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Current Heart Failure Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875413/cardiac-palliative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Todd Barrett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is an illness with high morbidity and mortality that affects 5.7 million Americans. As advanced heart therapies become more prevalent care for patients and families is becoming more complex. The American Heart Association has released a policy statement recommending continuous, high-quality access to palliative care for all patients with heart failure, and the Center for Medicare Services requires palliative care involvement in mechanical circulatory support teams...
September 6, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101664/high-risk-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-public-reporting-states-the-evidence-exclusion-of-critically-ill-patients-and-implications
#2
REVIEW
Rishi K Wadhera, Jordan D Anderson, Robert W Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Public reporting of outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is used in some states to drive improvements in care delivery and performance. However, a growing body of evidence suggests unintended consequences, particularly provider aversion to performing PCI in high-risk patients. RECENT FINDINGS: There is mixed evidence regarding the impact of PCI public reporting on patient outcomes. In addition, providers in public reporting states likely have a higher threshold or potentially avoid performing PCI on high-risk patients, such as those with cardiogenic shock...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094264/treating-disease-mechanisms-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Amanda Trang, David Aguilar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes and heart failure commonly coexist and portend worsened prognosis than either disease alone. We explore mechanisms that may serve as potential treatment targets and review the effects of various contemporary glucose-lowering agents on heart failure outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Promising data has emerged on sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) inhibitors as the first class of agents to improve cardiovascular mortality and heart failure outcomes in diabetic individuals both with and without established heart failure...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075957/pharmacogenomics-of-the-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Ahmed Abuzaanona, David Lanfear
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure (HF) continues to be a public health burden despite advances in therapy, and the natriuretic peptide (NP) system is clearly of critical importance in this setting, spawning valuable diagnostic and prognostic testing, such as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), as well as current and future therapeutics, including recombinant natriuretic peptides (e.g., carperitide, nesiritide) and recently sacubitril, which inhibits the key clearance mechanism for NPs...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075956/visceral-congestion-in-heart-failure-right-ventricular-dysfunction-splanchnic-hemodynamics-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Vincenzo B Polsinelli, Arjun Sinha, Sanjiv J Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075955/prevention-and-treatment-of-thrombotic-and-hemorrhagic-complications-in-patients-supported-by-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#6
REVIEW
Renzo Y Loyaga-Rendon, Milena Jani, David Fermin, Jennifer K McDermott, Diane Vancamp, Sangjin Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge in prevention and treatment of thrombotic (pump thrombosis and ischemic stroke) and bleeding (gastrointestinal and hemorrhagic stroke) complications in patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD). RECENT FINDINGS: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are now widely used for the management of end-stage heart failure. Unfortunately, in spite of the indisputable positive impact LVADs have on patients, the frequency and severity of complications are limitations of this therapy...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063280/pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-left-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-is-it-the-result-or-cause-of-disease-progression
#7
REVIEW
Srinath Adusumalli, Jeremy A Mazurek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to define pulmonary hypertension in the setting of left heart disease (PH-LHD), discuss its epidemiology and pathophysiology, and highlight the cause and effect relationship it has with disease progression in the setting of cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Both pulmonary hypertension (PH) and heart failure are becoming increasingly common. As such, PH-LHD is now the most common form of PH. The pathophysiology of the condition relates to backward transmission of elevated left ventricular filling pressures into the pulmonary circulation and, ultimately, right ventricular (RV) strain/dysfunction...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063279/clinical-application-of-genetic-testing-in-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Ana Morales, Ray Hershberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present our current understanding of the genetic etiologies that may cause or predispose to heart failure. We highlight known phenotypes for which a genetic evaluation has clinical utility. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature continues to demonstrate and confirm a genetic basis for conditions that cause heart failure. Evidence suggests a genetic model involving rare and common variants of strong or weak effect, in combination with environmental factors that may manifest as familial or simplex disease...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975588/glycosylated-chromogranin-a-potential-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Anett H Ottesen, Geir Christensen, Torbjørn Omland, Helge Røsjø
