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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506182/elemental-properties-of-copper-slag-and-measured-airborne-exposures-at-a-copper-slag-processing-facility
#1
Christopher Mugford, Jenna L Gibbs, Randy Boylstein
In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of abrasives containing >1% silica, giving rise to abrasive substitutes like copper slag. We present results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at a copper slag processing facility that consisted of the collection of bulk samples for metals and silica; and full-shift area and personal air samples for dust, metals, and respirable silica. Carcinogens, suspect carcinogens, and other toxic elements were detected in all bulk samples, and area and personal air samples...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506101/evaluation-of-personal-inhalable-aerosol-samplers-with-different-filters-for-use-during-anthrax-responses
#2
Sergey A Grinshpun, Angela M Weber, Michael Yermakov, Reshmi Indugula, Yousef Elmashae, Tiina Reponen, Laura Rose
Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459300/the-reciprocal-calculation-procedure-for-setting-occupational-exposure-limits-for-hydrocarbon-solvents-an-update
#3
Richard H McKee, M David Adenuga, Juan-Carlos Carrillo
Hydrocarbon solvents are liquid hydrocarbon fractions, often with complex compositions. Due to the potential for human exposure, primarily to the more volatile solvents, substantial effort has been directed towards the development of occupational exposure recommendations. Because of the complex and variable nature of these substances, a proposed approach is to calculate occupational exposure levels (OELs) using an adaptation of the mixture formula developed by the ACGIH® in which "group guidance values" are assigned to similar constituents...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440728/characterization-of-chemical-contaminants-generated-by-a-desktop-fused-deposition-modeling-3-dimensional-printer
#4
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Ryan F LeBouf, Jinghai Yi, Jason Ham, Timothy Nurkewicz, Diane E Schwegler-Berry, Bean T Chen, J Raymond Wells, Matthew G Duling, Robert B Lawrence, Stephen B Martin, Alyson R Johnson, M Abbas Virji
Printing devices are known to emit chemicals into the indoor atmosphere. Understanding factors that influence release of chemical contaminants from printers is necessary to develop effective exposure assessment and control strategies. In this study, a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-D printer using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA) filaments and two monochrome laser printers were evaluated in a 0.5 m(3) chamber. During printing, chamber air was monitored for vapors using a real-time photoionization detector (results expressed as isobutylene equivalents) to measure total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, evacuated canisters to identify specific VOCs by off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and liquid bubblers to identify carbonyl compounds by GC-MS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426382/effectiveness-of-hand-washing-on-the-removal-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-from-human-skin-ex-vivo
#5
Nastassja A Lewinski, Aurélie Berthet, Lionel Maurizi, Antoine Eisenbeis, Nancy B Hopf
In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426321/hansae-vietnam-s-garment-factory-latest-example-of-how-corporate-social-responsibility-has-failed-to-protect-workers
#6
Garrett Brown
A Korean-operated garment factory complex in Vietnam was subject to 26 separate corporate social responsibility (CSR) audits in 2015. However, thorough inspections by two other non-governmental organizations in 2016 found numerous violations of Vietnamese occupational health and safety and labor laws as well as violations of the corporate codes of conduct of the international clothing brands which source apparel from the facility. The 2016 investigations indicate the lack of efficacy of the 2015 CSR audits and call into question whether voluntary CSR programs and audits by for-profit CSR monitoring companies can effectively protect the health, safety and legal rights of workers in global supply chains...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426293/identifying-thermal-breakdown-products-of-thermoplastics
#7
Marianne Guillemot, Benoît Oury, Sandrine Melin
Polymers processed to produce plastic articles are subjected to temperatures between 150°C and 450°C or more during overheated processing and breakdowns. Heat-based processing of this nature can lead to emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the thermoplastic processing shop. In this study, laboratory experiments, qualitative and quantitative emissions measurement in thermoplastic factories were carried out. The first step was to identify the compounds released depending on the thermoplastic nature, the temperature and the type of process...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426290/development-of-a-thoracic-personal-sampler-system-for-co-sampling-of-sulfuric-acid-mist-and-sulfur-dioxide-gas
#8
Chih-Hsiang Chien, Alexandros Theodore, Chufan Zhou, Chang-Yu Wu, Yu-Mei Hsu, Brian Birky
A novel personal sampler was designed to measure inorganic acid mists and gases for determining human exposure levels to these acids in workplaces. This sampler consists of (1) a parallel impactor for classifying aerosol by size following the ISO/CEN/ACGIH defined human thoracic fraction, (2) a cellulose filter to collect the residual acid mist but allowing penetration of sulfur dioxide gas, and (3) an accordion-shaped porous membrane denuder (aPMD) for adsorbing the penetrating sulfur dioxide gas. Acid-resistant PTFE was chosen as the housing material to minimize sampling interference...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426289/injuries-and-exposures-among-ocean-safety-providers-a-review-of-workplace-injuries-and-exposures-from-2007-2012
#9
Kevin M Ryan, Alan H Breaud, Laura Eliseo, Ralph Goto, Patricia Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Research on workplace injuries and exposures in ocean safety personnel remains limited. Despite increasing beach attendance and reliance on lifeguards for protection, the most common types of injuries, equipment resulting in injuries and environmental exposures remains unknown. METHODS: This study reviewed OSHA 300 logs summarizing workers' compensation claims from 2007-2012 to identify common body parts injured, action at time of injury, equipment causing injury and environmental exposures...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406371/inhalation-exposure-during-spray-application-and-subsequent-sanding-of-a-wood-sealant-containing-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#10
