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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
David Lucas, Vincent Clamagirand, Pascale Capellmann, Agnès Hervé, Gilles Mauguen, Yannik Le Mer, Dominique Jegaden
Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) have been extensively used for insulation in condensing boilers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory exposure to these fibers among maintenance heating technicians. We first created a working group (Carsat Brittany and Finistère Occupational Health Services) and carried out a sampling strategy. Atmospheric measurements were done during work tasks, and filters were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in French approved laboratories...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu, Kai Ling Lin
The inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood has been reported to have "almost null leakage"(1) at low suction flow rates when operated at regular temperatures. However, previous research has not investigated the performance or optimized operating parameters when a high heat load is used in the IAC fume hood. For the present work, the effects of a high heat load on the flow field and contaminant leakage characteristics of the IAC fume hood were examined. The heat load was supplied to an IAC hood according to the standard method of EN14175-7:2012...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jhy-Charm Soo, Eun Gyung Lee, Ryan F LeBouf, Michael L Kashon, William Chisholm, Martin Harper
The objective of this present study was to evaluate the performance of a portable gas chromatograph ─ photoionization detector (GC-PID), under various test conditions to determine if it could be used in occupational settings. A mixture of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene - was selected because its components are commonly present in paint manufacturing industries. A full-factorial combination of four concentration levels (exposure scenarios) of VOC mixtures, three different temperatures (25˚C, 30˚C, and 35˚C), and three relative humidities (RHs; 25%, 50%, and 75%) was conducted in a full- size controlled environmental chamber...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jennifer D Sisler, Chaolong Qi, Walter McKinney, Justine Shaffer, Michael Andrew, Taekhee Lee, Treye Thomas, Vincent Castranova, Robert R Mercer, Yong Qian
To protect against decay and fungal invasion into the wood, the micronized copper, copper carbonate particles, has been applied in the wood treatment in recent years; however, there is little information on the health risk associated with sanding micronized copper- treated lumber. In this study, wood dust from the sanding of micronized copper azole -treated lumber (MCA) was compared to sanding dust from solubilized copper azole-treated wood (CA-C) and untreated yellow pine (UYP). The test found that sanding MCA released a much higher concentration of nanoparticles than sanding CA-C and UYP, and the particles between about 0...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Derek A Newcomer, Peter LaPuma, Robert Brandys, Amanda Northcross
The portable high efficiency air filtration (PHEAF) device is used to control particulate matter (PM) generated from construction-type activities occurring within the built environment. Examples of activities where PHEAF devices are mobilized include building renovation, asbestos abatement, remediation of microbial contamination and lead-based paint projects. Designed for use on short-term, temporary projects the PHEAF device captures airborne PM using a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. This study sought to evaluate the capture efficiency of the PHEAF device in a field setting...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Emma M Stapleton, Patrick T O'Shaughnessy, Sarah J Locke, Ralph W Altmaier, Jonathan N Hofmann, Laura E Beane Freeman, Peter S Thorne, Rena R Jones, Melissa C Friesen
Diesel exhaust has been associated with adverse human health effects. Farmers are often exposed to diesel exhaust; however, their diesel exposure has not been well characterized. In this descriptive study, we measured black carbon concentrations as a proxy for diesel exhaust exposure in 16 farmers over 20 sampling days during harvest in southeast Iowa. Farmers wore a personal aethalometer which measured real-time black carbon levels throughout the working day, and their activities were recorded by a field researcher...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Roger D Lewis, Kee Hean Ong, Brett Emo, Jason Kennedy, Jana Kesavan, Michael Elliot
Conventional wisdom has been that hard, resilient surfaces resuspend less particles than carpeted surfaces, however, exceptions to this have been demonstrated and uncertainty remains about the factors that lead to this resuspension, notably, the effect of vacuum cleaning on either increasing or reducing resuspension from flooring. The purpose of this study was to determine how resuspension of house dust by aerodynamic size or particle type, including cat allergen and bacterial endotoxin, is affected by flooring, dust loading, embedding dust, and walking/cleaning activities...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Tyler R Harrison, Jessica Wendorf Muhamad, Fan Yang, Susan E Morgan, Ed Talavera, Alberto Caban-Martinez, Erin Kobetz
Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Taekhee Lee, Jhy-Charm Soo, Ryan F LeBouf, Dru Burns, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Michael Kashon, Jay Bowers, Martin Harper
This experimental study aimed to evaluate airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke when a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is in place. Surgical smoke was generated from human tissue in an unoccupied operating room using an electrocautery surgical device for 15 minutes with three different test settings; 1) without LEV control, 2) control with a wall irrigation suction unit with an in-line ultra-low penetration air filter and 3) control with a smoke evacuation system...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Evan L Floyd, J Blake Henry, David L Johnson
BACKGROUND: OSHA regulations state that an employer shall not permit tight-fitting respirators to be worn by employees who have facial hair that comes between the skin and facepiece seal. Studies have shown that facial hair in the face seal zone can increase penetration and decrease the fit factor (FF), though the relationship between the amount and characteristics of facial hair and the increase in penetration is not well quantified. This work examines the influence of facial hair length, areal density, and coarseness on FF for one model of half-face elastomeric negative-pressure air purifying respirator...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kan Sun, Amanda S Azman
