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Chemistry & Biodiversity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212461/fatty-acid-composition-of-baobab-seed-and-its-relationship-with-the-genus-adansonia-taxonomy
#1
Gaylor Razafimamonjison, Jean Michel Leong Pock Tsy, Manitriniaina Randriamiarinarivo, Panja Ramanoelina, Jean Rasoarahona, Fanjaniaina Fawbush, Pascal Danthu
Baobab seed oil contains specific fatty acids. Most of the studies on baobab fatty acids have been carried out singly and in isolation from each other, making it difficult to compare results through different species. The objective of the present study is to establish the seed fatty acid composition of each Adansonia species in order to evaluate and understand the relationships between the oil chemical compositions, the baobabs' taxonomy and, the ecological and geographical origin of each seed lot. The seed oils have been analysed using gas chromatography (GC)...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212458/chemical-composition-variability-of-essential-oils-of-daucus-gracilis-steinh-from-algeria
#2
Batoul Benyelles, Hocine Allali, Mohamed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Julien Paolini, Jean Costa
The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207992/inhibitory-activities-of-n-butanol-fraction-from-butea-monosperma-lam-taub-bark-against-free-radicals-genotoxins-and-cancer-cells
#3
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity of n-butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using E. coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC50 56...
February 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207990/carbonic-anhydrase-and-urease-inhibitory-potential-of-various-plant-phenolics-using-in-vitro-and-in-silico-methods
#4
Abdur Rauf, Muslim Raza, Muhammad Saleem, Ufuk Ozgen, Esen Sezen Karaoglan, Gulin Renda, Erhan Palaska, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
Plant phenolics are known to display many pharmacological activities. In the current study, eight phenolic compounds [e.g. luteolin 5-O-β-glucoside (1), methyl rosmarinate (2), apigenin (3), vicenin 2 (4), lithospermic acid (5), soyasaponin II (6), rubiadin 3-O-β-primeveroside (7), 4(3,4dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8)] isolated from various plant species were tested at 0.2 mM against carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) and urease using microtiter assays. Urease inhibition rate for compounds 1-8 ranged between 5...
February 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190283/chemical-characteristics-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-the-essential-oil-of-egyptian-cinnamomum-glanduliferum-bark
#5
Al Shaimaa M Taha, Omayma A Eldahshan
The essential oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall) Meissn that grown in Egypt was screened for the first time. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC/Mass. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using agar-well diffusion method toward representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The cytotoxic activity was checked using three human cancer cell lines. Twenty seven compounds were identified, representing 99.07% of the total detected components...
February 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171693/1-aminobenzocyclobutene-1-phosphonic-acid-and-related-compounds-as-inhibitors-of-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase
#6
Jerzy Zoń, Piotr Miziak
Five new geminal aminocycloalkanephosphonic acids (4-8) containing both an aromatic ring and a cycloalkane ring were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of buckwheat phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Within the set of compounds which are related to 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, 3), a known powerful inhibitor of PAL, racemic 1-aminobenzocyclobutene-1-phosphonic acid (4), was six times weaker than AIP as an in vitro inhibitor of buckwheat PAL, but six times stronger than AIP as an in vivo inhibitor of phenylalanine-derived anthocyanin synthesis in buckwheat...
February 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171692/inhibitory-activity-and-chemical-characterization-of-daucus-carota-subsp-maximus-essential-oils
#7
Raimondo Gaglio, Marcella Barbera, Aurora Aleo, Ines Lommatzsch, Tommaso La Mantia, Luca Settanni
The essential oils (EOs) of green seeds from Daucus carota subsp. maximus growing wild in Pantelleria island (Sicily, Italy) were characterised. EOs were extracted by steam distillation, examined for their inhibitory properties against food-borne Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and analysed for the chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Undiluted EOs showed a large inhibition spectrum against Gram positive strains and also vs Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...
