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Plant Biotechnology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892643/the-rice-osnac6-transcription-factor-orchestrates-multiple-molecular-mechanisms-involving-root-structural-adaptions-and-nicotianamine-biosynthesis-for-drought-tolerance
#1
Dong-Keun Lee, Pil Joong Chung, Jin Seo Jeong, Geupil Jang, Seung Woon Bang, Harin Jung, Youn Shic Kim, Sun-Hwa Ha, Yang Do Choi, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought has a serious impact on agriculture worldwide. A plant's ability to adapt to rhizosphere drought stress requires reprograming of root growth and development. Although physiological studies have documented the root adaption for tolerance to the drought stress, underlying molecular mechanisms is still incomplete, which is essential for crop engineering. Here, we identified OsNAC6-mediated root structural adaptations, including increased root number and root diameter, which enhanced drought tolerance. Multiyear drought field tests demonstrated that the grain yield of OsNAC6 root-specific overexpressing transgenic rice lines was less affected by drought stress than were non-transgenic controls...
November 28, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889940/sequencing-of-australian-wild-rice-genomes-reveals-ancestral-relationships-with-domesticated-rice
#2
Marta Brozynska, Dario Copetti, Agnelo Furtado, Rod A Wing, Darren Crayn, Glen Fox, Ryuji Ishikawa, Robert J Henry
The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short and long read next generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A, has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice (O...
November 27, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889933/development-and-field-performance-of-nitrogen-use-efficient-rice-lines-for-africa
#3
Michael Gomez Selvaraj, Milton Orlando Valencia, Satoshi Ogawa, Yingzhi Lu, Liying Wu, Christopher Downs, Wayne Skinner, Zhongjin Lu, Jean C Kridl, Manabu Ishitani, Jos van Boxtel
Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major input cost in rice production and its excess application leads to major environmental pollution. Development of rice varieties with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is essential for sustainable agriculture. Here, we report the results of field evaluations of marker-free transgenic NERICA4 (New Rice for Africa 4) rice lines over-expressing barley alanine amino transferase (HvAlaAT) under the control of a rice stress-inducible promoter (pOsAnt1). Field evaluations over three growing seasons and two rice growing ecologies (lowland and upland) revealed that grain yield of pOsAnt1:HvAlaAT transgenic events was significantly higher than sibling nulls and wild type controls under different N application rates...
November 27, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885771/selective-gene-dosage-by-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-hexaploid-camelina-sativa
#4
Céline Morineau, Yannick Bellec, Frédérique Tellier, Lionel Gissot, Zsolt Kelemen, Fabien Nogué, Jean-Denis Faure
In many plant species, gene dosage is an important cause of phenotype variation. Selectively engineering gene dosage, particularly in polyploid genomes, would provide an efficient tool for plant breeding. The hexaploid oilseed crop Camelina sativa, which has three closely-related expressed sub-genomes, is an ideal species for investigation of the possibility of creating a large collection of combinatorial mutants. Selective, targeted mutagenesis of the three delta-12-desaturase (FAD2) genes was achieved by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, leading to reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and increased accumulation of oleic acid in the oil...
November 25, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885764/development-of-rubber-enriched-dandelion-varieties-by-metabolic-engineering-of-the-inulin-pathway
#5
Anna Stolze, Alan Wanke, Nicole van Deenen, Roland Geyer, Dirk Prüfer, Christian Schulze Gronover
Natural rubber (NR) is an important raw material for a large number of industrial products. The primary source of NR is the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, but increased worldwide demand means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin) is such an alternative because large amounts of NR are produced in its root system. However, rubber biosynthesis must be improved in order to develop T. koksaghyz into a commercially feasible crop. In addition to NR, T...
November 25, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879048/coordinated-protein-co-expression-in-plants-by-harnessing-the-synergy-between-an-intein-and-a-viral-2a-peptide
#6
Bei Zhang, Madhusudhan Rapolu, Sandeep Kumar, Manju Gupta, Zhibin Liang, Zhenlin Han, Philip Williams, Wei Wen Su
A novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. An Ssp DnaE mini-intein variant engineered for hyper N-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an "IntF2A" self-excising fusion protein domain. This IntF2A domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (POI) from a "polyprotein" precursor in plants...
