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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887612/phenotyping-the-snark-hazards-of-3d
#1
Graham Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863503/lateral-gene-transfer-in-eukaryotes-tip-of-the-iceberg-or-of-the-ice-cube
#2
Etienne G J Danchin
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the transmission of genes, sometimes across species barriers, outwith the classic vertical inheritance from parent to offspring. LGT is recognized as an important phenomenon that has shaped the genomes and biology of prokaryotes. Whether LGT in eukaryotes is important and widespread remains controversial. A study in BMC Biology concludes that LGT in eukaryotes is neither continuous nor prevalent and suggests a rule of thumb for judging when apparent LGT may reflect contamination...
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863491/the-year-of-the-wisent
#3
Johannes A Lenstra, Jianquan Liu
Delving into European prehistory, two recent studies analyze ancient DNA from bison species depicted by our ancestors on the walls of their caves. The DNA tells a story of migrations driven by climate change but leaves some mystery clouding the genetic descent and climate preference of the still-extant wisent, otherwise known as the European bison.See research articles: https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0317-7 http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13158.
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863487/analyses-of-density-dependent-effects-are-needed-to-understand-how-and-when-wolbachia-can-control-dengue-vectors
#4
Robert A Cheke
Releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have been shown to be an effective method of controlling Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever, in Australia. A study in BMC Biology from Penelope Hancock and others shows that incorporation of density-dependent effects into population models can provide major improvements in understanding how and when the infected populations can become established.See research article: https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0319-5 .
November 18, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835992/the-evolving-world-of-pseudoenzymes-proteins-prejudice-and-zombies
#5
Patrick A Eyers, James M Murphy
Pseudoenzymes are catalytically deficient variants of enzymes that are represented in all major enzyme families. Their regulatory functions in signalling pathways are shedding new light on the non-catalytic functions of active enzymes, and are suggesting new ways to target cellular signalling mechanisms with drugs.
November 11, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829452/genetic-impairment-of-parasite-myosin-motors-uncovers-the-contribution-of-host-cell-membrane-dynamics-to-toxoplasma-invasion-forces
#6
Marion Bichet, Bastien Touquet, Virginie Gonzalez, Isabelle Florent, Markus Meissner, Isabelle Tardieux
BACKGROUND: The several-micrometer-sized Toxoplasma gondii protozoan parasite invades virtually any type of nucleated cell from a warm-blooded animal within seconds. Toxoplasma initiates the formation of a tight ring-like junction bridging its apical pole with the host cell membrane. The parasite then actively moves through the junction into a host cell plasma membrane invagination that delineates a nascent vacuole. Recent high resolution imaging and kinematics analysis showed that the host cell cortical actin dynamics occurs at the site of entry while gene silencing approaches allowed motor-deficient parasites to be generated, and suggested that the host cell could contribute energetically to invasion...
November 9, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825343/predicting-wolbachia-invasion-dynamics-in-aedes-aegypti-populations-using-models-of-density-dependent-demographic-traits
#7
Penelope A Hancock, Vanessa L White, Scott A Ritchie, Ary A Hoffmann, H Charles J Godfray
BACKGROUND: Arbovirus transmission by the mosquito Aedes aegypti can be reduced by the introduction and establishment of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia in wild populations of the vector. Wolbachia spreads by increasing the fitness of its hosts relative to uninfected mosquitoes. However, mosquito fitness is also strongly affected by population size through density-dependent competition for limited food resources. We do not understand how this natural variation in fitness affects symbiont spread, which limits our ability to design successful control strategies...
November 8, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782840/tis7-induces-transcriptional-cascade-of-methylosome-components-required-for-muscle-differentiation
#8
Andrea Lammirato, Katherin Patsch, Fabien Feiereisen, Karl Maly, Charity Nofziger, Markus Paulmichl, Hubert Hackl, Zlatko Trajanoski, Taras Valovka, Lukas A Huber, Ilja Vietor
BACKGROUND: TPA Induced Sequence 7 acts as a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in differentiation of various cell types, including skeletal myoblasts. We and others have shown that TIS7 regulates adult myogenesis through MyoD, one of the essential myogenic regulatory factors. RESULTS: Here, we present data identifying ICln as the specific, novel protein downstream of TIS7 controlling myogenesis. We show that TIS7/ICln epigenetically regulate myoD expression controlling protein methyl transferase activity...
