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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875101/nonwoven-textile-for-use-in-a-nanoparticle-respiratory-deposition-sampler
#1
Donna J H Vosburgh, Jae Hong Park, Levi W D Mines, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, T Renée Anthony, Thomas M Peters
The nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler is a personal sampler that combines a cyclone, impactor, and a nylon mesh diffusion stage to measure a worker's exposure to nanoparticles. The concentration of titanium in the nylon mesh of the diffusion stage complicates the application of the NRD sampler for assessing exposures to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. This study evaluated commercially available nonwoven textiles for use as an alternative media in the diffusion stage of the NRD sampler. Three textiles were selected as containing little titanium from an initial screening of 11 textiles by field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820675/hazards-after-the-storm-floodwater-drainage-pump-stations-and-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulfide
#2
Shawn Wnek, Michael Berg, Scott Skelton, Lee Lemond, Phil Goad
A hurricane can present unique hazards that exist long after the strong winds and heavy rains have subsided. These hazards may not only be physical, but chemical as well. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) represents an important and potentially overlooked hazard that can be naturally produced in floodwaters following a hurricane. In August of 2012, in the wake of Hurricane Isaac, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana was submerged under a blanket of floodwater. To remove floodwaters that had breached the levee system designed to keep water out, temporary drainage pump stations were installed at strategic locations throughout Plaquemines Parish...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808662/elemental-properties-of-coal-slag-and-measured-airborne-exposures-at-two-coal-slag-processing-facilities
#3
Christopher Mugford, Randy Boylstein, Jenna L Gibbs
In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of silica sand abrasives containing >1% silica due to the risk of silicosis. This gave rise to substitutes including coal slag. An Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigation in 2010 uncovered a case cluster of suspected pneumoconiosis in four former workers at a coal slag processing facility in Illinois, possibly attributable to occupational exposure to coal slag dust. This article presents the results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at the same coal slag processing facility and a second facility...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801631/assessment-of-airborne-nanoparticles-present-in-industry-of-aluminum-surface-treatments
#4
R J Santos, M T Vieira
Conventional industrial processes are emission sources of unintended nanoparticles which are potentially harmful for the environment and human health. The aim of this study is to assess airborne nanoparticle release from aluminum surface treatment processes in various workplaces. Two direct reading instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure size distribution and a nanoparticle surface area monitoring to measure the surface area of particles deposited in the human lung, were employed to perform area monitoring...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801630/understanding-workers-exposure-systematic-review-and-data-analysis-of-emission-potential-for-noaa
#5
E Kuijpers, C Bekker, D Brouwer, M Le Feber, W Fransman
Exposure assessment for nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA) has evolved from explorative research towards more comprehensive exposure assessment, providing data to further develop currently used conservative control banding (CB) tools for risk assessment. This study aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on emission potential of NOAA across the occupational life cycle stages by a systematic review and subsequently use the results in a data analysis. Relevant parameters that influence emission were collected from peer-reviewed literature with a focus on the four source domains (SD) in the source-receptor conceptual framework for NOAA...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792474/comparison-of-coarse-coal-dust-sampling-techniques-in-a-laboratory-simulated-longwall-section
#6
Justin R Patts, Teresa L Barone
Airborne coal dust generated during mining can deposit and accumulate on mine surfaces, presenting a dust explosion hazard. When assessing dust hazard mitigation strategies for airborne dust reduction, sampling is done in high-velocity ventilation air, which is used to purge the mining face and gallery tunnel. In this environment, the sampler inlet velocity should be matched to the air stream velocity (isokinetic sampling) to prevent oversampling of coarse dust at low sampler-to-air velocity ratios. Low velocity ratios are often encountered when using low flow rate, personal sampling pumps approved for use in underground mines...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792471/respirable-size-selective-sampler-for-end-of-shift-quartz-measurement-development-and-performance
#7
Taekhee Lee, Larry Lee, Emanuele Cauda, Jon Hummer, Martin Harper
Aims of this study were to develop a respirable size-selective sampler for direct-on-filter (DoF) quartz measurement at the end-of-shift (EoS) using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and to determine its size-selective sampling performance. A new miniaturized sampler has been designed to have an effective particle deposition diameter close to the portable FTIR beam diameter (6-mm). The new sampler (named the EoS cyclone) was constructed using a 3 dimensional printer. The sampling efficiency of the EoS cyclone was determined using polydisperse glass sphere particles and a time-of-flight direct reading instrument...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792470/increased-sensitivity-of-osha-method-analysis-of-diacetyl-and-2-3-pentanedione-in-air
#8
Ryan LeBouf, Michael Simmons
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode was used to enhance the sensitivity of OSHA Methods 1013/1016 for measuring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in air samples. The original methods use flame ionization detection which cannot achieve the required sensitivity to quantify samples at or below the NIOSH recommended exposure limits (REL: 5 ppb for diacetyl and 9.3 ppb for 2,3-pentanedione) when sampling for both diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. OSHA Method 1012 was developed to measure diacetyl at lower levels but requires an electron capture detector, and a sample preparation time of 36 hours...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792469/performance-of-prototype-high-flow-inhalable-dust-sampler-in-a-livestock-production-facility