A new noise regulation for the mining industry became effective in 2000, providing a consistent regulatory requirement for both coal and non-coal mining divisions. The new rule required mines to implement hearing conservation programs, including a system of continuous noise monitoring, provision of hearing protection devices, audiometric testing, hearing loss training, and record keeping. The goal of this study was to assess hearing conservation program compliance, and excessive noise exposure and hearing loss risks for both coal and non-coal mining divisions through evaluating MSHA citations...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Clara E Seaman, Michael R Shahan, Timothy W Beck, Steven E Mischler
Float coal dust, generated by mining operations, is distributed throughout mine airways by ventilating air designed to purge gases and respirable dust. Float coal dust poses an explosion hazard in the event of a methane ignition. Current regulation requires the application of inert rock dust in areas subjected to float coal dust in order to mitigate the hazard. An alternate method using water sprays, which have been effective in controlling respirable dust hazards, has been proposed as a way to control float coal dust generated on longwall faces...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
M M Young, C J Van Der Merwe, S J L Linde, J L Du Plessis
This study aimed to analyse historical soluble nickel exposure data from a South African base metal refinery, and to identify trends in the soluble nickel exposure from 1981 until 2014 in the electrowinning department. Exposure data were presented in an exposure matrix, which described exposure profiles for both area and personal exposures inside two tankhouses. Exposure data were standardised by converting total nickel aerosol concentrations to inhalable nickel concentrations (correction factor 3.0). One-way analyses of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to identify significant differences in log-transformed area and personal exposures from 1982 until 2014, and the trends were assessed with linear regression...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Mang Cai, Hui Li, Shengnan Shen, Yu Wang, Quan Yang
Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) is the most common respirator users in the health care environment utilize for personal protection from outside particles. Comfort and fit are important while wearing an FFR. This paper proposes a novel technology to produce customized face seal design for improving the wearing comfort and fit of FFR wearers. In order to customize the design of face seals, we scanned faces of three subjects using three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method. A customized face seal for a 3M 8210 N95 FFR for each headform was designed using reverse engineering technique...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Céline Eypert-Blaison, Anita Romero-Hariot, Frédéric Clerc, Raymond Vincent
From November 2009 until October 2010, the French general directorate for labour organised a large field-study using analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to characterise occupational exposure to asbestos fibers during work on asbestos containing materials (ACM). The primary objective of this study was to establish a method and to validate the feasibility of using ATEM for the analysis of airborne asbestos of individual filters sampled in various occupational environments. For each sampling event, ATEM data were compared to those obtained by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCOM), the WHO-recommended reference technique...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
James Bennett, David Marlow, Fariba Nourian, James Breay, Amy Feng, Mark Methner
Exposure control system performance was evaluated during aircraft paint spraying at a military facility. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, tracer gas testing, and exposure monitoring examined contaminant exposure versus crossflow ventilation velocity. CFD modeling using the RNG k-ϵ turbulence model showed exposures to simulated methyl isobutyl ketone of 294 and 83.6 ppm, as a spatial average of five worker locations, for velocities of 0.508 and 0.381 m/s (100 and 75 fpm) respectively. In tracer gas experiments, observed supply/exhaust velocities of 0...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Bo-Sen Wu, Mark G Lefsrud
Light emitting diodes have slowly gained market share as horticultural lighting systems in greenhouses due to their rapid improvement in color performances and light outputs. These advancements have increased the availability of the full spectrum of visible wavelengths and the corresponding irradiance outputs available to plants. However, light emitting diodes owners have limited information on the proper options for personal eyewear protection as the irradiance levels have increased. The objective of this study was to measure the light transmittance performance of 12 eyewear protection including welding goggles, safety goggles, polarized glasses and sunglasses across the human visible spectrum (380-740 nm) up to an irradiance level of 1500 W·m(-2) from high-irradiant light emitting diodes assemblies...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Balazs Berlinger, Martin Harper
There is interest in the bioaccessible metal components of aerosols, but this has been little studied because standardized sampling and analytical methods have not yet been developed. An inter-laboratory study (ILS) has been carried out to evaluate a method for determining the water-soluble component of realistic welding fume (WF) air samples. Replicate samples were generated in the laboratory and distributed to participating laboratories to be analyzed according to a standardized procedure. Within-laboratory precision of replicate sample analysis (repeatability) was very good...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Antti Karjalainen, Maija Leppänen, Jani Leskinen, Tiina Torvela, Pertti Pasanen, Jarkko Tissari, Mirella Miettinen
In bakeries, high concentrations of flour dust can exist and ovens release particles into the air as well. Particle concentrations (mass, number) and number size distribution may vary considerably but the variation is not commonly studied. Furthermore, the role of the smallest size fractions is rarely considered in the exposure assessment due to their small mass. The objectives of this work were to find out how concentrations and number size distribution of fine and nanoparticles vary in a traditional Finnish bakery, and to determine the exposure of a dough maker to the nanoparticle fraction of the inhalable dust...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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