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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636488/workers-exposure-to-bioaerosols-from-three-different-types-of-composting-facilities
#1
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636477/three-axial-evaluation-of-whole-body-vibration-in-agricultural-telehandlers-the-effects-of-an-active-cab-suspension-system
#2
Federica Caffaro, Christian Preti, Margherita Micheletti Cremasco, Eugenio Cavallo
Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y- and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636458/contamination-of-firefighter-personal-protective-equipment-and-skin-and-the-effectiveness-of-decontamination-procedures
#3
Kenneth W Fent, Barbara Alexander, Jennifer Roberts, Shirley Robertson, Christine Toennis, Deborah Sammons, Stephen Bertke, Steve Kerber, Denise Smith, Gavin Horn
Firefighters' skin may be exposed to chemicals via permeation/penetration of combustion byproducts through or around personal protective equipment (PPE) or from the cross-transfer of contaminants on PPE to the skin. Additionally, volatile contaminants can evaporate from PPE following a response and be inhaled by firefighters. Using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as respective markers for non-volatile and volatile substances, we investigated the contamination of firefighters' turnout gear and skin following controlled residential fire responses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636453/testing-the-efficacy-of-existing-force-endurance-models-to-account-for-the-prevalence-of-obesity-in-the-workforce
#4
Mojdeh Pajoutan, Lora A Cavuoto, Ranjana K Mehta
This study evaluated whether the existing force-endurance relationship models are predictive of endurance time for overweight and obese individuals, and if not, provide revised models that can be applied for ergonomics practice. Data was collected from 141 participants (49 normal weight, 50 overweight, 42 obese) who each performed isometric endurance tasks of hand grip, shoulder flexion, and trunk extension at four levels of relative workload. Subject-specific fatigue rates and a general model of the force-endurance relationship were determined and compared to two fatigue models from the literature...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636451/assessing-hydrogen-peroxide-vapor-exposure-from-hospital-sterilizers
#5
Robert Cornelia, P Richard Warburton
This study examined the hydrogen peroxide concentrations measured near four models of hydrogen peroxide sterilizers, from two manufacturers, monitored in seven hospitals across the US and Canada over several years. The results showed that the majority of sterilizers do not emit hazardous levels of hydrogen peroxide and none of them exceeded the OSHA PEL of 1 ppm (8 hour time weighted average (TWA)), however several of the sterilizers exceeded 3 ppm, the short term exposure limit in a couple of states, Washington and Hawaii...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609256/nano-metal-oxides-exposure-and-engineering-control-assessment
#6
Alberto Garcia, Adrienne Eastlake, Jennifer L Topmiller, Christopher Sparks, Kenneth Martinez, Charles L Geraci
In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee's personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609247/the-uses-and-limitations-of-a-hand-held-germicidal-ultraviolet-wand-for-surface-disinfection
#7
George Byrns, Beverly Barham, Liangcheng Yang, Kathryn Webster, George Rutherford, Garrett Steiner, Daniel Petras, Michele Scannell
The morbidity and mortality from healthcare associated infections has raised concern that conventional disinfection methods are inadequate and that other adjunct methods such as room fumigation and ultraviolet irradiation may be needed. There is also concern that these alternative methods may pose a risk to workers and patients. OBJECTIVES: (1) Determine the efficacy of a germicidal UV-C wand for surface disinfection, (2) evaluate changing relative humidity (RH) and different target distances on bacteria kill rates, and (3) assess potential exposure concerns...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609230/evaluating-polymer-degradation-with-complex-mixtures-using-a-simplified-surface-area-method
#8
Kandace M Steele, Todd Pelham, Robert N Phalen
Chemical resistant gloves, designed to protect workers from chemical hazards, are made from a variety of polymer materials such as plastic, rubber, and synthetic rubber. One material does not provide protection against all chemicals, thus proper polymer selection is critical. Standardized testing, such as chemical degradation tests, are used to aid in the selection process. The current methods of degradation ratings based on changes in weight or tensile properties can be expensive and data often do not exist for complex chemical mixtures...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609222/thoracic-and-respirable-aerosol-fractions-of-spray-products-containing-non-volatile-compounds
#9
Katharina Schwarz, Wolfgang Koch
A versatile and simple mass balance method for the measurement of the release fraction of thoracic and respirable particles of non-volatile compounds of spray products is presented. The release fractions are defined as the ratio between the mass of suspended non-volatile particulate matter in the thoracic, respectively, respirable particle size range and the total mass of non-volatile material released with the spray action. For its determination, a spray bolus of short duration and of defined mass is sprayed into a well stirred control chamber...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609218/lung-function-measures-following-simulated-wildland-firefighter-exposures
#10
Matthew D Ferguson, Erin O Semmens, Emily Weiler, Joe Domitrovich, Mary French, Christopher Migliaccio, Charles Palmer, Charles Dumke, Tony Ward
Across the world, biomass smoke is a major source of air pollution and is linked with a variety of adverse health effects. This is particularly true in the western US where wood smoke from wildland forest fires are a significant source of PM2.5. Wildland firefighters are impacted as they experience elevated PM2.5 concentrations over extended periods of time, often occurring during physical exertion. Various epidemiological studies have investigated wood smoke impacts on human health, including occupational field exposures experienced by wildland firefighters...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609213/aspergillus-spp-prevalence-in-different-portuguese-occupational-environments-what-is-the-real-scenario-in-high-load-settings
#11
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
The genus Aspergillus is one of the most prevalent regarding fungi in several highly contaminated occupational environments. The goal of the current study was to assess the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in different settings, focusing on those where a higher load of fungal contamination is expected according to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. A specific protocol to ensure a more accurate assessment of the exposure to Aspergillus spp. is proposed aimed at allowing a detailed risk characterization and management...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609198/interzonal-airflow-rates-for-use-in-near-field-far-field-workplace-concentration-modeling
