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BMC Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100231/can-screening-instruments-accurately-determine-poor-outcome-risk-in-adults-with-recent-onset-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Emma L Karran, James H McAuley, Adrian C Traeger, Susan L Hillier, Luzia Grabherr, Leslie N Russek, G Lorimer Moseley
BACKGROUND: Delivering efficient and effective healthcare is crucial for a condition as burdensome as low back pain (LBP). Stratified care strategies may be worthwhile, but rely on early and accurate patient screening using a valid and reliable instrument. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LBP screening instruments for determining risk of poor outcome in adults with LBP of less than 3 months duration. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, Web of Science, SciVerse SCOPUS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from June 2014 to March 2016...
January 19, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095833/lifetime-and-12-month-prevalence-of-eating-disorders-amongst-women-in-mid-life-a-population-based-study-of-diagnoses-and-risk-factors
#3
Nadia Micali, Maria G Martini, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Radha Kothari, Ellie Russell, Cynthia M Bulik, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are common amongst women; however, no research has specifically investigated the lifetime/12-month prevalence of eating disorders amongst women in mid-life (i.e., fourth and fifth decade of life) and the relevant longitudinal risk factors. We aimed to investigate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of EDs and lifetime health service use and to identify childhood, parenting, and personality risk factors. METHODS: This is a two-phase prevalence study, nested within an existing longitudinal community-based sample of women in mid-life...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088919/the-journal-impact-factor-is-under-attack-use-the-capci-factor-instead
#4
EDITORIAL
Eleftherios P Diamandis
The uses and misuses of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) have been thoroughly discussed in the literature. A few years ago, I predicted that JIF would soon be replaced, while another colleague argued the opposite. Over the past few months, attacks on JIF have intensified, with some publishing organizations gradually removing the indicator from their journals' websites. Here, I argue that most, if not all of the misuses of JIF are related to its name. The word "impact" should be removed, since it implies an influential attribute, either for the journals, their published papers, or their authors...
January 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081724/health-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-distress-among-cancer-survivors-in-southeast-asia-results-from-a-longitudinal-study-in-eight-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress in cancer survivors can raise awareness, promote the development of policies in cancer survivorship care, and facilitate better targeted use of limited resources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The main objectives of this paper were therefore to assess HRQoL and the prevalence of psychological distress amongst cancer survivors in Southeast Asia and identify risk factors of these outcomes...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077142/steroid-withdrawal-after-renal-transplantation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Maria C Haller, Michael Kammer, Alexander Kainz, Heather J Baer, Georg Heinze, Rainer Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation frequently contain corticosteroids, but many centers withdraw steroids as a consequence of unwanted side effects of steroids. The optimal timing to withdraw steroids after transplantation, however, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal time point following kidney transplantation that is associated with reduced mortality without jeopardizing the allograft to allow safe discontinuation of steroids...
January 12, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073366/oral-treatment-with-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-attenuates-behavioural-deficits-and-immune-changes-in-chronic-social-stress
#7
Aadil Bharwani, M Firoz Mian, Michael G Surette, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe
BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28 days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) ™ or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069021/preoperative-optimization-of-patient-expectations-improves-long-term-outcome-in-heart-surgery-patients-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#8
Winfried Rief, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Johannes A C Laferton, Charlotte Auer, Keith J Petrie, Stefan Salzmann, Manfred Schedlowski, Rainer Moosdorf
BACKGROUND: Placebo effects contribute substantially to outcome in most fields of medicine. While clinical trials typically try to control or minimize these effects, the potential of placebo mechanisms to improve outcome is rarely used. Patient expectations about treatment efficacy and outcome are major mechanisms that contribute to these placebo effects. We aimed to optimize these expectations to improve outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: In a prospective three-arm randomized clinical trial with a 6 month follow-up, 124 patients scheduled for CABG surgery were randomized to either a brief psychological pre-surgery intervention to optimize outcome expectations (EXPECT); or a psychological control intervention focusing on emotional support and general advice, but not on expectations (SUPPORT); or to standard medical care (SMC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065164/plasma-proteome-and-metabolome-characterization-of-an-experimental-human-thyrotoxicosis-model
#9
Maik Pietzner, Beatrice Engelmann, Tim Kacprowski, Janine Golchert, Anna-Luise Dirk, Elke Hammer, K Alexander Iwen, Matthias Nauck, Henri Wallaschofski, Dagmar Führer, Thomas F Münte, Nele Friedrich, Uwe Völker, Georg Homuth, Georg Brabant
BACKGROUND: Determinations of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) represent the gold standard in evaluation of thyroid function. To screen for novel peripheral biomarkers of thyroid function and to characterize FT4-associated physiological signatures in human plasma we used an untargeted OMICS approach in a thyrotoxicosis model. METHODS: A sample of 16 healthy young men were treated with levothyroxine for 8 weeks and plasma was sampled before the intake was started as well as at two points during treatment and after its completion, respectively...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056958/about-the-complexity-of-adult-onset-still-s-disease%C3%A2-and-advances-still-required-for-its-management
#10
EDITORIAL
Philippe Guilpain, Alain Le Quellec
Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder that remains poorly understood. Its pathophysiology is yet to be completely elucidated, but is known to consist mainly on a cytokine cascade, responsible for the systemic manifestations. AOSD diagnosis is usually difficult and delayed, with physicians having to rule out several other conditions, including cancer or infectious diseases. Prognosis is heterogeneous and difficult to establish, ranging from benign outcome to chronic destructive polyarthritis and/or life-threatening events...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052774/characteristics-and-knowledge-synthesis-approach-for-456-network-meta-analyses-a-scoping-review
#11
Wasifa Zarin, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Vera Nincic, Afshin Vafaei, Emily Reynen, Sanober S Motiwala, Jesmin Antony, Shannon M Sullivan, Patricia Rios, Caitlin Daly, Joycelyne Ewusie, Maria Petropoulou, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti, Sharon E Straus, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis (NMA) has become a popular method to compare more than two treatments. This scoping review aimed to explore the characteristics and methodological quality of knowledge synthesis approaches underlying the NMA process. We also aimed to assess the statistical methods applied using the Analysis subdomain of the ISPOR checklist. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 14, 2015...
