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Journal of Immunotoxicology

Arash Pourgholaminejad, Nasser Aghdami, Hossein Baharvand, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
T-Helper 17 (TH17) cells are a CD4(+) TH subset that plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, especially chronic forms. It seems that the derivation of TH17 cells from their precursors take place in inflammatory microenvironment. The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in TH17 cell differentiation is controversial. To address some of the discrepancies that exist among different studies, this study was undertaken to more clarify the TGFβ role in human TH17 cell differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Mallaiah Devanabanda, Shaik Abdul Latheef, Ramanadham Madduri
Understanding the effects of nanoparticles (NP) on immune cell functions is essential in designing safe and effective NP-based in vivo drug delivery systems. The immunomodulatory potential of gold nanoparticles (GNP) and silver nanoparticles (SNP) was investigated in vitro using murine splenic and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in terms of effects on viability and mitogen-induced proliferation. Hydrodynamic size and number of NP were characterized using NP tracking analysis (NTA); modal diameters of GNP and SNP were 28 (±1...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
María A Latorre, María L Romito, Alejandro Larriera, Gisela L Poletta, Pablo A Siroski
Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Dariush Haghmorad, Zohreh Salehipour, Reza Nosratabadi, Maryam Rastin, Parviz Kokhaei, Mohammad Bagher Mahmoudi, Abbas Ali Amini, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Estrogen is a neuro-protective hormone in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The present study evaluated the role of estrogen during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at doses selected to mimic any suppressive potential from the hormone during pregnancy. Here, mice were ovariectomized and then 2 weeks later treated with MOG antigen to induce EAE. Concurrently, mice then received (subcutaneously) an implanted pellet to deliver varying estrogen amounts over a 21-day period. Clinical scores and other parameters were monitored daily for the 21 days...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Galina V Seledtsova, Irina P Ivanova, Alexey A Shishkov, Victor I Seledtsov
The overall objective of disease management in autoimmune diseases is to suppress chronic inflammation and prevent organ damage. Therapies often revolve around five drug classes: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), anti-malarials, steroids, immunosuppressants, and bio-therapies. However, none of these is a 'cure' and each displays a potential for adverse events. In particular, while all of them suppress harmful autoimmune responses, they also impact on useful protective immune responses. T-Cell receptor (TCR) immunogenicity provides a rationale for T-cell vaccinations to induce anti-idiotypic immune responses with the purpose of down-regulating functionality of idiotype-bearing self-reactive T-cells...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Shanieek Lawrence, Samuel T Pellom, Anil Shanker, Margaret M Whalen
Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic environmental contaminant, has been widely utilized for various industrial, agricultural and household purposes. Its usage has led to a global contamination and its bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and terrestrial mammals. Previous studies suggest that TBT has debilitating effects on the overall immune function of animals, rendering them more vulnerable to diseases. TBT (at concentrations that have been detected in human blood) alters secretion of inflammatory cytokines from human lymphocytes ex vivo...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Jordan Kuiper, Michelle Moran, Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence has been steadily rising across the globe. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) has been implied as one potential cause of increased T1D occurrence. Since data regarding the role of POP polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) in autoimmune T1D development in experimental animal models are lacking, this study sought to evaluate the effect of PCB-153 exposure on T1D development in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. As T1D is an autoimmune, T-cell-dependent disease, PCB-153 effects on T-cells were studied as well...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Imen Helali, Saiida Ferchichi, Amal Maaouia, Mahjoub Aouni, Hedi Harizi
The immune response is the first defense against pathogens; however, it is very sensitive and can be impacted on by agrochemicals such as carbamate and organophosphate pesticides widely present in the environment. To understand how pesticides can affect immune cell function in vitro, this study investigated the effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and carbendazim (CBZ), the most commonly used pesticides worldwide, on murine immune cell (i.e. macrophage) functions, including lysosomal enzyme activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and nitric oxide (NO) production by isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Masumeh Taheri, Jalil Mehrzad, Reza Afshari, Massoud Saleh-Moghaddam, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie
An important outcome arising out of occupational/environmental exposure to arsenic (As) is immunotoxicity. To determine the impact of inorganic As on innate immune cells, effects of a low dose of NaAsO2 (i.e. 20 ng As/ml) on select parameters associated with human and bovine neutrophils (PMN) were evaluated in vitro. PMN isolated from the blood of healthy individuals and cows (n = 8/treatment) were pre-incubated with NaAsO2 for 12 h before effects on PMN phagocytosis, transcription of TLR2, TLR4 and CD64 in human PMN - as well as on phagocytosis-dependent/-independent cell chemiluminescence (CL), phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, PMN H2O2 production and necrosis and TLR4 transcription in bovine PMN - were assessed...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Anwar Alam, Niti Puri, Rajiv K Saxena