November 23, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875019/generation-of-targeted-mutant-rice-using-a-crispr-cpf1-system
#7
Rongfang Xu, Ruiying Qin, Hao Li, Dongdong Li, Li Li, Pengcheng Wei, Jianbo Yang
CRISPR-Cpf1 is a newly identified CRISPR-Cas system, and Cpf1 was recently engineered as a molecular tool for targeted genome editing in mammalian cells. To test whether the engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 system could induce the production of rice mutants, we selected two genome targets in the OsPDS and OsBEL genes. Our results show that both targets could be efficiently mutated in transgenic rice plants using CRISPR-Cpf1. We found that pre-crRNAs with a full-length direct repeat sequence exhibited considerably increased efficiencies compared with mature crRNAs...
November 22, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864852/h-pyrophosphatase-ibvp1-promotes-efficient-iron-use-in-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam
#8
Weijuan Fan, Hongxia Wang, Yinliang Wu, Nan Yang, Jun Yang, Peng Zhang
Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here we report that the transcription of type I H(+) -pyrophosphatase (H(+) -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862852/transgenic-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-targeted-for-reduced-recalcitrance-to-bioconversion-a-two-year-comparative-analysis-of-field-grown-lines-modified-for-target-gene-or-genetic-element-expression
#9
Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Kelsey L Yee, Olivia A Thompson, Charleson R Poovaiah, Hui Shen, Mitra Mazarei, Holly L Baxter, Chunxiang Fu, Zeng-Yu Wang, Ajaya K Biswal, Guifen Li, Yuhong Tang, C Neal Stewart, Richard A Dixon, Richard S Nelson, Debra Mohnen, Jonathan Mielenz, Steven D Brown, Brian H Davison
Transgenic Panicum virgatum L. silencing (KD) or over-expressing (OE) specific genes or a small RNA (GAUT4-KD, miRNA156-OE, MYB4-OE, COMT-KD and FPGS-KD) were grown in the field and aerial tissue analyzed for biofuel production traits. Clones representing independent transgenic lines were established and senesced tissue sampled after year one and two growth cycles. Biomass was analyzed for wall sugars, recalcitrance to enzymatic digestibility, and biofuel production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862842/the-wheat-nb-lrr-gene-tarcr1-is-required-for-host-defence-response-to-the-necrotrophic-fungal-pathogen-rhizoctonia-cerealis
#10
Xiuliang Zhu, Chungui Lu, Lipu Du, Xingguo Ye, Xin Liu, Anne Coules, Zengyan Zhang
The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen causing sharp eyespot disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins often mediate plant disease resistance to biotrophic pathogens. Little is known about the role of NB-LRR genes involved in wheat response to R. cerealis. In this study, a wheat NB-LRR gene, named TaRCR1, was identified in response to R. cerealis infection using Artificial Neural Network analysis based on comparative transcriptomics and its defence role was characterized...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862816/rnai-mediated-endogene-silencing-in-strawberry-fruit-detection-of-primary-and-secondary-sirnas-by-deep-sequencing
#11
Katja Härtl, Gregor Kalinowski, Thomas Hoffmann, Anja Preuss, Wilfried Schwab
RNA interference (RNAi) has been exploited as a reverse genetics tool for functional genomics in the non-model species strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) since 2006. Here, we analyzed for the first time different but overlapping nucleotide sections (> 200 nt) of two endogenous genes, FaCHS (chalcone synthase) and FaOMT (O-methyltransferase), as inducer sequences and a transitive vector system to compare their gene silencing efficiencies. In total, ten vectors were assembled each containing the nucleotide sequence of one fragment in sense and corresponding antisense orientation separated by an intron (inverted hairpin construct, ihp)...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862889/significant-enhancement-of-fatty-acid-composition-in-seeds-of-the-allohexaploid-camelina-sativa-using-crispr-cas9-gene-editing
#12
Wen Zhi Jiang, Isabelle M Henry, Peter G Lynagh, Luca Comai, Edgar B Cahoon, Donald P Weeks
The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i...
November 11, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862876/tomato-facultative-parthenocarpy-results-from-slagamous-like-6-loss-of-function
#13
Chen Klap, Ester Yeshayahou, Anthony M Bolger, Tzahi Arazi, Suresh K Gupta, Sara Shabtai, Björn Usadel, Yehiam Salts, Rivka Barg
The extreme sensitivity of the microsporogenesis process to moderately high or low temperatures is a major hindrance for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) sexual reproduction and hence year-round cropping. Consequently, breeding for parthenocarpy, i.e. fertilization-independent fruit set, is considered a valuable goal especially for maintaining sustainable agriculture in the face of global warming. A mutant capable of setting high quality seedless (parthenocarpic) fruit was found following a screen of EMS mutagenized tomato population for yielding under heat stress...
