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Chemistry & Biodiversity

Simone Moser, Gerhard Scherzer, Bernhard Kräutler
The typical main products of chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown in higher plants are non-fluorescent, colorless phyllobilins, named phylloleucobilins. These long elusive Chl-catabolites are linear tetrapyrroles, whose structure elucidation has required thorough spectroscopic analyses. Interestingly, in recent LC/MS studies of leaf extracts, isomeric forms of phylloleucobilins were detected. The existence of isomeric phyllobilins may suggest incomplete stereo-selectivity of catabolic processes, or isomerization processes in plant cells or in the analytes...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Na Li, Zheng Pan, Dan Zhang, Huaxing Wang, Bao Yu, Shengping Zhao, Jiajia Guo, Jianwei Wang, Ling Yao, Weiguo Cao
The fruit (aril) of the endangered genus Taxus plants is an abandoned herbal resource. Traditionally, people enthusiasticly focus on its bark, its renewable, tremendous arils fall into the soil with seeds after they are mature. The present research investigated the fruit of two species from the genus Taxus, Taxus chinensis var. mairei and Taxus media, with regards to their antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic activities, safety, and bioactive constituents. Results showed that T. chinensis var. mairei and T. media both had certain biological activities with T...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Raffaella Gandolfi, Alessandro Contini, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Stefano Pandini, Donatella Nava, Elena Pini
In the present study the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of resveratrol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ß-sitosterol with an antioxidant polyconjugated fatty acid, 2E,4E,6E-octatrienoic acid, was achieved. As the selective esterification of hydroxyl groups of natural compounds can affect their biological activity, a selective esterification of resveratrol and caffeic acid was performed by an enzymatic approach. The new resulting compounds were characterized spectroscopically (FT-IR, NMR mono and bidimensional techniques); when necessary the experimental data were integrated by quantum chemical calculations...
September 13, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Fadia S Youssef, Rola M Labib, Omayma A Eldahshan, Abdel Nasser B Singab
The edible plants have long been reported to possess a lot of biological activities. Herein, the hepatoprotective and the antioxidant activity of the aqueous infusion of the edible parts of Cynara cardunculus, Ficus carica and Morus nigra and their herbal mixture (CFM) was investigated in vitro using CCl4 induced damage in HepG2 cells. The highest amelioration was observed via the consumption of CFM at 1 mg/ml showing 47.00, 37.09% decline in AST (Aspartate Transaminase) and ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and 77...
September 12, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
J A Llorens-Molina, C Rivero, S Vacas, H Boira
The genus Mentha (Labiatae) is a paleotemplate taxon including aromatic perennial herbs long cultived as flavouring, mint sauce and jelly, spearmint oil, antiparasitic and insecticide [1], [2], etc. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. ("apple or woolly menthe", "mentastro" in vernacular name), is one of the five basic Eurosiberian and Mediterranean mentha species, common in grasslands on periodically flooded soils (Cl. Phragmitetea Tx. Et Presing, 1942), or moist soils with high phreatic level (Cl. Molinio Arrhenatheretea Tx...
September 8, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Line Made Simo, Olivier Placide Noté, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Sarah Ali Aouazou, Dominique Guillaume, Christian Dominique Muller, Dieudonné Emmanuel Pegnyemb, Annelise Lobstein
As part of our search of new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D-E (1-2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR ((1) H-, (13) C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1-3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell...
September 6, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jelena Živković, Mihailo Ristić, Josephine Kschonsek, Anna Westphal, Milica Mihailović, Vladimir Filipović, Volker Böhm
Composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, fatty acids as well as hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were determined in seeds of two Salvia species and oils obtained from them. Both seeds contained a large amount of oil (around 20%) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. While S. officinalis seed oil can be classified as oleic-linoleic oil, the predominant fatty acid in S. sclarea was α-linolenic acid (around 54%). Among tocols, the main isomers in both seeds and oils were γ-tocopherol, followed by α-tocopherol...
September 2, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Hayreddin Gezegen, Ceylan Hepokur, Uğur Tutar, Mustafa Ceylan
A series of novel phenylurea containing 2-benzoylindan-1-one derivatives 3a-j were synthesized from the reaction of phenylurea-substituted acetophenones 1a-j with phthalaldehyde 2 under mild reaction conditions in good yields. All synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. The obtained compounds (3a-j) were evaluated for anticancer activity against HeLa and C6 cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was determined by the BrdU proliferation ELISA assay, 3f and 3g were found to be most active compounds...
September 2, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Giovanni Benelli, Roman Pavela, Massimo Ricciutelli, Giulio Lupidi, Filippo Maggi
Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae), is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydro-distilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis...
September 1, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jorge Ramírez, Gianluca Gilardoni, Miriam Jácome, José Montesinos, Marinella Rodolfi, Maria Lidia Guglielminetti, Cecila Cagliero, Carlo Bicchi, Giovanni Vidari
This study describes the GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-O, and enantioselective GC analysis of the essential oil hydrodistilled from leaves of Lepechinica mutica (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses allowed the characterization and quantification of 79 components, representing 97.3% of the total sample. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.50%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (30.59%) were found to be the most abundant volatiles, while oxygenated sesquiterpenes (16.20%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (2.10%) were the minor components...
