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Tobacco Induced Diseases

Zohaib Khan
Oral cancer is second most common cancer in Pakistan and one of the major contributing factors to its high incidence is smokeless tobacco (SLT) use. 5.3% of Pakistan's youth are current SLT users. The World Health Organization requires the signatories of its "Framework Convention on Tobacco Control" to officially ban the sale of tobacco products to minors. We reviewed the Government of Pakistan's tobacco control, and related supporting policies, to assess how these address the issue of sale of SLT products to minors and found evident gaps in this regard...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Zijing Zhou, Ping Chen, Hong Peng
Cigarette smoke contains more than 4500 chemicals which have toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Strong evidences have shown that current smokers take a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer than nonsmokers. However, less attention has been paid to the smoking induced abnormalities in the individuals defined as healthy smokers who are normal with spirometry, radiographic images, routine physical exam and categorized as healthy control group in many researches...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
B Joly, P D'Athis, L Gerbaud, J Hazart, J Perriot, C Quantin
BACKGROUND: Hard core smokers have been studied in many countries but only a few trials have compared the effectiveness of smoking cessation with other smokers. The objective of this study was to compare the frequencies of success in smoking cessation between hard-core smokers and other smokers. METHODS: Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from the Emile Roux dispensary 'Pneumology and Tobaccology Centre' between 1999 and 2009. Assistance with smoking cessation was proposed to 1367 patients but only 1296 patients were included: 219 HCS and 1077 other smokers...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Tingzhong Yang, Sihui Peng, Lingwei Yu, Shuhan Jiang, William B Stroube, Randall R Cottrell, Ian R H Rockett
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12971-016-0078-7.].
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Matthijs Blankers, Renate Buisman, Petra Hopman, Ronald van Gool, Margriet van Laar
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use prevalence is elevated among people with mental illnesses, leading to elevated rates of premature smoking-related mortality. Opportunities to encourage smoking cessation among them are currently underused by mental health professionals. In this paper, we aim to explore mechanisms to invigorate professionals' intentions to help patients stop smoking. METHODS: Data stem from a recent staff survey on the provision of smoking cessation support to patients with mental illnesses in the Netherlands...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
I Aumann, L Tedja, J M Graf von der Schulenburg
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For current smokers who are diagnosed with COPD, their first treatment option is to stop smoking. Motivation is necessary for long-term smoking cessation; therefore, when designing smoking cessation programs, the patients' needs and preferences should be considered. We focused on COPD patients' experiences with existing smoking cessation programs and evaluated their preferences for the improvement of these programs...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Ryan David Kennedy, David Hammond, Marlee M Spafford, Ornell Douglas, Julie Brûlé, Geoffrey T Fong, Annette S H Schultz
BACKGROUND: Health warning labels (HWL) on tobacco products help educate smokers about the health effects from smoking; however, there is a need to improve HWL content including images and text to increase effectiveness. In Canada, a HWL was created that communicates smoking's causal association with "blindness" from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study surveyed Canadian optometrists about their opinions regarding the image and text used in the "blindness" HWL. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all 4528 registered Canadian optometrists...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Andreas S Lappas, Efstathia M Konstantinidi, Anna S Tzortzi, Chara K Tzavara, Panagiotis K Behrakis
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group)...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Kinga Polańska, Piotr Wojtysiak, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn, Dorota Kaleta
BACKGROUND: To prevent adolescents from becoming smokers, it is essential to understand factors that cause them to become susceptible to smoking (SS). The aim of this study was to examine association between individual and school characteristics and susceptibility to smoking initiation and experimentation in the youth. METHODS: We collected cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years attending 21 schools from Piotrkowski district. Of 4050 students, 3552 respondents, including 2508 non-smokers, filled in an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Gerald Mutungi, Ronald Wesonga, Silver K Bahendeka, David Guwatudde
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use and the exposure to tobacco smoke is one of the most preventable causes of death and disability globally. The risk is even higher among daily tobacco users. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that surveillance of major risk factors for Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) such as tobacco use is imperative to predict the future burden of NCDs, identify interventions to reduce future burden and monitor emerging patterns and trends. In 2014 the first Uganda nation-wide NCD risk factor survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of major NCD risk factors...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Helge Haarmann, Alexandra Gossler, Peter Herrmann, Slavtcho Bonev, Xuan Phuc Nguyen, Gerd Hasenfuß, Stefan Andreas, Tobias Raupach
