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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Kenneth W Fent, Douglas E Evans, Kelsey Babik, Cynthia Striley, Stephen Bertke, Steve Kerber, Denise Smith, Gavin P Horn
In this study, we characterize the area and personal air concentrations of combustion byproducts produced during controlled residential fires with furnishings common in 21st century single family structures. Area air measurements were collected from the structure during active fire and overhaul (post suppression) and on the fireground where personnel were operating without any respiratory protection. Personal air measurements were collected from firefighters assigned to fire attack, victim search, overhaul, outside ventilation, and command/pump operator positions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Dong-Hee Koh, Sun-Woo Lee, Byeong-Jin Ye, Jung-Il Kim
Welding fume exposure can increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal grouping schemes of welding fume exposure in shipyard welders for future accurate examination of the association between welding fume exposure and COPD. Industrial hygiene records, including welding fume measurements between 2002 and 2009 were collected from a shipyard. A total of 2,360 personal welding fume measurements was compiled with a geometric mean of 1.66 mg/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 4...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Brian Pavilonis, Cora Roelofs, Carly Blair
Nail salons are an important business and employment sector for recent immigrants offering popular services to a diverse range of customers across the United States. However, due to the nature of nail products and services, salon air can be burdened with a mix of low levels of hazardous airborne contaminants. Surveys of nail technicians have commonly found increased work-related symptoms, such as headaches and respiratory irritation that are consistent with indoor air quality problems. In an effort to improve indoor air quality in nail salons, the state of New York recently promulgated regulations to require increased outdoor air and "source capture" of contaminants...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Christopher Drudge, James Johnson, Elaina MacIntyre, Ye Li, Ray Copes, Stanley Ing, Steven Johnson, Sunil Varughese, Hong Chen
Road traffic noise can adversely impact the health of city residents, particularly when it occurs at night. The objective of this study was to evaluate nighttime traffic ambient noise in Toronto, Canada using measured and model-estimated noise levels. Road traffic noise was measured at 767 locations over three seasonal sampling campaigns between June 2012 and October 2013 to fully capture noise variability in Toronto. Temporal and campaign-specific spatial models, developed using the noise measurements, were used to build a final predictive surface...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Antti J Koivisto, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K Koponen
In conceptual exposure models, the transmission of pollutants in an imperfectly mixed room is usually described with general ventilation multipliers. This is the approach used in the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) and Stoffenmanager® exposure assessment tools. The multipliers used in these tools were reported by Cherrie (1999; ) and Cherrie et al. (2011; ) who developed them by positing input values for a standard Near-Field/Far-Field (NF/FF) model and then calculating concentration ratios between NF and FF concentrations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Michael Jayjock, Andrew Anthony Havics
Residential inter-zonal (e.g., between rooms) ventilation is comprised of fresh air infiltration in and exfiltration out of the whole house plus the "fresh" air that is entering (and exiting) the room of interest from other rooms or areas within the house. Clearly, the inter-zone ventilation rate in any room of interest will be greater than the infiltration/exfiltration ventilation rate of outdoor air for the whole house. The purpose of this study is to determine how much greater the inter-zonal ventilation rate is in typical US residences compared to the whole house ventilation rate from outdoor air...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Laura Hallett, Marcus Tatum, Geb Thomas, Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Thomas Peters
Noise is a pervasive workplace hazard that varies spatially and temporally. The cost of direct-reading instruments for noise hampers their use in a network. The objectives for this work were to (1) develop an inexpensive noise sensor (<$100) that measures A-weighted sound pressure levels within ±2 dBA of a Type 2 sound level meter (SLM, ∼$1,800); and (2) evaluate 50 noise sensors for use in an inexpensive sensor network. The inexpensive noise sensor consists of an electret condenser microphone, an amplifier circuit, and a microcontroller with a small form factor (28 mm by 47 mm by 9 mm) than can be operated as a stand-alone unit...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Brett J Green, James R Couch, Angela R Lemons, Nancy C Burton, Kerton R Victory, Ajay P Nayak, Donald H Beezhold
Cannabis cultivation is an emerging industry within the United States. Organic dust derived in part from naturally occurring microorganisms is known to cause byssinosis in the hemp industry. In this pilot study, bacteria and fungi encountered by workers at an outdoor cannabis farm that utilized organic practices were elucidated by 16░S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region sequencing, respectively. Area (n = 14) and personal air samples (n = 12) were collected during harvesting and processing activities...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Andreja Lang, Maja Ovsenik, Ivan Verdenik, Maja Remškar, Čedomir Oblak
During material treatment in dentistry particles of different size are released in the air. In order to examine the degree of particle exposure, air scanning to dental employees was performed by the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The size, shape and chemical composition of particles collected with a low-pressure impactor were determined by scanning electronic microscopy and x-ray dispersive analysis. The average concentrations of nanoparticles during working periods in a clean dental laboratory (45000 to 56000 particles/cm3), in an unclean dental laboratory (28000 to 74000 particles/cm3), and in a dental office (21000 to 50000 particles/cm3), were significantly higher compared to average concentrations during nonworking periods in the clean dental laboratory (11000 to 24000 particles/cm3), unclean laboratory (14000 to 40000 particles/cm3), and dental office (13000 to 26000 particles/cm3)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
