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Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER

Slawomir Kozie, Christiane Scheffler, Janina Tutkuviene, Egle Marija Jakimaviciene, Rebekka Mumm, Davide Barbieri, Elena Godina, Mortada El-Shabrawi, Mona Elhusseini, Martin Musalek, Paulina Pruszkowska-Przybylska, Hanaa H El Dash, Hebatalla Hassan Safar, Andreas Lehmann, James Swanson, Barry Bogin, Yuk-Chien Liu, Detlef Groth, Sylvia Kirchengast, Anna Siniarska, Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Miroslav Králík, Takashi Satake, Tomasz Hanć, Mathieu Roelants, Michael Hermanussen
Twenty-two scientists met at Krobielowice, Poland, to discuss the impact of the social environment, spatial proximity, migration, poverty, but also psychological factors such as body perception and satisfaction, and social stressors such as elite sports, and teenage pregnancies, on child and adolescent growth. The data analysis included linear mixed effects models with different random effects, Monte Carlo analyses, and network simulations. The work stressed the importance of the peer group, but also included historic material, some considerations about body proportions, and growth in chronic liver, and congenital heart disease...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Yarhere E Iroro, Jaja Tamunopriye
INTRODUCTION: Handheld point-of-care (bedside) ultrasound scan machine is gaining popularity in clinical practice. Using point-of-care ultrasound scan can check the presence (anatomy) and blood flow within the thyroid gland and may be used as screening tool for CH. METHODOLOGY: Neonates aged 0-3 days underwent ultrasound scan of the neck using a point-of-care (bedside) pocket sized GE V scan machine ® to demonstrate the thyroid dimensions and colour flow for each lobe of the gland...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Karen O Klein, Peter A Lee
This review suggests a central theme: that the treatment of each patient presenting with evidence consistent with central precocious puberty (CPP) needs to be individualized. This pertains to multiple factors relating to growth and growth potential, monitoring patients on treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa), evaluating psychological issues with CPP and therapy, and concerns about weight gain during GnRHa therapy. Individual cases are presented. New data on adult height and rate of bone age advance are included...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Parisa Salehi, Sara A Divall, Julia M Crouch, Rebecca A Hopkinson, Leah Kroon, Jennifer Lawrence, Benjamin S Wilfond, David J Inwards-Breland
Care of transgender and gender diverse youth is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Many transgender patients and providers feel the limited availability of affirming, knowledgeable professionals is a barrier to obtaining care. Such care can be provided through a clinic with providers from different disciplines who are trained in the unique care of transgender youth. In this paper, we discuss the care guidelines for transgender youth and the unresolved challenges that need to be addressed during the development of a transgender clinic...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
A A A van der Linde, A E van Herwaarden, J D Oosting, H L Claahsen-van der Grinten, E P L M de Grouw
BACKGROUND: We describe a 6-year old boy with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) caused by destruction of the pituitary gland due to treatment of an optical pathway glioma. He has been treated with chemotherapy and has had several debulking operations over the past years and consequently developed central hypocortisolism, hypothyroidism and CDI. The treatment of CDI was gravely complicated by an impaired thirst perception and compulsive drinking behavior. He was frequently seen at the ER or admitted due to dysregulation of fluid balance...
April 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Uri S Alon
The effects of diuretics on water and electrolyte metabolism are well-established, but less known to the clinician are their effects on bone and mineral metabolism, and in particular on that of calcium homeostasis. In general, and clinically most relevant, diuretics acting at the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle cause loss of calcium into the urine, thus making them a useful tool in treating hypercalcemia. However the hypercalciuria caused by loop diuretics may lead to the development of urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone disease...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Alissa Roberts, Angel Nip, Arushi Verma, Allison LaRoche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Sharon E Oberfield, Rachel H Tao, Selma F Witchel
Premature adrenarche (PA) has been assumed to be a benign variant of normal pubertal development. Yet, current collective information suggests associations between PA and potential risks for development of polycystic ovary syndrome and adult diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Adrenarche refers to the increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursors DHEA, DHEAS, and androstenedione, which normally occurs in children at age 6-8 years. PA may be identified clinically by early pubarche, which is defined as the development of pubic or axillary hair before 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Michael Jurewicz, Joel Hillelsohn, Sandeep Mehta, Bruce R Gilbert
Children diagnosed with cancer continue to have improved survival due to advances in effective treatment options. Increased attention is therefore now focused on quality of life issues once they are cured. Fertility preservation is of paramount concern since gonadotoxic treatments, especially radiation and chemotherapy, often impair future fertility. The importance of family counseling and having an informed discussion about the potential for treatment to impair fertility and the options available for fertility preservation is crucial...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Asma Javed, Zaraq Khan, Siobhan T Pittock, Jani R Jensen
