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BMC Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788968/spatio-temporal-mapping-of-madagascar-s-malaria-indicator-survey-results-to-assess-plasmodium-falciparum-endemicity-trends-between-2011-and-2016
#1
Su Yun Kang, Katherine E Battle, Harry S Gibson, Arsène Ratsimbasoa, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Stéphanie Ramboarina, Peter A Zimmerman, Daniel J Weiss, Ewan Cameron, Peter W Gething, Rosalind E Howes
BACKGROUND: Reliable measures of disease burden over time are necessary to evaluate the impact of interventions and assess sub-national trends in the distribution of infection. Three Malaria Indicator Surveys (MISs) have been conducted in Madagascar since 2011. They provide a valuable resource to assess changes in burden that is complementary to the country's routine case reporting system. METHODS: A Bayesian geostatistical spatio-temporal model was developed in an integrated nested Laplace approximation framework to map the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection among children from 6 to 59 months in age across Madagascar for 2011, 2013 and 2016 based on the MIS datasets...
May 23, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783977/effective-coverage-of-essential-inpatient-care-for-small-and-sick-newborns-in-a-high-mortality-urban-setting-a-cross-sectional-study-in-nairobi-city-county-kenya
#2
Georgina A V Murphy, David Gathara, Jacintah Mwachiro, Nancy Abuya, Jalemba Aluvaala, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Effective coverage requires that those in need can access skilled care supported by adequate resources. There are, however, few studies of effective coverage of facility-based neonatal care in low-income settings, despite the recognition that improving newborn survival is a global priority. METHODS: We used a detailed retrospective review of medical records for neonatal admissions to public, private not-for-profit (mission) and private-for-profit (private) sector facilities providing 24×7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County to estimate the proportion of small and sick newborns receiving nationally recommended care across six process domains...
May 22, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783964/informing-real-world-practice-with-real-world-evidence-the-value-of-precis-2
#3
LETTER
Gila Neta, Karin E Johnson
Real-world evidence is needed to inform real-world practice. Pragmatic controlled trials are intended to provide such evidence by assessing the effectiveness of medicines and other interventions in real-world settings, as opposed to explanatory trials that assess efficacy in highly controlled settings. Dal-Ré and colleagues (BMC Med 16:49, 2018) recently performed a literature review of studies published between 2014 and 2017 to assess the degree to which studies that self-identified as pragmatic were truly so...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779492/pretreatment-chest-x-ray-severity-and-its-relation-to-bacterial-burden-in-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769070/serum-magnesium-levels-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-mendelian-randomisation-study
#5
Susanna C Larsson, Stephen Burgess, Karl Michaëlsson
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that serum magnesium levels are inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation study to investigate whether serum magnesium levels may be causally associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: This Mendelian randomisation analysis is based on summary-level data from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium's 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of 48 studies with a total of 60,801 CAD cases and 123,504 non-cases...
May 17, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764482/healthcare-costs-and-utilization-associated-with-high-risk-prescription-opioid-use-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Hsien-Yen Chang, Hadi Kharrazi, Dave Bodycombe, Jonathan P Weiner, G Caleb Alexander
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on high-risk opioid use have only focused on patients diagnosed with an opioid disorder. This study evaluates the impact of various high-risk prescription opioid use groups on healthcare costs and utilization. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using QuintilesIMS health plan claims with independent variables from 2012 and outcomes from 2013. We included a population-based sample of 191,405 non-elderly adults with known sex, one or more opioid prescriptions, and continuous enrollment in 2012 and 2013...
May 16, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759069/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-risk-among-individuals-infected-with-zika-virus-a-multi-country-assessment
#7
Luis Mier-Y-Teran-Romero, Mark J Delorey, James J Sejvar, Michael A Johansson
BACKGROUND: Countries with ongoing outbreaks of Zika virus have observed a notable rise in reported cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), with mounting evidence of a causal link between Zika virus infection and the neurological syndrome. However, the risk of GBS following a Zika virus infection is not well characterized. In this work, we used data from 11 locations with publicly available data to estimate the risk of GBS following an infection with Zika virus, as well as the location-specific incidence of infection and the number of suspect GBS cases reported per infection...
