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Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678265/preface-to-volume-43
#1
EDITORIAL
Harry G Brittain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678264/validation-of-chromatographic-methods-of-analysis-application-for-drugs-that-derived-from-herbs
#2
REVIEW
Gunawan Indrayanto
It is well known that the quality control (QC) of drugs derived from herbs (DDHs) has two main problems: first, DDHs are chemically complex mixtures, and second, the chemical contents of raw plant materials are affected by the site of cultivation, age of plants, methods of harvesting, and processing. QC is used by manufacturers to ensure the consistency, safety, and efficacy of the DDHs. QC of DDHs can be performed by two approaches, namely, marker-oriented and chemical pattern-oriented (metabolite profiling) using chromatographic methods...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678263/mid-infrared-spectroscopy-of-pharmaceutical-solids
#3
REVIEW
Harry G Brittain
It is now well established that infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the physical characterization of pharmaceutical solids. Besides being a preferred methodology for identification purposes, one can use trends in the energy values in the spectra as a means to study the solid-state properties of the system. FTIR spectra are often used to evaluate the type of polymorphism existing in a drug substance, can be very useful in studies of the water contained within a hydrate species, and are emerging as a technique of choice for the study of cocrystal systems...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678262/tolfenamic-acid
#4
REVIEW
Sofia Ahmed, Muhammad Ali Sheraz, Iqbal Ahmad
Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and belongs to the group of fenamates. It is used as a potent pain reliever in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, and disorders like dysmenorrhea, rheumatoid, and osteoarthritis. TA has shown excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against certain ATCC strains of bacteria when complexed with bismuth(III). It has also been reported to block pathological processes associated with Alzheimer's disease. In the recent past, TA has also been used as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of various cancers...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678261/mirtazapine
#5
REVIEW
Abdulrahman Al-Majed, Ahmed H Bakheit, Raed M Alharbi, Hatem A Abdel Aziz
Mirtazapine is one of antidepression which is used mainly in the treatment of depression, moreover, it is sometimes used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, nausea, and vomiting, and to produce weight gain when desirable. The action of mirtazapine is an antagonist of certain adrenergic and serotonin receptors, and, furthermore, the drug is used strong as antihistamine, and it is occasionally defined as a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA). The comprehensive profile of mirtazapine gives more detailed information about nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678260/ganciclovir
#6
REVIEW
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Tariq D S Ajarim
Ganciclovir is synthetic nucleoside analog of guanine closely related to acyclovir but has greater activity against cytomegalovirus. This comprehensive profile on ganciclovir starts with a description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and application of the drug are explained. The methods that were used for the preparation of ganciclovir are described and their respective schemes are outlined. The methods which were used for the physical characterization of the dug are: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431782/preface-to-volume-42
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#8
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431780/tolterodine-tartrate
#9
Gennady Ananchenko, Jasmina Novakovic
Tolterodine tartrate belongs to the family of muscarinic receptor antagonists and is indicated for the treatment of overactive urinary bladder syndrome. This chapter provides an overview of physical, analytical, and ADME profiles; highlights methods of chemical synthesis; and discusses stability of tolterodine as a free base and/or its l-tartrate salt in solution and in the solid state. The information presented in this chapter is based on the peer-reviewed literature, compendial reports (USP, EP), and authors' data...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431779/propranolol
#10
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Hatem A Abdel Aziz, Fahad M Alajmi, Haitham AlRabiah
Propranolol is a noncardioselective β-blocker. It is reported to have membrane-stabilizing properties, but it does not own intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Propranolol hydrochloride is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is also used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in the management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and tremor. Other indications cover the prophylaxis of migraine and of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431778/olmesartan
#11
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Ahmed H H Bakheit, Hatem A Abdel Aziz, Abdulelah A M Al-Jallal
Olmesartan is an angiotensin receptor blockers with actions similar to those of losartan; it is used for the treatment of high blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels for this reason blood can flow more easily. It could be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. This chapter gives a comprehensive profile of olmesartan, containing detailed nomenclature, formulae, elemental analysis, and appearance of the drug. In addition this chapter also describes several methods of synthesis and usage of the olmesartan...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431777/lomefloxacin
