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Neotropical Entomology

B S Godoy, L L Queiroz, S Lodi, L G Oliveira
The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
D P Silva, D S Nogueira, P De Marco
Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
K P Luna-Marín, V M Angulo-Silva, J Hernández-Torres, M Ruiz-García
One hundred twenty Rhodnius prolixus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from 6 Colombian Departments and 1 Venezuelan State had 594-bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequenced to improve the understanding of evolutionary processes that shape the main vector of Chagas disease. The levels of genetic diversity for this species were low-medium with reference to other bugs. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations was very limited which means there has been extensive gene flow and/or very recent split processes...
November 26, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
F T Hata, J E P Silva, M U Ventura, A Pasini, S Roggia
The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was found for the first time in the Paraná State, in southern Brazil. The first observations occurred in September 2015, on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) leaves, which is not considered a typical host plant of RPM. It is probable that its occurrence on this plant was serendipitous. Visual surveys for RPM were carried out on four typical host plants (banana, coconut, foxtail palm, and real palm), in five cities of the Paraná State (Bela Vista do Paraíso, Londrina, Maringá, Marialva, and Sarandi)...
November 26, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
A M D Nascimento, T D S Maia, T E S Soares, L R A Menezes, R Scher, E V Costa, S C H Cavalcanti, R La Corte
In order to find new alternatives for vector control and personal protection, we evaluated the larvicidal and repellent activity of essentials oils from plants found in the Northeast of Brazil against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus mosquitoes. The plants tested include Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, and Lippia pedunculosa and their major compounds, piperitenone oxide, and (R)-limonene. The essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its major volatile compounds were shown to be toxic for Ae. aegypti larvae with a LC50 lower than 60 ppm...
November 14, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
M F Soria, P E Degrande, A R Panizzi, M D Toews
In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated...
November 14, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
M Akandeh, M Soufbaf, F Kocheili, A Rasekh
As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P...
November 12, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
R S Olivier
Temnomastax spielmanni Olivier, 2014 n. syn. is proposed as new synonym of Eumastacops nemorivaga Rehn & Rehn, 1942. New distribution records in Peru and Colombia are provided for the following four species: Eumastax nigrovittata Descamps, 1979; Paramastax nigra (Scudder, 1875); Pseudomastax nigroplagiata Descamps, 1970; and Pseudomastax personata (Bolívar, 1881). New information on the distribution of Paramastax flavovittata Descamps, 1973 and E. nemorivaga is added, resulting in the expansion of the geographic distribution...
November 10, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
D Gonçalves, U S da Cunha, T F S Radaelli, N J Ferla
Schizotetranychus oryzae Rossi de Simons (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered one of the most important phytophagous mite in rice cultivation in the Americas South, Central, and North. This study aimed to examine some biological aspects of S. oryzae developing on leaves of three different cultivars of rice [Oryza sativa (L.)-Poaceae] produced in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. The plants were kept in a room at 25 ± 1°C, with natural light (photophase of approximately 14 h) and 70 ± 5% relative humidity...
November 10, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
M Mollaei, H Izadi, S Moharramipour, E Behroozi Moghadam
The pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella Amsel (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a key pest of pistachio trees, is a monovoltine pest living inside the feeding tunnel of pistachio twigs for almost 10 months in a year and overwinters there as last instar larvae. In this study, we measured some physiological parameters of overwintering field collected larvae of the pest. There were no changes in trehalose, glucose, and myo-inositol contents, but there were differences in the levels of total simple sugar and glycogen during overwintering...
November 9, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
R Karimzadeh, S Iranipour
Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012...
November 9, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Y Q Song, H Z Sun, J Du, X D Wang, Z J Cheng
Bank plant systems provide effective biological control for pests infesting commercially important crops. Aphids cause physical damage to crops by feeding on the leaves, as well as transmitting damaging viral diseases. To develop a bank plant system to control aphids that damage vegetable crops, we initially reared the parasitoid Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat and Fatima) on the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura) reared on the soybean plant, Glycine max (L.) that was elected as the alternate host. Parasitoid adults that emerged from A...
November 5, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
A R Panizzi, T Lucini
Once abundant in the Americas, the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.) has gradually declined in numbers. Until the 1990s, it was considered the main pest of major crops such as soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, particularly in southern Brazil and southern USA, as well as Argentina, Uruguay, and other countries. In the past 15+ years, a dramatic population decrease was observed to the point of now being considered a secondary pest in these referred countries. In this article, we list and discuss possible reasons which explain the decline in N...
November 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
A L Dutra, R Oliveira
We present a simple technique for keeping the form of artificially expanded endophalli in bees (Hymenoptera). Endophalli were inflated using the introduction of low melting-point agarose from a syringe inserted in the anterior opening of the metasoma. Under refrigeration, the endophalli kept their expanded shape for up to three days allowing the description of structure, morphometric analyses, and examination of the external sculpturing of the cuticle under scanning electron microscope. The technique provides new possibilities for the study of functional morphology, sexual selection, and reconstruction of bee phylogeny...
October 26, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
S Yang, H Liu, J T Zhang, J Liu, H Zheng, Y Ren
Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) is a serious polyphagous defoliator. Using scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this pest was examined for a better understanding of the mechanisms of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical communications. The antennae of M. flavescens were filiform in shape, and 11 morphological types of sensilla were found in both sexes. Six types of likely chemosensory sensilla were identified: uniporous sensilla chaetica, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and four types of multiporous sensilla basiconica...
October 25, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
I Y Grichanov
A new long-legged fly species Chrysotus runyoni sp. nov. from the Dominican Republic is described and illustrated. Photos of the male secondary sexual characters are provided.
October 19, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
K Yoshizawa, M Souza-Silva, R L Ferreira
A new barklouse species belonging to the Trichadenotecnum s.str. clade (Psocodea: "Psocoptera": Psocidae) was described from southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais state). This locality is highly isolated (about 3400 km) from the closest known distributional range of this clade. It also represents the southernmost distributional record of Trichadenotecnum s.str. Phylogenetic placement of the species and biogeography of Neotropical Trichadenotecnum were briefly discussed. Trichadenotecnum punctipenne New, 1972 described from Brazil was synonymized with Trichadenotecnum pardus Badonnel, 1955...
October 14, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
T F Ansante, L P Ribeiro, J D Vendramim
The bioactivity of a newly registered annonin-based formulation (Anosom® 1 EC) was investigated for use against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both singly and mixed with a limonoid-based formulation (Azamax® 1.2 EC) using dietary exposure bioassays. Anosom® 1 EC caused significant mortality in S. frugiperda larvae exposed to treated artificial media, with the activity level dependent on both the concentration and the exposure time. In addition to exhibiting acute toxicity, this formulation (tested at LC50) also caused growth inhibition of S...
October 12, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
F S Masiero, M F K Aquino, M P Nassu, D I B Pereira, D S Leite, P J Thyssen
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) consists on the intentional and controlled application of sterilized larvae of the order Diptera on necrotic skin lesions with the purpose of cleaning necrotic tissue and removing pathogenic bacteria. During MDT, a marked antimicrobial activity has been reported in literature specially associated with antibacterial substances from Lucilia sericata (Meigen); however, regarding Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), little is known. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro inhibition of bacterial growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in contact with excretions and secretions (ES) from C...
October 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
F Sohrabi, H R Nooryazdan, B Gharati, Z Saeidi
The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit...
September 27, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
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