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Neotropical Entomology

P P Nayak, J Prakash
India is a country bestowed enormously with stingless bees, but genetic information about them is extremely minimal. This study focused to tap the geographic allocation, genetic variability, and differentiation among Tetragonula species complexes from natural and semi-urban habitats. Genetic analyses were assessed among 36 contrasting genotypes utilizing 20 ISSR primers. The dual combination exquisitely and productively amplified 245 DNA fragments at the loci, of which 240 bands were polymorphic (97.95%). Low to moderate level of genetic differentiation was detected from different estimators (Ht 0...
July 19, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
K H Ibarra-Cortés, A W Guzmán-Franco, H González-Hernández, L D Ortega-Arenas, J A Villanueva-Jiménez, A Robles-Bermúdez
Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
R G Mafia, E B Loureiro, J B Silva, J A C Simões, T G Zarpelon, N S Bezerra Junior, M B Damacena
Eucalyptus plantations can be affected by species of defoliating caterpillars. The integrated management of this group primarily involves a monitoring system, natural enemies, and biological products. Alternative control methods, including the use of conventional light traps, have not been adopted, mostly because of their low efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient light trap model was developed. The new model allowed the capture of 3.6 times as many insects as the conventional model, with a 261% gain in control efficiency...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
K A Andrade, E L Aguiar-Menezes, V Gonçalves-Esteves, C B F Mendonça, G R M Vieira, S J Melo, J L A Magalhães, G J B Melo
Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) larvae prey on pest insects and mites in agroecosystems, and adults mainly feed on pollen, nectar, and honeydew. Therefore, preserving this lacewing in crop systems depends on having plants that provide these resources. The objectives of this research were to identify pollen grains ingested by Ch. externa adults collected in a diversified organic agroecosystem and to evaluate whether there is a difference in the amount of ingested pollen grains between males and females. The adults of Ch...
June 29, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
P Mohamadi, J Razmjou, B Naseri, M Hassanpour
The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest of tomato worldwide. One of the control measures of T. absoluta is the use of biological control agents, such as Trichogramma wasps. Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore characteristics and suitability of them to parasitism. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the life table parameters of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on T...
June 29, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
E Luft Albarracin, S V Triapitsyn, E G Virla
The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong), is the most important leafhopper pest of maize, Zea mays, in the Americas. A survey of the diversity of its egg parasitoids was carried out in northwestern Argentina. During summer from 2004 to 2007, the samples were collected, using sentinel eggs of D. maidis on corn leaves, exposed in 48 cornfields. Sixteen species belonging to four families of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were identified. Among the parasitoid groups, Trichogrammatidae was the most represented family with eight species, followed by Mymaridae with six species...
June 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
A S Guidolin, F L Cônsoli
Richness and abundance of facultative symbionts vary strongly with aphid species and genotype, symbiont strain, host plant, biogeography, and a number of abiotic factors. Despite indications that aphids in the same ecological niche show similar levels of facultative symbiont richness, existing reports do not consider the potential role of host plants on aphid microbial community. Little is known about how oligophagy and polyphagy may be influenced by secondary symbiont distribution, mainly because studies on secondary symbiont diversity are biased towards polyphagous aphids from the Northern Hemisphere...
June 15, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
F C Freitas, A C Morales-Corrêa E Castro, N C C P Barbosa, O A Fernandes
The larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). This exotic parasitoid has been mass reared for field release since its introduction in the 1970s. Insects are exchanged between labs or introduced from the field, but without basic studies or criteria. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of insects from six Brazilian States (São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Goiás, Maranhão, and Alagoas) using microsatellites...
June 9, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
J A Coswosk, R A Ferreira, E D G Soares, L R R Faria
Euglossine fauna of a large remnant of Brazilian Atlantic forest in eastern Brazil (Reserva Natural Vale) was assessed along an edge-forest gradient towards the interior of the fragment. To test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages of orchid bees varies along this gradient, the following predictions were evaluated: (i) species richness is positively related to distance from the forest edge, (ii) species diversity is positively related to distance from the edge, (iii) the relative abundance of species associated with forest edge and/or open areas is inversely related to the distance from edge, and (iv) relative abundance of forest-related species is positively related to distance from the edge...
May 24, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
A C Silva, M P Ricalde
Specimens of the mango stone weevil Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were found in fruits of mango from a tree in the residential area of the Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This is the first report of the S. mangiferae in Brazil, currently regulated as an absent quarantine pest in the country. A taxonomist specialized in Curculionidae confirmed the identification based on morphological diagnostics characteristics. This detection is a relevant finding, because Brazil is a major producer and exporter of mango and the main areas of mango for exportation are located very far from this detection point...