#12
Reem I Al-Wabli
Lomefloxacin is a second-generation difluorinated broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic. It is used for the treatment of bronchitis, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, otitis externa, and otitis media. A comprehensive profile was performed on lomefloxacin including nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition appearance, and physical characteristics. Spectral methods including ultraviolet spectrum, vibrational spectrum, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance one- and two-dimensional spectra, and mass spectrum were used for both identification and analysis of the drug...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431776/gliclazide
#13
Fatmah A M Al-Omary
Gliclazide is a second-generation oral hypoglycemic drug used for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It belongs to the sulfonylurea class that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting ATP-dependent potassium channels. Gliclazide also possesses unique antioxidant properties and other beneficial hemobiological effects. This profile represents a comprehensive description of the physical properties, chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization (FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV, and single-crystal X-ray), methods of analysis, pharmacological actions, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the title drug...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431775/cinacalcet-hydrochloride
#14
Gamal A E Mostafa, Abdullah A Al-Badr
Cinacalcet hydrochloride is a calcimimetic agent that increases the sensitivity to the extracellular calcium of the calcium-sensing receptors of the parathyroid gland which regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. This comprehensive profile on cinacalcet hydrochloride starts with a description: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and applications of the drug are included. The methods of preparation of cinacalcet hydrochloride are described and their respective schemes are outlined...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940172/preface-to-volume-41
#15
EDITORIAL
Harry G Brittain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940171/pioglitazone
#16
REVIEW
A Al-Majed, A H H Bakheit, H A Abdel Aziz, H Alharbi, F I Al-Jenoobi
Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic with actions similar to those of rosiglitazone. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is prepared by reducing 5-[4-[2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridyl)ethoxy]benzilidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione with sodium borohydride in the presence of a cobalt ion and dimethyl glyoxime. Ultraviolet spectroscopy shows maximum absorption at 270nm. Infrared spectroscopy shows principal peaks at wave numbers 3082, 2964, 1736, 1690, 1472, 1331, 1254, 1040, 841, 728cm(-1) (KBr disk)...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940170/dacarbazine
#17
REVIEW
Abdullah A Al-Badr, Mansour M Alodhaib
Dacarbazine is a cell cycle nonspecific antineoplastic alkylating agent used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. This chapter contains the descriptions of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, chemical structure, elemental composition, and appearance. The uses and applications of dacarbazine and the methods that were used for its preparation are reported. The methods which were used for the physical characterization of the drug are ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, crystal structure, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940169/carbamazepine
#18
REVIEW
S T Alrashood
This chapter includes the aspects of carbamazepine. The drug is synthesized by the use of 5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine and phosgene followed by subsequent reaction with ammonia. Carbamazepine is generally used for the treatment of seizure disorders and neuropathic pain, it is also important as off-label for a second-line treatment for bipolar disorder and in combination with an antipsychotic in some cases of schizophrenia when treatment with a conventional antipsychotic alone has failed. Other uses may include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, phantom limb syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, borderline personality disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940168/calcium-carbonate
#19
REVIEW
M M H Al Omari, I S Rashid, N A Qinna, A M Jaber, A A Badwan
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940167/bupropion-hydrochloride
#20
REVIEW
S R Khan, R T Berendt, C D Ellison, A B Ciavarella, E Asafu-Adjaye, M A Khan, P J Faustino
Bupropion hydrochloride is a norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitor (NDDI) approved for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation. Bupropion is a trimethylated monocyclic phenylaminoketone second-generation antidepressant, which differs structurally from most antidepressants, and resides in a novel mechanistic class that has no direct action on the serotonin system. Comprehensive chemical, physical, and spectroscopic profiles are presented. This analytical profile provides an extensive spectroscopic investigation utilizing mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR, solid-state NMR, IR, NIR, Raman, UV, and X-ray diffraction...
2016: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
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