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Plant Biotechnology Journal

Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought stress seriously impacts on plant development and productivity. Improvement of drought tolerance without yield penalty is a great challenge in crop biotechnology. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene, OsTF1L (Oryza sativa transcription factor 1-like), is a key regulator of drought tolerance mechanisms. Overexpression of the OsTF1L in rice significantly increased drought tolerance at the vegetative stages of growth and promoted both effective photosynthesis and a reduction in the water loss rate under drought conditions...
May 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Cheng Xue, Jia-Long Yao, Meng-Fan Qin, Ming-Yue Zhang, Andrew C Allan, De-Fu Wang, Jun Wu
Lignified stone cells substantially reduce fruit quality. Therefore, it is desirable to inhibit stone cell development by using genetic technologies. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating lignification are poorly understood in fruit stone cells. In this study, we have shown that microRNA (miR) miR397a regulates fruit cell lignification by inhibiting laccase (LAC) genes that encode key lignin biosynthesis enzymes. Transient overexpression of PbrmiR397a, which is the miR397a of Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and simultaneous silencing of three LAC genes reduced the lignin content and stone cell number in pear fruit...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sarah D'Adamo, Gino Schiano di Visconte, Gavin Lowe, Joanna Szaub-Newton, Tracey Beacham, Andrew Landels, Michael J Allen, Andrew Spicer, Michiel Matthijs
Plant triterpenoids constitute a diverse class of organic compounds that play a major role in development, plant defense and environmental interaction. Several triterpenes have demonstrated potential as pharmaceuticals. One example is betulin, which has shown promise as a pharmaceutical precursor for the treatment of certain cancers and HIV. Major challenges for triterpenoid commercialization include their low production levels and their cost-effective purification from the complex mixtures present in their natural hosts...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jiao Xu, Xiyan Yang, Baoqi Li, Lin Chen, Ling Min, Xianlong Zhang
Auxin is as an efficient initiator and regulator of cell fate during somatic embryogenesis (SE), but the molecular mechanisms and regulating networks of this process are not well understood. In this report, we analysed SE process induced by Leafy cotyledon1-like 1 (GhL1L1), a NF-YB subfamily gene specifically expressed in embryonic tissues in cotton. We also identified the target gene of GhL1L1, and its role in auxin distribution and cell fate specification during embryonic development was analysed. Overexpression of GhL1L1 accelerated embryonic cell formation, associated with an increased concentration of IAA in embryogenic calluses (ECs) and in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), corresponding to altered expression of the auxin transport gene GhPIN1...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jingfei Guo, Jinfeng Qi, Kanglai He, Jianqiang Wu, Shuxiong Bai, Tiantao Zhang, Jiuran Zhao, Zhenying Wang
The Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) is a destructive pest of maize (Zea mays L.). Despite large-scale commercial maize production, little is known about the defensive responses of field-grown commercial maize to O. furnacalis herbivory, and how these responses result in direct and indirect defense against this pest. To elucidate the maize transcriptome response to O. furnacalis feeding, leaves of maize hybrid Jingke968 were infested with O. furnacalis for 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h. O. furnacalis feeding elicited stronger and more rapid changes in the defense-related gene expression (i...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhitong Ren, Shaozhen He, Ning Zhao, Hong Zhai, Qingchang Liu
Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1) is an essential energy-sensing regulator and plays a key role in the global control of carbohydrate metabolism. The SnRK1 gene has been found to increase starch accumulation in several plant species. However, its roles in improving starch quality have not been reported to date. In the present study, we found that the IbSnRK1 gene was highly expressed in the storage roots of sweet potato and strongly induced by exgenous sucrose. Its expression followed the circandian rhythm...
May 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Rice, a staple food for more than half of the world population, is an important target for iron and zinc biofortification. Current strategies mainly focus on the expression of genes for efficient uptake, long-distance transport and storage. Targeting intracellular iron mobilization to increase grain iron levels has not been reported. Vacuole is an important cell compartment for iron storage and the NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGE PROTEIN (NRAMP) family of transporters export iron from vacuoles to cytosol when needed...
