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Chemistry & Biodiversity

Omar Santana-Méridas, Azucena González-Coloma, Maria Fe Andrés, Veroniki P Vidali, Moschos G Polissiou, Athanasios C Kimbaris
Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. M. spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum)...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a very well-known herbal medicine and it was well studied for its active metabolites throughout the World. Although, nearly 40 withanolides were isolated from W. somnifera root extract, still there is remaining unidentified metabolites due to very low abundance and natural variation. Advanced separation technology with online identification by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are now-a-days used to find out the new compounds in the crude herbal extract. This article described the metabolite profiling of ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and NMR analysis...
October 15, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Łukasz Szoka, Ewa Karna, Anna Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Monika Sienkiewicz
The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils...
October 13, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Marina Zekić, Carlo I G Tuberoso
Rare Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. honey from Croatia was first time characterised. The spectrophotometric assays on CIE L*a*b*Cab *hab ° colour coordinates, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH(●) and ABTS(●+) assays) determined higher honey values generally close to dark honeys ranges. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on two fibres after GC-FID and GC-MS revealed the major compounds 2-phenylacetaldehyde (12.8%; 15.6%), benzaldehyde (11.1%; 10.0%), octane (9...
October 8, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Juliana Cristhina Friedrich, Adriana Gonela, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, José Alfredo Sturion, Euclides Lara Cardozo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies x 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and twenty random primers were used for DNA amplification...
October 4, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Rowaida N Al-Badani, Joyce Kelly R Da Silva, William N Setzer, Nasser A Awadh Ali, Bushra A Muharam, Ahmed J A Al-Fahad
Lavandula pubescens Decne. is one of five Lavandula species growing wild in Yemen. The plant is used in Yemeni traditional medicine, and the essential oil tends to be rich in carvacrol. In this work, L. pubescens was collected from eight different locations in Yemen, the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to differentiate between the L. pubescens samples...
October 4, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ahmet Altay, Gulcin Sagdicoglu Celep, Ahmet E Yaprak, Isa Basköse, Faruk Bozoglu
In this study, the possible uses of glassworts as potential food ingredients and their anti-proliferative activity against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells together with their antioxidant and phytochemical profiles were investigated for the fist time. Methanol extracts of five different taxa collected from different localities were screened for their antioxidant capacities by DPPH (IC50 : 2.91-5.49 mg/ml) and ABTS (24.4-38.5 μmol TE/g extract) assays. Salicornia freitagii exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity...
October 4, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Yawei Wang, Haiyan Zhang, Jisheng Li, Xiuwen Wang
An acquired T798M gatekeeper mutation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) kinase can cause drug resistance to anti-HER2 chemotherapy drugs in lung cancer. Previously, the reversible pan-kinase inhibitor Staurosporine has been found to selectively inhibit the HER2 T798M mutant over wild-type kinase, suggesting that the Staurosporine scaffold is potentially to develop mutant-selective inhibitors. Here, we systematically evaluated the chemical space of Staurosporine scaffold-based compounds in response to HER2 T798M mutation at structural, energetic and molecular levels by using an integrated analysis strategy...
October 1, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Xiaoping Zhan, Lan Lan, Shuai Wang, Kai Zhao, Yuxuan Xin, Qi Qi, Yaolin Wang, Zhenmin Mao
A series of 3-(substituted aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl)-1H-pyrrole derivatives were synthesized and determined for their anticancer activity against eleven cancer cell lines and two normal tissue cell lines using MTT assay. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3f was the most potent compound against A375, CT-26, Hela, MGC80-3, NCI-H460 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 s = 8.2-31.7 μM); 3g, 3n and 3a were the most potent compounds against CHO (IC50 = 8.2 μM), HCT-15 (IC50 = 21 μM) and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 18...
