zhou, Yan Liang, Qiang Shen, Xiaoxue Feng, Quan Pan
A biomimetic distributed infection-immunity model (BDIIM), inspired by the immune mechanism of an infected organism, is proposed in order to achieve a high-efficiency wake-up control strategy based on multi-sensor fusion for target tracking. The resultant BDIIM consists of six sub-processes reflecting the infection-immunity mechanism: occurrence probabilities of direct-infection (DI) and cross-infection (CI), immunity/immune-deficiency of DI and CI, pathogen amount of DI and CI, immune cell production, immune memory, and pathogen accumulation under immunity state...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
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