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Maternal & Child Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316209/infant-and-young-child-feeding-in-emergencies-organisational-policies-and-activities-during-the-refugee-crisis-in-lebanon
#1
Linda Shaker-Berbari, Hala Ghattas, Andrew G Symon, Annie S Anderson
Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is key to reducing mortality amongst children aged under 2. Facilitating adherence to recommended IYCF practices during emergencies includes having relevant policies to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding as well as regulating the distribution of breast milk substitutes. In the current crisis, more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees are in Lebanon and it is timely to examine organisational IYCF policies and programmes. One hundred and thirty-five non-governmental organisations providing humanitarian aid in Lebanon were invited to participate in an online survey about organisational policies and programmatic activities on IYCF...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316198/co-causation-of-reduced-newborn-size-by-maternal-undernutrition-infections-and-inflammation
#2
Per Ashorn, Lotta Hallamaa, Lindsay H Allen, Ulla Ashorn, Upeksha Chandrasiri, Megan Deitchler, Ronan Doyle, Ulla Harjunmaa, Josh M Jorgensen, Steve Kamiza, Nigel Klein, Kenneth Maleta, Minyanga Nkhoma, Brietta M Oaks, Basho Poelman, Stephen J Rogerson, Christine P Stewart, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
More than 20 million babies are born with low birthweight annually. Small newborns have an increased risk for mortality, growth failure, and other adverse outcomes. Numerous antenatal risk factors for small newborn size have been identified, but individual interventions addressing them have not markedly improved the health outcomes of interest. We tested a hypothesis that in low-income settings, newborn size is influenced jointly by multiple maternal exposures and characterized pathways associating these exposures with newborn size...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314705/effect-of-enhanced-homestead-food-production-and-aquaculture-on-dietary-intakes-of-women-and-children-in-rural-cambodia-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Vashti Verbowski, Zaman Talukder, Kroeun Hou, Ly Sok Hoing, Kristina Michaux, Victoria Anderson, Rosalind Gibson, Kathy H Li, Larry D Lynd, Judy McLean, Tim J Green, Susan I Barr
The Cambodian diet is low in nutrient-dense animal-source foods. Enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) and aquaculture, which increase availability of nutrient-dense foods, are promising interventions to improve dietary intake. This study examined the effect of EHFP with or without aquaculture on dietary intake and prevalence of inadequate intake of select nutrients among women and children living in rural Cambodia, compared to controls. In a registered, cluster randomized controlled trial in Prey Veng, Cambodia, 10 households in each of 90 villages (n = 900) were randomized by village to receive EHFP, EHFP plus aquaculture, or control...
January 5, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280300/situation-analysis-of-procurement-and-production-of-multiple-micronutrient-supplements-in-12-lower-and-upper-middle-income-countries
#4
Eva C Monterrosa, Kalpana Beesabathuni, Kesso G van Zutphen, Georg Steiger, Roland Kupka, Alison Fleet, Klaus Kraemer
Globally, there are few vitamin and mineral ingredient manufacturers. To support local, in-country or regional procurement and production of multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS), the following production scenarios are possible: (a) straight ingredients of vitamins and minerals forms imported or locally produced that are mixed, tableted, or encapsulated and packaged by a local manufacturer; (b) import or local production of a vitamin and minerals premix that is tableted or encapsulated and packaged locally; (c) import of a bulk, finished product (tablets or capsules) that is packaged and branded; and (d) or import of a branded packaged product...
December 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278449/process-evaluation-improves-delivery-of-a-nutrition-sensitive-agriculture-programme-in-burkina-faso
#5
Jennifer N Nielsen, Deanna K Olney, Marcellin Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Hippolyte Rouamba, Fanny Yago-Wienne
Evidence is emerging from rigorous evaluations about the effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive agriculture programmes in improving nutritional outcomes. Additional evidence can elucidate how different programme components and pathways contribute and can be optimized for impact. The International Food Policy Research Institute, with Helen Keller International, designed a comprehensive framework to evaluate the delivery, utilization, and impact of Helen Keller International's enhanced homestead food production programme in Burkina Faso...
