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Maternal & Child Nutrition

Eloïse Swanepoel, Lize Havemann-Nel, Marinel Rothman, Ria Laubscher, Tonderayi M Matsungo, Cornelius M Smuts, Mieke Faber
Fortification of two staple foods, maize meal and wheat flour (bread), is mandatory, and commercial infant products are widely available in South Africa. Using a 24-hr recall, we determined the contribution of these foods towards nutrient intakes at ages 6 (n = 715), 12 (n = 446), and 18 (n = 213) months in a cohort of children in a peri-urban community, North West province. On the day of recall, commercial infant products were consumed by 83% of children at 6 months, 46% at 12 months, and 15% at 18 months; fortified staples were consumed by 23%, 81%, and 96%, respectively...
September 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Faith M Thuita, Gretel H Pelto, Enock Musinguzi, Margaret Armar-Klemesu
This investigation used data from focused ethnographic studies in five rural counties in Kenya to determine whether the concept of "special foods for infants and young children" exists in the different ethnic groups in these areas as an identifiable component of cultural beliefs and knowledge, as well as in practice, and whether they can be characterized as a "complementary feeding cultural core." The concept of "cultural core foods" refers to the set of foods that have a central role in diets of a population and, as a consequence, also have significant social and emotional components...
September 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Mahamudul Hasan, M Munirul Islam, Eman Mubarak, Md Ahshanul Haque, Nuzhat Choudhury, Tahmeed Ahmed
Mothers are often responsible for preparing nutritious foods in their households. However, the quality of mother's diets is often neglected, which may affect both mother's and child's nutrition. Because no single food contains all necessary nutrients, diversity in dietary sources is needed to ensure a quality diet. We aimed to study the association between mother's dietary diversity and stunting in children <2 years attending Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b, a diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
September 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Mackenzie D M Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Jill R Demirci
Patterns of breastfeeding over time are not currently well understood. Limited qualitative and quantitative evidence suggests that there may be latent subgroups of mothers in the United States following very different trajectories of breast milk provision for their infants. This study used a quantitative modelling method (group-based trajectory modelling) to identify and describe these subgroups. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (n = 3,023), the authors identified four distinct trajectories of breastfeeding intensity, each of which included a substantial subset of the total sample...
September 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Amber J Hromi-Fiedler, Gabriela Dos Santos Buccini, Muriel Bauermann Gubert, Katie Doucet, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Scaling up breastfeeding programmes has not been highly prioritized despite overwhelming evidence that breastfeeding benefits the health of mothers and children. Lack of evidence-based tools for scaling up may deter countries from prioritizing breastfeeding. To fill this gap, Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly (BBF) was developed to guide countries in effectively scaling up programmes to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. BBF includes an evidence-based toolbox that consists of a BBF Index, case studies, and a 5-meeting process...
September 13, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Nkechi G Onyeneho, Daniel J Corsi, Anura Kurpad, Subu V Subramanian
Prior research on assessing intergenerational influences on child anaemia has largely approached it from purely maternal perspective. Although there is much merit to focus on that, it is an extremely limited/reductionist view of understanding intergenerational influences. We expanded the intergenerational influences to include the fathers and overall of intergenerational household transfers. We analysed a sample of 15,015 mother-father-offspring trios from the 2005-2006 Indian National Fertility and Health Survey with available data on haemoglobin (Hb)...
September 12, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Kendra Byrd, Holly N Dentz, Anne Williams, Marion Kiprotich, Amy J Pickering, Ronald Omondi, Osborne Kwena, Gouthami Rao, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Kathryn G Dewey, John M Colford, Clair Null, Christine P Stewart
Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are associated with linear growth faltering. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a nutrition and water and sanitation for health intervention on three IYCF indicators-minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) in Kenyan children. Households were randomized into one of eight groups: (a) active control; (b) passive control; (c) water quality (W); (d) sanitation (S); (e) handwashing (H); (f) combined Water, Sanitation, and Handwashing; (g) nutrition (N); and (h) combined WSH + N...
September 12, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jillian L Waid, Jennifer Nielsen, Shirin Afroz, Diane Lindsey, Sheela S Sinharoy
The Essential Nutrition Actions framework is an evidence-based set of cost-effective, integrated tools for training health and community workers to promote optimal nutrition practices for the first 1,000 days. This ENA Pilot Project (ENAPP) was implemented with USAID funding from August 2008 to September 2009 in six unions of the working area of an existing USAID funded, Title II program in southern Bangladesh. ENAPP, which targeted governmental and non-governmental service providers, was intended to strengthen the behavior change component of the nutrition strategy of this project...
