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BMC Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716093/c-elegans-sup-46-an-hnrnpm-family-rna-binding-protein-that-prevents-paternally-mediated-epigenetic-sterility
#1
Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus, Arun K Ramani, Wade Dunham, Ji Young Youn, Andrew G Fraser, Anne-Claude Gingras, James W Dennis
BACKGROUND: In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history of ancestral stress that allows for adaptation and propagation of the species. In the nematode C. elegans, defective epigenetic transmission often manifests as progressive germline mortality. We previously isolated sup-46 in a screen for suppressors of the hexosamine pathway gene mutant, gna-2(qa705)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705195/peto-s-paradox-how-has-evolution-solved-the-problem-of-cancer-prevention
#2
Marc Tollis, Amy M Boddy, Carlo C Maley
The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans, suggesting that super-human cancer suppression has evolved numerous times across the tree of life. This is the essence and promise of Peto's Paradox. We discuss what is known about Peto's Paradox and provide hints of what is yet to be discovered.
July 13, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697754/life-behind-the-wall-sensing-mechanical-cues-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
Olivier Hamant, Elizabeth S Haswell
There is increasing evidence that all cells sense mechanical forces in order to perform their functions. In animals, mechanotransduction has been studied during the establishment of cell polarity, fate, and division in single cells, and increasingly is studied in the context of a multicellular tissue. What about plant systems? Our goal in this review is to summarize what is known about the perception of mechanical cues in plants, and to provide a brief comparison with animals.
July 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679385/q-a-using-patch-seq-to-profile-single-cells
#4
Cathryn R Cadwell, Rickard Sandberg, Xiaolong Jiang, Andreas S Tolias
Individual neurons vary widely in terms of their gene expression, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. While many techniques exist to study single-cell variability along one or two of these dimensions, very few techniques can assess all three features for a single cell. We recently developed Patch-seq, which combines whole-cell patch clamp recording with single-cell RNA-sequencing and immunohistochemistry to comprehensively profile the transcriptomic, morphologic, and physiologic features of individual neurons...
July 6, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673288/nanobodies-raised-against-monomeric-%C3%A9-synuclein-inhibit-fibril-formation-and-destabilize-toxic-oligomeric-species
#5
Marija Iljina, Liu Hong, Mathew H Horrocks, Marthe H Ludtmann, Minee L Choi, Craig D Hughes, Francesco S Ruggeri, Tim Guilliams, Alexander K Buell, Ji-Eun Lee, Sonia Gandhi, Steven F Lee, Clare E Bryant, Michele Vendruscolo, Tuomas P J Knowles, Christopher M Dobson, Erwin De Genst, David Klenerman
BACKGROUND: The aggregation of the protein ɑ-synuclein (ɑS) underlies a range of increasingly common neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. One widely explored therapeutic strategy for these conditions is the use of antibodies to target aggregated ɑS, although a detailed molecular-level mechanism of the action of such species remains elusive. Here, we characterize ɑS aggregation in vitro in the presence of two ɑS-specific single-domain antibodies (nanobodies), NbSyn2 and NbSyn87, which bind to the highly accessible C-terminal region of ɑS...
July 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666437/olfactory-coding-from-the-periphery-to-higher-brain-centers-in-the-drosophila-brain
#6
Yoichi Seki, Hany K M Dweck, Jürgen Rybak, Dieter Wicher, Silke Sachse, Bill S Hansson
BACKGROUND: Odor information is processed through multiple receptor-glomerular channels in the first order olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), then reformatted into higher brain centers and eventually perceived by the fly. To reveal the logic of olfaction, it is fundamental to map odor representations from the glomerular channels into higher brain centers. RESULTS: We characterize odor response profiles of AL projection neurons (PNs) originating from 31 glomeruli using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Drosophila melanogaster...
