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Plant Biotechnology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024337/-two-florets-spikelet-as-a-novel-resource-has-the-potential-to-increase-rice-yield
#1
Deyong Ren, Haiping Yu, Yuchun Rao, Qiankun Xu, Tingting Zhou, Jiang Hu, Yu Zhang, Guangheng Zhang, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guang Chen, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng, Qian Qian
Yield in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by three major components: panicle number per plant, grain weight, and grain/spikelet number per panicle (Zhou et al., 2015). Grain number per panicle is one of the main targets, and mainly results from the number of spikelets. Traditionally, rice breeders have focused on the improvement of spikelet number per panicle and rarely focused on the number of florets because a normal rice spikelet has one fertile floret and produces one seed. This article is protected by copyright...
October 11, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024288/high-resolution-mapping-of-the-of-the-peri-centromeric-region-on-wheat-chromosome-arm-5as-harboring-the-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-qtl-qfhs-ifa-5a
#2
Maria Buerstmayr, Barbara Steiner, Christian Wagner, Petra Schwarz, Klaus Brugger, Delfina Barabaschi, Andrea Volante, Giampiero Valè, Luigi Cattivelli, Hermann Buerstmayr
The Qfhs.ifa-5A allele, contributing to enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat, resides in a low recombinogenic region of chromosome 5A close to the centromere. A near isogenic RIL population segregating for the Qfhs.ifa-5A resistance allele was developed and among 3650 lines as few as four recombined within the pericentromeric C-5AS1-0.40 bin, yielding only a single recombination point. Genetic mapping of the pericentromeric region using a recombination dependent approach was thus not successful...
October 11, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985014/cacao-biotechnology-current-status-and-future-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Anushka M Wickramasuriya, Jim M Dunwell
Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975735/engineering-camelina-sativa-l-crantz-for-enhanced-oil-and-seed-yields-by-combining-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase1-and-glycerol-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-expression
#4
Sudesh Chhikara, Hesham M Abdullah, Parisa Akbari, Danny Schnell, Om Parkash Dhankher
Plant seed oils based liquid transportation fuels (i.e., biodiesel and green diesel) have tremendous potential as environmentally, economically and technologically feasible alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. Due to their nutritional and industrial importance, one of the major objectives is to increase the seed yield and oil production of oilseed crops via biotechnological approaches. Camelina sativa, an emerging oilseed crop, has been proposed as an ideal crop for biodiesel and bioproducts applications...
October 4, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973784/peanuts-that-keep-aflatoxin-at-bay-a-threshold-that-matters
#5
Kiran K Sharma, Arunima Pothana, Kalyani Prasad, Dilip Shah, Jagdeep Kaur, Deepak Bhatnagar, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Yenjit Raruang, Jeffrey W Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Hari Kishan Sudini, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur
Aflatoxin contamination in peanuts poses major challenges for vulnerable populations of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Developing peanut varieties to combat pre-harvest Aspergillus flavus infection and resulting aflatoxin contamination has thus far remained a major challenge, confounded by highly complex peanut-Aspergilli pathosystem. Our study reports achieving high level of resistance in peanut by over expressing (OE) antifungal plant defensins MsDef1 and MtDef4.2, and through host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) of aflM and aflP genes from the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
October 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944540/three-atcesa6-like-members-enhance-biomass-production-by-distinctively-promoting-cell-growth-in-arabidopsis
#6
Huizhen Hu, Ran Zhang, Shengqiu Feng, Youmei Wang, Yanting Wang, Chunfen Fan, Ying Li, Zengyu Liu, René Schneider, Tao Xia, Shi-You Ding, Staffan Persson, Liangcai Peng
Cellulose is an abundant biopolymer and a prominent constituent of plant cell walls. Cellulose is also a central component to plant morphogenesis and contributes the bulk of a plant's biomass. While cellulose synthase (CesA) genes were identified over two decades ago, genetic manipulation of this family to enhance cellulose production has remained difficult. In this study, we show that increasing the expression levels of the three primary cell wall AtCesA6-like genes (AtCesA2, -5, -6), but not AtCesA3, AtCesA9 or secondary cell wall AtCesA7, can promote the expression of major primary wall CesA genes to accelerate primary wall CesA complex (CSCs) particle movement for acquiring long microfibrils and consequently increasing cellulose production in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, as compared with wild type...
September 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944538/mumads1-and-maofp1-regulate-fruit-quality-in-a-tomato-ovate-mutant
#7
Juhua Liu, Jing Zhang, Jingyi Wang, Jianbin Zhang, Hongxia Miao, Caihong Jia, Zhuo Wang, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Fruit ripening and quality are common botanical phenomena that are closely linked and strictly regulated by transcription factors. It was previously discovered that a banana MADS-box protein named MuMADS1 interacted with an ovate family protein named MaOFP1 to regulate banana fruit ripening. In order to further investigate the role of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in the regulation of fruit quality, a combination of genetic transformation and transcriptional characterization was used. The results indicated that the co-expression of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in the ovate mutant could compensate for fruit shape and inferior qualities relating to fruit firmness, soluble solids and sugar content...