September 11, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Ragnhild Maastrup, Laura N Haiek, Welma Lubbe, Deena Yael Meerkin, Leslie Wolff, Kiyoshi Hatasaki, Mona A Alsumaie, Socorro De Leon-Mendoza, Yvonne P M Ng, Shefaly Shorey, Roxana Conti, Taynara Leme, Edilaine Giovanini Rossetto, Andrea Aldana Acosta, Ana Esther Ortiz Nuñez, Esther Toala, Mirian Elizabeth Ortigoza Gonzalez, Angelika Berger, Yves Hennequin, Anita Pavicic Bosnjak, Hannakaisa Niela-Vilén, Claire Laurent, Sylvaine Rousseau, Rakel Jonsdottir, Elise M Chapin, Amanda Smildzere, Rasa Tamelienė, Raminta Žemaitienė, Maryse Arendt, Mette Ness Hansen, Anette Schaumburg Huitfeldt, Urszula Bernatowicz-Łojko, Maria do Céu Barbieri-Figueiredo, Ana Paula França, Liubov Abolyan, Irina Pastbina, Carmen Pallás-Alonso, Maria Teresa Moral Pumarega, Mats Eriksson, Renée Flacking, Emily Johnson, Shannon Anderson, Jola Berkman, Diane Boswall, Donna Brown, Julie Emberley, Michelle LeDrew, Maxine Scringer-Wilkes, Sonia Semenic, Nicole Perriman, Debbie O'Donoghue
In 2012, the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative for Neonatal Wards (Neo-BFHI) began providing recommendations to improve breastfeeding support for preterm and ill infants. This cross-sectional survey aimed to measure compliance on a global level with the Neo-BFHI's expanded Ten steps to Successful Breastfeeding and three Guiding Principles in neonatal wards. In 2017 the Neo-BFHI Self-Assessment questionnaire was used in 15 languages to collect data from neonatal wards of all levels of care. Answers were summarized into compliance scores ranging from 0 to 100 at the ward, country and international levels...
September 10, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Joel Conkle, Kate Keirsey, Ashton Hughes, Jennifer Breiman, Usha Ramakrishnan, Parminder S Suchdev, Reynaldo Martorell
3D imaging for body measurements (e.g., anthropometry) is regularly used for design of garments and ergonomic products. The development of low-cost 3D scanners provided an opportunity to extend the use of 3D imaging to the health sector. We developed and tested the AutoAnthro System, the first mobile, low-cost, full-body, 3D imaging system designed specifically for child anthropometry. This study evaluated the efficiency, invasiveness, and user experience of the newly developed 3D imaging system. We used a mixed-methods, collaborative approach that included a quantitative time-motion study and qualitative interviews of anthropometrists...
September 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Sheila Isanaka, Kerstin E Hanson, Severine Frison, Christopher T Andersen, Sandra Cohuet, Rebecca F Grais
The use of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement to screen and determine eligibility for admission to therapeutic feeding programs has been established, but evidence and programmatic experience to inform guidance on the use of MUAC as a discharge criterion is limited. We present results from a large scale nutritional program using MUAC for admission and discharge and compare program outcomes and response to treatment when determining eligibility for discharge by proportional weight gain vs. discharge by MUAC...
September 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Cindy-Lee Dennis, Hilary K Brown, Leinic Chung-Lee, Jennifer Abbass-Dick, Shefaly Shorey, Flavia Marini, Sarah Brennenstuhl
Breastfeeding is the optimal method for infant feeding, yet migrant women may be at-risk for suboptimal exclusivity rates. In a cohort of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese women, our objectives were to: (1) describe patterns and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum; (2) identify risk and protective factors associated with exclusivity; and (3) examine potentially differential importance of these factors across this 6-month period. This was a prospective study of 565 immigrants and Canadian-born Chinese women (Toronto, Canada)...
