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BMC Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100223/surface-attachment-promoted-by-the-actomyosin-system-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-efficient-gliding-motility-and-invasion
#1
Jamie A Whitelaw, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Simon Gras, Gurman S Pall, Jacqueline M Leung, Aoife Heaslip, Saskia Egarter, Nicole Andenmatten, Shane R Nelson, David M Warshaw, Gary E Ward, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites employ a unique form of movement, termed gliding motility, in order to invade the host cell. This movement depends on the parasite's actomyosin system, which is thought to generate the force during gliding. However, recent evidence questions the exact molecular role of this system, since mutants for core components of the gliding machinery, such as parasite actin or subunits of the MyoA-motor complex (the glideosome), remain motile and invasive, albeit at significantly reduced efficiencies...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034300/frequency-of-influenza-h3n2-intra-subtype-reassortment-attributes-and-implications-of-reassortant-spread
#2
Irina Maljkovic Berry, Melanie C Melendrez, Tao Li, Anthony W Hawksworth, Gary T Brice, Patrick J Blair, Eric S Halsey, Maya Williams, Stefan Fernandez, In-Kyu Yoon, Leslie D Edwards, Robert Kuschner, Xiaoxu Lin, Stephen J Thomas, Richard G Jarman
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that influenza reassortment not only contributes to the emergence of new human pandemics but also plays an important role in seasonal influenza epidemics, disease severity, evolution, and vaccine efficacy. We studied this process within 2091 H3N2 full genomes utilizing a combination of the latest reassortment detection tools and more conventional phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: We found that the amount of H3N2 intra-subtype reassortment depended on the number of sampled genomes, occurred with a steady frequency of 3...
December 29, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031029/quantifying-western-blots-none-more-black
#3
Graham Bell
Western blotting is among the most common techniques used in molecular biology and a simple way of assessing the presence or absence of a protein. It is also commonly used to compare protein levels in different conditions or in different tissues. This article illustrates some of the easy ways to arrive at a false conclusion when trying to quantify protein levels from western blots.
December 28, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010727/quantitative-imaging-of-mammalian-transcriptional-dynamics-from-single-cells-to-whole-embryos
#4
REVIEW
Ziqing W Zhao, Melanie D White, Stephanie Bissiere, Valeria Levi, Nicolas Plachta
Probing dynamic processes occurring within the cell nucleus at the quantitative level has long been a challenge in mammalian biology. Advances in bio-imaging techniques over the past decade have enabled us to directly visualize nuclear processes in situ with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, using transcription as our primary focus, we survey recent imaging studies that specifically emphasize the quantitative understanding of nuclear dynamics in both time and space...
December 23, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010725/splendor-and-misery-of-adaptation-or-the-importance-of-neutral-null-for-understanding-evolution
#5
Eugene V Koonin
The study of any biological features, including genomic sequences, typically revolves around the question: what is this for? However, population genetic theory, combined with the data of comparative genomics, clearly indicates that such a "pan-adaptationist" approach is a fallacy. The proper question is: how has this sequence evolved? And the proper null hypothesis posits that it is a result of neutral evolution: that is, it survives by sheer chance provided that it is not deleterious enough to be efficiently purged by purifying selection...
December 23, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007032/q-a-what-are-brassinosteroids-and-how-do-they-act-in-plants
#6
Jiao Tang, Zhifu Han, Jijie Chai
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxylated steroidal phytohormones in plants with similar structures to animals' steroid hormones. Brassinosteroids regulate a wide range of physiological processes including plant growth, development and immunity. Brassinosteroid signalling and its integration with other signalling pathways have been investigated thoroughly at the molecular level.