February 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170149/essential-oil-and-bioactive-compounds-variation-in-myrtle-myrtus-communis-l-as-affected-by-seasonal-variation-and-salt-stress
#8
Zeinab Vafadar Shoshtari, Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Reza Sabzalian, Hossein Hosseini
The effect of different NaCl concentrations (control, 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1) and three harvesting times in different seasons including spring (9 April), summer (5 July) and fall (23 September) was evaluated on essential oil yield, composition, phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of myrtle. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.2% in control and fall to 1.6% in moderate salinity (4 dS m-1) and spring season. The main constituents obtained from GC-MS analysis were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol and linalyl acetate in which α-pinene ranged from 11...
February 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165659/needle-terpenes-as-chemotaxonomic-markers-in-pinus-subsections-pinus-and-pinaster
#9
Zorica S Mitić, Snežana Č Jovanović, Bojan K Zlatković, Biljana M Nikolić, Gordana S Stojanović, Petar D Marin
Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect...
February 6, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155255/a-screen-for-swainsonine-in-select-north-american-astragalus-species
#10
Daniel Cook, Dale R Gardner, James A Pfister, Stephen T Lee, Kevin D Welch, Stanley L Welsh
Swainsonine is found in several plant species worldwide, and causes severe toxicosis in livestock grazing these plants, leading to a chronic condition characterized by weight loss, altered behavior, depression, decreased libido, infertility, and death. Swainsonine has been detected in 13 North American Astragalus species of which eight belong to taxa in four taxonomic sections, the Densifolii, Diphysi, Inflati, and Trichopodi. These sections belong to two larger groups representing several morphologically related species, the Pacific Piptolobi and the small-flowered Piptolobi...
February 2, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155254/variation-in-chemical-composition-and-antibacterial-activity-of-the-essential-oil-of-wild-populations-of-phlomis-olivieri
#11
Iman Bajalan, Razieh Rouzbahani, Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Filippo Maggi
Various species of the genus Phlomis have been reported to produce metabolites demonstrating significant pharmacological efficiency. In this study, the essential oils from 12 populations of Phlomis olivieri collected from natural habitats were investigated for their chemical components. The hydrodistillated essential oil analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Analyses revealed 27 compounds, constituting 90.52-98.51% of the essential oils. Results indicated that the major components of the essential oils from various populations of P...
February 2, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145090/nitric-oxide-production-inhibitory-activity-of-limonoids-from-azadirachta-indica-and-melia-azedarach
#12
Toshihiro Akihisa, Yuki Nishimoto, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Matsumoto, Jie Zhang, Masahiko Abe
Seventy-three limonoids isolated from three Meliaceae plants, Azadirachta indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and Melia azedarach, or semi-synthesized from the Meliaceae limonoids, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a primary screening test for anti-inflammatory agents. Of the compounds tested, 21 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6-58.6 μM) without any significant toxicity (IC50 >100 μM) which were more potent than L-NMMA (NO-production inhibitory activity, IC50 65...
February 1, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145061/chemical-variability-and-biological-activities-of-brassica-rapa-var-rapifera-parts-essential-oils-depending-on-geographic-variation-and-extraction-technique
#13
Boualem Saka, Abderrahmane Djouahri, Zineb Djerrad, Terfi Souhila, Sihem Aberrane, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer, Lynda Boudarene
In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC-MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils...
February 1, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135782/a-new-depigmenting-antifungal-methylated-grindelane-from-grindelia-chiloensis
#14
María de Los A Mesurado, María L Arias Cassará, Rosana Misico, Alicia Bardón, María I Ybarra, Elena Cartagena
The new methylated grindelane diterpenoid, 7β-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (1b), together with the known 7α-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (2a), 6-oxogrindelic acid (3a), 4β-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic (4a), 19-hydroxygrindelic acid (5a), 18-hydroxygrindelic acid (6a), 4α-carboxygrindelic acid (7a), 17-hydroxygrindelic acid (8a), 6α-hydroxy grindelic acid (9a), 8,17-bisnor-8-oxagrindelic acid (10a), 7α,8α-epoxygrindelic acid (11a), and strictanonic acid (12a) as methyl esters were obtained from an Argentine collection of Grindelia chiloensis Cabr...