December 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271119/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-evidence-from-large-scale-prenatal-programmes-on-coverage-compliance-and-impact
#6
Cristiana Berti, Michelle F Gaffey, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Irene Cetin
Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy pose important challenges for public-health, given the potential adverse outcomes not only during pregnancy but across the life-course. Provision of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements is the strategy most commonly practiced and recommended globally. How to successfully implement IFA and multiple micronutrient supplementation interventions among pregnant women and to achieve sustainable/permanent solutions to prenatal micronutrient deficiencies remain unresolved issues in many countries...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271115/barriers-and-enablers-for-iron-folic-acid-ifa-supplementation-in-pregnant-women
#7
Kendra Siekmans, Marion Roche, Jacqueline K Kung'u, Rachelle E Desrochers, Luz Maria De-Regil
In order to inform large scale supplementation programme design, we review and summarize the barriers and enablers for improved coverage and utilization of iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements by pregnant women in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. Mixed methods were used to analyse IFA supplementation programmes in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal based on formative research conducted in 2012-2013. Qualitative data from focus-group discussions and interviews with women and service providers were used for content analysis to elicit common themes on barriers and enablers at internal, external, and relational levels...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271064/monitoring-and-surveillance-for-multiple-micronutrient-supplements-in-pregnancy
#8
Zuguo Mei, Maria Elena Jefferds, Sorrel Namaste, Parminder S Suchdev, Rafael C Flores-Ayala
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a "Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes," which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programmes...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266829/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-and-nutritional-status-in-bhutan
#9
Rebecca K Campbell, Victor Aguayo, Yunhee Kang, Laigden Dzed, Vandana Joshi, Jillian Waid, Suvadra Datta Gupta, Nancy Haselow, Keith P West
In South Asia, childhood undernutrition persists while overweight is increasing. Internationally recommended infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices promote healthy nutritional status; however, little is known about IYCF in Bhutan, investigated here using 2015 National Nutrition Survey data. WHO/UNICEF IYCF indicators, anthropometry and household socio-economic status were available for 441 children <24 months. Stunting, wasting, and underweight prevalence (<-2Z length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age, [WAZ] and weight-for-length [WLZ], respectively) were 15%, 9%, and 5%, respectively, whereas overweight (WLZ >2) prevalence was 6%...
December 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230957/an-implementation-algorithm-to-improve-skin-to-skin-practice-in-the-first-hour-after-birth
#10
Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell, Jeni Stevens, Yuki Takahashi
Evidence supporting the practice of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding soon after birth points to physiologic, social, and psychological benefits for both mother and baby. The 2009 revision of Step 4 of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" elaborated on the practice of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and her newly born baby indicating that the practice should be "immediate" and "without separation" unless documented medically justifiable reasons for delayed contact or interruption exist...
December 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210520/supplementation-during-pregnancy-with-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-or-multiple-micronutrients-compared-with-iron-and-folic-acid-increases-women-s-urinary-iodine-concentration-in-semiurban-ghana-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca T Young, Anna Lartey, Harriet Okronipa, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
There is little information on whether prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements containing iodine affect women's iodine status. In the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements DYAD-Ghana trial, we aimed to assess women's urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) during pregnancy, as one of the planned secondary outcomes. Women (n = 1,320) <20 weeks of gestation were randomized to consume 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid per day (iron and folic acid [IFA]); 18 vitamins and minerals including 250 μg iodine per day (MMN); or 20 g/day of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with the same and additional 4 vitamins and minerals as the MMN (LNS)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210507/acceptability-of-multiple-micronutrient-powders-and-iron-syrup-in-bihar-india
#12
Melissa F Young, Amy Webb Girard, Rukshan Mehta, Sridhar Srikantiah, Lucas Gosdin, Purnima Menon, Usha Ramakrishnan, Reynaldo Martorell, Rasmi Avula
Nearly two thirds of young children are anaemic in Bihar, India. Paediatric iron and folic acid syrup (IFAS) and multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) are two evidence-based interventions to prevent anaemia. Using a randomized crossover design, we examined the acceptability of IFAS versus MNPs for children 6-23 months. In a catchment area of 2 health centres in Bihar, health front-line workers (FLWs) delivered either (a) IFAS twice weekly or (b) MNPs for 1 month followed by the other supplementation strategy for 1 month to the same families (NCT02610881)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193667/with-adaptation-the-who-guidelines-on-calcium-supplementation-for-prevention-of-pre-eclampsia-are-adopted-by-pregnant-women
#13
Moshood O Omotayo, Stephanie L Martin, Rebecca J Stoltzfus, Stephanie E Ortolano, Erick Mwanga, Katherine L Dickin
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends calcium supplementation for prevention of pre-eclampsia, but factors affecting adoption and acceptability of the recommendations among pregnant women have not been examined. We explored adoption of the WHO guidelines in Kenya, using the trials of improved practices. We recruited 38 pregnant women and assigned participants to three regimens representing potential trade-offs among daily dose, bioavailability, and acceptability. Participants were provided with supplements, requested to select preferred product type, counselled on how to take them, and interviewed 4 times over 6 weeks to assess their experiences...