December 22, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007029/arabidopsis-prc1-core-component-atring1-regulates-stem-cell-determining-carpel-development-mainly-through-repression-of-class-i-knox-genes
#7
Donghong Chen, Anne M Molitor, Lin Xu, Wen-Hui Shen
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-catalyzed H3K27me3 marks are tightly associated with the WUS-AG negative feedback loop to terminate floral stem cell fate to promote carpel development, but the roles of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) in this event remain largely uncharacterized. RESULTS: Here we show conspicuous variability in the morphology and number of carpels among individual flowers in the absence of the PRC1 core components AtRING1a and AtRING1b, which contrasts with the wild-type floral meristem consumed by uniform carpel production in Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 22, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978830/angiopoietin-2-signaling-plays-a-critical-role-in-neural-crest-cell-migration
#8
Mary Cathleen McKinney, Rebecca McLennan, Paul M Kulesa
BACKGROUND: Collective neural crest cell migration is critical to the form and function of the vertebrate face and neck, distributing bone, cartilage, and nerve cells into peripheral targets that are intimately linked with head vasculature. The vasculature and neural crest structures are ultimately linked, but when and how these patterns develop in the early embryo are not well understood. RESULTS: Using in vivo imaging and sophisticated cell behavior analyses, we show that quail cranial neural crest and endothelial cells share common migratory paths, sort out in a dynamic multistep process, and display multiple types of motion...
December 15, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974049/the-draft-genome-of-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-meam1-a-global-crop-pest-provides-novel-insights-into-virus-transmission-host-adaptation-and-insecticide-resistance
#9
Wenbo Chen, Daniel K Hasegawa, Navneet Kaur, Adi Kliot, Patricia Valle Pinheiro, Junbo Luan, Marcus C Stensmyr, Yi Zheng, Wenli Liu, Honghe Sun, Yimin Xu, Yuan Luo, Angela Kruse, Xiaowei Yang, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Galina Lebedev, Tonja W Fisher, David R Nelson, Wayne B Hunter, Judith K Brown, Georg Jander, Michelle Cilia, Angela E Douglas, Murad Ghanim, Alvin M Simmons, William M Wintermantel, Kai-Shu Ling, Zhangjun Fei
BACKGROUND: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is among the 100 worst invasive species in the world. As one of the most important crop pests and virus vectors, B. tabaci causes substantial crop losses and poses a serious threat to global food security. RESULTS: We report the 615-Mb high-quality genome sequence of B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), the first genome sequence in the Aleyrodidae family, which contains 15,664 protein-coding genes...
December 14, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927242/sudden-death-due-to-paralysis-and-synaptic-and-behavioral-deficits-when-hip14-zdhhc17-is-deleted-in-adult-mice
#10
Shaun S Sanders, Matthew P Parsons, Katherine K N Mui, Amber L Southwell, Sonia Franciosi, Daphne Cheung, Sabine Waltl, Lynn A Raymond, Michael R Hayden
BACKGROUND: Palmitoylation, the addition of palmitate to proteins by palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs), is an important regulator of synaptic protein localization and function. Many palmitoylated proteins and PATs have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases, including Huntington disease, schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and X-linked intellectual disability. HIP14/DHHC17 is the most conserved PAT that palmitoylates many synaptic proteins. Hip14 hypomorphic mice have behavioral and synaptic deficits...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927215/functional-characterisation-of-long-intergenic-non-coding-rnas-through-genetic-interaction-profiling-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Dimitris Kyriakou, Emmanouil Stavrou, Panayiota Demosthenous, Georgia Angelidou, Bryan-Joseph San Luis, Charles Boone, Vasilis J Promponas, Antonis Kirmizis
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome studies have revealed that many eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, only a few lncRNAs have been ascribed a cellular role thus far, with most regulating the expression of adjacent genes. Even less lncRNAs have been annotated as essential hence implying that the majority may be functionally redundant. Therefore, the function of lncRNAs could be illuminated through systematic analysis of their synthetic genetic interactions (GIs)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927213/living-on-the-edge-substrate-competition-explains-loss-of-robustness-in-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders
#12
Karen van Eunen, Catharina M L Volker-Touw, Albert Gerding, Aycha Bleeker, Justina C Wolters, Willemijn J van Rijt, Anne-Claire M F Martines, Klary E Niezen-Koning, Rebecca M Heiner, Hjalmar Permentier, Albert K Groen, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Terry G J Derks, Barbara M Bakker