June 30, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662698/mov10-suppresses-retroelements-and-regulates-neuronal-development-and-function-in-the-developing-brain
#7
Geena Skariah, Joseph Seimetz, Miles Norsworthy, Monica C Lannom, Phillip J Kenny, Mohamed Elrakhawy, Craig Forsthoefel, Jenny Drnevich, Auinash Kalsotra, Stephanie Ceman
BACKGROUND: Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotransposons has been characterized exclusively in cell lines. We investigated the role of Mov10 in the mouse brain by examining its expression over development and attempting to create a Mov10 knockout mouse. Loss of both Mov10 copies led to early embryonic lethality. RESULTS: Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662667/evolution-of-strigolactone-receptors-by-gradual-neo-functionalization-of-kai2-paralogues
#8
Rohan Bythell-Douglas, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W D Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, David C Nelson, Tom Bennett
BACKGROUND: Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth. The SL signalling mechanism is homologous to that of karrikins (KARs), smoke-derived compounds that stimulate seed germination. In angiosperms, the SL receptor is an α/β-hydrolase known as DWARF14 (D14); its close homologue, KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), functions as a KAR receptor and likely recognizes an uncharacterized, endogenous signal ('KL'). Previous phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the KAI2 lineage is ancestral in land plants, and that canonical D14-type SL receptors only arose in seed plants; this is paradoxical, however, as non-vascular plants synthesize and respond to SLs...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662662/tissue-macrophages-heterogeneity-and-functions
#9
REVIEW
Siamon Gordon, Annette Plüddemann
Macrophages are present in all vertebrate tissues, from mid-gestation throughout life, constituting a widely dispersed organ system. They promote homeostasis by responding to internal and external changes within the body, not only as phagocytes in defence against microbes and in clearance of dead and senescent cells, but also through trophic, regulatory and repair functions. In this review, we describe macrophage phenotypic heterogeneity in different tissue environments, drawing particular attention to organ-specific functions...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662661/non-model-model-organisms
#10
EDITORIAL
James J Russell, Julie A Theriot, Pranidhi Sood, Wallace F Marshall, Laura F Landweber, Lillian Fritz-Laylin, Jessica K Polka, Snezhana Oliferenko, Therese Gerbich, Amy Gladfelter, James Umen, Magdalena Bezanilla, Madeline A Lancaster, Shuonan He, Matthew C Gibson, Bob Goldstein, Elly M Tanaka, Chi-Kuo Hu, Anne Brunet
Model organisms are widely used in research as accessible and convenient systems to study a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally only a handful of organisms have been widely studied, but modern research tools are enabling researchers to extend the set of model organisms to include less-studied and more unusual systems. This Forum highlights a range of 'non-model model organisms' as emerging systems for tackling questions across the whole spectrum of biology (and beyond), the opportunities and challenges, and the outlook for the future...
June 29, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651577/organelle-acidification-an-ancient-cellular-leak-detector
#11
Mukund Thattai
Intracellular membrane-bounded organelles of eukaryotic cells transiently contact the extracellular environment during endocytosis and secretion. Such contacts must be precisely timed to prevent leakage of cargo. I argue that early eukaryotes evolved organelle acidification as a way to detect and prevent leakage.
June 26, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629474/q-a-expansion-microscopy
#12
Ruixuan Gao, Shoh M Asano, Edward S Boyden
Expansion microscopy (ExM) is a recently invented technology that uses swellable charged polymers, synthesized densely and with appropriate topology throughout a preserved biological specimen, to physically magnify the specimen 100-fold in volume, or more, in an isotropic fashion. ExM enables nanoscale resolution imaging of preserved samples on inexpensive, fast, conventional microscopes. How does ExM work? How good is its performance? How do you get going on using it? In this Q&A, we provide the answers to these and other questions about this new and rapidly spreading toolbox...
June 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619053/who-needs-registered-reports
#13
EDITORIAL
Miranda Robertson
Registered Reports, an article format initiated to help promote transparency and reproducibility in the preclinical and social sciences, are spreading into the biological literature. The format is now offered by BMC Biology, in a spirit of experiment.