October 1, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Hamdi Bendif, Messaoud Boudjeniba, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Loreta Biqiku, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Luana Quassinti, Luca A Vitali, Filippo Maggi
Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Lamiaceae) is a small shrub endemic to Algeria and Morocco where is found in lawns, rockeries and mountainous regions. From a phytochemical point of view this taxon has never been characterized. In this work we have analysed the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from inflorescences and vegetative parts by GC-MS. A new chemotype, i.e. borneol-chemotype, was characterized for the first time in the species. Furthermore, we assessed the biological activities of essential oils, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumor cells that were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP, disc diffusion, and MTT methods, respectively...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Layal Fahed, Madona Khoury, Didier Stien, Naïm Ouaini, Véronique Eparvier, Marc El Beyrouthy
The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of six conifers harvested in Lebanon, Abies cilicica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Cedrus libani and Cupressus macrocarpa gold crest, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC-MS analyses. A principal components analysis based on Pearson correlation between essential oils chemical analyses was also conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these essentials oils were determined against a range of bacteria and fungi responsible for cutaneous infections in human, using the broth microdilution technique...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Asma El Ayeb-Zakhama, Lamia Sakka-Rouis, Guido Flamini, Hichem Ben Jannet, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
Citharexylum spinosum L. (Verbenaceae) also known as C. quadrangulare Jacq. or C. fruticosum L. is an exotic tree introduced many years ago in Tunisia, specially used as a street and park ornamental tree. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits; drupes) collected from trees grown in the area of Monastir (Tunisia). In total, 84 compounds, representing 90.1-98.4% of the whole oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Francesco Pietra
In a preliminary exploration of the dummy model for diiron proteins, random-acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) revealed that a pure four-helix bundle structure, like hemerythrin, constitutes an efficient cage for dioxygen (O2 ), which can only leave from defined, albeit very broad, gates. However, this well ordered structure does not constitute an archetype on which to compare O2 permeation of other diiron proteins, like the complex of soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase with the regulatory protein (sMMOH-MMOB)...
September 28, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Yoro Tine, Abdoulaye Diop, William Diatta, Jean-Marie Desjobert, Cheikh Saad Bouh Boye, Jean Costa, Alassane Wélé, Julien Paolini
The chemical diversity of Z. zanthoxyloides growing wild in Senegal was studied according to volatile compound classes, plant organs and sample locations. The composition of fruit essential oil was investigated using an original targeted approach based on the combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) both coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The volatile composition of Z. zanthoxyloides fruits exhibited relative high amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (24.3-55.8%) and non-terpenic oxygenated compounds (34...
September 28, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Zana A Ouattara, Jean Brice Boti, Coffy Antoine Ahibo, Yves-Alain Bekro, Janat Mamyrbekova, Joseph Casanova, Félix Tomi, Ange Bighelli
The chemical composition of trunk bark oil from Cleistopholis patens Engler and Diels, growing wild in Côte d'Ivoire, has been investigated by GC(FID) in combination with retention indices, GC/MS and (13) C-NMR. Moreover, one oil sample has been subjected to CC and all the fractions analyzed by GC(RI) and (13) C-NMR. In total, 61 components have been identified, including various sesquiterpene esters scarcely found in essential oils. (13) C-NMR was particularly efficient for the identification of a component not eluted on GC and for the quantification of heat-sensitive compounds...
September 24, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Shun Katsumata, Kazuho Hamana, Kiyotaka Horie, Hiroaki Toshima, Morifumi Hasegawa
Sakuranetin (1) is a flavanone phytoalexin that has been reported to play an important role in disease resistance in rice plants. The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) has been reported to metabolize 1 to lower its antifungal activity. Here, two flavanones, sternbin (2) and naringenin (3), were identified as metabolites of 1 in P. oryzae suspension culture by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The inhibition of 1, 2, and 3 on P. oryzae mycelial growth were 45%, 19%, and 19%, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μM...
September 19, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Mansour Znati, Insaf Filali, Aymen Jabrane, Joseph Casanova, Jalloul Bouajila, Hichem Ben Jannet
Essential oil of the seeds from the endemic Tunisian plant Ferula tunetana Pomel ex Batt. was analyzed for its chemical composition and screened for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and antigerminative properties. The chemical composition of the isolated oil is reported for the first time. According to the GC/FID, GC-MS and (13) C NMR analysis results; eighteen compounds were identified accounting for 84.6% of the total oil. The chemical composition of this essential oil was characterized by the presence of a high proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons (77...
September 16, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jian Chen, Han Lü, Lianxiang Fang, Weilin Li, Luc Verschaeve, Zhengtao Wang, Norbert De Kimpe, Sven Mangelinckx
Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of G. species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyse the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two G. species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC-MS/MS spectrometry method...
September 13, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ana M Rodrigues, Marta D Mendes, Ana S Lima, Pedro M Barbosa, Lia Ascensão, José G Barroso, Luis G Pedro, Manuel M Mota, A Cristina Figueiredo
Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated...
September 13, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ren-Tao Zeng, Xue-Yun Dong, Xing Fang, Niao Yang, Zhi-Ran Shi, Zhi-Guo Zhuo, Yun-Heng Shen, Wei-Dong Zhang
Three new sesquiterpenoids, 4α-hydroxy-eudesm-11-en-12-isovaleroxyl (1), diaspanolide E (2), and germacra-1(10), 4-diene-11α-methyl-12,8α-olide-15-acid (3), along with eight known sesquiterpenoids (4-11), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ainsliaea henryi. The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1D-, 2D-NMR, MS and HRMS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Compound 10 exhibited significantly inhibition against NO release with an IC50 value of 6...
September 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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