May 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754584/analysing-the-role-of-complexity-in-explaining-the-fortunes-of-technology-programmes-empirical-application-of-the-nasss-framework
#8
Trisha Greenhalgh, Joe Wherton, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jenni Lynch, Gemma Hughes, Christine A'Court, Sue Hinder, Rob Procter, Sara Shaw
BACKGROUND: Failures and partial successes are common in technology-supported innovation programmes in health and social care. Complexity theory can help explain why. Phenomena may be simple (straightforward, predictable, few components), complicated (multiple interacting components or issues) or complex (dynamic, unpredictable, not easily disaggregated into constituent components). The recently published NASSS framework applies this taxonomy to explain Non-adoption or Abandonment of technology by individuals and difficulties achieving Scale-up, Spread and Sustainability...
May 14, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747641/the-syrian-conflict-a-case-study-of-the-challenges-and-acute-need-for-medical-humanitarian-operations-for-women-and-children-internally-displaced-persons
#9
Rahma Aburas, Amina Najeeb, Laila Baageel, Tim K Mackey
BACKGROUND: After 7 years of increasing conflict and violence, the Syrian civil war now constitutes the largest displacement crisis in the world, with more than 6 million people who have been internally displaced. Among this already-vulnerable population group, women and children face significant challenges associated with lack of adequate access to maternal and child health (MCH) services, threatening their lives along with their immediate and long-term health outcomes. DISCUSSION: While several health and humanitarian aid organizations are working to improve the health and welfare of internally displaced Syrian women and children, there is an immediate need for local medical humanitarian interventions...
May 11, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743076/the-daily-mile-makes-primary-school-children-more-active-less-sedentary-and-improves-their-fitness-and-body-composition-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#10
Ross A Chesham, Josephine N Booth, Emma L Sweeney, Gemma C Ryde, Trish Gorely, Naomi E Brooks, Colin N Moran
BACKGROUND: The Daily Mile is a physical activity programme made popular by a school in Stirling, Scotland. It is promoted by the Scottish Government and is growing in popularity nationally and internationally. The aim is that each day, during class time, pupils run or walk outside for 15 min (~1 mile) at a self-selected pace. It is anecdotally reported to have a number of physiological benefits including increased physical activity, reduced sedentary behaviour, increased fitness and improved body composition...
May 10, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716585/clinical-trial-registration-and-reporting-a-survey-of-academic-organizations-in-the-united-states
#11
Evan Mayo-Wilson, James Heyward, Anthony Keyes, Jesse Reynolds, Sarah White, Nidhi Atri, G Caleb Alexander, Audrey Omar, Daniel E Ford
BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials conducted by academic organizations are not published, or are not published completely. Following the US Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, "The Final Rule" (compliance date April 18, 2017) and a National Institutes of Health policy clarified and expanded trial registration and results reporting requirements. We sought to identify policies, procedures, and resources to support trial registration and reporting at academic organizations...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706136/human-antibodies-activate-complement-against-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-and-are-associated-with-protection-against-malaria-in-children
#12
Liriye Kurtovic, Marije C Behet, Gaoqian Feng, Linda Reiling, Kiprotich Chelimo, Arlene E Dent, Ivo Mueller, James W Kazura, Robert W Sauerwein, Freya J I Fowkes, James G Beeson
BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites play a key role in human immunity to malaria. However, antibody mechanisms that neutralize sporozoites are poorly understood. This has been a major constraint in developing highly efficacious vaccines, as we lack strong correlates of protective immunity. METHODS: We quantified the ability of human antibodies from malaria-exposed populations to interact with human complement, examined the functional effects of complement activity against P...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706132/when-complexity-science-meets-implementation-science-a-theoretical-and-empirical-analysis-of-systems-change
#13
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Kate Churruca, Janet C Long, Louise A Ellis, Jessica Herkes
BACKGROUND: Implementation science has a core aim - to get evidence into practice. Early in the evidence-based medicine movement, this task was construed in linear terms, wherein the knowledge pipeline moved from evidence created in the laboratory through to clinical trials and, finally, via new tests, drugs, equipment, or procedures, into clinical practice. We now know that this straight-line thinking was naïve at best, and little more than an idealization, with multiple fractures appearing in the pipeline...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706130/migration-and-tuberculosis-transmission-in-a-middle-income-country-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-central-area-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#14
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Vera Simonsen, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Laura C Rodrigues, Rosangela S Oliveira, Eliseu Alves Waldman, Rein Houben
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of growing migration on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) transmission in middle-income countries. We estimated TB recent transmission and its associated factors and investigated the presence of cross-transmission between South American migrants and Brazilians. METHODS: We studied a convenient sample of cases of people with pulmonary TB in a central area of São Paulo, Brazil, diagnosed between 2013 and 2014. Cases with similar restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) patterns of their Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates were grouped in clusters (recent transmission)...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690878/efficacy-and-safety-of-methylene-blue-in-the-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review
#15
G Lu, M Nagbanshi, N Goldau, M Mendes Jorge, P Meissner, A Jahn, F P Mockenhaupt, O Müller
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) was the first synthetic antimalarial to be discovered and was used during the late 19th and early 20th centuries against all types of malaria. MB has been shown to be effective in inhibiting Plasmodium falciparum in culture, in the mouse model and in rhesus monkeys. MB was also shown to have a potent ex vivo activity against drug-resistant isolates of P. falciparum and P. vivax. In preclinical studies, MB acted synergistically with artemisinin derivates and demonstrated a strong effect on gametocyte reduction in P...
