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Plant Biotechnology Journal

Jonathan J Powell, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jiri Stiller, Paul J Berkman, Donald M Gardiner, John M Manners, Robert J Henry, Kemal Kazan
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allopolyploid species containing three ancestral genomes. Therefore, three homoeologous copies exist for the majority of genes in the wheat genome. Whether different homoeologs are differentially expressed (homoeolog expression bias) in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is poorly understood. In this study, we applied a RNA-seq approach to analyze homoeolog-specific global gene expression patterns in wheat during infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum, which causes crown rot disease in cereals...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jingyu Lin, Dan Wang, Xinlu Chen, Tobias G Köllner, Mitra Mazarei, Hong Guo, Vincent R Pantalone, Prakash Arelli, Charles Neal Stewart, Ningning Wang, Feng Chen
Plant terpene synthase genes (TPSs) have roles in diverse biological processes. Here we report the functional characterization of one member of the soybean TPS gene family, which was designated GmAFS. Recombinant GmAFS produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed the formation of a sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. GmAFS is closely related to (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase gene from apple, both phylogenetically and structurally. GmAFS was further investigated for its biological role in defense against nematodes and insects...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jean-Yves Paul, Harjeet Khanna, Jennifer Kleidon, Phuong Hoang, Jason Geijskes, Jeff Daniells, Ella Zaplin, Yvonne Rosenberg, Anthony James, Bulukani Mlalazi, Pradeep Deo, Geofrey Arinaitwe, Priver Namanya, Douglas Becker, James Tindamanyire, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Robert Harding, James Dale
Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Lina Yao, Hui Shen, Nan Wang, Jaspaul Tatlay, Liang Li, Tin Wee Tan, Yuan Kun Lee
Microalgal neutral lipids (mainly in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs)), feasible substrates for biofuel, are typically accumulated during the stationary growth phase. To make microalgal biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels, generating strains that trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase is a promising biological approach. The regulatory mechanisms to trigger TAG accumulation from the exponential growth phase (TAEP) are important to be uncovered for advancing economic feasibility...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Justine Sucher, Rainer Boni, Ping Yang, Peter Rogowsky, Heike Büchner, Christine Kastner, Jochen Kumlehn, Simon G Krattinger, Beat Keller
Maize (corn) is one of the most widely grown cereal crops globally. Fungal diseases of maize cause significant economic damage by reducing maize yields and by increasing input costs for disease management. The most sustainable control of maize diseases is through the release and planting of maize cultivars with durable disease resistance. The wheat gene Lr34 provides durable and partial field resistance against multiple fungal diseases of wheat, including three wheat rust pathogens and wheat powdery mildew...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Wei Huang, Shiyuan Peng, Zhiqiang Xian, Dongbo Lin, Guojian Hu, Lu Yang, Maozhi Ren, Zhengguo Li
In Arabidopsis, the miR171-GRAS module has been clarified as key player in meristem maintenance. However, the knowledge about its role in fruit crops like tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) remains scarce. We previously identified tomato SlGRAS24 as a target gene of Sly-miR171. To study the role of this probable transcription factor SlGRAS24, we generated transgenic tomato plants under-expressing SlGRAS24, over-expressing SlGRAS24, over-expressing Sly-miR171, and expressing β-glucoronidase (GUS) under the SlGRAS24 promoter (proSlGRAS24-GUS)...
October 6, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Armin Scheben, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards
In the last decade, the revolution in sequencing technologies has deeply impacted crop genotyping practise. New methods allowing rapid, high-throughput genotyping of entire crop populations have proliferated and opened the door to wider use of molecular tools in plant breeding. These new genotyping by sequencing (GBS) methods include over a dozen reduced representation sequencing (RRS) approaches and at least four whole genome resequencing (WGR) approaches. The diversity of methods available, each often producing different types of data at different cost, can make selection of the best-suited method seem a daunting task...
October 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Amy Rinaldo, Brian Gilbert, Rainer Boni, Simon G Krattinger, Davinder Singh, Robert F Park, Evans Lagudah, Michael Ayliffe
The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in seedlings under standard growth conditions. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Shahin Noeparvar, Behrooz Darbani, Birgitte Tauris, Søren Husted, Daniel P Persson, Rebecca F Mills, Lorraine E William, Eva Vincze, Inger Holme, Søren Borg
Cereals are a major source of dietary energy and protein but are nutritionally poor in micronutrients. Zinc (Zn) biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a promising strategy to combat the global challenge of human Zn-deficiency. The aim of this study was to improve the Zn content in the edible part of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by enhancing Zn translocation into the developing seeds. We demonstrate that the barley plasma membrane P-type ATPase Zn transporter, HvHMA2 is an efficient candidate for mineral biofortification of crops...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Madoka Kudo, Satoshi Kidokoro, Takuya Yoshida, Junya Mizoi, Daisuke Todaka, Alisdair R Fernie, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
Although a variety of transgenic plants that are tolerant to drought stress have been generated, many of these plants show growth retardation. To improve drought tolerance and plant growth, we applied a gene-stacking approach using two transcription factor genes: DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING 1A (DREB1A) and rice PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR-LIKE 1 (OsPIL1). The overexpression of DREB1A has been reported to improve drought stress tolerance in various crops, although it also causes a severe dwarf phenotype...
September 29, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Udaykumar Kage, Shailesh Karre, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Curt McCartney
Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat is considered to be polygenic in nature. Cell wall fortification is one of the best resistance mechanisms in wheat against Fusarium graminearum which causes FHB. Metabolomics approach in our study led to the identification of a wide array of resistance related (RR) metabolites, among which hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs), such as, coumaroylagmatine and coumaroylputrescine were the highest fold-change RR metabolites in the rachis of a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL-R) upon F...