October 25, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776507/geminin-prevents-dna-damage-in-vagal-neural-crest-cells-to-ensure-normal-enteric-neurogenesis
#9
Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Stavros Taraviras, Vassilis Pachnis
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate organisms, the neural crest (NC) gives rise to multipotential and highly migratory progenitors which are distributed throughout the embryo and generate, among other structures, the peripheral nervous system, including the intrinsic neuroglial networks of the gut, i.e. the enteric nervous system (ENS). The majority of enteric neurons and glia originate from vagal NC-derived progenitors which invade the foregut mesenchyme and migrate rostro-caudally to colonise the entire length of the gut...
October 24, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769298/past-climate-changes-population-dynamics-and-the-origin-of-bison-in-europe
#10
Diyendo Massilani, Silvia Guimaraes, Jean-Philip Brugal, E Andrew Bennett, Malgorzata Tokarska, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Gennady Baryshnikov, Gennady Boeskorov, Jean-Christophe Castel, Sergey Davydov, Stéphane Madelaine, Olivier Putelat, Natalia N Spasskaya, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl
BACKGROUND: Climatic and environmental fluctuations as well as anthropogenic pressure have led to the extinction of much of Europe's megafauna. The European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus), one of the last wild European large mammals, narrowly escaped extinction at the onset of the 20th century owing to hunting and habitat fragmentation. Little is known, however, about its origin, evolutionary history and population dynamics during the Pleistocene. RESULTS: Through ancient DNA analysis we show that the emblematic European bison has experienced several waves of population expansion, contraction, and extinction during the last 50,000 years in Europe, culminating in a major reduction of genetic diversity during the Holocene...
October 21, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760540/open-questions-how-does-wolbachia-do-what-it-does
#11
Francis M Jiggins
A common symbiont of insects, the bacterium Wolbachia has been implicated in phenomena as diverse as sex determination, pathogen defence and speciation and is being used in public health programs to prevent mosquitoes transmitting disease. Despite decades of research, we know remarkably little about how it exerts its effects.
October 19, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756303/oligomeric-interface-modulation-causes-misregulation-of-purine-5%C3%A2-nucleotidase-in-relapsed-leukemia
#12
Aleš Hnízda, Jana Škerlová, Milan Fábry, Petr Pachl, Martina Šinalová, Lukáš Vrzal, Petr Man, Petr Novák, Pavlína Řezáčová, Václav Veverka
BACKGROUND: Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the main causes of mortality in childhood malignancies. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that chemoresistant ALL is driven by activating mutations in NT5C2, the gene encoding cytosolic 5´-nucleotidase (cN-II). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this hyperactivation are still unknown. Here, we present kinetic and structural properties of cN-II variants that represent 75 % of mutated alleles in patients who experience relapsed ALL (R367Q, R238W and L375F)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751184/a-natural-barrier-to-lateral-gene-transfer-from-prokaryotes-to-eukaryotes-revealed-from-genomes-the-70%C3%A2-rule
#13
Chuan Ku, William F Martin
BACKGROUND: The literature harbors many claims for lateral gene transfer (LGT) from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Such claims are typically founded in analyses of genome sequences. It is undisputed that many genes entered the eukaryotic lineage via the origin of mitochondria and the origin of plastids. Claims for lineage-specific LGT to eukaryotes outside the context of organelle origins and claims of continuous LGT to eukaryotic lineages are more problematic. If eukaryotes acquire genes from prokaryotes continuously during evolution, then sequenced eukaryote genomes should harbor evidence for recent LGT, like prokaryotic genomes do...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751175/morphological-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-a-beetle-chemosensory-system-reveals-a-gnathal-olfactory-center
#14
Stefan Dippel, Martin Kollmann, Georg Oberhofer, Alice Montino, Carolin Knoll, Milosz Krala, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Sergius Frank, Robert Kumpf, Joachim Schachtner, Ernst A Wimmer
BACKGROUND: The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is an emerging insect model organism representing the largest insect order, Coleoptera, which encompasses several serious agricultural and forest pests. Despite the ecological and economic importance of beetles, most insect olfaction studies have so far focused on dipteran, lepidopteran, or hymenopteran systems. RESULTS: Here, we present the first detailed morphological description of a coleopteran olfactory pathway in combination with genome-wide expression analysis of the relevant gene families involved in chemoreception...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733152/segregation-of-prokaryotic-magnetosomes-organelles-is-driven-by-treadmilling-of-a-dynamic-actin-like-mamk-filament
#15
Mauricio Toro-Nahuelpan, Frank D Müller, Stefan Klumpp, Jürgen M Plitzko, Marc Bramkamp, Dirk Schüler
BACKGROUND: The navigation of magnetotactic bacteria relies on specific intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed crystals of magnetite aligned into a linear chain. The magnetosome chain acts as a cellular compass, aligning the cells in the geomagnetic field in order to search for suitable environmental conditions in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. During cytokinesis, magnetosome chains have to be properly positioned, cleaved and separated in order to be evenly passed into daughter cells...
