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Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940172/preface-to-volume-41
#1
EDITORIAL
Harry G Brittain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940171/pioglitazone
#2
REVIEW
A Al-Majed, A H H Bakheit, H A Abdel Aziz, H Alharbi, F I Al-Jenoobi
Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic with actions similar to those of rosiglitazone. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is prepared by reducing 5-[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridyl)ethoxy]benzilidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione with sodium borohydride in the presence of a cobalt ion and dimethyl glyoxime. Ultraviolet spectroscopy shows maximum absorption at 270nm. Infrared spectroscopy shows principal peaks at wave numbers 3082, 2964, 1736, 1690, 1472, 1331, 1254, 1040, 841, 728cm(-1) (KBr disk)...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940170/dacarbazine
#3
REVIEW
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Mansour M Alodhaib
Dacarbazine is a cell cycle nonspecific antineoplastic alkylating agent used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. This chapter contains the descriptions of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and applications of dacarbazine and the methods that were used for its preparation are reported. The methods which were used for the physical characterization of the drug are ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940169/carbamazepine
#4
REVIEW
S T Alrashood
This chapter includes the aspects of carbamazepine. The drug is synthesized by the use of 5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine and phosgene followed by subsequent reaction with ammonia. Carbamazepine is generally used for the treatment of seizure disorders and neuropathic pain, it is also important as off-label for a second-line treatment for bipolar disorder and in combination with an antipsychotic in some cases of schizophrenia when treatment with a conventional antipsychotic alone has failed. Other uses may include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, phantom limb syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, borderline personality disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940168/calcium-carbonate
#5
REVIEW
M M H Al Omari, I S Rashid, N A Qinna, A M Jaber, A A Badwan
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940167/bupropion-hydrochloride
#6
REVIEW
S R Khan, R T Berendt, C D Ellison, A B Ciavarella, E Asafu-Adjaye, M A Khan, P J Faustino
Bupropion hydrochloride is a norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitor (NDDI) approved for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation. Bupropion is a trimethylated monocyclic phenylaminoketone second-generation antidepressant, which differs structurally from most antidepressants, and resides in a novel mechanistic class that has no direct action on the serotonin system. Comprehensive chemical, physical, and spectroscopic profiles are presented. This analytical profile provides an extensive spectroscopic investigation utilizing mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR, solid-state NMR, IR, NIR, Raman, UV, and X-ray diffraction...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051691/preface-to-volume-40
#7
Harry G Brittain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051690/valsartan
#8
REVIEW
Febry Ardiana, Suciati, Gunawan Indrayanto
Valsartan is an antihypertensive drug which selectively inhibits angiotensin receptor type II. Generally, valsartan is available as film-coated tablets. This review summarizes thermal analysis, spectroscopy characteristics (UV, IR, MS, and NMR), polymorphism forms, impurities, and related compounds of valsartan. The methods of analysis of valsartan in pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological fluids using spectrophotometer, CE, TLC, and HPLC methods are discussed in details. Both official and nonofficial methods are described...
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051689/telmisartan
#9
REVIEW
Ahmed H H Bakheit, Ahmed A Abd-Elgalil, Bakheit Mustafa, Anzarul Haque, Tanveer A Wani
Telmisartan is an angiotensin-II receptor antagonist (ARB) used in the treatment of hypertension. Generally, angiotensin-II receptor blockers such as telmisartan bind to the angiotensin-II type 1 receptors with high affinity, causing inhibition of the action of angiotensin II on vascular smooth muscle, ultimately leading to a reduction in arterial blood pressure. The present study gives a comprehensive profile of telmisartan, including detailed nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance of the drug are mentioned...
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051688/salmeterol-xinafoate
#10
REVIEW
Manal M Anwar, Radwan S El-Haggar, Wafaa A Zaghary
Salmeterol xinafoate is a potent and a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist. It is prescribed for the treatment of severe persistent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different methods were used to prepare (R)-(-)-salmeterol such as: mixing a sample of 4-benzyloxy-3-hydroxymethyl-ω-bromoacetophenone with sodium lauryl sulfate and the mixture was added to the microbial culture of Rhodotorula rubra, treatment of p-hydroxyacetophenone with Eschenmoser's salt and carbonate exchange resin followed by a sequence of supported reagents and scavenging agents or via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation...