Michael R Cooper, Gavin H West, Leonard G Burrelli, Daniel Dresser, Kelsey N Griffin, Alan M Segrave, Jon Perrenoud, Bruce E Lippy
Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406364/fume-emissions-from-a-low-cost-3-d-printer-with-various-filaments
#11
Evan L Floyd, Jun Wang, James L Regens
3-D printing is an additive manufacturing process involving the injection of melted thermoplastic polymers, which are then laid down in layers to achieve a pre-designed shape. The heated deposition process raises concerns of potential aerosol and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission and exposure. The decreasing cost of desktop 3-D printers has made the use of 3-D printers more acceptable in non-industrial workplaces lacking sufficient ventilation. Meanwhile, little is known about the characteristics of 3-D printing fume emission...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406362/evaluation-of-coverall-field-dry-aerosol-decontamination-methods-using-a-manikin
#12
J M Slagley, H Paschold, J M Engler
A full-size manikin dressed in fire-resistant coveralls coated in 120 grams of sodium bicarbonate was randomly given one of three treatments for dry aerosol decontamination. The three treatments were high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum, a commercially-available air shower, and the no treatment control. Immediately after the treatment, the coveralls were doffed and an air sample was taken in the breathing zone of the manikin to estimate airborne total and respirable dust concentrations to an unprotected worker post decontamination...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327081/pilot-study-of-patron-sound-level-exposure-in-loud-restaurants-bars-and-clubs-in-new-york-city
#13
Ariel Spira-Cohen, Anna Caffarelli, Lawrence Fung
Visiting restaurants, bars, clubs and lounges is a regular part of urban cultural life for residents and tourists alike; however, anecdotal reports and diner surveys suggest that sound levels are excessive and diners dislike them. High sound levels in these venues can contribute to both patron and employee overexposure, and young people may be particularly at risk. To supplement the paucity of literature and data on noise in urban venues, patron noise exposure was measured inside a sample of loud New York City (NYC) restaurants, bars, clubs and lounges...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326998/effects-of-organizational-safety-practices-and-perceived-safety-climate-on-ppe-usage-engineering-controls-and-adverse-events-involving-liquid-antineoplastic-drugs-among-nurses
#14
David M DeJoy, Todd D Smith, Henok Woldu, Mari-Amanda Dyal, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
PURPOSE: Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handing guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs Method: Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489492/-the-action-level-%C3%A2
#15
J Thomas Pierce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475481/evaluating-well-mixed-room-and-near-field-far-field-model-performance-under-highly-controlled-conditions
#16
Susan F Arnold, Yuan Shao, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Exposure judgments made without personal exposure data and based instead on subjective inputs tend to underestimate exposure, with exposure judgment accuracy not significantly more accurate than random chance. Therefore, objective inputs that contribute to more accurate decision making are needed. Models have been shown anecdotally to be useful in accurately predicting exposure but their use in occupational hygiene has been limited. This may be attributable to a general lack of guidance on model selection and use and scant model input data...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475439/occupational-exposure-of-aldehydes-resulting-from-the-storage-of-wood-pellets
#17
Mohammad Arifur Rahman, Alan Rossner, Philip K Hopke
An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278069/chicago-transit-authority-train-noise-exposure
#18
Linh T Phan, Rachael M Jones
To characterize noise exposure of riders on Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) trains, we measured noise levels twice on each segment of 7 of the 8 CTA train lines, which are named after colors, yielding 48 time-series measurements. We found the Blue Line has the highest noise levels compared to other train lines, with mean 76.9 dBA; and that the maximum noise level, 88.9 dBA occurred in the tunnel between the Chicago and Grand stations. Train segments involving travel through a tunnel had significantly higher noise levels than segments with travel on elevated and ground level tracks...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278067/recommended-test-methods-and-pass-fail-criteria-for-a-respirator-fit-capability-test-of-half-mask-air-purifying-respirators
#19
Ziqing Zhuang, Michael Bergman, Zhipeng Lei, George Niezgoda, Ronald Shaffer
This study assessed key test parameters and pass/fail criteria options for developing a respirator fit capability (RFC) test for half-mask air-purifying particulate respirators. Using a 25-subject test panel, benchmark RFC data were collected for 101 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified respirator models. These models were further grouped into 61 one-, two-, or three-size families. Fit testing was done using a PortaCount® Plus with N95-Companion accessory and an Occupational Safety and Health Administration-accepted quantitative fit test protocol...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278065/ultraviolet-uv-reflective-paint-with-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-improves-decontamination-of-nosocomial-bacteria-on-hospital-room-surfaces
#20
Katelyn C Jelden, Shawn G Gibbs, Philip W Smith, Angela L Hewlett, Peter C Iwen, Kendra K Schmid, John J Lowe
An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 min UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm(2) with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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