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Maternal & Child Nutrition

Garyk Brixi
Treatment of acute malnutrition typically requires the provision of ready-to-use food (RUF). Common RUF is effective but expensive, being manufactured from costly ingredients, and shipped worldwide from few global suppliers. I developed a linear programming tool to create RUF optimized for low cost using locally grown crops while maintaining necessary nutritional goals and other constraints. My tool utilizes a database of the nutritional value, price, and water efficiency of suitable ingredients and allows adjustment of constraints, including nutrients, flavour, and crop water efficiency...
March 14, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Mark A Green, Daniel J Corsi, Ivan Mejía-Guevara, S V Subramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Amber J Hromi-Fiedler, Muriel Bauermann Gubert, Katie Doucet, Sara Meyers, Gabriela Dos Santos Buccini
Global efforts to further improve exclusive breastfeeding rates have not been successful, in part because effective scaling-up frameworks and roadmaps have not been developed. The Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly (BBF) toolbox includes an evidence-based index, the BBF Index (BBFI), to guide the development and tracking of large scale, well-coordinated, multisector national breastfeeding promotion programmes. This paper describes the development of the BBFI, which is grounded in the Breastfeeding Gear Model complex adaptive systems framework...
February 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Lucas Gosdin, Reynaldo Martorell, Rosario M Bartolini, Rukshan Mehta, Sridhar Srikantiah, Melissa F Young
Anaemia and stunting are prevalent nutritional problems among children of low-income countries that have profound effects on development, morbidity, and mortality. Many use a single conceptual framework to identify the basic determinants of these and other forms of malnutrition. One would expect that problems with matching underlying determinants should co-occur in affected individuals to a greater degree than by chance. In 2 populations of children-ages 6-18 months in Bihar, India, (n = 5,664) and 6-36 months in Lambayeque, Peru (n = 688)-we measured the frequency of the co-occurrence of anaemia and stunting...
February 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Velma K Lopez, Carolyn Dombecki, James Trostle, Patricia Mogrovejo, Nancy Castro Morillo, William Cevallos, Jason Goldstick, Andrew D Jones, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Road access can influence protective and risk factors associated with nutrition by affecting various social and biological processes. In northern coastal Ecuador, the construction of new roads created a remoteness gradient among villages, providing a unique opportunity to examine the impact of roads on child nutritional outcomes 10 years after the road was built. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements were collected from 2,350 children <5 years in Esmeraldas, Ecuador, from 2004 to 2013 across 28 villages with differing road access...
February 7, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Julie A Patterson, Nicholas S Keuler, Beth H Olson
In 2014, a leading hospital accreditation agency, mandated hospitals publicly report their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. This new regulation provided an opportunity to explore differences in EBF outcomes using a standardized definition across a large hospital sample in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between population demographics and the Baby-friendly (BF) hospital designation on EBF rates in hospitals throughout the United States. We obtained EBF rates from 121 BF hospitals and 1,608 hospitals without the BF designation...
February 7, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Rebecca J Scharf, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Angelina Maphula, Erling Svensen, Fahmida Tofail, Muneera Rasheed, Claudia Abreu, Angel Orbe Vasquez, Rita Shrestha, Laura Pendergast, Estomih Mduma, Beena Koshy, Mark R Conaway, James A Platts-Mills, Richard L Guerrant, Mark D DeBoer
Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment...
February 2, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Mahnaz Zarshenas, Yun Zhao, Colin W Binns, Jane A Scott
There is evidence that the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) results in improved breastfeeding outcomes in Western countries, but little is known of its impact in Middle-Eastern countries. This study investigated the impact of BFHI practices on duration of full breastfeeding in a cohort of 700 Iranian mothers recruited between June 2014 and March 2015 from maternity hospitals in Shiraz and followed-up prospectively for 6 months. At baseline, mothers self-reported exposure to 7 of the BFHI Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Steps 3 to 9)...
January 24, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Godfred O Boateng, Stephanie L Martin, Shalean M Collins, Barnabas K Natamba, Sera L Young
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Social support has been widely recognized to influence breastfeeding practices. However, existing scales do not measure exclusive breastfeeding social support (EBFSS), rather they assess social support for any breastfeeding. Further, they are tailored towards high-income settings. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a tool to measure EBFSS in low-income settings...