May 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yidong Ran, Nicola Patron, Pippa Kay, Debbie Wong, Margaret Buchanan, Ying-Ying Cao, Tim Sawbridge, John P Davies, John Mason, Steven R Webb, German Spangenberg, W Michael Ainley, Terence A Walsh, Matthew J Hayden
Sequence-specific nucleases have been used to engineer targeted genome modifications in various plants. While targeted gene knockouts resulting in loss-of-function have been reported with relatively high rates of success, targeted gene editing using an exogenously supplied DNA repair template and site-specific transgene integration has been more challenging. Here, we report the first application of Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN)-mediated, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-directed editing of a native gene in allohexaploid bread wheat to introduce, via a supplied DNA repair template, a specific single amino acid change into the coding sequence of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) to confer resistance to imidazolinone herbicides...
May 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Iulian Gabur, Harmeet Singh Chawla, Xiwei Liu, Vinod Kumar, Sébastien Faure, Andreas von Tiedemann, Christophe Jestin, Emmanuelle Dryzska, Susann Volkmann, Frank Breuer, Régine Delourme, Rod Snowdon, Christian Obermeier
Evolutionary processes during plant polyploidisation and speciation have led to extensive presence-absence variation (PAV) in crop genomes, and there is increasing evidence that PAV associates with important traits. Today, high-resolution genetic analysis in major crops frequently implements simple, cost-effective, high-throughput genotyping from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) hybridization arrays, however these are normally not designed to distinguish PAV from failed SNP calls caused by hybridization artefacts...
May 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhengxi Sun, Chao Su, Jinxia Yun, Qiong Jiang, Lixiang Wang, Youning Wang, Dong Cao, Fang Zhao, Qingsong Zhao, Mengchen Zhang, Bin Zhou, Lei Zhang, Fanjiang Kong, Baohui Liu, Yiping Tong, Xia Li
The optimization of plant architecture in order to breed high-yielding soybean cultivars is a goal of researchers. Tall plants bearing many long branches are desired, but only modest success in reaching these goals has been achieved. MicroRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene modules play pivotal roles in controlling shoot architecture and other traits in crops like rice and wheat. However, the effects of miR156-SPL modules on soybean architecture and yield, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, remain largely unknown...
May 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Mohammad Yazdani, Zhaoxia Sun, Hui Yuan, Shaohua Zeng, Theodore W Thannhauser, Julia Vrebalov, Qiyue Ma, Yimin Xu, Zhangjun Fei, Joyce Van Eck, Shiping Tian, Yaakov Tadmor, James J Giovannoni, Li Li
Carotenoids are critically important to plants and humans. The ORANGE (OR) gene is a key regulator for carotenoid accumulation, but its physiological roles in crops remain elusive. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato ectopically overexpressing the Arabidopsis wild type OR (AtORWT ) and a 'golden SNP'-containing OR (AtORH is ). We found that AtORH is initiated chromoplast formation in very young fruit and stimulated carotenoid accumulation at all fruit developmental stages, uncoupled from other ripening activities...
May 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Tong Zhu, Lijuan Zou, Yan Li, Xiuhong Yao, Fei Xu, Xingguang Deng, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is involved in a large number of plant physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses; however, the exact role of AOX in response to drought remains unclear. In our study, we provide solid evidences that the activated AOX capacity positively involved in ethylene-induced drought tolerance, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), accompanied by the changing level of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and autophagy. In AOX1a-RNAi plants, the ethylene-induced drought tolerance was aggravated and associated with decreasing level of autophagy...
May 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Bala Ani Akpinar, Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Burcu Alptekin, Miroslava Havránková, Jan Vrána, Jaroslav Doležel, Assaf Distelfeld, Pilar Hernandez, Hikmet Budak
Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is the progenitor of wheat. We performed chromosome-based survey sequencing of the 14 chromosomes, examining repetitive sequences, protein-coding genes, miRNA/target pairs and tRNA genes, as well as syntenic relationships with related grasses. We found considerable differences in the content and distribution of repetitive sequences between the A and B subgenomes. The gene contents of individual chromosomes varied widely, not necessarily correlating with chromosome size...
May 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhen Liang, Kunling Chen, Yan Yan, Yi Zhang, Caixia Gao
Despite the great achievements in genome editing, accurately detecting mutations induced by sequence-specific nucleases is still a challenge in plants, especially in polyploidy plants. An efficient detection method is particularly vital when the mutation frequency is low or when a large population needs to be screened. Here, we applied purified CRISPR ribonucleoprotein complexes to cleave PCR products for genome-edited mutation detection in hexaploid wheat and diploid rice. We show that this mutation detection method is more sensitive than Sanger sequencing and more applicable than PCR/RE method without the requirement for restriction enzyme site...