BACKGROUND: Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation medication. Some concern has been raised that its use may precipitate adverse cardiovascular events although no patho-physiological mechanism potentially underlying such an effect has been reported. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that varenicline impacts on sympatho-vagal balance during smoking withdrawal. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate, and blood pressure were assessed in 17 smokers four weeks before a quit attempt (baseline) and again on the third day of that quit attempt (acute smoking withdrawal)...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Erin L Mead, Joanna E Cohen, Caitlin E Kennedy, Joseph Gallo, Carl A Latkin
BACKGROUND: Health communication theories indicate that messages depicting efficacy and threat might promote behavior change by enhancing individuals' efficacy beliefs and risk perceptions, but this has received little attention in graphic warning label research. We explored low socioeconomic status (SES) smokers' perceptions of theory-based graphic warning labels to inform the development of labels to promote smoking cessation. METHODS: Twelve graphic warning labels were developed with self-efficacy and response efficacy messages paired with messages portraying high, low, or no threat from smoking...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Guojun Zhou, Weiqiang Xiao, Chengyun Xu, Yajun Hu, Xiaokai Wu, Fangfang Huang, Xinbo Lu, Chunyun Shi, Ximei Wu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) functions as a major chemoattractant and plays pivotal roles in the initiation and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tobacco smoke is a most risk factor contributing to the development of COPD. Hence, we have screened some of the tobacco smoke-derived chemical compounds that potentially induce the production of IL-8 in human bronchial epithelium, 16HBE cells. METHODS: Twenty-eight hazardous smoke components belonging to 9 classes including nicotine, ammonia, aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, carbonyls, hydrocyanic acid, nitrosamines and other volatile organics were used in the experiments...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Frank C Bandiera, Shervin Assari, Jennifer Livaudais-Toman, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
BACKGROUND: Older persons are more vulnerable to tobacco mortality and less likely to make quit attempts. Less is known, however, about the role of race and ethnicity on quit rates in the U.S. Using a nationally representative data source of older adults in U.S., we aimed to study racial and ethnic differences in smoking cessation rates. METHODS: We used data from all waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) between 1992-2012. The HRS is a longitudinal nationally representative survey of adults over the age of 50 in the United States...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Frank Baeyens
With this letter we express our concerns about the applicability of the proposed Margin of Exposure analysis as a method of risk assessment for propylene glycol and glycerol exposure from a shisha-pen type electronic cigarette. The studies used to determine the Margin of Exposure were evaluating the effects in humans or animals of continuous exposure to these chemicals in every single breath, whereas electronic cigarettes are used intermittently by consumers, resulting in lower and discontinuous exposure. Moreover, the authors make no clear distinction between irritation and harm, neither do they discuss the effects of exposure compared to continuous smoking...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Peter M J Bos, Anne S Kienhuis, Reinskje Talhout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Kisok Kim, Hyejin Park
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stress and smoking among Korean adolescents, as well as the influence of gender on this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 3930 adolescents aged 12-18 years, collected in the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. RESULTS: An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with increasing levels of smoking in both girls and boys (p for trend < 0...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Nao Suzuki, Kosuke Nakanishi, Masahiro Yoneda, Takao Hirofuji, Takashi Hanioka
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the relationships among salivary stress biomarkers, cigarette smoking, and mood states. METHODS: The study population comprised 49 healthy sixth-year dental students at Fukuoka Dental College (39 men, 10 women; age, 23-31 years). Lifetime exposure to smoking was calculated using the Brinkman index (BI). Resting saliva samples were collected, and concentrations of cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Steve Sussman, Jon-Patrick Allem, Jocelyn Garcia, Jennifer B Unger, Tess Boley Cruz, Robert Garcia, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
BACKGROUND: The rising popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has been accompanied by the proliferation of vape shops in the United States. Vape shops are devoted to the sale of e-cigarettes and e-juices. This study aimed to describe the age, gender, and ethnicity of customers who frequent these shops, determine whether conversations transpire between retailers and customers, as well as identify the types of activities taking place while customers are inside the store. METHODS: A naturalistic observation study of 186 customers in 59 vape shops in Southern California was completed in locations that were relatively high in Korean, Non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Darren Mays, Clayton Smith, Andrea C Johnson, Kenneth P Tercyak, Raymond S Niaura
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") manufacturers use warning labels on their advertising that vary widely in content and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning label requirement for e-cigarettes. There is limited data on the effects of these warnings on e-cigarette perceptions and other potential predictors of future tobacco use behavior in populations of interest to inform future regulatory requirements. This study examined the effects of e-cigarette warnings on perceptions of e-cigarettes and cigarettes and other cognitive precursors to tobacco use among young adult non-smokers...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
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