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocrine and paracrine factors influence the cardiovascular system and the heart by a number of different mechanisms. The chromogranin-secretogranin (granin) proteins seem to represent a new family of proteins that exerts both direct and indirect effects on cardiac and vascular functions. The granin proteins are produced in multiple tissues, including cardiac cells, and circulating granin protein concentrations provide incremental prognostic information to established risk indices in patients with myocardial dysfunction...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975475/pharmacogenomics-of-bucindolol-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Kishan S Parikh, Jonathan P Piccini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore the pharmacogenomics of the beta-blocker bucindolol by discussing relevant beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) polymorphisms and recent beta-blocker studies. Through this, we will understand how bucindolol may help patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (AF-HFrEF), which carries poor prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Retrospective study of the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training trial revealed the interaction between the optimal beta-blocker dose and the ADRB1 Arg389 genotype for HFrEF clinical outcomes...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952014/defining-ambulatory-advanced-heart-failure-medamacs-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Garrick C Stewart, Amrut V Ambardekar, Michelle M Kittleson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extended survival with LVADs has generated interest in implantation for ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure (HF) prior to dependence on inotropes, though we remain limited in our ability to define and advance indications in this less sick advanced HF population. RECENT FINDINGS: The MedaMACS and ROADMAP studies have informed prognosis and decision-making for ambulatory patients with advanced HF. Sicker INTERMACS profiles are consistently associated with high risk of death or rescue LVAD...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940102/micrornas-in-heart-failure-cardiac-transplantation-and-myocardial-recovery-biomarkers-with-therapeutic-potential
#12
REVIEW
Palak Shah, Michael R Bristow, J David Port
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is increasing in prevalence with a lack of recently developed therapies that produce major beneficial effects on its associated mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, are differentially regulated in heart failure, and are found in the circulation serving as a biomarker of heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Data suggests that microRNAs may be used to detect allograft rejection in cardiac transplantation and may predict the degree of myocardial recovery in patients with a left ventricular assist device or treated with beta-blocker therapy...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940089/skeletal-muscle-alterations-in-hfref-vs-hfpef
#13
REVIEW
Volker Adams, Axel Linke, Ephraim Winzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe exercise intolerance and early fatigue are hallmarks of heart failure patients either with a reduced (HFrEF) or a still preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. This review, therefore, will provide a contemporary summary of the alterations currently known to occur in the skeletal muscles of both HFrEF and HFpEF, and provide some further directions that will be required if we want to improve our current understanding of this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Skeletal muscle alterations are well documented for over 20 years in HFrEF, and during the recent years also data are presented that in HFpEF muscular alterations are present...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853057/erratum-to-updates-in-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-for-chronic-heart-failure-review-of-multisite-pacing
#14
Antonios P Antoniadis, Ben Sieniewicz, Justin Gould, Bradley Porter, Jessica Webb, Simon Claridge, Jonathan M Behar, Christopher Aldo Rinaldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808861/epidemiology-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-heart-failure-what-drives-what
#15
REVIEW
Sushma M Dharia, Lee K Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bidirectional relationships that have been demonstrated between heart failure (HF) and central sleep apnea (CSA) demand further exploration with respect to the implications that each condition has for the other. This review discusses the body of literature that has accumulated on these relationships and how CSA and its potential treatment may affect outcomes in patients with CSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can exacerbate hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, which are known predicates of HF...
August 14, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808858/vitamin-d-and-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
D Marshall Brinkley, Omair M Ali, Sandip K Zalawadiya, Thomas J Wang
PURPOSE: Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality...
August 14, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803400/novel-biomarkers-for-the-risk-stratification-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy Cypen, Tariq Ahmad, Jeffrey M Testani, Adam D DeVore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of biomarkers in heart failure (HF) is a rapidly changing field. The purpose of this review is to assess the current evidence of the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). RECENT FINDINGS: Despite differences in pathophysiology between HF with reduced ejection fraction and HFpEF, traditional HF biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide and troponin retain prognostic value in most HFpEF-specific populations...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803369/volume-balance-and-intradialytic-ultrafiltration-rate-in-the-hemodialysis-patient
#18
REVIEW
Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Volume management in hemodialysis patients is often challenging. Assessing volume status and deciding how much fluid to remove during hemodialysis, the so-called ultrafiltration rate (UFR), has remained a conundrum. RECENT FINDINGS: To date there is no objective assessment tool to determine the needed UFR during each hemodialysis session. Higher volume overload or higher UFR is associated with poor outcomes including worse mortality and unfavorable clinical outcomes...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803272/inpatient-monitoring-of-decompensated-heart-failure-what-is-needed
#19
REVIEW
Danish Ali, Prithwish Banerjee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute decompensated heart failure is a serious and common condition where close monitoring of symptoms, vital signs, haemodynamic and other markers are needed after the patient is admitted to hospital as the in-hospital outcome is poor. This review focuses on advances in the assessment and monitoring of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The adoption of the CHAMP acronym to identify precipitating factors and of the classification using wet-warm, wet-cold, dry-warm and dry-cold categories is an improvement regarding assessment...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785969/acute-heart-failure-definition-classification-and-epidemiology
#20
REVIEW
Sameer Kurmani, Iain Squire
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the extent and scope of acute heart failure (AHF), place it within its clinical context and highlight some of the difficulties in defining it as a pathophysiological entity. RECENT FINDINGS: A diagnosis of AHF is made when patients present acutely with signs and symptoms of heart failure, often with decompensation of pre-existing cardiomyopathy. The most current guidelines classify based on clinical features at initial presentation and are used to both risk stratify and guide the management of haemodynamic compromise...
August 7, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
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