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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Eric A Lutz, Rustin J Reed, Vivien S T Lee, Jefferey L Burgess
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare personal exposures to diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend exhaust in an underground mine. METHODS: Personal exposure monitoring was performed in a non-operational, hard rock underground mine during use of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) exposure concentrations of ultra-low sulfur diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75) fuels were compared. RESULTS: Compared to diesel, use of B75 was associated with relative percent reductions of 22 and 28% in median respirable (r) diesel particulate matter (DPM) and nitrogen dioxide and 25 and 23% increases in median total DPM and nitric oxide TWA8 exposure concentrations, respectively...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Szymon Wojtyła, Piotr Klama, Tomasz Baran
The fast development of low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers has made those devices widely accessible for goods manufacturing at home. However, is it safe? Users may belittle the effects or influences of pollutants (organic compounds and ultrafine particles) generated by the devices in question. Within the scope of this study, the authors attempt to investigate thermal decomposition of the following commonly used, commercially available thermoplastic filaments: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Shojiro Yasui
In January 2014, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) learned that the committed effective dose (CED) for nine emergency workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident had been assessed by a method other than the standard assessment methods, established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in a secondary evaluation conducted in July 2013. The MHLW requested that the TEPCO and primary contractors review all CED data for 6,245 workers who engaged in emergency work in March and April 2011 except those previously reviewed in the 2013 secondary evaluation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Mary Finn, Mark Stenzel, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
We estimated the diesel fuel exposure of a plumber repairing an underground water line leak at a truck stop. The repair work was performed over three days during which the plumber spent most of his time in a pit filled with a mixture of water and diesel fuel. Thus, the plumber was exposed via both the inhalation and dermal routes. While previously asymptomatic, he was diagnosed with acute renal failure 35 days after working at this site. No measurements were available for estimating either inhalation or dermal exposures or the cumulative dose and, therefore, two different approaches were used that were based on simple models of the exposure scenario...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
James M Boiano, Andrea L Steege, Marie H Sweeney
Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Diana Ceballos, Catherine Beaucham, Elena Page
Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Lynn R Gilbertson, Liza E Thies, Donna J H Vosburgh
One of the leading causes of noise-induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the U.S. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels...
April 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
J Thomas Pierce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
R J Santos, M T Vieira
Conventional industrial processes are emission sources of unintended nanoparticles which are potentially harmful for the environment and human health. The aim of this study is to assess airborne nanoparticle release from aluminum surface treatment processes in various workplaces. Two direct reading instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure size distribution and a nanoparticle surface area monitoring to measure the surface area of particles deposited in the human lung, were employed to perform area monitoring...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Chun-Yip Hon, Quinn Danyluk, Elizabeth Bryce, Bob Janssen, Mike Neudorf, Annalee Yassi, Hui Shen, George Astrakianakis
N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by healthcare workers when there is a risk of exposure to airborne hazards during aerosol-generating procedures. Respirator fit-testing is required prior to use to ensure that the selected respirator provides an adequate face seal. Two common fit-test methods can be employed: qualitative fit-test (QLFT) or quantitative fit-test (QNFT). Respiratory protection standards deem both fit-tests to be acceptable. However, previous studies have indicated that fit-test results may differ between QLFT and QNFT and that the outcomes may also be influenced by the type of respirator model...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yuan Shao, Sandhya Ramachandran, Susan Arnold, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge regarding the isotropic eddy diffusion coefficient, DT. But some studies have suggested a possible relationship between DT and the air changes per hour (ACH) through a room. The main goal of this study was to accurately estimate DT for a range of ACH values by minimizing the difference between the concentrations measured and predicted by eddy diffusion model. We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Mojdeh Pajoutan, Xu Xu, Lora A Cavuoto
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on postural stability during a standardized lifting task. Twelve young males, six obese and six non-obese, completed three replications of repeated six lifts (at a rate of six lifts per minutes) at two levels of loads (10% and 25% of capacity) crossed with two levels of orientation (0° and 45° from sagittal plane). Postural stability measures showed that center of pressure sway path and sway area were ∼21% and ∼53% lower with obesity, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Justin Stewart, Darrah K Sleeth, Rod G Handy, Leon F Pahler, T Renee Anthony, John Volckens
A newly designed, low-cost, disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed to assess workers personal exposure to inhalable particles. This sampler was originally designed to operate at 10 L/min to increase sample mass and, therefore, improve analytical detection limits for filter-based methods. Computational fluid dynamics modeling revealed that sampler performance (relative to aerosol inhalability criteria) would not differ substantially at sampler flows of 2 and 10 L/min. With this in mind, the newly designed inhalable aerosol sampler was tested in a wind tunnel, simultaneously, at flows of 2 and 10 L/min flow...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Thomas Kibby
The potential for adverse health effects from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) is well known. Control measures recommended by the NIOSH Alert ([3]) include medical and biologic monitoring, and environmental monitoring where available. At present no guidelines or published best practices exist to guide EHS managers on how to carry out this biologic or environmental monitoring. Studies investigating surface wipe sampling for AD have been numerous in the past decade, but very limited research exists to correlate surface contamination with actual absorption by pharmacists and nurses...
March 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
J Thomas Pierce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Weiwei Liu, Bruce Taylor
Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 76% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Joel Ramirez, Patrick O'Shaughnessy
The primary objective of this study was to compare the filter performance of a representative selection of uncertified dust masks relative to the filter performance of a set of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFRs). Five different models of commercially available dust masks were selected for this study. Filter penetration of new dust masks was evaluated against a sodium chloride aerosol. Breathing resistance (BR) of new dust masks and FFRs was then measured for 120 min while challenging the dust masks and FFRs with Arizona road dust (ARD) at 25°C and 30% relative humidity...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sherri L LaVela, Carol Kostovich, Sara Locatelli, Megan Gosch, Aaron Eagan, Lewis Radonovich
Filtering face-piece respirators (FFRs) are worn to protect health care personnel from airborne particles; however, clinical studies have demonstrated that FFR adherence is relatively low in some settings, in part, due to discomfort and intolerance. The objective of this study was to develop and initially evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure the comfort and tolerability of FFRs. Instrument items were developed through literature reviews, focus groups, and several iterations of ranking and refining by experts...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
John P Springston, Liana Yocavitch
Legionellae are waterborne bacteria which are capable of causing potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease (LD), as well as Pontiac Fever. Public concern about Legionella exploded following the 1976 outbreak at the American Legion conference in Philadelphia, where 221 attendees contracted pneumonia and 34 died. Since that time, a variety of different control methods and strategies have been developed and implemented in an effort to eradicate Legionella from building water systems. Despite these efforts, the incidence of LD has been steadily increasing in the U...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Melina Espanhol-Soares, Manuela Teodoro de Oliveira, Joaquim Gonçalves Machado-Neto
Protective clothing is used as a barrier against pesticides when working with agricultural sprays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pesticide penetration, retention, and repellence of the material and seams of a whole-body protective garment used by applicators of pesticides. The efficiency of the material and seams of the whole-body garment were determined for its classification as proposed by ISO 27065 (ISO, 2011). The evaluation method used was the pipette test of ISO 22608. The efficiency of the material and seams of the garment (100% cotton) were tested by contamination with formulations of Roundup Original® SL; Nufos EC® and Supera SC®...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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