September 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Holly Robinson, Gabriela Buccini, Leslie Curry, Rafael Perez-Escamilla
Promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a highly feasible and cost-effective means of improving child health. Regulating the marketing of breastmilk substitutes is critical to protecting EBF. In 1981, the World Health Assembly adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes (the Code), prohibiting the unethical advertising and promotion of breastmilk substitutes. This comparative study aimed to (i) explore the relationships among Code enforcement and legislation, infant formula sales, and EBF in India, Vietnam, and China; (ii) identify best practices for Code operationalization; and (iii) identify pathways by which Code implementation may influence EBF...
September 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Annelies Tuenter, Paula K Bautista Nino, Anna Vitezova, Athanasios Pantavos, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco, Janine F Felix
Smoking exposure is associated with pregnancy complications, as are levels of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. In nonpregnant adults, smoking exposure is associated negatively with folate and vitamin B12 levels and positively with homocysteine levels. A complete overview of the literature on this topic in pregnant women is lacking. To evaluate evidence of associations of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 in pregnancy and in cord blood, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant studies until August 2017...
September 4, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Julie A Patterson, Nicholas S Keuler, Beth H Olson
The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) includes a set of 10 evidenced-based maternity practices that when used together have been shown to improve breastfeeding outcomes. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey to assess and monitor these and other evidenced-based maternity practices. The purpose of this study was to explore individual maternity practices measured in the 2013 mPINC survey, along with hospital demographic information, and their relationships with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates, using a sample of United States (U...
September 4, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Suman Chakrabarti, Avinash Kishore, Kalyani Raghunathan, Samuel P Scott
The World Health Assembly called for a 50% global anaemia reduction in women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age) from 2012 to 2025. India accounts for the most cases of anaemia in the world, and half of all pregnant Indian women are anaemic. In India, the government implemented a 4-year food-based safety net programme from 2008 to 2012 involving the provision of fortified wheat flour through its public distribution system. We assessed programme impact on anaemia among pregnant women (n = 10,186) using data from the 2002-2004 and 2012-2013 Indian District Level Health Surveys...
September 4, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Randall Lutter, Christopher Ruhm, Dajun Lin, Siying Liu
Recent research has highlighted associations of breastfeeding with IQ, schooling, and income, but uncertainty about such links remains. The Indonesian Family Life Survey, representative of 83% of the Indonesian population, provides data on breastfeeding, parents' years of schooling, wealth, and other family characteristics in 1993-1994, as well as schooling and income in 2014-2015 for 5,421 children of those families. Using linear regressions and controlling for village or neighbourhood, as well as propensity score matching, we analysed breastfeeding associations for boys and girls separately, when regularly fed foods/beverages other than breast milk is significantly associated with years of schooling in 2014-2015 for girls, but not for boys, after controlling for the village or neighbourhood of residence in 1993-1994...
September 4, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Sonia Hernández-Cordero, Ana Lilia Lozada-Tequeanes, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Chessa Lutter, Teresita González de Cosío, Pedro Saturno, Juan Rivera Dommarco, Laurence Grummer-Strawn
This study estimated the prevalence of violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (BMS) and subsequent resolutions of the World Health Assembly (Code) at health facilities, points of sale (POS), and on BMS labeling and media in Mexico. We carried out a cross-sectional survey among 693 mothers with children aged less than 24 months and 48 health providers at public and private health facilities in two states of Mexico. Observational assessment at 20 POS and the health facilities was conducted as well as an analysis of labels on BMS products for sale...
August 31, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Kate Schneider, William A Masters
This paper introduces a novel survey instrument to identify distinct components of nutrition knowledge and test for links between knowledge and dietary choices in Southern Malawi. Our first aim is to distinguish respondents' familiarity with recommended behaviours, such as when to start breastfeeding or introduce solid foods, from respondents' factual knowledge about mechanisms, such as whether biscuits or papaya and orange fruit or orange Fanta contribute more to future health. We find knowledge of nutrition behaviours to be strongly associated with more schooling, older age, and being female, whereas knowledge of mechanisms is associated only with training and employment as a health professional...
August 24, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Melissa Bartick, Cecília Tomori
Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention has focused on modifying individual behavioural risk factors, especially bedsharing. Yet these deaths are most common among poor and marginalized people in wealthy countries, including U.S. Blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, New Zealand Māori, Australian Aborigines, indigenous Canadians, and low-income British people. The United States now has the world's highest prevalence of SUID/SIDS, where even Whites' SIDS prevalence now approaches that of the Māori...
August 23, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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