David Lucas, Vincent Clamagirand, Pascale Capellmann, Agnès Hervé, Gilles Mauguen, Yannik Le Mer, Dominique Jegaden
Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) have been extensively used for insulation in condensing boilers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory exposure to these fibers among maintenance heating technicians. We first created a working group (Carsat Brittany and Finistère Occupational Health Services) and carried out a sampling strategy. Atmospheric measurements were done during work tasks, and filters were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in French approved laboratories...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Rong Fung Huang, Ching Min Hsu, Kai Ling Lin
The inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood has been reported to have "almost null leakage"(1) at low suction flow rates when operated at regular temperatures. However, previous research has not investigated the performance or optimized operating parameters when a high heat load is used in the IAC fume hood. For the present work, the effects of a high heat load on the flow field and contaminant leakage characteristics of the IAC fume hood were examined. The heat load was supplied to an IAC hood according to the standard method of EN14175-7:2012...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jhy-Charm Soo, Eun Gyung Lee, Ryan F LeBouf, Michael L Kashon, William Chisholm, Martin Harper
The objective of this present study was to evaluate the performance of a portable gas chromatograph ─ photoionization detector (GC-PID), under various test conditions to determine if it could be used in occupational settings. A mixture of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene - was selected because its components are commonly present in paint manufacturing industries. A full-factorial combination of four concentration levels (exposure scenarios) of VOC mixtures, three different temperatures (25˚C, 30˚C, and 35˚C), and three relative humidities (RHs; 25%, 50%, and 75%) was conducted in a full- size controlled environmental chamber...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jennifer D Sisler, Chaolong Qi, Walter McKinney, Justine Shaffer, Michael Andrew, Taekhee Lee, Treye Thomas, Vincent Castranova, Robert R Mercer, Yong Qian
To protect against decay and fungal invasion into the wood, the micronized copper, copper carbonate particles, has been applied in the wood treatment in recent years; however, there is little information on the health risk associated with sanding micronized copper- treated lumber. In this study, wood dust from the sanding of micronized copper azole -treated lumber (MCA) was compared to sanding dust from solubilized copper azole-treated wood (CA-C) and untreated yellow pine (UYP). The test found that sanding MCA released a much higher concentration of nanoparticles than sanding CA-C and UYP, and the particles between about 0...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Derek A Newcomer, Peter LaPuma, Robert Brandys, Amanda Northcross
The portable high efficiency air filtration (PHEAF) device is used to control particulate matter (PM) generated from construction-type activities occurring within the built environment. Examples of activities where PHEAF devices are mobilized include building renovation, asbestos abatement, remediation of microbial contamination and lead-based paint projects. Designed for use on short-term, temporary projects the PHEAF device captures airborne PM using a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. This study sought to evaluate the capture efficiency of the PHEAF device in a field setting...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Emma M Stapleton, Patrick T O'Shaughnessy, Sarah J Locke, Ralph W Altmaier, Jonathan N Hofmann, Laura E Beane Freeman, Peter S Thorne, Rena R Jones, Melissa C Friesen
Diesel exhaust has been associated with adverse human health effects. Farmers are often exposed to diesel exhaust; however, their diesel exposure has not been well characterized. In this descriptive study, we measured black carbon concentrations as a proxy for diesel exhaust exposure in 16 farmers over 20 sampling days during harvest in southeast Iowa. Farmers wore a personal aethalometer which measured real-time black carbon levels throughout the working day, and their activities were recorded by a field researcher...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Roger D Lewis, Kee Hean Ong, Brett Emo, Jason Kennedy, Jana Kesavan, Michael Elliot
Conventional wisdom has been that hard, resilient surfaces resuspend less particles than carpeted surfaces, however, exceptions to this have been demonstrated and uncertainty remains about the factors that lead to this resuspension, notably, the effect of vacuum cleaning on either increasing or reducing resuspension from flooring. The purpose of this study was to determine how resuspension of house dust by aerodynamic size or particle type, including cat allergen and bacterial endotoxin, is affected by flooring, dust loading, embedding dust, and walking/cleaning activities...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Tyler R Harrison, Jessica Wendorf Muhamad, Fan Yang, Susan E Morgan, Ed Talavera, Alberto Caban-Martinez, Erin Kobetz
Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Taekhee Lee, Jhy-Charm Soo, Ryan F LeBouf, Dru Burns, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Michael Kashon, Jay Bowers, Martin Harper
This experimental study aimed to evaluate airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke when a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is in place. Surgical smoke was generated from human tissue in an unoccupied operating room using an electrocautery surgical device for 15 minutes with three different test settings; 1) without LEV control, 2) control with a wall irrigation suction unit with an in-line ultra-low penetration air filter and 3) control with a smoke evacuation system...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Evan L Floyd, J Blake Henry, David L Johnson
BACKGROUND: OSHA regulations state that an employer shall not permit tight-fitting respirators to be worn by employees who have facial hair that comes between the skin and facepiece seal. Studies have shown that facial hair in the face seal zone can increase penetration and decrease the fit factor (FF), though the relationship between the amount and characteristics of facial hair and the increase in penetration is not well quantified. This work examines the influence of facial hair length, areal density, and coarseness on FF for one model of half-face elastomeric negative-pressure air purifying respirator...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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