#9
T Renée Anthony, Changjie Cai, John Mehaffy, Darrah Sleeth, John Volckens
A high-flow inhalable sampler, designed for operational flow rates up to 10 L/min using computer simulations and examined in wind tunnel experiments, was evaluated in the field. This prototype sampler was deployed in collocation with an IOM (the benchmark standard sampler) in a swine farrowing building to examine the sampling performance for assessing concentrations of inhalable particulate mass and endotoxin. Paired samplers were deployed for 24-hours on 19 days over a three-month period. On each sampling day, the paired samplers were deployed at three fixed locations and data were analyzed to identify agreement and to examine systematic biases between concentrations measured by these samplers...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791486/perception-or-reality-can-thermal-perceptions-inform-management-of-firefighters-in-the-heat
#10
Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Matt Brearley
Accurately assessing the physiological status of firefighters during work in the heat is critical to ensuring their safety. Evaluating core temperatures (Tc) in the field is problematic due to cost and limitations in technology and accuracy. As such, fire services rely on individual perceptions of wellbeing. The present study aimed to establish whether perceptual responses measured using the perceptual strain index (PeSI), calculated from rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), could reliably predict the physiological strain (PSI) encountered by experienced firefighters working in a hot environment...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786737/assessment-of-fungal-diversity-in-a-water-damaged-office-building
#11
Brett J Green, Angela R Lemons, Yeonmi Park, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Ju-Hyeong Park
Recent studies have described fungal communities in indoor environments using gene sequencing-based approaches. In this study, dust-borne fungal communities were elucidated from a water-damaged office building located in the northeastern region of the United States using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5 mg of floor dust derived from 22 samples collected from either the lower floors (n = 8) or a top floor (n = 14) of the office building. ITS gene sequencing resolved a total of 933 ITS sequences and was clustered into 216 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786602/inter-laboratory-comparison-of-three-earplug-fit-test-systems
#12
David C Byrne, William J Murphy, Edward F Krieg, Robert M Ghent, Kevin L Michael, Earl W Stefanson, William A Ahroon
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored tests of three earplug fit-test systems (NIOSH HPD Well-Fit™, Michael & Associates FitCheck, and Honeywell Safety Products VeriPRO®). Each system was compared to laboratory-based real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) measurements in a sound field according to ANSI/ASA S12.6-2008 at the NIOSH, Honeywell Safety Products, and Michael & Associates testing laboratories. An identical study was conducted independently at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), which provided their data for inclusion in this report...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754825/noise-levels-of-amusement-ride-operators
#13
Lynn R Gilbertson, Liza E Thies, Donna J H Vosburgh
One of the leading causes of noise induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the United States. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754819/wildland-fire-fighter-deaths-in-the-united-states-a-comparison-of-existing-surveillance-systems
#14
Corey Butler, Suzanne Marsh, Joseph W Domitrovich, Jim Helmkamp
BACKGROUND: Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland fire fighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754818/whole-glove-permeation-of-cyclohexanol-through-disposable-nitrile-gloves-on-a-dextrous-robot-hand-fist-clenching-versus-non-clenching
#15
Airek R Mathews, Shane S Que Hee
The differences in permeation parameters when a gloved dextrous robot hand clenched and did not were investigated with the dynamic permeation system described in the companion paper. Increased permeation through the gloves of the present study for cyclohexanol when the gloved hand clenched depended on glove thickness and porosity for cyclohexanol permeation. The Sterling glove, the thinnest and the most porous, was the least protective. Hand clenching promoted more permeation for the Sterling glove in terms of breakthrough times, steady state permeation rate, and diffusion coefficient...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754812/determination-of-airborne-concentrations-of-dichlorvos-over-a-range-of-temperatures-when-using-commercially-available-pesticide-strips-in-a-simulated-military-guard-post
#16
Mark A Otto, Nicholas J Martin, Jennifer S Rous, Michael E Stevens
Dichlorvos is a chemical compound which has been used for decades as a pesticide. Potential inhalational exposure to dichlorvos vapor associated with using commercially-based, dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips in a simulated military guard post was evaluated. A varying number of these pesticide strips, ranging from the manufacturer's guidelines ((3)-16 g strips) up to a full package of strips ((12)-16 g strips), were placed in a small, enclosed space (2.31 m × 2.26 m × 2.44 m, 12.7 m(3)), which was similar in size to a typical military guard post...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754800/synthetic-biology-and-occupational-risk
#17
John Howard, Vladimir Murashov, Paul Schulte
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754794/automated-entry-technologies-for-confined-space-work-activities-a-survey
#18
Lucia Botti, Emilio Ferrari, Cristina Mora
Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754781/quantification-of-leakage-of-sub-micron-aerosols-through-surgical-masks-and-facemasks-for-pediatric-use
#19
Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs) and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the US healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754775/whole-glove-permeation-of-cyclohexanol-through-disposable-nitrile-gloves-on-a-dextrous-robot-hand-and-comparison-with-the-modified-closed-loop-astm-f739-method-1-no-fist-clenching
#20
Airek R Mathews, Shane S Que Hee
The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time tb, standardized breakthrough time ts, steady state permeation rate Ps, and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue, and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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