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Chronic Respiratory Disease

Jacques Baillargeon, Randall James Urban, Wei Zhang, Mohammed Fathi Zaiden, Zulqarnain Javed, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Yong-Fang Kuo, Gulshan Sharma
Testosterone deficiency is common in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may exacerbate their condition. Research suggests that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may have a beneficial effect on respiratory outcomes in men with COPD. To date, however, no large-scale nationally representative studies have examined this association. The objective of the study was to assess whether TRT reduced the risk of respiratory hospitalizations in middle-aged and older men with COPD. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies...
September 11, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Wen Li, Zhong Qin, Jie Gao, Zhibin Jiang, Yihui Chai, Liancheng Guan, Yunzhi Chen
Non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by an airway inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens. Frequent exacerbations have a major influence on the quality of life. Macrolide antibiotics have not only antibacterial but also immune-regulation effects. It is proved that macrolides have a benefit in preventing exacerbations. However, it is still uncertain whether azithromycin or erythromycin is more effective and safe. The purpose of this study was to answer the following question: Which kind of macrolide antibiotic is more effective and safe in preventing non-CF bronchiectasis exacerbation? We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized clinical trials published up to May 2017 that reported on macrolides for non-CF bronchiectasis and an adjusted indirect treatment comparison (AITC) between macrolides to evaluate their efficacy and safety...
August 12, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Cristina Ciorba, Jesus Gonzalez-Bermejo, Maria-Antonia Quera Salva, Djillali Annane, David Orlikowski, Frédéric Lofaso, Hélène Prigent
Ineffective efforts (IEs) are among the most common types of patient-ventilator asynchrony. The objective of this study is to validate IE detection during expiration using pressure and flow signals, with respiratory effort detection by esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement as the reference, in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). We included 10 patients diagnosed with chronic respiratory failure related to NMD. Twenty-eight 5-minute recordings of daytime ventilation were studied for IE detection. Standard formulas were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of IE detection using pressure and flow signals compared to Pes measurement...
July 31, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Mark Orme, Lauren Sherar, Mike Morgan, Michael Steiner, Dale Esliger, Andrew Kingsnorth, Sally Singh
The objective of this study was to compare incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) performance between South Asian and Caucasian British adults, identify predictors of ISWT distance and produce ethnicity-specific reference equations. Data from a mixed gender sample aged 40-75 years from Leicestershire, United Kingdom, were selected for analyses. Analysis of covariance determined differences in ISWT performance between South Asian and Caucasian British ethnic groups. Linear regressions identified predictors of ISWT distance, which determined the reference equations...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Yosuke Fukuda, Tetsuya Homma, Shintaro Suzuki, Takahiro Takuma, Akihiko Tanaka, Takuya Yokoe, Tsukasa Ohnishi, Yoshihito Niki, Hironori Sagara
Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is a ubiquitous fungus in our environment and causes severe airway disorders. Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are a series of chronic airway and lung diseases. Although both are chronic disorders, however, the relationships between AF and CRDs are still unclear. Therefore, we examined 104 Aspergillus species (spp.) isolated samples in our hospital during three consecutive years to further elucidate the relationships between Aspergillus spp. and CRDs. Based on sample isolates, we then grouped these into two groups, AF and non-AF, to retrospectively analyse the clinical features and to clarify the relationships between AF and CRDs...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Olivia Revitt, Louise Sewell, Sally Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Laurie Slovarp, Bridget Kathleen Loomis, Amy Glaspey
The purpose of this exploratory research was to describe current referral and practice patterns for behavioral cough suppression therapy (BCST) throughout the United States, and to assess the need for improving the efficiency of BCST referral patterns. In study I, 126 speech-language pathologists, who treat patients with refractory chronic cough (RCC) in the United States, completed a survey about referral patterns, cough duration, and patient frustration level. In study II, 36 adults with RCC referred for BCST completed a four-part survey about cough symptoms and treatment...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Marie Stolbrink, Jack Amiry, John D Blakey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, primarily through exacerbations. Exacerbations are often treated with antibiotics but their optimal course duration is uncertain. Reducing antibiotic duration may influence antimicrobial resistance but risks treatment failure. The objective of this article is to review published literature to investigate whether shorter antibiotic therapy duration affects clinical outcomes in the treatment of asthma and COPD exacerbations...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Jussi Haikarainen, Paula Rytilä, Sirkku Roos, Sirpa Metsärinne, Anita Happonen
Budesonide Easyhaler® multidose dry powder inhaler is approved for the treatment of asthma. Objectives were to determine the delivered dose (DD) uniformity of budesonide Easyhaler® in simulated real-world conditions and with different inspiration flow rates (IFRs). Three dose delivery studies were performed using 100, 200, and 400 µg/dose strengths of budesonide. Dose uniformity was assessed during in-use periods of 4-6 months after exposure to high temperature (30°C) and humidity (60% relative humidity) and after dropping and vibration testing...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Helga Jónsdóttir, Thorbjörg Sóley Ingadóttir