May 3, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zifeng Guo, Guozheng Liu, Marion S Röder, Jochen C Reif, Martin W Ganal, Thorsten Schnurbusch
One of the primary objectives of wheat breeding is to increase grain yield. Floral abortion during the stem elongation phase (SEP) leads to a loss of more than 50% of the grain number potential. In this study, we quantified 75 plant growth-associated traits at seven stages during the SEP, and mapped 15,696 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 210 accessions of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Our genome-wide association study identified trait-associated SNPs that are shared among various stages of the SEP, as well as SNPs that are shared between plant growth traits and grain yield in the field...
May 3, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zetao Bai, Tianxiong Qi, Yuchen Liu, Zhenying Wu, Lichao Ma, Wenwen Liu, Yingping Cao, Yan Bao, Chunxiang Fu
Methionine (Met) synthesized from aspartate is a fundamental amino acid needed to produce S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) that is an important cofactor for the methylation of monolignols. As a competitive inhibitor of SAM-dependent methylation, the effect of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) on lignin biosynthesis, however, is still largely unknown in plants. Expression levels of Cystathionine γ-synthase (PvCGS) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase1 (PvSAHH1) were downregulated by RNAi technology, respectively, in switchgrass, a dual-purpose forage and biofuel crop...
April 28, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yuhya Wakasa, Taiji Kawakatsu, Takeo Harada, Fumio Takaiwa
To induce transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of endogenous genes of rice (Oryza sativa L.), we expressed double-strand RNA of each promoter region and thus induced RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We targeted constitutively expressed genes encoding calnexin (CNX), protein disulfide isomerase (PDIL1-1), and luminal binding protein (BiP1); an endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible gene (OsbZIP50); and genes with seed-specific expression encoding α-globulin (Glb-1) and glutelin-B4 (GluB4). TGS of four genes was obtained with high efficiency (CNX, 66...
April 28, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Ya-Ting Chao, Wan-Chieh Chen, Chun-Yi Chen, Hsiu-Yin Ho, Chih-Hsin Yeh, Yi-Tzu Kuo, Chun-Lin Su, Shao-Hua Yen, Hao-Yen Hsueh, Jen-Hau Yeh, Hui-Lan Hsu, Yi-Hui Tsai, Tzu-Yen Kuo, Song-Bin Chang, Kai-Yi Chen, Ming-Che Shih
The Orchidaceae is a diverse and ecologically important plant family. Approximately 69% of all orchid species are epiphytes, which provide diverse microhabitats for many small animals and fungi in the canopy of tropical rainforests. Moreover, many orchids are of economic importance as food flavorings or ornamental plants. Phalaenopsis aphrodite, an epiphytic orchid, is a major breeding parent of many commercial orchid hybrids. We provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of the P. aphrodite genome. The total length of all scaffolds is 1025...
April 28, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Thierry L Delatte, Giulia Scaiola, Jamil Molenaar, Katyuce de Sousa Farias, Leticia Alves Gomes Albertti, Jacqueline Busscher, Francel Verstappen, Carlos Carollo, Harro Bouwmeester, Jules Beekwilder
Plants store volatile compounds in specialized organs. The properties of these storage organs prevent precarious evaporation and protect neighbouring tissues from cytotoxicity. Metabolic engineering of plants is often done in tissues such as leaf mesophyll cells, which are abundant and easily accessible by engineering tools. However, these tissues are not suitable for the storage of volatile and hydrophobic compound such as sesquiterpenes and engineered volatiles are often lost into the headspace. In the present study we show that the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, which naturally contain lipid bodies, accumulate sesquiterpenes upon engineered expression...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Gina R Webster, Craig van Dolleweerd, Thais Guerra, Szymon Stelter, Sven Hofmann, Mi-Young Kim, Audrey Y-H Teh, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Alastair Copland, Mathew Paul, Peter Hart, Rajko Reljic, Julian K-C Ma
In this study, a strategy based on polymeric immunoglobulin G scaffolds (PIGS), was used to produce a vaccine candidate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A genetic fusion construct comprising genes encoding the mycobacterial Ag85B antigen, an immunoglobulin γ-chain fragment and the tailpiece from immunoglobulin μ chain was engineered. Expression was attempted in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and in Nicotiana benthamiana. The recombinant protein assembled into polymeric structures (TB-PIGS) in N. benthamiana, similar in size to polymeric IgM...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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