January 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Chiza Kumwenda, Jaimie Hemsworth, John Phuka, Ulla Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Kenneth Maleta, Elizabeth L Prado, Marjorie J Haskell, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn
World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Sarah Earle, Robin Hadley
Although the advantages of breastfeeding are well documented, rates for breastfeeding often fall short of international and national targets. Increasing attention has been paid to the role of men in infant feeding, but a lot of the research about men has been elicited from women, rather than from men themselves. To explore these issues further, a systematic review of the qualitative research on infant feeding was carried out, focusing specifically on men's own views and experiences. Evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus), manually searching citations, and by searching the grey literature...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Linda Shaker-Berbari, Hala Ghattas, Andrew G Symon, Annie S Anderson
Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is key to reducing mortality amongst children aged under 2. Facilitating adherence to recommended IYCF practices during emergencies includes having relevant policies to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding as well as regulating the distribution of breast milk substitutes. In the current crisis, more than 1.2 million Syrian refugees are in Lebanon and it is timely to examine organisational IYCF policies and programmes. One hundred and thirty-five non-governmental organisations providing humanitarian aid in Lebanon were invited to participate in an online survey about organisational policies and programmatic activities on IYCF...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Per Ashorn, Lotta Hallamaa, Lindsay H Allen, Ulla Ashorn, Upeksha Chandrasiri, Megan Deitchler, Ronan Doyle, Ulla Harjunmaa, Josh M Jorgensen, Steve Kamiza, Nigel Klein, Kenneth Maleta, Minyanga Nkhoma, Brietta M Oaks, Basho Poelman, Stephen J Rogerson, Christine P Stewart, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
More than 20 million babies are born with low birthweight annually. Small newborns have an increased risk for mortality, growth failure, and other adverse outcomes. Numerous antenatal risk factors for small newborn size have been identified, but individual interventions addressing them have not markedly improved the health outcomes of interest. We tested a hypothesis that in low-income settings, newborn size is influenced jointly by multiple maternal exposures and characterized pathways associating these exposures with newborn size...
January 8, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Vashti Verbowski, Zaman Talukder, Kroeun Hou, Ly Sok Hoing, Kristina Michaux, Victoria Anderson, Rosalind Gibson, Kathy H Li, Larry D Lynd, Judy McLean, Tim J Green, Susan I Barr
The Cambodian diet is low in nutrient-dense animal-source foods. Enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) and aquaculture, which increase availability of nutrient-dense foods, are promising interventions to improve dietary intake. This study examined the effect of EHFP with or without aquaculture on dietary intake and prevalence of inadequate intake of select nutrients among women and children living in rural Cambodia, compared to controls. In a registered, cluster randomized controlled trial in Prey Veng, Cambodia, 10 households in each of 90 villages (n = 900) were randomized by village to receive EHFP, EHFP plus aquaculture, or control...
January 5, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Eva C Monterrosa, Kalpana Beesabathuni, Kesso G van Zutphen, Georg Steiger, Roland Kupka, Alison Fleet, Klaus Kraemer
Globally, there are few vitamin and mineral ingredient manufacturers. To support local, in-country or regional procurement and production of multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS), the following production scenarios are possible: (a) straight ingredients of vitamins and minerals forms imported or locally produced that are mixed, tableted, or encapsulated and packaged by a local manufacturer; (b) import or local production of a vitamin and minerals premix that is tableted or encapsulated and packaged locally; (c) import of a bulk, finished product (tablets or capsules) that is packaged and branded; and (d) or import of a branded packaged product...
December 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jennifer N Nielsen, Deanna K Olney, Marcellin Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Hippolyte Rouamba, Fanny Yago-Wienne
Evidence is emerging from rigorous evaluations about the effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive agriculture programmes in improving nutritional outcomes. Additional evidence can elucidate how different programme components and pathways contribute and can be optimized for impact. The International Food Policy Research Institute, with Helen Keller International, designed a comprehensive framework to evaluate the delivery, utilization, and impact of Helen Keller International's enhanced homestead food production programme in Burkina Faso...
December 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Cristiana Berti, Michelle F Gaffey, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Irene Cetin
Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy pose important challenges for public-health, given the potential adverse outcomes not only during pregnancy but across the life-course. Provision of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements is the strategy most commonly practiced and recommended globally. How to successfully implement IFA and multiple micronutrient supplementation interventions among pregnant women and to achieve sustainable/permanent solutions to prenatal micronutrient deficiencies remain unresolved issues in many countries...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Kendra Siekmans, Marion Roche, Jacqueline K Kung'u, Rachelle E Desrochers, Luz Maria De-Regil
In order to inform large scale supplementation programme design, we review and summarize the barriers and enablers for improved coverage and utilization of iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements by pregnant women in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. Mixed methods were used to analyse IFA supplementation programmes in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal based on formative research conducted in 2012-2013. Qualitative data from focus-group discussions and interviews with women and service providers were used for content analysis to elicit common themes on barriers and enablers at internal, external, and relational levels...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Zuguo Mei, Maria Elena Jefferds, Sorrel Namaste, Parminder S Suchdev, Rafael C Flores-Ayala
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a "Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes," which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programmes...
December 22, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Rebecca K Campbell, Victor Aguayo, Yunhee Kang, Laigden Dzed, Vandana Joshi, Jillian Waid, Suvadra Datta Gupta, Nancy Haselow, Keith P West
In South Asia, childhood undernutrition persists while overweight is increasing. Internationally recommended infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices promote healthy nutritional status; however, little is known about IYCF in Bhutan, investigated here using 2015 National Nutrition Survey data. WHO/UNICEF IYCF indicators, anthropometry and household socio-economic status were available for 441 children <24 months. Stunting, wasting, and underweight prevalence (<-2Z length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age, [WAZ] and weight-for-length [WLZ], respectively) were 15%, 9%, and 5%, respectively, whereas overweight (WLZ >2) prevalence was 6%...
December 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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