June 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599653/dynamics-of-transcriptional-re-programming-of-syncytial-nuclei-in-developing-muscles
#14
Laetitia Bataillé, Hadi Boukhatmi, Jean-Louis Frendo, Alain Vincent
BACKGROUND: A stereotyped array of body wall muscles enables precision and stereotypy of animal movements. In Drosophila, each syncytial muscle forms via fusion of one founder cell (FC) with multiple fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs). The specific morphology of each muscle, i.e. distinctive shape, orientation, size and skeletal attachment sites, reflects the specific combination of identity transcription factors (iTFs) expressed by its FC. Here, we addressed three questions: Are FCM nuclei naive? What is the selectivity and temporal sequence of transcriptional reprogramming of FCMs recruited into growing syncytium? Is transcription of generic myogenic and identity realisation genes coordinated during muscle differentiation? RESULTS: The tracking of nuclei in developing muscles shows that FCM nuclei are competent to be transcriptionally reprogrammed to a given muscle identity, post fusion...
June 9, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595578/open-questions-completing-the-parts-list-and-finding-the-integrating-signals
#15
Aurelio A Teleman, Norbert Perrimon
One of the great revelations of post-genomic biology has been the extent to which essential functions and mechanisms are conserved across vast phylogenetic distances. Because of this, we can look to the fruit fly for answers to pressing open questions on the unknown functions of genes and the mechanisms of their physiological integration.
June 8, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571576/matriptase-zymogen-supports-epithelial-development-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#16
Stine Friis, Daniel Tadeo, Sylvain M Le-Gall, Henrik Jessen Jürgensen, Katiuchia Uzzun Sales, Eric Camerer, Thomas H Bugge
BACKGROUND: Matriptase is a membrane serine protease essential for epithelial development, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as a central orchestrator of pathogenic pericellular signaling in the context of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. Matriptase is an unusual protease in that its zymogen displays measurable enzymatic activity. RESULTS: Here, we used gain and loss of function genetics to investigate the possible biological functions of zymogen matriptase...
June 1, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526034/differential-darc-ackr1-expression-distinguishes-venular-from-non-venular-endothelial-cells-in-murine-tissues
#17
Aude Thiriot, Carolina Perdomo, Guiying Cheng, Igor Novitzky-Basso, Sara McArdle, Jamie K Kishimoto, Olga Barreiro, Irina Mazo, Robinson Triboulet, Klaus Ley, Antal Rot, Ulrich H von Andrian
BACKGROUND: Intravascular leukocyte recruitment in most vertebrate tissues is restricted to postcapillary and collecting venules, whereas capillaries and arterioles usually support little or no leukocyte adhesion. This segmental restriction is thought to be mediated by endothelial, rather than hemodynamic, differences. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, in part because effective tools to distinguish, isolate, and analyze venular endothelial cells (V-ECs) and non-venular endothelial cells (NV-ECs) have been unavailable...
May 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526029/cell-fixation-and-preservation-for-droplet-based-single-cell-transcriptomics
#18
Jonathan Alles, Nikos Karaiskos, Samantha D Praktiknjo, Stefanie Grosswendt, Philipp Wahle, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Salah Ayoub, Luisa Schreyer, Anastasiya Boltengagen, Carmen Birchmeier, Robert Zinzen, Christine Kocks, Nikolaus Rajewsky
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in droplet-based microfluidics allow the transcriptional profiling of thousands of individual cells in a quantitative, highly parallel and cost-effective way. A critical, often limiting step is the preparation of cells in an unperturbed state, not altered by stress or ageing. Other challenges are rare cells that need to be collected over several days or samples prepared at different times or locations. METHODS: Here, we used chemical fixation to address these problems...
May 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514946/open-questions-we-don-t-really-know-anything-do-we-open-questions-in-sensory-biology
#19
Sönke Johnsen
Senses connect organisms to both the world and to each other, yet there is much we don't know about them. Using examples drawn primarily from the author's subfield of vision research, this article discusses five major open questions.
May 17, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506280/optimouse-a-comprehensive-open-source-program-for-reliable-detection-and-analysis-of-mouse-body-and-nose-positions
#20
Yoram Ben-Shaul
BACKGROUND: Accurate determination of mouse positions from video data is crucial for various types of behavioral analyses. While detection of body positions is straightforward, the correct identification of nose positions, usually more informative, is far more challenging. The difficulty is largely due to variability in mouse postures across frames. RESULTS: Here, we present OptiMouse, an extensively documented open-source MATLAB program providing comprehensive semiautomatic analysis of mouse position data...
May 15, 2017: BMC Biology
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