October 12, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717342/impact-is-a-gcn2-inhibitor-that-limits-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Rafael C Ferraz, Henrique Camara, Evandro A De-Souza, Silas Pinto, Ana Paula F Pinca, Richard C Silva, Vitor N Sato, Beatriz A Castilho, Marcelo A Mori
BACKGROUND: The General Control Nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase is a conserved member of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway that represses protein translation and helps cells to adapt to conditions of nutrient shortage. As such, GCN2 is required for longevity and stress resistance induced by dietary restriction (DR). IMPACT is an ancient protein that inhibits GCN2. RESULTS: Here, we tested whether IMPACT down-regulation mimics the effects of DR in C. elegans...
October 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716180/generation-of-an-integrated-hieracium-genomic-and-transcriptomic-resource-enables-exploration-of-small-rna-pathways-during-apomixis-initiation
#17
David S Rabiger, Jennifer M Taylor, Andrew Spriggs, Melanie L Hand, Steven T Henderson, Susan D Johnson, Karsten Oelkers, Maria Hrmova, Keisuke Saito, Go Suzuki, Yasuhiko Mukai, Bernard J Carroll, Anna M G Koltunow
BACKGROUND: Application of apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in crop breeding would allow rapid fixation of complex traits, economizing improved crop delivery. Identification of apomixis genes is confounded by the polyploid nature, high genome complexity and lack of genomic sequence integration with reproductive tissue transcriptomes in most apomicts. RESULTS: A genomic and transcriptomic resource was developed for Hieracium subgenus Pilosella (Asteraceae) which incorporates characterized sexual, apomictic and mutant apomict plants exhibiting reversion to sexual reproduction...
October 6, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716236/biased-image-cropping-and-non-independent-samples
#18
John F Y Brookfield
Any figure in a research article will typically represent only a small portion of the total data gained by a researcher for that experiment, and it is therefore key that the figure accurately reflects what was found overall. Furthermore, if individual observations form clusters with differing mean properties, those individual observations would not represent independent samples from the populations being compared. In this example, the question of how to fairly represent and treat image data is addressed.
October 4, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716181/emergence-of-wheat-blast-in-bangladesh-was-caused-by-a-south-american-lineage-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#19
M Tofazzal Islam, Daniel Croll, Pierre Gladieux, Darren M Soanes, Antoine Persoons, Pallab Bhattacharjee, Md Shaid Hossain, Dipali Rani Gupta, Md Mahbubur Rahman, M Golam Mahboob, Nicola Cook, Moin U Salam, Musrat Zahan Surovy, Vanessa Bueno Sancho, João Leodato Nunes Maciel, Antonio NhaniJúnior, Vanina Lilián Castroagudín, Juliana T de Assis Reges, Paulo Cezar Ceresini, Sebastien Ravel, Ronny Kellner, Elisabeth Fournier, Didier Tharreau, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Bruce A McDonald, Timothy Stitt, Daniel Swan, Nicholas J Talbot, Diane G O Saunders, Joe Win, Sophien Kamoun
BACKGROUND: In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100 %. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. RESULTS: Reinoculation of seedlings with strains isolated from infected wheat grains showed wheat blast symptoms on leaves of wheat but not rice...
October 3, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686128/insect-odorant-receptor-trafficking-requires-calmodulin
#20
Suhyoung Bahk, Walton D Jones
BACKGROUND: Like most animals, insects rely on their olfactory systems for finding food and mates and in avoiding noxious chemicals and predators. Most insect olfactory neurons express an odorant-specific odorant receptor (OR) along with Orco, the olfactory co-receptor. Orco binds ORs and permits their trafficking to the dendrites of antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), where together, they are suggested to form heteromeric ligand-gated non-selective cation channels. While most amino acid residues in Orco are well conserved across insect orders, one especially well-conserved region in Orco's second intracellular loop is a putative calmodulin (CaM) binding site (CBS)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Biology
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