#12
Chris Keil, Yuxi Zhao
Interzonal air flow rates (β) for a workspace above a table were measured in 12 indoor air spaces using an experimental apparatus simulating a vapor release into an occupied near zone. The near field was modeled as a 0.32 m(3) rectangular cube volume 0.60 m high above the 0.60 m × 0.90 m table. A total of 74 experimental measurements of β were made. The apparatus consisted of photoionization detectors measuring concentrations of acetone around an evaporating liquid surface with a robot arm simulating worker motion in the near field...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609192/evaluation-of-the-well-mixed-room-and-near-field-far-field-models-in-occupational-settings
#13
Susan F Arnold, Yuan Shao, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Drawing appropriate conclusions about a scenario for which the exposure is truly unacceptable drives appropriate exposure and risk management, and protects the health and safety of those individuals. To ensure the vast majority of these decisions are accurate, these decisions must be based upon proven approaches and tools. When these decisions are based solely on professional judgment guided by subjective inputs however, they are more than likely wrong, and biased, underestimating the true exposure. Models have been shown anecdotally to be useful in accurately predicting exposure but their use in occupational hygiene has been limited...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609175/center-for-the-polyurethanes-industry-summary-of-unpublished-industrial-hygiene-studies-related-to-the-evaluation-of-emissions-of-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#14
Richard D Wood
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight year period from 2007 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609169/a-gap-analysis-of-the-united-states-death-care-sector-to-determine-training-and-education-needs-pertaining-to-highly-infectious-disease-mitigation-and-management
#15
Aurora B Le, Lesley Witter, Jocelyn J Herstein, Katelyn C Jelden, Elizabeth Beam, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe
PURPOSE: A United States industry-specific gap analysis survey of the death care sector-which comprises organizations and businesses affiliated with the funeral industry and the handling of human remains- was developed, the results analyzed, and training and education needs in relation to highly infectious disease mitigation and management were explored in an effort to identify where occupational health and safety can be enhanced in this worker population. METHODS: Collaborating national death care organizations distributed the 47-question electronic survey...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609164/the-recommended-threshold-limit-values-for-heat-exposure-fail-to-maintain-body-core-temperature-within-safe-limits-in-older-working-adults
#16
Dallon T Lamarche, Robert D Meade, Andrew W D'Souza, Andreas D Flouris, Stephen G Hardcastle, Ronald J Sigal, Pierre Boulay, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: The American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for work in the heat consist of work-rest (WR) allocations designed to ensure a stable core temperature that does not exceed 38°C. However, in their prescription the TLVs have not been validated in older workers. This is an important shortcoming given that older adults as young as 40 years demonstrate impairments in their ability to dissipate heat. We therefore evaluated body temperature responses in older adults during work performed in accordance to the TLVs...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604270/association-between-exposure-to-o-chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile-cs-riot-control-agent-and-urinary-metabolite-2-chlorohippuric-acid-in-u-s-army-mask-confidence-training
#17
Maccon A Buchanan, Joseph J Hout, William Bragg, Alex Stubner, Mary Brueggemeyer
This study was conducted among U.S. Army soldiers to evaluate the association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid (CHA) detected in test subjects (n = 87) after completion of Mask Confidence Training. CS exposures ranged 0.086 - 4.9 mg/m³ ([Formula: see text] = 2.7 mg/m³). CHA levels (corrected for creatinine) at 2, 8, 24, and 30 hours post-exposure resulted in ranges of 94.6 - 1120 μg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 389 μg/g-cr), 15...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585895/an-examination-of-mce-filter-morphology-and-implications-on-preparation-and-analysis-of-air-samples-for-asbestos
#18
Myron Getman, James Webber, Samuel Bowser
Morphological imperfections of mixed-cellulose ester filters and their possible influence on sample preparation and analysis of asbestos were examined. Filters were identified with large regions of non-porous "dead zones" which could negatively affect fiber deposition and, therefore, fiber recovery and analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). As these imperfections are effectively erased during the preparation of the sample, they may not be readily observed by TEM. Un-collapsed filters as well as those collapsed using dimethylformamide (DMF) and two acetone techniques were examined...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585893/performance-of-two-respiratory-protective-devices-used-by-home-attending-health-care-workers-a-pilot-study
#19
Yousef Elmashae, Sergey A Grinshpun, Tiina Reponen, Michael Yermakov, Robert Riddle
OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed at determining the Workplace Protection Factor (WPF) for respiratory protective devices widely used by health-care workers to reduce exposure to potentially hazardous aerosols when attending patients in their homes. Two devices were tested, an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and a surgical mask (SM). METHODS: Three home-attending health-care workers were recruited, medically cleared and fit tested. At the workplace, the aerosol concentrations outside (Cout) and inside (Cin) of the tested respiratory protective device worn by a subject were measured using two simultaneously operating P-Trak condensation particle counters within the particle size range of approximately 20-1,000 nm...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574803/noise-characterization-of-oil-and-gas-operations
#20
Cameron Radtke, Daniel A Autenrieth, Tiffany Lipsey, William J Brazile
In cooperation with The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, researchers at Colorado State University performed area noise monitoring at 23 oil and gas sites throughout Northern Colorado. The goals of this study were to: (1) measure and compare the noise levels for the different phases of oil and gas development sites; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of noise barriers; and (3) determine if noise levels exceeded the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission noise limits. The four phases of oil and gas development include drilling, hydraulic fracturing, completion and production...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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