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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Louaï Missri, Daniel Smiljkovski, Gwénolé Prigent, Aude Lesenne, Thomas Obadia, Mohsen Joumaa, Riad Chelha, Ludivine Chalumeau-Lemoine, Edouard Obadia, Arnaud Galbois
Extra-European studies report high rates of multi-drug resistant bacteria colonization of healthcare workers' mobile phones in intensive care units. We aimed to assess the prevalence of bacterial colonization of healthcare workers' mobile phones in an intensive care unit in France and the effectiveness of a sanitization product. We designed a prospective, monocentric study in a 15-bed intensive care unit within a 300-bed private hospital. Bacterial colonization was assessed on 56 healthcare workers' mobile phones immediately before and 5 min after sanitization of the phones with bactericidal wipes...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Isamu Ogura, Mari Kotake, Seisuke Ata
Field measurements were conducted at a facility where expanded polystyrene-based carbon nanomaterial composites, namely, carbon nanotube and carbon black composites, were cut with an electric heating wire cutter or a circular sawing machine. The aerosol particles released during the cutting of the composites were measured using real-time aerosol monitoring, gravimetric analysis, thermal carbon analysis, and scanning electron microscopic observations. This study had two major goals: (1) to quantitatively evaluate the concentrations of airborne carbon nanomaterials during the cutting of their composites; (2) to evaluate the capability of thermal carbon analysis to quantify airborne carbon nanomaterials in the presence of expanded polystyrene-derived particles...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Aaron Cox, Darrah Sleeth, Rodney Handy, Victor Alaves
Air quality is a common concern among indoor ice rink facilities due to the use of gasoline/propane ice resurfacing equipment. Although previous studies have investigated spectator, guest, and skater exposures, a review of the literature revealed little published research regarding ice maintenance employees' exposures. Ice maintenance includes edging and resurfacing. The resurfacer is commonly referred to as a Zamboni®. Edging is almost always followed by resurfacing, but resurfacing frequently happens independently of edging...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Alexander C Mayer, Kenneth W Fent, Stephen Bertke, Gavin P Horn, Denise L Smith, Steve Kerber, Mark J La Guardia
Firefighters are occupationally exposed to products of combustion containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and flame retardants (FRs), potentially contributing to their increased risk for certain cancers. Personal protective equipment (PPE), including firefighter hoods, helps to reduce firefighters' exposure to toxic substances during fire responses by providing a layer of material on which contaminants deposit prior to reaching the firefighters skin. However, over time hoods that retain some contamination may actually contribute to firefighters' systemic dose...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Rose Roberts, Kevin Gettz, Larissa V Stebounova, Jo Anne Shatkin, Thomas Peters, E Johan Foster
As cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are increasing in production, establishing safe workplace practices in industry will be paramount to their continued use and growth. Particles other than CNCs with similar high aspect ratios have exhibited toxicity on inhalation. Safeguards are needed to monitor concentrations of CNCs in air in industrial and laboratory settings to protect workers. However, because of their size, morphology, and chemical makeup, CNCs are difficult to characterize and differentiate from other dust and cellulose products...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Christopher Zuidema, Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Marcus Tatum, Geb Thomas, Thomas Peters, Kirsten Koehler
Typical low-cost electrochemical sensors for ozone (O3 ) are also highly responsive to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). Consequently, a single sensor's response to O3 is indistinguishable from its response to NO2 . Recently, a method for quantifying O3 concentrations became commercially available (Alphasense Ltd., Essex, UK): collocating a pair of sensors, a typical oxidative gas sensor that responds to both O3 and NO2 (model OX-B431) and a second similar sensor that filters O3 and responds only to NO2 (model NO2-B43F)...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Timothy E Reinhardt, George Broyles
Smoke exposure data among U.S. wildland firefighters for carbon monoxide, respirable particulate and respirable crystalline silica are presented from a field surveillance program between 2009 and 2012. Models to predict fireline-average exposure to each inhalation hazard were developed and fit to the available data. The models identify factors to consider when defining similar exposure groups and designing future data collection. Task-based rather than shift-average data collection is important because the work activity representing the majority of fireline time, the position up- or downwind of the fire, and the proportion of time this combination represented were significant factors in the model for carbon monoxide, and all but wind position were significant for respirable particulate matter...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jessica Westerlund, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Håkan Löfstedt, Kåre Eriksson, Håkan Westberg, Pål Graff
Personnel in swimming pool facilities typically experience ocular, nasal, and respiratory symptoms due to water chlorination and consequent exposure to disinfection by-products in the air. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) from the perspective of adverse health effects on the personnel at Swedish habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pools. The study included ten habilitation and rehabilitation swimming pool facilities in nine Swedish cities...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Brie Hawley, Jenna L Gibbs, Kristin Cummings, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Ji Young Park, Marcia Stanton, M Abbas Virji
Indium-tin oxide production has increased greatly in the last twenty years subsequent to increased global demand for touch screens and photovoltaics. Previous studies used measurements of indium in blood as an indicator of indium exposure and observed associations with adverse respiratory outcomes. However, correlations between measurements of blood indium and airborne respirable indium are inconsistent, in part because of the long half-life of indium in blood, but also because respirable indium measurements do not incorporate inhalable indium that can contribute to the observed biological burden...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Gisela A Kristono, Caroline Shorter, Nevil Pierse, Julian Crane, Robert Siebers
Environmental exposure to endotoxin, Fel d I (cat) allergen and Der p I (house dust mite) allergen have been associated with asthma symptoms and have been measured in the environment using various sampling methods, including the electrostatic dust collector. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether levels of endotoxin and allergens were detectable in electrostatic dust collectors and to examine the correlation of allergen and endotoxin levels between electrostatic dust collectors and vacuum sampling methods (floor dust and mattress dust)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Samuel G A Wood, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Martin W Smith, Mark J Summers, Stuart A Brewer