BACKGROUND: Defects in genes involved in mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (mFAO) reduce the ability of patients to cope with metabolic challenges. mFAO enzymes accept multiple substrates of different chain length, leading to molecular competition among the substrates. Here, we combined computational modeling with quantitative mouse and patient data to investigate whether substrate competition affects pathway robustness in mFAO disorders. RESULTS: First, we used comprehensive biochemical analyses of wild-type mice and mice deficient for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) to parameterize a detailed computational model of mFAO...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927209/coordinated-inhibition-of-c-ebp-by-tribbles-in-multiple-tissues-is-essential-for-caenorhabditis-elegans-development
#13
Kyung Won Kim, Nishant Thakur, Christopher A Piggott, Shizue Omi, Jolanta Polanowska, Yishi Jin, Nathalie Pujol
BACKGROUND: Tribbles proteins are conserved pseudokinases that function to control kinase signalling and transcription in diverse biological processes. Abnormal function in human Tribbles has been implicated in a number of diseases including leukaemia, metabolic syndromes and cardiovascular diseases. Caenorhabditis elegans Tribbles NIPI-3 was previously shown to activate host defense upon infection by promoting the conserved PMK-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927200/tribbles-ortholog-nipi-3-and-bzip-transcription-factor-cebp-1-regulate-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-intestinal-immune-surveillance-pathway
#14
Deborah L McEwan, Rhonda L Feinbaum, Nicholas Stroustrup, Wilhelm Haas, Annie L Conery, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Frederick M Ausubel
BACKGROUND: Many pathogens secrete toxins that target key host processes resulting in the activation of immune pathways. The secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A (ToxA) disrupts intestinal protein synthesis, which triggers the induction of a subset of P. aeruginosa-response genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. RESULTS: We show here that one ToxA-induced C. elegans gene, the Tribbles pseudokinase ortholog nipi-3, is essential for host survival following exposure to P...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927196/the-topology-structure-and-pe-interaction-of-litaf-underpin-a-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1c
#15
Anita K Ho, Jane L Wagstaff, Paul T Manna, Lena Wartosch, Seema Qamar, Elspeth F Garman, Stefan M V Freund, Rhys C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Mutations in Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α factor (LITAF) cause the autosomal dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C). LITAF encodes a 17 kDa protein containing an N-terminal proline-rich region followed by an evolutionarily-conserved C-terminal 'LITAF domain', which contains all reported CMT1C-associated pathogenic mutations. RESULTS: Here, we report the first structural characterisation of LITAF using biochemical, cell biological, biophysical and NMR spectroscopic approaches...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#16
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887612/phenotyping-the-snark-hazards-of-3d
#17
Graham Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863503/lateral-gene-transfer-in-eukaryotes-tip-of-the-iceberg-or-of-the-ice-cube
#18
Etienne G J Danchin
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the transmission of genes, sometimes across species barriers, outwith the classic vertical inheritance from parent to offspring. LGT is recognized as an important phenomenon that has shaped the genomes and biology of prokaryotes. Whether LGT in eukaryotes is important and widespread remains controversial. A study in BMC Biology concludes that LGT in eukaryotes is neither continuous nor prevalent and suggests a rule of thumb for judging when apparent LGT may reflect contamination...
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863491/the-year-of-the-wisent
#19
Johannes A Lenstra, Jianquan Liu
Delving into European prehistory, two recent studies analyze ancient DNA from bison species depicted by our ancestors on the walls of their caves. The DNA tells a story of migrations driven by climate change but leaves some mystery clouding the genetic descent and climate preference of the still-extant wisent, otherwise known as the European bison.See research articles: https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0317-7 http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13158.
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863487/analyses-of-density-dependent-effects-are-needed-to-understand-how-and-when-wolbachia-can-control-dengue-vectors
#20
Robert A Cheke
Releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have been shown to be an effective method of controlling Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever, in Australia. A study in BMC Biology from Penelope Hancock and others shows that incorporation of density-dependent effects into population models can provide major improvements in understanding how and when the infected populations can become established.See research article: https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0319-5 .
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
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