April 25, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688862/the-cost-effectiveness-of-oral-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-early-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-presence-of-drug-resistance-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-san-francisco
#16
Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steven E Bellan
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to either antiretroviral treatment (ART) or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can promote drug resistance, though this risk is thought to be considerably higher for ART. In the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, PrEP coverage reached 9.6% in 2014 and has continued to rise. Given the risk of drug resistance and high cost of second-line drugs, the costs and benefits of initiating ART earlier while expanding PrEP coverage remain unclear...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681241/differences-in-the-health-transition-patterns-of-migrants-and-non-migrants-aged-50-and-older-in-southern-and-western-europe-2004-2015
#17
Matias Reus-Pons, Clara H Mulder, Eva U B Kibele, Fanny Janssen
BACKGROUND: Most previous research on migrant health in Europe has taken a cross-sectional perspective, without a specific focus on the older population. Having knowledge about inequalities in health transitions over the life course between migrants and non-migrants, including at older ages, is crucial for the tailoring of policies to the demands of an ageing and culturally diverse society. We analyse differences in health transitions between migrants and non-migrants, specifically focusing on the older population in Europe...
April 23, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673342/medical-end-of-life-practices-in-swiss-cultural-regions-a-death-certificate-study
#18
Samia A Hurst, Ueli Zellweger, Georg Bosshard, Matthias Bopp
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions remain controversial. Switzerland, with three main languages shared with surrounding countries and legal suicide assistance, allows exploration of the effects of cultural differences on end-of-life practices within the same legal framework. METHODS: We conducted a death certificate study on a nationwide continuous random sample of Swiss residents. Using an internationally standardized tool, we sent 4998, 2965, and 1000 anonymous questionnaires to certifying physicians in the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions...
April 20, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669548/performance-of-insilicova-for-assigning-causes-of-death-to-verbal-autopsies-multisite-validation-study-using-clinical-diagnostic-gold-standards
#19
Abraham D Flaxman, Jonathan C Joseph, Christopher J L Murray, Ian Douglas Riley, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new algorithm for automatic computer certification of verbal autopsy data named InSilicoVA was published. The authors presented their algorithm as a statistical method and assessed its performance using a single set of model predictors and one age group. METHODS: We perform a standard procedure for analyzing the predictive accuracy of verbal autopsy classification methods using the same data and the publicly available implementation of the algorithm released by the authors...
April 19, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669549/ethnic-minority-inequalities-in-access-to-treatments-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorders-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#20
Jayati Das-Munshi, Dinesh Bhugra, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority service users with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders may experience inequalities in care. There have been no recent studies assessing access to evidence-based treatments for psychosis amongst the main ethnic minority groups in the UK. METHODS: Data from nationally representative surveys from England and Wales, for 10,512 people with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, were used for analyses. Multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess ethnic minority inequalities in access to pharmacological treatments, psychological interventions, shared decision making and care planning, taking into account a range of potential confounders...
April 18, 2018: BMC Medicine
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