January 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130826/diterpenoids-from-wedelia-prostrata-and-their-derivatives-and-cytotoxic-activities
#15
Xinhua Ma, Zhibiao Wang, Lei Zhang, Wei Li, Cuimin Deng, Tianhua Zhong, Guangyu Li, Weiming Zheng, Yonghong Zhang
One new ent-kaurane diterpenoid, 11β,16α-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with eight known analogues (2-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Wedelia prostrata. One of the acidic diterpenoids, kaurenoic acid (3), was converted to seven derivatives, 10-16. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in vitro against human leukemia (K562), liver (HepG-2), and stomach (SGC-7901) cancer cell lines. Only four kaurenoic acid derivatives, 13-16, with 15-keto and substitutions at C-19 position, exhibited notable cytotoxic activities on these tumor cell lines with IC50 value ranging from 0...
January 28, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130824/chemical-constituents-from-the-flowers-of-wild-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis
#16
Hu Zhang, Ning Feng, Yan-Tong Xu, Tian-Xiang Li, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan Zhu, Yun Seon Song, Ya-Nan Wang, Hong-Hua Wu
Four new iridoids, 2'-O-trans-coumaroylshanzhiside (1), 6'-O-trans-coumaroyl- shanzhiside (2), 8α-butylgardenoside B (3), 6α-methoxygenipin (4), and one new phenylpropanoid glucoside, 4-methoxy-benzenepropanol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), together with sixteen known compounds, were isolated from the edible flowers of wild Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Their chemical structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D/2D NMR, HRESIMS, and CD experiments. The absolute configurations of the new isolates' sugar moiety were assigned by HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysates...
January 28, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122160/physicochemical-properties-antioxidant-and-anti-proliferative-capacities-of-dried-leaf-and-its-extract-from-xao-tam-phan-paramignya-trimera
#17
Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett
Xao tam phan (P. trimera) has been used for the treatment of cancer and cancer-like aliments. Among different parts of P. trimera plant, leaf is considered as a residual part after harvesting of the root. This study aimed to determine the physiochemical properties, antioxidant and anti-proliferative capacities of P. trimera leaf (PTL) using microwave drying for the preparation of dry sample; methanol and microwave-assisted extraction for the preparation of crude extract; and freeze drying for the preparation of powdered extract...
January 25, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122144/chemical-composition-and-behavioral-effects-of-five-plant-essential-oils-on-the-green-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-harris-homoptera-aphididae
#18
Abir Kasmi, Majdi Hammami, Emmanuel G Raoelison, Manef Abderrabba, Jalloul Bouajila, Christine Ducamp
Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest...
January 25, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109063/chemical-variability-antioxidant-and-antifungal-activities-of-essential-oils-and-hydrosol-extract-of-calendula-arvensis-l-from-western-algeria
#19
Rania Belabbes, Mohammed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Faiza Ilias, Boufeldja Tabti, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of fifty-three compounds amounting to 92.3-98.5% with yields varied of 0.09-0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7-29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2-12.5%), β-curcumene (2...
January 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094467/chemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-essential-oil-from-leaves-and-flowers-of-pulicaria-incisa-sub-candolleana-growing-in-egypt
#20
Esraa A Shahat, Riham O Bakr, Omayma A Eldahshan, Nahla A Ayoub
The composition of the essential oil isolated from leaves and flowers of Pulicaria incisa sub. candolleana E.Gamal-Eldin was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-nine and sixty-eight compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and flowers accounting for 86.69% and 84.29%, respectively of the total detected constituents. Both leaves and flowers oils were characterized by the high content of each carvotanacetone with 66.01%, 50.87% and chrysanthenone 13.26%, 24.3% respectively. The cytotoxic activity of both essential oils was evaluated against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HEPG-2, using MTT assay and vinblastine as a reference drug...
January 17, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
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