Recruitment, the process of accessing, screening, selecting and retaining participants for research remains a challenge. In a randomized controlled trial, partnership-based self-management intervention for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in its initial stages, and their families, a theoretical framework developed for patients with an advanced COPD and their families was modified and implemented in a primary care context. In contrast to recruitment to the original study where 4% decline participation, in this study 25% of the potential patients declined participation...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Panita Limpawattana, Pratchaya Inthasuwan, Siraphong Putraveephong, Watchara Boonsawat, Daris Theerakulpisut, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been described as a systemic disease. Sarcopenia is one of the systemic effects that is related to several adverse outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia and to determine the factors associated with sarcopenia in COPD patients in Southeast Asia. This was a cross-sectional study of COPD patients who attended a COPD clinic from May 2015 to December 2016. Baseline characteristics were collected and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure skeletal muscle mass...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Michael J Stephen, Alex Long, Chad Bonsall, Jeffrey B Hoag, Smita Shah, Dorothy Bisberg, Douglas Holsclaw, Laurie Varlotta, Stan Fiel, Doantrang Du, Robert Zanni, Denis Hadjiliadis
To help answer the question of length of intravenous antibiotics during an acute exacerbation of cystic fibrosis (CF), we had subjects to follow daily home spirometry while on intravenous antibiotics. CF patients, 18 and older, with an acute exacerbation requiring intravenous antibiotics had a daily FEV1. The average time to a 10% increase over their initial sick FEV1 was calculated, as well as the time to a new baseline. A total of 25 subjects completed the study. Ten of the 25 subjects did not have a sustainable 10% increase in FEV1...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Esra Ertan Yazar, Senay Aydin, Gulsah Gunluoglu, Sadettin Kamat, Adil Can Gungen, Pinar Yildiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 91 patients with stable moderate to very severe COPD were included in this study. Cognitive functions of the patients were evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) tool and clock-drawing test. The Brody's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Questionnaire; COPD assessment test (CAT); body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE); and Charlson comorbidity index were assessed...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Ivan Cherrez Ojeda, J C Calderon, O López Jove, A Guerreros, Karin J Plaza, Jose A Cano, E Vanegas, M Felix, V Mata, E Calero, A Cherrez, D Simancas-Racines
The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of uses and preferences of information and communication technologies (ICTs) among Latin American chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study on Latin American COPD patients. The adapted version of the Michigan questionnaire was employed in eligible outpatients in different cities of Latin America. We categorized age and educational levels into three groups. The time passed since COPD diagnosis was categorized as ≤5 years and >5 years...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Hayato Tomita, Tsuneo Yamashiro, Shin Matsuoka, Shoichiro Matsushita, Yasuo Nakajima
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the extent of emphysema and heart size in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using inspiratory and expiratory chest computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. We measured lung volume (LV), low attenuation area percent (%LAA; less than or equal to -950 HU), maximum cardiac area, and maximum transverse cardiac diameter on inspiratory/expiratory chest CT in 60 patients with COPD...
August 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Hyun Lee, Yoonki Hong, Myoung Nam Lim, So Hyeon Bak, Min-Ji Kim, Kyunga Kim, Woo Jin Kim, Hye Yun Park
Various biomarkers have emerged as potential surrogates to represent various subgroups of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which manifest with different phenotypes. However, the biomarkers representing never-smokers with COPD have not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of certain serum and radiological biomarkers with the presence of COPD in never-smokers. To explore the associations of serum and radiological biomarkers with the presence of COPD in never-smokers, we conducted a cross-sectional patient cohort study composed of never-smokers from the COPD in Dusty Areas (CODA) cohort, consisting of subjects living in dusty areas near cement plants in South Korea...
May 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Benjamin D James, Amy V Jones, Ruth E Trethewey, Rachael A Evans
Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome...
May 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Alexios Politis, Vasileios Ioannidis, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Zoe Daniil, Chrissi Hatzoglou
Quitting smoking is the most important element in the therapeutic management of chronic respiratory diseases. Combining pharmacotherapy with behavioral support increases smoking cessation success rates. In addition, hospitalized smokers have increased motivation to quit. We investigated the efficacy on smoking cessation, of varenicline in combination with behavioral support, in smokers hospitalized due to (a) acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or (b) bronchial asthma attack, or (c) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
May 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Xiao-Bin Zhang, Hui-Qing Zeng, Yan-Ping Du, Zhi Lyu, Feng-Fu Zhan
The aims of this article were to determine the levels of serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Snorers referred for polysomnography (PSG) for the investigation of OSA were eligible and hs-cTnT levels measured in our pilot study. Hs-cTnT was measured again after 3 months of CPAP treatment in participants with severe OSA. A total of 93 participants recruited after PSG...
May 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Aroub Lahham, Christine F McDonald, Ajay Mahal, Annemarie L Lee, Catherine J Hill, Angela T Burge, Narelle S Cox, Rosemary Moore, Caroline Nicolson, Paul O'Halloran, Rebecca Gillies, Anne E Holland
This study aimed to document the perspective of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who underwent home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) in a clinical trial. In this qualitative study, open-ended questions explored participants' views regarding HBPR. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Major themes from interviews included the positive impact of HBPR on physical fitness, breathing and mood. Participants valued the flexibility and convenience of the programme...
May 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
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