November 28, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178404/the-impact-of-rickets-on-growth-and-morbidity-during-recovery-among-children-with-complicated-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-kenya-a-cohort-study
#14
Moses M Ngari, Johnstone Thitiri, Laura Mwalekwa, Molline Timbwa, Per Ole Iversen, Greg W Fegan, James A Berkley
The effects of rickets on children recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are unknown. Rickets may affect both growth and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We investigated the associations of clinically diagnosed rickets with life-threatening events and anthropometric recovery during 1 year following inpatient treatment for complicated SAM. This was a secondary analysis of clinical trial data among non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected Kenyan children with complicated SAM (2-59 months) followed for 1 year posthospital discharge (ClinicalTrials...
November 27, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171150/maternal-prepregnancy-bmi-or-weight-and-offspring-s-blood-pressure-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Helena Ludwig-Walz, Milan Schmidt, Anke L B Günther, Anja Kroke
Emerging evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy body mass index or weight (MPBW) may be associated with offspring's blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review-following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement-to assess and judge the evidence for an association between MPBW with offspring's later BP. Five data bases were searched without limits. Risk of bias was assessed using the "Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies," and an evidence grade was allocated following the World Cancer Research Fund criteria...
November 23, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148183/trends-and-predictors-of-appropriate-complementary-feeding-practices-in-nepal-an-analysis-of-national-household-survey-data-collected-between-2001-and-2014
#16
Muzi Na, Victor M Aguayo, Mary Arimond, Pradiumna Dahal, Bikash Lamichhane, Rajkumar Pokharel, Stanley Chitekwe, Christine P Stewart
There is evidence that suboptimal complementary feeding contributes to poor child growth. However, little is known about time trends and determinants of complementary feeding in Nepal, where the prevalence of child undernutrition remains unacceptably high. The objective of the study was to examine the trends and predictors of suboptimal complementary feeding in Nepali children aged 6-23 months using nationally representative data collected from 2001 to 2014. Data from the 2001, 2006, and 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys and the 2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were used to estimate the prevalence, trends and predictors of four WHO-UNICEF complementary feeding indicators: timely introduction of complementary foods (INTRO), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD)...
November 17, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110396/using-cognitive-mapping-to-understand-senegalese-infant-and-young-child-feeding-decisions
#17
Stephanie Zobrist, Nikhila Kalra, Gretel Pelto, Brittney Wittenbrink, Peiman Milani, Abdoulaye Moussa Diallo, Tidiane Ndoye, Issa Wone, Megan Parker
Caregivers make decisions about how to feed their infants and young children based on complex interactions of knowledge, beliefs, and values, as well as assessments of situational determinants, including economic and social constraints and opportunities. Because of the relationship of these factors to the adoption of new feeding behaviours, the development of nutrition interventions for this age group must be grounded in knowledge about the target population. This paper presents the results of a study that used cognitive mapping techniques to gain insight into mothers' knowledge and perceptions of foods for infants and young children and examine their significance for feeding decisions in Saint-Louis, northern Senegal...
November 7, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105966/the-effectiveness-of-interventions-using-relaxation-therapy-to-improve-breastfeeding-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Nurul Husna Mohd Shukri, Jonathan C K Wells, Mary Fewtrell
Maternal psychological state is recognised to influence lactation success, largely by affecting milk ejection. Thus, increased psychological distress can disrupt milk flow and in the long-term, affect milk synthesis. Conversely, it is possible that milk ejection could be improved by using relaxation therapy during breastfeeding. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions using relaxation therapy to improve breastfeeding outcomes and to assess the consequent impact(s) on infant growth and behaviour...
November 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098783/associations-of-maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum-with-maternal-cognition-and-caregiving
#19
Elizabeth L Prado, Ulla Ashorn, John Phuka, Kenneth Maleta, John Sadalaki, Brietta M Oaks, Marjorie Haskell, Lindsay H Allen, Steve A Vosti, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098763/characterising-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-and-the-consumption-of-poultry-products-in-rural-tanzania-a-mixed-methods-approach
#20
Julia De Bruyn, Brigitte Bagnol, Ian Darnton-Hill, Wende Maulaga, Peter C Thomson, Robyn Alders
Suboptimal breastfeeding practices, early initiation of complementary feeding, and monotonous cereal-based diets have been implicated as contributors to continuing high rates of child undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutrition-sensitive interventions, including agricultural programs that increase access to nutrient-rich vegetables, legumes, and animal-source foods, have the potential to achieve sustainable improvements in children's diets. In the quest to evaluate the efficacy of such programs in improving growth and development in the first 2 years of life, there is a role for mixed methods research to better understand existing infant and young child feeding practices...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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