November 11, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862820/generation-of-marker-free-transgenic-hexaploid-wheat-via-an-agrobacterium-mediated-co-transformation-strategy-in-commercial-chinese-wheat-varieties
#14
Ke Wang, Huiyun Liu, Lipu Du, Xingguo Ye
Genotype-specificity is a big problem lagging the development of efficient hexaploid wheat transformation system. Increasingly, the biosecurity of genetically modified organisms is garnering public attention, so the generation of marker-free transgenic plants is very important to the eventual potential commercial release of transgenic wheat. In this study, 15 commercial Chinese hexaploid wheat varieties were successfully transformed via an Agrobacterium-mediated method, with efficiency of up to 37.7%, as confirmed by the use of Quickstix strips, histochemical staining, PCR analysis, and Southern blotting...
November 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862819/expression-in-grasses-of-multiple-transgenes-for-degradation-of-munitions-compounds-on-live-fire-training-ranges
#15
Long Zhang, Ryan Routsong, Quyen Nguyen, Elizabeth L Rylott, Neil C Bruce, Stuart E Strand
The deposition of toxic munitions compounds, such as hexahydro-1, 3, 5-triniitro-1, 3, 5-trizaine (RDX), on soils around targets in live-fire-training ranges is an important source of groundwater contamination. Plants take up RDX but do not significantly degrade it. Reported here is the transformation of two perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), with the genes for degradation of RDX. These species possess a number of agronomic traits making them well-equipped for the uptake and removal of RDX from root zone leachates...
November 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860233/the-heat-shock-protein-chaperone-network-and-multiple-stress-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Pierre Jacob, Heribert Hirt, Abdelhafid Bendahmane
Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multi-stress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once...
November 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808473/extensive-homoeologous-genome-exchanges-in-allopolyploid-crops-revealed-by-mrnaseq-based-visualization
#17
Z He, L Wang, A L Harper, L Havlickova, A K Pradhan, I A P Parkin, I Bancroft
Polyploidy, the possession of multiple sets of chromosomes, has been a predominant factor in the evolution and success of the angiosperms. Although artificially formed allopolyploids show a high rate of genome rearrangement, the genomes of cultivars and germplasm used for crop breeding were assumed stable and genome structural variation under the artificial selection process of commercial breeding has remained little studied. Here we show, using a repurposed visualization method based on transcriptome sequence data, that genome structural rearrangement occurs frequently in varieties of three polyploid crops (oilseed rape, mustard rape and bread wheat), meaning that the extent of genome structural variation present in commercial crops is much higher than expected...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808470/stable-production-of-cyanophycinase-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-its-functionality-to-hydrolyse-cyanophycin-in-the-murine-intestine
#18
Daniel Ponndorf, Sven Ehmke, Benjamin Walliser, Kerstin Thoss, Christoph Unger, Solvig Görs, Gürbüz Daş, Cornelia C Metges, Inge Broer, Henrik Nausch
Food supplementation with the conditionally essential amino acid arginine (Arg) has been shown to have nutritional benefits. Degradation of cyanophycin (CGP), a peptide polymer used for nitrogen storage by cyanobacteria, requires cyanophycinase (CGPase) and results in the release of β-aspartic acid (Asp)-(Arg) dipeptides. The simultaneous production of CGP and CGPase in plants could be a convenient source of Arg dipeptides. Different variants of the cphB coding region from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775871/overexpression-of-the-16-kda-%C3%AE-amylase-trypsin-inhibitor-rag2-improves-grain-yield-and-quality-in-rice
#19
Wei Zhou, Xin Wang, Dan Zhou, Yidan Ouyang, Jialing Yao
Increasing grain yield and improving grain quality are two important goals for rice breeding. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quantity and nutritional quality of rice will lay the foundation for developing new breeding strategies. RAG2 is a member of 14-16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors in rice, which belong to the albumin of seed storage proteins. We found that RAG2 was specifically expressed in ripening seed and its transcription peak was between 14 and 21 days after flowering...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775869/degradation-of-lignin-%C3%AE-aryl-ether-units-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-expressing-ligd-ligf-and-ligg-from-sphingomonas-paucimobilis-syk-6
#20
Ewelina Mnich, Ruben Vanholme, Paula Oyarce, Sarah Liu, Fachuang Lu, Geert Goeminne, Bodil Jørgensen, Mohammed Saddik Motawie, Wout Boerjan, John Ralph, Peter Ulvskov, Birger Lindberg Møller, Nanna Bjarnholt, Jesper Harholt
Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin inter-unit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce post-lignification modifications into the lignin structure...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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