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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Matteo Federici, Jacopo Raffaelli, Demis Paolucci, Rudolf Schierl, Irene Krämer
The automated aseptic preparation of ready-to-administer antineoplastic drug solutions with robotic systems reduces the risk of occupational exposure. However, the surfaces in the preparation area of the robot are to be cleaned by wiping with an appropriate cleaning solution. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of four cleaning solutions on four surface materials installed in the APOTECAchemo robot. Predefined amounts of cisplatin (Cis), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) were intentionally spread on test plates made of stainless steel, aluminium, polyoxymethylene and polycarbonate just as installed in the robotic system APOTECAchemo...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Mark Nicas
This paper describes a case of Coccidioidomycosis pneumonia in an individual who worked in the McKittrick Oil Field, Kern County, California, for fifteen days during an approximate one-month period in 2016. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by inhaling spores of Coccidioides immitis, a soil fungus endemic in regions of California, most notably the San Joaquin Valley. In California, Kern County has the highest incidence rate of Coccidioidomycosis, and the McKittrick Oil Field lies within the most highly endemic part of Kern County...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yoke Bee Chang, Fook Yuan Lee, Meh Meh Goh, David Keung-Hung Lam, Agnes Beng-Hoi Tan
Routine flexible nasoendoscopy in otolaryngology clinics is well established, the rate-limiting step of which being the speed of the nasoendoscopes reprocessing method used. Non-lumened flexible nasoendoscopes are expensive, heat-sensitive, delicate instruments that cannot be sterilized in an autoclave but must be disinfected by means of high level disinfection (HLD). In one of the public hospitals in Singapore, the method of disinfection was recently changed to the use of commercial impregnated wipes which generates less than 1% chlorine dioxide upon activation...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Seyed Mohammad Sadat, Shirin Seyed Ghoreyshi, Fatemeh Rajabi, Rezvan Zendehdel
The assessment of co-exposure to several types of metal contamination poses a hurdle for occupational monitoring. Determination of elements in biological samples is an important way to evaluate occupational exposure. However, optimized methods for the extraction of multiple metals from biological samples have not been reported in recent studies. Therefore, solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on the functionalized Nano-zeolite Y was suggested for the biomonitoring of metal co-exposure. SPE was conducted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) surrounded by Triton X-100 micelles, which were loaded into the pores of Nano-zeolite Y...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Suzanne E Gilbey, Linda A Selvey, Ryan Mead-Hunter, Ben Mullins, Kevin Netto, Yun Zhao, Krassi B Rumchev
Agricultural operations routinely expose farm workers to high levels of soil dust and other airborne particulate matter that have been linked to adverse health outcomes. The main objective of this study was to investigate exposure to agricultural dust during seeding operations of Western Australian farm workers. Twenty-one wheat-belt farms were recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected over the six-week seeding period of April - June 2014. Each farm was visited once, and workers were asked to complete a workplace survey that asked questions related to minimizing exposure to agricultural dusts and occupational health and safety issues on their farm...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kathryn J Crawford, Lindsey A Barnes, Thomas M Peters, Jeffrey Falk, Brian K Gehlbach
Continuous and intermittent exposure to noise elevates stress, increases blood pressure, and disrupts sleep among patients in hospital intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a behavior-based intervention to reduce noise and to identify determinants of noise in a medical intensive care unit. Staff were trained for six weeks to reduce noise during their activities in an effort to keep noise levels below 55 dBA during the day and below 50 dBA at night. One-min noise levels were logged continuously in patient rooms eight weeks before and after the intervention...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Janalee F Thompson, Rachel L Severson, John C Rosecrance
Active lifestyles are beneficial to health and well-being but our workplaces may not be inherently supportive of physical activity at work. With the increasing use of technology in the workplace, many jobs are becoming more sedentary. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels of occupational physical activity (OPA) among active and sedentary workers. Two types of activity trackers (Fitbit Charge HRTM and Hexoskin) were used to assess activity measures (steps, heart rate, and energy expenditure) among workers during one full work shift...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Diane C Mitchell, Javier Castro, Tracey L Armitage, Daniel J Tancredi, Deborah H Bennett, Marc B Schenker
Farm workers are at risk of heat related illness (HRI), but their work rates that contribute to HRI have not been objectively assessed. The CHIPS study collected accelerometer data and characterized the physical activity of major farm tasks. Demographic information, work characteristics, and accelerometer data were collected from 575 farm workers in California. Each participating worker contributed measurements over one work shift. An Actical™ accelerometer was attached securely to a belt worn at the hip...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kelechi Isiugo, Nicholas Newman, Roman Jandarov, Sergey A Grinshpun, Tiina Reponen
The objective of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) accuracy criterion is to ensure that measurements from monitoring devices are within ± 25% of the true concentration of the analyte with 95% certainty. To determine whether NO2 and O3 sensors meet this criterion, three commercially available units (Cairclip O3 /NO2 , Aeroqual NO2 , and Aeroqual O3 sensors) were co-located three times with validated instruments (NOx chemiluminescence [NO2mon ] and photometric O3 analyzers [O3mon ]) at an outdoor monitoring station...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Hans-Martin Seipp, Thomas Steffens, Janine Weigold, Armin Lahmer, Andreas Maier-Hasselmann, Torsten Herzog, Jennifer Herzog-Niescery
Surgical smoke resulting from electrocauterization is a health risk for operating room personnel. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends the use of local exhaust ventilation such as a portable smoke evacuation system to reduce surgical smoke, but its efficiency has never been assessed under experimental conditions. In this study, particle filtration efficiencies of five commercially available smoke evacuation systems were investigated in a model operating room. Two cutting angles, the devices' suction capacities, three unidirectional displacement flow rates and the noise exposures were considered...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Margaret Sietsema, Lisa M Brosseau