May 24, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
M C F Ferronato, D C Giangarelli, D Mazzaro, N Uemura, S H Sofia
In this study, we compare orchid bee communities surveyed in four forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest and four reforested areas characterized by seasonal semi-deciduous forest vegetation in different successional stages (mature and secondary vegetation), located in southern Brazil. The sizes of forest remnants and reforested areas varied from 32.1 to 583.9 ha and from 11.3 to 33.3 ha, respectively. All reforested areas were located near one forest remnant. During samplings, totaling nine per study area, euglossine males were attracted to eight scent baits and captured with bait trap and entomological nets...
May 13, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
I F Silva, E L L Baldin, A Specht, D R Sosa-Gómez, V F Roque-Specht, R Morando, S V Paula-Moraes
This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and life table of individuals of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) from different host plants (citrus, corn, and cotton) and Brazilian states (São Paulo, Distrito Federal, and Bahia) in artificial diet, under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH, 14 h photophase). The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity, and fertility of 15 mating pairs per origin were evaluated. We also compared the reproductive parameters of each group of insects (São Paulo (SP), Distrito Federal (DF), and Bahia (BA)), including the net reproductive rate (Ro), mean generation time (T), intrinsic rate of increase (r m), and finite rate of increase (λ)...
May 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
S Sabahi, L Fekrat, M Zakiaghl, G H Moravej
Nowadays, with increasing trend of trans-boundary transportation of agricultural products and higher probability of introduction of many invasive species into new areas, fast and precise species diagnosis is of great significance particularly at the port of entry, where morphological identification often requires adult insect specimens especially with specialist insects. The cucumber fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), ranks as one of the most destructive agricultural pests attacking mainly fruits of Cucurbitaceae...
May 6, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
G A Silva, R M Pereira, N Rodrigues-Silva, T C Souza, D O Ferreira, E A Queiroz, G A R Silva, M C Picanço
The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is an herbivorous specialist on Brassicaceae species. Brassicas spp. plants developed a range of defenses (chemical, physical, and morphological) to prevent herbivores attack. In this study, we reported the antixenotic and antibiotic effects of outermost layer of two species of epicuticular wax of Brassicaceae, Brassica oleracea L. var. "Santo Antônio," and Hybrid Kope F1 100MX, on larvae and adult of P. xylostella. In the choice experiment, P...
May 6, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
T S R Silva, R M Feitosa
Soil ecosystems are considered biodiversity hotspots. Most of terrestrial organisms depend almost exclusively on soils at least during some part of their life cycle. Although there is an intensive effort to understand the dynamics involving communities of soil animals, most groups are unappreciated in faunal inventories, such as some parasitic Hymenoptera with soil or litter hosts (SLH Hymenoptera), which are considered one of the largest and most diverse groups of soil- or litter-dwelling animals. Contrasting with flight interception traps, techniques that sample soil and litter specimens normally present low costs and easy transportation, being easily replicated within a site...
May 6, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
L M S Xavier, D M Magalhães, P A Viana, M C Blassioli-Moraes, M Borges, J A F Barrigossi, E F Vilela, R A Laumann
The objective of this work was to evaluate the reproductive behavior and response of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) males to calling females. Frequency of mating was recorded in couples during the first 7 days of the adult stage. Calling behavior of females was observed during the first 4 days of the adult stage and responses of males, in the same age intervals, to calling females were recorded in wind tunnel bioassays. The maximum number of matings occurred when the couple was between 24 and 48 h old...
May 4, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
M Z Groth, A E Loeck, S D Nornberg, D Bernardi, D E Nava
Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h...
May 4, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
P F Cristaldo, C S Almeida, N G Cruz, E J M Ribeiro, M L C Rocha, A A Santos, A S Santana, A P A Araújo
Organisms acquire energy from environment and must allocate it among different life traits (growth, maintenance and reproduction). Social insects must manage the energy allocation to various levels such as colony growth and caste functions. Here, we addressed the question of whether resource density affects the energy allocation to the number of individuals and caste functions as well as nest's growth rate in the Neotropical termite Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Homgren) (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae). In a manipulative field experiment, colonies of N...
May 2, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
I Ali, S Zhang, M S Muhammad, M Iqbal, J-J J-J Cui
Biosafety of a genetically modified crop is required to be assessed prior to its commercialization. For this, a suitable artificial diet was developed and used to establish a dietary exposure test for assessing the toxicity of midgut-active Bt insecticidal proteins on Chrysopa pallens (Rambur). Subsequently, this dietary exposure test was used to evaluate the toxicity of the proteins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ah, Cry1Ca, Cry1F, Cry2Aa, Cry2Ab, and Vip3Aa on C. pallens larvae. Temporal stability, bioactivity, and the intake of the insecticidal proteins were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a sensitive-insect bioassay...
April 28, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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