August 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Francesco Pietra
In this work viable models of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and its complex with L-cysteine dianion were built for the first time, under strict adherence to the crystal structure from X-ray diffraction studies, for all atom molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the CHARMM36 FF, the active site, featuring an octahedral dummy Fe(II) model, allowed us observing water exchange, which would have escaped attention with the more popular bonded models. Free dioxygen (O2 ) and L-cysteine, added at the active site,could be observed being expelled toward the solvating medium under Random Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (RAMD) along major and minor pathways...
August 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Wen Zhang, Qian Gao, Shuxian Wei, Bicheng Fu, Qian Yang, Xin Ming
A variety of applications of 8-alkynylated nucleosides has prompted the synthesis of new purine analogues. Bromination of unprotected 2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine with Br2 /AcOH/NaOAc gives 8-bromo-2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine (87%). Brominated derivative is converted to 8-alkynylated 2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosines by palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction via microwave assistance (81-95%). The resulting compounds are further transformed to 8-alkynylated 2'-deoxyisoguanosines (52-70%). The physical properties of new compounds are investigated...
August 29, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Katarina P Šavikin, Gordana M Zdunić, Dijana B Krstić-Milošević, Helena J Šircelj, Danijela D Stešević, Dejan S Pljevljakušić
Due to its nutritive and medicinal properties, berries of some Sorbus species are used for the preparation of jams and jelly as well as in traditional medicine. On the other hand, their chemical composition is not much studied especially of those grown in Balkan Peninsula. We have analyzed individual phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using HPLC in berries from Sorbus aucuparia and S. aria collected in different localities in Serbia and Montenegro together with the amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins as well as their radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical...
August 28, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Alessio Cimmino, Lucia Maddau, Marco Masi, Benedetto T Linaldeddu, Gennaro Pescitelli, Antonio Evidente
A new isochromanone, named fraxitoxin, was isolated together with (-)-mellein and tyrosol from liquid cultures of Diplodia fraxini a pathogen involved in the etiology of canker and dieback disease of Fraxinus spp. in Europe. It was characterized as 5-methoxy-3-methyl-isochroman-1-one using spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and HREIMS). Its absolute configuration (R) at C-3 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) measurements and calculations. Phytotoxic activity of the compound was evaluated on ash, cork and holm oak leaves at concentration of 1 mg/mL by the leaf-puncture assay...
August 23, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Saghi Sepehri, Sepehr Soleymani, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mohammad R Aghasadeghi, Mehdi Sadat, Lotfollah Saghaie, Afshin Fassihi
The structural similarities between N1 substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and the known gp41 inhibitors, NB-2 and NB-64, were considered in the current research for the design of some novel anti-HIV-1 agents. A series of novel 4-arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and after a comprehensive structural elucidation were screened for in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity. Most of the tested compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activity against HIV-1 growth and were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity using XTT assay at the concentration of 100 μM...
August 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Dabei Tang, Zhong Chu, Jessica Bo Li Lu, Jinzhong Liu, Qingyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Norendoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a potent aromatase inhibitor. Little information is available regarding production of norendoxifen in vitro. Here, we conducted a series of kinetic and inhibition studies in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed P450s to study the metabolic disposition of norendoxifen. METHODS: To validate that norendoxifen was the metabolite of endoxifen, metabolites in HLMs incubates of endoxifen were measured using a HPLC/MS/MS method...
August 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Yongle Du, Alexander K Abedi, Ana Lisa Valenciano, Maria L Fernández-Murga, Maria B Cassera, Vincent E Rasamison, Wendy L Applequist, James S Miller, David G I Kingston
An extract of a Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg/mL. After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C-18 SPE and C-18 reverse phase HPLC, the new butanolide malleastrumolide A was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry...
August 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Hu Hao-Bin, Liang Hai-Peng, Li Hai-Ming, Yuan Ru-Nan, Sun Jiao, Wu Yun, Zhang La-La, Han Ming-Hu
A new cis-stilbenoid, 1,9-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (2) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, along with three known stilbenoids, 9-hydroxy-10- methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (1), 5-O-methyl-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and (E)- resveratrol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4). Two derivatives (2a and 2b) were synthesized by the structural modification of compound 2, which exhibited certain cytotoxic activities against HT-29 and Hela cell lines in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
So Ra Lee, Min-Suk Kim, Sunggun Kim, Kwang Woo Hwang, So-Young Park
The arial parts of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) efficiently inhibited NO production in BV2 microglial cells, and the active constituents were further isolated based on activity-guided isolation using silica-gel column chromatography, RP-C18 MPLC and prep-HPLC. As the results, 2 flavonoids including 6-methoxynaringenin (1) and 6-O-methylscutellarein (5), and 6 neo-clerodane diterpenes such as scutebarbatine W (2), scutebatas B (3), scutebarbatine B (4), scutebarbatine A (6), 6-O-nicotinolylscutebarbatine G (7) and scutebarbatine X (8) were isolated...
August 14, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Gonzalo Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Raúl Sánchez-Vioque, María Isabel Berruga, David Herraiz-Peñalver, Azucena González-Coloma, María Fé Andrés, Omar Santana-Méridas
This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia or L. x hybrida var. Super) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H...
August 12, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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