An annual OSHA fit test is required for all U.S. employees required to wear a respirator during work, but there are limited data demonstrating a link between fit test results and respirator fit during work. The goal of this research is to determine if the fit factor (FF) achieved during an abbreviated ambient aerosol condensation particle counter (CPC) quantitative fit test is predictive of fit achieved during a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF) scenario that includes realistic healthcare activities...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jaime Butler-Dawson, Kit Galvin, Peter S Thorne, Diane S Rohlman
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are commonly applied to agricultural crops. Families living in these communities may have higher exposure to OPs due to take home exposures and close proximity to agricultural fields. The objectives of this study were to measure OP concentrations in home carpet dust in agricultural and non-agricultural households and examine factors that may impact OP concentrations such as occupation, housing characteristics, and resident behaviors. Agricultural households had at least one parent who worked in agriculture during the previous five years...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
M Shirdel, J N Sommar, B M Andersson, I A Bergdahl, H Wingfors, I E Liljelind
The University of North Carolina passive aerosol sampler (UNC sampler) could be an alternative when measuring occupational dust exposure, but the time required for microscopic imaging of the sampler needs to be reduced to make it more attractive. The aims of this study were to 1) characterise the effect on precision when reducing imaging, in order to shorten analysis time and 2) assess if the position of the images makes a difference. Eighty-eight samplers were deployed in different locations of an open pit mine...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Nazia Nawaz, Olga Troynikov
Often male and female workers wear protective garments of identical construction and style, with females typically wearing small-sized men's garments. Consequently, the air spaces under garments worn by male and female wearers can substantially differ in size and distribution affecting the physiological comfort of firefighters' protective clothing. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of varying dimensions and distributions of air spaces in the next-to-skin microclimate under firefighter's protective jackets on attributes relevant to the thermal comfort of wearer, not only in relation to garment construction and fit, but also to human body geometry using 3D body scanning...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Taekhee Lee, Andrew Thorpe, Emanuele Cauda, Leah Tipton, Wayne T Sanderson, Alan Echt
A newly developed high flow rate respirable size-selective cyclone sampler (GK4.162-also known as the Respirable Air Sampling Cyclone Aluminum Large (RASCAL)) was calibrated to determine its optimum operating flow rate. The Health and Safety Laboratory in the United Kingdom and two laboratories from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the United States conducted experiments using two different methods: (1) polydisperse aerosol and time-of-flight direct reading instrument (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS)) and (2) monodisperse aerosol and APS...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Vivian Nwudu, Alicia M Fletcher, Michael Bauer
Despite increasing awareness and significant progress in reducing lead exposure among workers, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) continue to be an occupational health problem. Little is currently known about the extent of personal protective equipment (PPE) use among lead-exposed workers. We examined the patterns and predictors of consistent PPE use and workplace hygiene behaviors among workers with elevated BLLs using a survey of 1,459 workers with an occupational lead exposure in New York State (NYS). Routine availability of respirators was commonplace, however only approximately half of workers consistently wore PPE while working with lead...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Steven H Ahrenholz, Scott E Brueck, Ana M Rule, John D Noti, Bahar Noorbakhs, Francoise M Blachere, Marie A de Perio, William G Lindsley, Ronald E Shaffer, Edward M Fisher
Increased understanding of influenza transmission is critical for pandemic planning and selecting appropriate controls for healthcare personnel safety and health. The goals of this pilot study were to assess environmental contamination in different areas and at two time periods in the influenza season and to determine the feasibility of using surgical mask contamination to evaluate potential exposure to influenza virus. Bioaerosol samples were collected over 12 days (two 6-day sessions) at 12 locations within a student health center using portable two-stage bioaerosol samplers operating 8 hours each day...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Hua Jiang, Yi Luo, Jian Yang
The respirable dust generated during bolt-hole drilling can present serious health problems to the miners involved in roof drilling operations. A proactive dust control approach, different from the conventional passive approaches, is proposed. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to validate the dust reduction effects of the approach. A mechanical model has been developed to simulate the rotary drag bits drilling process under different cutter conditions. The functions of the area of the total friction, drilling power and specific energy are all presented in the model...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
K I Logachev, A M Ziganshin, O A Averkova
A cone hood is an efficient device for capturing dust releases generated by a variety of process equipment. For stationary airflow conditions, a circular cone hood with a round flange is the most efficient design. The goal of this paper is to determine the effect that inflow velocity, suction velocity and terminal settling velocity of dust particles have on the aspiration coefficient in combination with hood length and inclination angle. No studies have yet addressed the efficiency of an exhaust hood facing an updraft flow of air with suspended dust particles...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jonathan Suhl, Paul A Romitti, Carissa Rocheleau, Yanyan Cao, Trudy L Burns, Kristin Conway, Erin M Bell, Patricia Stewart, Peter Langlois, The National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects. Reported risks for orofacial clefts associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure are mixed. To examine the role of parental pesticide exposure in OFC development in offspring, this study compared population-based case-control data for parental occupational exposures to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, alone or in combinations, during maternal (one month before through three months after conception) and paternal (three months before through three months after conception) critical exposure periods between orofacial cleft cases and unaffected controls...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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