September 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944536/transcriptomic-repertoires-depict-the-initiation-of-lint-and-fuzz-fibers-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#8
Haiyan Hu, Maojun Wang, Yuanhao Ding, Sitao Zhu, Guannan Zhao, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
Cotton fiber is an important natural fiber for the textile industry. The number of fiber initials determines the lint percentage, which is an important factor for cotton fiber yield. Although fiber development has been described by transcriptomic analysis, the mechanism by which the long non-coding RNA manipulate the initiation of lint and fuzz fibers remains unknown. In this study, three lines with different lint percentages were developed by crossing Xu142 with its fiberless mutant Xu142 fl. We collected the epidermal cells from the ovules with attached fibers at 0 and 5 days post-anthesis (DPA) from Xu142, the fiberless mutant Xu142 fl and the three lint percent diversified lines for deep transcriptome sequencing...
September 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941315/host-induced-silencing-of-essential-genes-in-puccinia-triticina-through-transgenic-expression-of-rnai-sequences-reduces-severity-of-leaf-rust-infection-in-wheat
#9
Vinay Panwar, Mark Jordan, Brent McCallum, Guus Bakkeren
Leaf rust, caused by the pathogenic fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt), is one of the most serious biotic threats to sustainable wheat production worldwide. This obligate biotrophic pathogen is prevalent worldwide and is known for rapid adaptive evolution to overcome resistant wheat varieties. Novel disease control approaches are therefore required to minimize the yield losses caused by Pt. Having shown previously the potential of host-delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) in functional screening of Pt genes involved in pathogenesis, we here evaluated the use of this technology in transgenic wheat plants as a method to achieve protection against wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection...
September 23, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941083/from-model-to-crop-functional-characterization-of-spl8-in-m-truncatula-led-to-genetic-improvement-of-biomass-yield-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-alfalfa
#10
Jiqing Gou, Smriti Debnath, Liang Sun, Amy Flanagan, Yuhong Tang, Qingzhen Jiang, Jiangqi Wen, Zeng-Yu Wang
Biomass yield, salt tolerance and drought tolerance are important targets for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) improvement. Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model plant for alfalfa and other legumes. By screening a Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged M. truncatula mutant population, we identified three mutants with enhanced branching. Branch development determines shoot architecture which affects important plant functions like light acquisition, resource use and ultimately impacts biomass production. Molecular analyses revealed that the mutations were caused by Tnt1 insertions in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8) gene...
September 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929638/interactions-of-wrky15-and-wrky33-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-the-resistance-of-oilseed-rape-to-sclerotinia-infection
#11
Fei Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Meirong Wang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Chaozhi Ma, Tingdong Fu, Jinxing Tu
WRKY transcription factors are known to participate in the defense responses of higher plants. However, little is known about the roles of such proteins, especially regarding their functions in the resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes stem rot. In the present study, we identified BnWRKY33 as a S. sclerotiorum-responsive gene that positively regulates resistance to this pathogen by enhancing the expression of genes involved in camalexin synthesis and genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929610/identification-of-bottlenecks-in-the-accumulation-of-cyclic-fatty-acids-in-camelina-seed-oil
#12
Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E Cahoon, Patrick J Horn, Hai Shi, Richa Rawat Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D Chapman, Edgar B Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin
Modified fatty acids (mFA) have diverse uses, e.g., cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are feedstocks for producing coatings, lubricants, plastics, and cosmetics. The expression of mFA-producing enzymes in crop and model plants generally results in lower levels of mFA accumulation than in their natural-occurring source plants. Thus, to further our understanding of metabolic bottlenecks that limit mFA accumulation, we generated transgenic Camelina sativa lines co-expressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase (EcCPS) and Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929574/metabolite-and-transcript-markers-for-the-prediction-of-potato-drought-tolerance
#13
Heike Sprenger, Alexander Erban, Sylvia Seddig, Katharina Rudack, Anja Thalhammer, Mai Q Le, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Karin I Köhl, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Current potato varieties are highly susceptible to drought stress. In view of global climate change, selection of cultivars with improved drought tolerance and high yield potential is of paramount importance. Drought tolerance breeding of potato is currently based on direct selection according to yield and phenotypic traits and requires multiple trials under drought conditions. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is cheaper, faster and reduces classification errors caused by non-controlled environmental effects...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921815/low-gluten-non-transgenic-wheat-engineered-with-crispr-cas9
#14
Susana Sánchez-León, Javier Gil-Humanes, Carmen V Ozuna, María J Giménez, Carolina Sousa, Daniel F Voytas, Francisco Barro
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and rye. The -gliadin gene family of wheat contains four highly stimulatory peptides, of which the 33-mer is the main immunodominant peptide in celiac patients. We designed two sgRNAs to target a conserved region adjacent to the coding sequence for the 33-mer in the -gliadin genes. Twenty-one mutant lines were generated, all showing strong reduction in -gliadins. Up to 35 different genes were mutated in one of the lines of the 45 different genes identified in the wild type, while immunoreactivity was reduced by 85%...