The interaction of poly-dispersed acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNT) with NK cells undergoing activation was examined. Exposure to AF-SWCNT during NK activation in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2, and in vivo by Poly(I:C) significantly lowered cytotoxic activity generated against YAC-1 tumor cells. Recoveries of spleen NK1.1(+) cells as well as the activated subset of NK cells (NK1.1(+)CD69(+) cells) were significantly reduced by the AF-SWCNT exposure. The proportion of apoptotic NK cells (NK1...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Feng Liu, Ping Cai, Imir Metushi, Jinze Li, Tetsuya Nakayawa, Libia Vega, Jack Uetrecht
Amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with a relatively high incidence of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) and agranulocytosis. A previous study reported that a combination of high dose AQ and glutathione (GSH) depletion led to liver injury. However, the characteristics of this toxicity were very different from AQ-induced liver injury in humans. We developed a model of AQ-induced liver injury with characteristics similar to the injury in humans by treating mice with lower doses of AQ for several weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Enayat Anvari, Shohreh Farhadi, Mehdi Yousefi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease characterized with immunopathobiological events, including lymphocytic infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS), microglia activation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although several neuroprotective drugs have been designed for the treatment of MS, complete remission is yet matter of debate. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic approaches for MS is of a high priority in immunological research. Nanomedicine is a recently developed novel medical field, which is applicable in both diagnosis and treatment of several cancers and autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Nasser Gholijani, Zahra Amirghofran
Thymol and carvacrol, two main components of thyme, have several valuable effects on the immune system. This study aims to evaluate the effects of these components on T-helper (TH) cell responses and their subsets in mice immunized with ovalbumin. The effects of these components on: a specific in vivo immune response were evaluated by assessing changes in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH); ex vivo splenocyte proliferative responses were evaluated using a BrdU assay gene expression of cytokines and key transcription factors involved in T-cells subset differentiation among the mouse splenocytes were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and splenocyte cytokine formation (ex vivo) and levels of the cytokines in mouse sera were measured by ELISA...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Risako Nishino, Tomoki Fukuyama, Yuko Watanabe, Yoshimi Kurosawa, Tadashi Koasaka, Takanori Harada
Respiratory allergy triggered by exposure to environmental chemical allergen is a serious problem in many Asian countries and has the potential to cause severe health problems. Here, we aimed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of this disease and develop an in vivo detection method for respiratory allergy induced by environmental chemical allergen. Both BALB/c and NC/Nga mice were sensitized topically for 3 weeks and were then subjected to inhalation challenge with pulverized trimellitic anhydride into particles measuring 2-μm in diameter...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Jalila Ben Salah-Abbès, Rania Jebali, Hakimeh Sharafi, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi, Ridha Oueslati, Samir Abbès
High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Mona F Schaalan, Walid A Mohamed
The antimicrobial β-defensin-like role of hepcidin (HEPC) has been increasingly investigated for its potential role in acute kidney injury (AKI). In sepsis-induced AKI, there is a complex interplay between positive and negative regulation of HEPC, with consequently altered distributions of iron caused by changes in HEPC levels. The aim of the current research was to assess serum HEPC levels in a cohort of septic patients with AKI and investigate the regulatory impact of hypoxia-inducing factor (HIF)-1α, erythropoietin (EPO) and inflammation on HEPC levels and related signal cascades in these patients...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Berran Yucesoy, Yerkebulan Talzhanov, M Michael Barmada, Victor J Johnson, Michael L Kashon, Elma Baron, Nevin W Wilson, Bonnie Frye, Wei Wang, Kara Fluharty, Rola Gharib, Jean Meade, Dori Germolec, Michael I Luster, Susan Nedorost
Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common work-related skin disease, especially affecting workers in "wet-work" occupations. This study was conducted to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and skin irritant response in a group of healthcare workers. 585 volunteer healthcare workers were genotyped for MHC SNPs and patch tested with three different irritants: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC)...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Rachel P Frawley, Matthew J Smith, Kimber L White, Susan A Elmore, Ron Herbert, Rebecca Moore, Lauren M Staska, Mamta Behl, Michelle J Hooth, Grace E Kissling, Dori R Germolec
Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Tsuguto Toda, Shin Yoshino
The mucosal immune system is exposed to non-self antigens in food and the gut microbiota. Therefore, the recognition of orally ingested non-self antigens is suppressed in healthy individuals to avoid excessive immune responses in a process called "oral tolerance". The breakdown of oral tolerance has been cited as a possible cause of food allergy, and amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been implicated in this breakdown. As nSP are widely used in foodstuffs and other products, exposure to them is increasing; thus, investigations of any effects of nSP on oral tolerance are urgent...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Amany Abdel-Rahman Mohamed, Wafaa A Mohamed
The aim of the present study was to explore the potential hematotoxic and immunotoxic effects of melamine (MA) in the absence and presence of formaldehyde (FA) in mice. Forty adult Swiss mice were equally allocated into four groups and daily treated with water, MA (50 mg/kg), FA (25 mg/kg), and MA + FA respectively via feeding needle for 60 consecutive days. Hematological status was evaluated using erythrogram and leukogram profiling. Innate immune functions were assessed by measuring white blood cells lysozyme and phagocytic activities...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
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