Fertility preservation therapies can conserve future reproductive potential for persons facing serious medical diagnoses. With cure rates for childhood cancer reaching almost 80%, quality-of-life concerns for long-term survivors, including future parenting, are becoming more pertinent. Late effects of childhood cancer can be divided into physical, social, psychological, and spiritual domains. Potential loss of fertility threatens the well-being of these children in all these domains. Providers often hesitate to discuss fertility preservation with the patients...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Alon Farfel, Haim Werner, Zvi Laron
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone secreted by lactotrophic cells in the anterior pituitary gland and its main function is the stimulation of lactogenesis. Research in recent years has revealed that PRL is also related to cancer development and plays a role in autoimmune diseases. PRL and Growth Hormone (GH) belong to the same cytokine family, both are, at least in part, secreted by the same somatomammotrophic cells in the anterior pituitary, and share similar signaling pathways. These common features raise the question whether PRL and GH share also joint actions especially in the pathogenesis of cancer...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Paul van Trotsenburg
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable forms of mental retardation and since the implementation of neonatal screening programs in the mid-1970s, early detection and treatment have proven to be very successful in preventing brain damage. CH may be of thyroidal (= primary) or of hypothalamic-pituitary (= central) origin. Primary CH may be due to abnormal thyroid gland formation (dysgenesis) or defective thyroid hormone syntheses by a structurally normal gland (dyshormonogenesis)...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Mitchell E Geffner
Although metabolic outcomes may be aided by dual therapy with GI and IGF-I, the one published study of the combination approach to treat children with non-GH-deficient short stature showed only a meager additional height response compared to that achieved with GH alone.
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Enrique Terán, Ron Rosenfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Michael Saminsky
BACKGROUND: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common oral diseases. Their link to disorders of endocrine system is of high interest. Most of the available data relates to the adult population, though its importance among children and adolescents is paramount. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing evidence examining the link between these clinical conditions among children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Electronic bibliographic databases and hand searches of relevant publications, based on prepared list of relevant key-words was performed...
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Noman Ahmad, Jean-Pierre Chanoine
The Arab societies have the highest prevalence of consanguineous marriages; this results in an increased incidence of autosomal recessive conditions. There are different trends of family marriages across the globe and also the teachings of major religions differ from each other. The culture of family marriages is no more limited in any specific part of world due to rapid and mass migration of people secondary to wars or economic reasons. The endocrine conditions are relatively less discussed in the medical literature as well as in genetic counselling programs...
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Roberto X Calix, Sara Ornaghi, Jean H Wilson, Nelson Fernandez, Francois Vialard, Eytan R Barnea, Michael J Paidas
The earliest stages of pregnancy are marked by countless changes in the maternal environment. A specific coordination of activity is required for a successful pregnancy, starting early in the menstrual cycle. Early establishment of maternal-fetal crosstalk is critical for the progression of pregnancy. Many factors, both maternal and fetal derived, play specific and important roles immediately following fertilization, through implantation and beyond. Here we present a review of some of the key factors involved with a focus on PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a small peptide secreted only by competent embryos, which carries an important role required for pregnancy progression...
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Inderpal Pal Singh Kochar, Smita Ramachandran, Aashish Sethi
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in adolescent girls and often over or under-diagnosed due to common features with normal puberty. Metformin an insulin sensitizer has been widely used in adult PCOS with benefits but the studies in adolescents are few. This use in adults has been translated to use in adolescents and we have done a review of these studies of metformin in adolescent PCOS and reported its use in weight reduction and hyperandrogenism.
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Anna Neyman, Erica A Eugster
The most common endocrinopathy associated with McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is peripheral precocious puberty (PP) which occurs far more often in girls than in boys. We will discuss the latest advancements in the treatment of precocious puberty in MAS that have been achieved during the past 10 years. However, due to the rarity of the condition and the heterogeneity of the disease, research in this field is limited particularly in regards to treatment in boys. In girls, a period of watchful waiting is recommended prior to initiating therapy due to extreme variability in the clinical course...
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Otfrid Butenandt
Herewith a definition of constitutional delay of growth and puberty shall be given. Whereas constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a hereditary variant of normal growth and development occurring in both sexes and is irrelevant to the familial height, non-constitutional delay is secondary to a variety of underlying disorders like chronic diseases, malnutrition, persistence of psychologic problems or hormonal anomalies. Constitutional delay occurs in boys and girls and will end in normal final height within the familial height range...
December 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
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