September 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921769/construction-of-agropyron-gaertn-genetic-linkage-maps-using-a-wheat-660k-snp-array-reveals-a-homoeologous-relationship-with-the-wheat-genome
#15
Shenghui Zhou, Jinpeng Zhang, Yonghe Che, Weihua Liu, Yuqing Lu, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Jizeng Jia, Xu Liu, Lihui Li
Agropyron Gaertn. (P genome) is a wild relative of wheat that harbours many genetic variations that could be used to increase the genetic diversity of wheat. To agronomically transfer important genes from the P genome to a wheat chromosome by induced homoeologous pairing and recombination, it is necessary to determine the chromosomal relationships between Agropyron and wheat. Here, we report using the wheat 660K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype a segregating Agropyron F1 population derived from an interspecific cross between two cross-pollinated diploid collections 'Z1842' [A...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913899/genotyping-by-sequencing-through-transcriptomics-implementation-in-a-range-of-crop-species-with-varying-reproductive-habits-and-ploidy-levels
#16
M Michelle Malmberg, Luke W Pembleton, Rebecca C Baillie, Michelle C Drayton, Shimna Sudheesh, Sukhjiwan Kaur, Hiroshi Shinozuka, Preeti Verma, German C Spangenberg, Hans D Daetwyler, John W Forster, Noel O I Cogan
The application of genomics in crops has the ability to significantly improve genetic gain for agriculture. Many marker-dense tools have been developed, but few have seen broad adoption in plant genomics due to issues of significant variations of genome size, levels of ploidy, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency and reproductive habit. When combined with limited breeding activities, small research communities and scant sequence resources, the suitability of popular systems is often suboptimal and routinely fails to effectively balance cost-effectiveness and sample throughput...
September 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913885/development-and-evaluation-of-high-density-snp-array-axiom-%C3%A2-cicersnp%C3%A2-array-for-high-resolution-genetic-mapping-and-breeding-applications-in-chickpea
#17
Manish Roorkiwal, Ankit Jain, Sandip M Kale, Dadakhalandar Doddamani, Annapurna Chitikineni, Mahendar Thudi, Rajeev K Varshney
To accelerate genomics research and molecular breeding applications in chickpea, a high-throughput SNP genotyping platform 'Axiom(®) CicerSNP array' has been designed, developed and validated. Screening of whole genome re-sequencing data from 429 chickpea lines identified 4.9 million SNPs from which a sub-set of 70,463 high quality non redundant SNPs was selected using different stringent filter criteria's. This was further narrowed down to 61,174 SNPs based on p-convert score ≥ 0.3, of which 50,590 SNPs could be tiled on array...
September 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913866/conversion-of-array-based-single-nucleotide-polymorphic-markers-for-use-in-targeted-genotyping-by-sequencing-in-hexaploid-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#18
Amanda J Burridge, Paul A Wilkinson, Mark O Winfield, Gary L A Barker, Alexandra M Allen, Jane A Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Keith J Edwards
Wheat breeders and academics alike use Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as molecular markers to characterise regions of interest within the hexaploid wheat genome. A number of SNP-based genotyping platforms are available and their utility depends upon factors such as the available technologies, number of data points required, budgets and the technical expertise required. Unfortunately, markers can rarely be exchanged between existing and newly developed platforms, meaning that previously generated data cannot be compared, or combined, with more recently generated datasets...
September 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905515/crispr-cas9-mediated-efficient-targeted-mutagenesis-in-grape-in-the-first-generation
#19
Xianhang Wang, Mingxing Tu, Dejun Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yajuan Li, Zhi Li, Yuejin Wang, Xiping Wang
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a powerful tool for editing plant genomes. Efficient genome editing of grape (Vitis vinifera) suspension cells using the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been demonstrated; however, it has not been established whether this system can be applied to get biallelic mutations in the first generation of grape. In this current study, we designed four guide RNAs for the VvWRKY52 transcription factor gene for using with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and obtained transgenic plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, using somatic embryos of the Thompson Seedless cultivar...
September 14, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905511/talen-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis-of-more-than-100-comt-copies-alleles-in-highly-polyploid-sugarcane-improves-saccharification-efficiency-without-compromising-biomass-yield
#20
Baskaran Kannan, Je Hyeong Jung, Geoffrey W Moxley, Sun-Mi Lee, Fredy Altpeter
Sugarcane is the world's most efficient feedstock for commercial production of bioethanol due to its superior biomass production and accumulation of sucrose in stems. Integrating first and second generation ethanol conversion processes will enhance the biofuel yield per unit area by utilizing both sucrose as well as cell wall bound sugars for fermentation. RNAi suppression of the lignin biosynthetic gene caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been demonstrated to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass...
September 14, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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