Steady-state axisymmetric simulations using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been carried out in order to optimize the performance of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) canister filter for its use in a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR). Alterations have been made to the shape of the canister, the spacing of the rear wall of the canister with regard to the carbon filter, and the bracketing between (i) the particulate filter and the carbon bed and (ii) the carbon bed and the canister wall...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Courtney E Morris, Richard G Gonzales, Michael J Hodgson, Aaron W Tustin
Heat stress occupational exposure limits (OELs) were developed in the 1970s to prevent heat-related illnesses (HRIs). The OELs define the maximum safe wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for a given physical activity level. This study's objectives were to compute the sensitivity of heat stress OELs and determine if Heat Index could be a surrogate for WBGT. We performed a retrospective analysis of 234 outdoor work-related HRIs reported to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 2016. Archived NOAA weather data were used to compute each day's maximum WBGT and Heat Index...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Alan Fleck, Virginie Cabelguen, Caroline Couture, Guillaume Lachapelle, Patrick Ryan, Ross Thuot, Maximilien Debia
In the mining industry, personal measurements of elemental and total carbon are frequently used as surrogates of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure, and the respirable or submicron fractions are usually measured. However, vapor-phase organic carbon (OC) can be adsorbed in the filters, interfering with total carbon results. This study presents a comparative evaluation between the submicron fraction of DPM concentrations corrected for the adsorption of the vapor-phase OC (dynamic blank), and the respirable fraction of DPM corrected for a field blank...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Emily R Watkins, Mark Hayes, Peter Watt, Alan Richardson
Fire service instructors (FSI) regularly experience different types of fire exercises, however the strain experienced from these scenarios is not well understood. This study aims to identify the physiological and perceptual strain of Fire Service Instructors (FSI) to three training exercises: DEMO, ATTACK, COMPARTMENT, and the different roles performed: SETTER, INSTRUCTOR. The study also aims to assess the effect that different exercise patterns over a day (BOX, MULTI, COMBINATION) have on immunological responses...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Robert A Canales, Kelly A Reynolds, Amanda M Wilson, Sonia L M Fankem, Mark H Weir, Joan B Rose, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Charles P Gerba
Norovirus accounts for a large portion of the gastroenteritis disease burden, and outbreaks have occurred in a wide variety of environments. Understanding the role of fomites in norovirus transmission will inform behavioral interventions, such as hand washing and surface disinfection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of fomite-mediated exposures to infection and illness risks in outbreaks. A simulation model in discrete time that accounted for hand-to-porous surfaces, hand-to-nonporous surfaces, hand-to-mouth, -eyes, -nose, and hand washing events was used to predict 17 hr of simulated human behavior...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Matteo Federici, Jacopo Raffaelli, Demis Paolucci, Rudolf Schierl, Irene Krämer
The automated aseptic preparation of ready-to-administer antineoplastic drug solutions with robotic systems reduces the risk of occupational exposure. However, the surfaces in the preparation area of the robot are to be cleaned by wiping with an appropriate cleaning solution. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of four cleaning solutions on four surface materials installed in the APOTECAchemo robot. Predefined amounts of cisplatin (Cis), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide (CP) were intentionally spread on test plates made of stainless steel, aluminium, polyoxymethylene and polycarbonate just as installed in the robotic system APOTECAchemo...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Mark Nicas
This paper describes a case of Coccidioidomycosis pneumonia in an individual who worked in the McKittrick Oil Field, Kern County, California, for fifteen days during an approximate one-month period in 2016. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by inhaling spores of Coccidioides immitis, a soil fungus endemic in regions of California, most notably the San Joaquin Valley. In California, Kern County has the highest incidence rate of Coccidioidomycosis, and the McKittrick Oil Field lies within the most highly endemic part of Kern County...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yoke Bee Chang, Fook Yuan Lee, Meh Meh Goh, David Keung-Hung Lam, Agnes Beng-Hoi Tan
Routine flexible nasoendoscopy in otolaryngology clinics is well established, the rate-limiting step of which being the speed of the nasoendoscopes reprocessing method used. Non-lumened flexible nasoendoscopes are expensive, heat-sensitive, delicate instruments that cannot be sterilized in an autoclave but must be disinfected by means of high level disinfection (HLD). In one of the public hospitals in Singapore, the method of disinfection was recently changed to the use of commercial impregnated wipes which generates less than 1% chlorine dioxide upon activation...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Seyed Mohammad Sadat, Shirin Seyed Ghoreyshi, Fatemeh Rajabi, Rezvan Zendehdel
The assessment of co-exposure to several types of metal contamination poses a hurdle for occupational monitoring. Determination of elements in biological samples is an important way to evaluate occupational exposure. However, optimized methods for the extraction of multiple metals from biological samples have not been reported in recent studies. Therefore, solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on the functionalized Nano-zeolite Y was suggested for the biomonitoring of metal co-exposure. SPE was conducted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) surrounded by Triton X-100 micelles, which were loaded into the pores of Nano-zeolite Y...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Suzanne E Gilbey, Linda A Selvey, Ryan Mead-Hunter, Ben Mullins, Kevin Netto, Yun Zhao, Krassi B Rumchev
Agricultural operations routinely expose farm workers to high levels of soil dust and other airborne particulate matter that have been linked to adverse health outcomes. The main objective of this study was to investigate exposure to agricultural dust during seeding operations of Western Australian farm workers. Twenty-one wheat-belt farms were recruited to participate in the study. Data were collected over the six-week seeding period of April - June 2014. Each farm was visited once, and workers were asked to complete a workplace survey that asked questions related to minimizing exposure to agricultural dusts and occupational health and safety issues on their farm...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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