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051687/prasugrel-hydrochloride
#11
REVIEW
Mahmoud M H Al Omari, Nidal A Qinna, Iyad S Rashid, Khaldoun A Al-Sou'od, Adnan A Badwan
A comprehensive profile of prasugrel HCl is reported herein with 158 references. A full description including nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance is included. Methods of preparation for prasugrel HCl, its intermediates, and derivatives are fully discussed. In addition, the physical properties, analytical methods, stability, uses and applications, and pharmacology of prasugrel HCl are also discussed.
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051686/losartan-comprehensive-profile
#12
REVIEW
Abdul-Rahman A Al-Majed, Ebrahim Assiri, Nasr Y Khalil, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Losartan (Cozaar™) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist with antihypertensive activity. It is used in the management of hypertension and heart failure. Nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance of the drug are included in this review. The uses, applications, and the variety of synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum with fragmentation patterns, and NMR (1H and 13C) spectra of losartan together with the corresponding figures and/or tables are all produced...
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051685/glutathione
#13
Amer M Alanazi, Gamal A E Mostafa, Abdullah A Al-Badr
Glutathione is an endogenous peptide with antioxidant and other metabolic functions. The nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, and appearance and uses of the drug are included. The methods used for the synthesis and biosynthesis of glutathione are described. This profile contains the physical characteristics of the drug including: solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. The spectral methods that were used for both the identification and analysis of glutathione include ultraviolet spectrum, vibrational spectrum, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectrum...
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26051684/cinnarizine-comprehensive-profile
#14
REVIEW
Nadia G Haress
Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine.
2015: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794913/preface-to-volume-39
#15
EDITORIAL
Harry G Brittain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794912/vardenafil-dihydrochloride
#16
REVIEW
Abdelkader E Ashour, A F M Motiur Rahman, Mohammed G Kassem
Vardenafil (VAR) is synthetic, highly selective, and potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 which competitively inhibits cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolysis and thus increases cGMP levels. It is clinically approved for treatment of erectile dysfunction in men, including diabetic and postprostatectomy patients. Several methods of VAR synthesis are included in this review. UV spectroscopy of VAR showed a λmax of approximately 270nm, and IR spectroscopy principal peaks were observed at 3420 (NH), 1724 (CO), 1600 (CC, and CN), 1491 (CHCH) cm(-1)...
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794911/pravastatin-sodium
#17
REVIEW
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Gamal A E Mostafa
Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum...
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794910/moxifloxacin-hydrochloride
#18
REVIEW
Mahmoud M H Al Omari, Deema S Jaafari, Khaldoun A Al-Sou'od, Adnan A Badwan
A comprehensive profile of moxifloxacin HCl with 198 references is reported. A full description including nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance is included. Methods of preparation for moxifloxacin HCl, its intermediates, and derivatives are fully described. In addition, the physical properties, analytical methods, stability, uses and applications, and pharmacology of moxifloxacin HCl are also discussed.
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794909/imatinib-mesylate
#19
REVIEW
Badraddin M H Al-Hadiya, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Ahmed A Abd-Elgalil
Imatinib (INN), marketed by Novartis as Gleevec (United States) or Glivec (Europe/Australia/Latin America), received Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approval in May 2001 and is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of multiple cancers, most notably Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myelogenous leukemia. Like all tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib works by preventing a tyrosine kinase enzyme. Because the BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase enzyme exists only in cancer cells and not in healthy cells, imatinib works as a form of targeted therapy-only cancer cells are killed through the drug's action...
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24794908/gefitinib
#20
REVIEW
A F M Motiur Rahman, Hesham M Korashy, Mohammed Gabr Kassem
Gefitinib (Iressa®) is a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor, a growth factor that plays a pivotal role in the control of cell growth, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Gefitinib is clinically used for the treatment of chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer patients. Gefitinib is freely soluble in dimethylsulphoxide but slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol. Several methods of gefitinib synthesis are included in this review. UV spectroscopy of gefitinib showed a λmax of approximately 331nm, whereas IR spectroscopy principal peaks were observed at 3400cm(-1) (NH), 2956cm(-1) (CH2, CH, alkyl), 1625cm(-1) (CC, CN), 1500cm(-1) (HCCH, aryl), 1110cm(-1) (CO), 1028cm(-1) (CF)...
2014: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
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