September 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Pei Xu, Xinyi Wu, María Muñoz-Amatriaín, Baogen Wang, Xiaohua Wu, Yaowen Hu, Bao-Lam Huynh, Timothy J Close, Philip A Roberts, Wen Zhou, Zhongfu Lu, Guojing Li
Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp) is a climate resilient legume crop important for food security. Cultivated cowpea (V. unguiculata L) generally comprises the bushy, short-podded grain cowpea dominant in Africa and the climbing, long-podded vegetable cowpea popular in Asia. How selection has contributed to the diversification of the two types of cowpea remains largely unknown. In the current study, a novel genotyping assay for over 50 000 SNPs was employed to delineate genomic regions governing pod length...
September 22, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhigang Li, Shuangrong Yuan, Haiyan Jia, Fangyuan Gao, Qian Hu, Dongfa Sun, Hong Luo
Flavodoxin (Fld) plays a pivotal role in photosynthetic microorganisms as an alternative electron carrier flavoprotein under adverse environmental conditions. Cyanobacterial Fld has been demonstrated to be able to substitute ferredoxin (Fd) of higher plants in most electron transfer processes under stressful conditions. We have explored the potential of Fld for use in improving plant stress response in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Overexpression of Fld altered plant growth and development. Most significantly, transgenic (TG) plants exhibited drastically enhanced performance under oxidative, drought and heat stress as well as nitrogen (N) starvation, which was associated with higher water retention and cell membrane integrity than wild type controls, modified expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, production of more reduced thioredoxin (Trx), elevated N accumulation and total chlorophyll content as well as up-regulated expression of nitrite reductase and N transporter genes...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Raviraj Banakar, Ána Alvarez Fernández, Javier Abadía, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou
Many metal transporters in plants are promiscuous, accommodating multiple divalent cations including some which are toxic to humans. Previous attempts to increase the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content of rice endosperm by overexpressing different metal transporters have therefore led unintentionally to the accumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Unlike other metal transporters, barley Yellow Stripe 1 (HvYS1) is specific for Fe. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this preference by constitutively expressing HvYS1 in rice under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter and comparing the mobilization and loading of different metals...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Inger Baeksted Holme, Giuseppe Dionisio, Claus Krogh Madsen, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19 fold (29000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alexandra M Allen, Mark O Winfield, Amanda J Burridge, Rowena C Downie, Harriet R Benbow, Gary L A Barker, Paul A Wilkinson, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Alessandro Davassi, Geoff Scopes, Ali Pirani, Teresa Webster, Fiona Brew, Claire Bloor, Simon Griffiths, Alison R Bentley, Mark Alda, Peter Jack, Andrew L Phillips, Keith J Edwards
Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilisation of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819,571 previously characterised wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35,143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions...
September 14, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Luisa Bortesi, Changfu Zhu, Julia Zischewski, Lucia Perez, Ludovic Bassié, Riad Nadi, Giobbe Forni, Sarah Boyd Lade, Erika Soto, Xin Jin, Vicente Medina, Gemma Villorbina, Pilar Muñoz, Gemma Farré, Rainer Fischer, Richard M Twyman, Teresa Capell, Paul Christou, Stefan Schillberg
The CRISPR/Cas9 system and related RNA-guided endonucleases can introduce double-strand breaks (DSBs) at specific sites in the genome, allowing the generation of targeted mutations in one or more genes as well as more complex genomic rearrangements. Modifications of the canonical CRISPR/Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes and the introduction of related systems from other bacteria have increased the diversity of genomic sites that can be targeted, providing greater control over the resolution of DSBs, the targeting efficiency (frequency of on-target mutations), the targeting accuracy (likelihood of off-target mutations) and the type of mutations that are induced...
September 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
A Mark Cigan, Manjit Singh, Geoffrey Benn, Lanie Feigenbutz, Manish Kumar, Myeong-Je Cho, Sergei Svitashev, Joshua Young
Targeted mutagenesis using programmable DNA endonucleases has broad applications for studying gene function in planta and developing approaches to improve crop yields. Recently, a genetic method that eliminates the need to emasculate the female inbred during hybrid seed production, referred to as Seed Production Technology, has been described. The foundation of this genetic system relied on classical methods to identify genes critical to anther and pollen development. One of these genes is a P450 gene which is expressed in the tapetum of anthers...
September 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Ramu S Vemanna, Amaranatha Reddy Vennapusa, Murugesh Easwaran, Babitha K Chandrashekar, Hanumantha Rao, Kirankumar Ghanti, Chinta Sudhakar, Kirankumar S Mysore, M Udayakumar
In recent years, concerns about the use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have increased because of glyphosate residual levels in plants and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. In spite of identifying glyphosate detoxifying genes from microorganisms, the plant mechanism to detoxify glyphosate has not been studied. We characterized an Aldo-keto reductase gene from Pseudomonas (PsAKR1) and rice (OsAKR1) and showed, by docking studies, both PsAKR1 and OsAKR1 can efficiently bind to glyphosate. Silencing AKR1 homologs in rice and Nicotiana benthamiana or mutation of AKR1 in yeast and Arabidopsis showed increased sensitivity to glyphosate...
September 9, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Qiang He, Kyu-Won Kim, Yong-Jin Park
Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population-selective or -adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure, and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice, and 10 wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry inference study clearly showed that the genetic distance of Korean weedy was far from the wild rice and near with cultivated rice...
September 2, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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