January 5, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049531/unraveling-the-associations-of-age-and-menopause-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-large-population-based-study
#12
A C de Kat, V Dam, N C Onland-Moret, M J C Eijkemans, F J M Broekmans, Y T van der Schouw
BACKGROUND: Although the association between menopause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has been studied extensively, the simultaneous role of chronological aging herein remains underexposed. This study aims to disentangle the relationships of menopausal status and chronological aging with CVD risk factors in the largest study population to date. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, CVD risk factors were compared between women with a different menopausal status within the same yearly age strata...
January 4, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049467/inhibition-of-placental-mtor-signaling-provides-a-link-between-placental-malaria-and-reduced-birthweight
#13
Kris Genelyn Dimasuay, Elizabeth H Aitken, Fredrick Rosario, Madi Njie, Jocelyn Glazier, Stephen J Rogerson, Freya J I Fowkes, James G Beeson, Theresa Powell, Thomas Jansson, Philippe Boeuf
BACKGROUND: Placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria can trigger intervillositis, a local inflammatory response more strongly associated with low birthweight than placental malaria infection alone. Fetal growth (and therefore birthweight) is dependent on placental amino acid transport, which is impaired in placental malaria-associated intervillositis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, a pathway known to regulate amino acid transport, is inhibited in placental malaria-associated intervillositis, contributing to lower birthweight...
January 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007031/comparative-safety-and-effectiveness-of-serotonin-receptor-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#14
Andrea C Tricco, Erik Blondal, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Charlene Soobiah, Afshin Vafaei, John Ivory, Lisa Strifler, Roberta Cardoso, Emily Reynen, Vera Nincic, Huda Ashoor, Joanne Ho, Carmen Ng, Christy Johnson, Erin Lillie, Jesmin Antony, Derek J Roberts, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Although serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, they may be associated with increased cardiac risk. Our objective was to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g., dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, tropisetron) alone or combined with steroids for patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until December 2015 for studies comparing 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with each other or placebo in chemotherapy patients...
December 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003033/short-physical-performance-battery-and-all-cause-mortality-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Rita Pavasini, Jack Guralnik, Justin C Brown, Mauro di Bari, Matteo Cesari, Francesco Landi, Bert Vaes, Delphine Legrand, Joe Verghese, Cuiling Wang, Sari Stenholm, Luigi Ferrucci, Jennifer C Lai, Anna Arnau Bartes, Joan Espaulella, Montserrat Ferrer, Jae-Young Lim, Kristine E Ensrud, Peggy Cawthon, Anna Turusheva, Elena Frolova, Yves Rolland, Valerie Lauwers, Andrea Corsonello, Gregory D Kirk, Roberto Ferrari, Stefano Volpato, Gianluca Campo
BACKGROUND: The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is a well-established tool to assess lower extremity physical performance status. Its predictive ability for all-cause mortality has been sparsely reported, but with conflicting results in different subsets of participants. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis investigating the relationship between SPPB score and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Articles were searched in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central between July and September 2015 and updated in January 2016...
December 22, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998266/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-cases-in-france-between-2001-and-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#16
Anna Alari, Hélène Chaussade, Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Lénaig Le Fouler, Emmanuelle Varon, Lulla Opatowski, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. METHODS: Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci...
December 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993160/erratum-to-an-optimised-age-based-dosing-regimen-for-single-low-dose-primaquine-for-blocking-malaria-transmission-in-cambodia
#17
Rithea Leang, Naw Htee Khu, Mavuto Mukaka, Mark Debackere, Rupam Tripura, Soy Ty Kheang, Say Chy, Neeraj Kak, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Didier Menard, Arantxa Roca-Felterer, Rick M Fairhurst, Sim Kheng, Sinoun Muth, Song Ngak, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Walter Robert John Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993147/erratum-to-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-day-7-lumefantrine-concentrations-and-therapeutic-response-using-individual-patient-data
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989237/modernising-epidemic-science-enabling-patient-centred-research-during-epidemics
#19
EDITORIAL
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Emerging and epidemic infectious disease outbreaks are a significant public health problem and global health security threat. As an outbreak begins, epidemiological investigations and traditional public health responses are generally mounted very quickly. However, patient-centred research is usually not prioritised when planning and enacting the response. Instead, the clinical research response occurs subsequent to and separate from the public health response, and is inadequate for evidence-based decision-making at the bedside or in the offices of public health policymakers...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978837/what-works-for-whom-in-pharmacist-led-smoking-cessation-support-realist-review
#20
Trisha Greenhalgh, Fraser Macfarlane, Liz Steed, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: New models of primary care are needed to address funding and staffing pressures. We addressed the research question "what works for whom in what circumstances in relation to the role of community pharmacies in providing lifestyle interventions to support smoking cessation?" METHODS: This is a realist review conducted according to RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 103 papers included in a quantitative review of community pharmacy intervention trials identified through systematic searching of seven databases...
December 16, 2016: BMC Medicine
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