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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157193/effect-of-ventilation-velocity-on-hexavalent-chromium-and-isocyanate-exposures-in-aircraft-paint-spraying
#1
James Bennett, David Marlow, Fariba Nourian, James Breay, Amy Feng, Mark Methner
Exposure control system performance was evaluated during aircraft paint spraying at a military facility. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, tracer gas testing, and exposure monitoring examined contaminant exposure versus crossflow ventilation velocity. CFD modeling using the RNG k-ϵ turbulence model showed exposures to simulated methyl isobutyl ketone of 294 and 83.6 ppm, as a spatial average of five worker locations, for velocities of 0.508 and 0.381 m/s (100 and 75 fpm) respectively. In tracer gas experiments, observed supply/exhaust velocities of 0...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157183/photobiology-eye-safety-for-horticultural-led-lighting-transmittance-performance-of-eyewear-protection-using-high-irradiant-monochromatic-leds
#2
Bo-Sen Wu, Mark G Lefsrud
Light emitting diodes have slowly gained market share as horticultural lighting systems in greenhouses due to their rapid improvement in color performances and light outputs. These advancements have increased the availability of the full spectrum of visible wavelengths and the corresponding irradiance outputs available to plants. However, light emitting diodes owners have limited information on the proper options for personal eyewear protection as the irradiance levels have increased. The objective of this study was to measure the light transmittance performance of 12 eyewear protection including welding goggles, safety goggles, polarized glasses and sunglasses across the human visible spectrum (380-740 nm) up to an irradiance level of 1500 W·m(-2) from high-irradiant light emitting diodes assemblies...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157175/interlaboratory-comparison-for-the-determination-of-the-soluble-fraction-of-metals-in-welding-fume-samples
#3
Balazs Berlinger, Martin Harper
There is interest in the bioaccessible metal components of aerosols, but this has been little studied because standardized sampling and analytical methods have not yet been developed. An inter-laboratory study (ILS) has been carried out to evaluate a method for determining the water-soluble component of realistic welding fume (WF) air samples. Replicate samples were generated in the laboratory and distributed to participating laboratories to be analyzed according to a standardized procedure. Within-laboratory precision of replicate sample analysis (repeatability) was very good...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157164/concentrations-and-number-size-distribution-of-fine-and-nanoparticles-in-a-traditional-finnish-bakery
#4
Antti Karjalainen, Maija Leppänen, Jani Leskinen, Tiina Torvela, Pertti Pasanen, Jarkko Tissari, Mirella Miettinen
In bakeries, high concentrations of flour dust can exist and ovens release particles into the air as well. Particle concentrations (mass, number) and number size distribution may vary considerably but the variation is not commonly studied. Furthermore, the role of the smallest size fractions is rarely considered in the exposure assessment due to their small mass. The objectives of this work were to find out how concentrations and number size distribution of fine and nanoparticles vary in a traditional Finnish bakery, and to determine the exposure of a dough maker to the nanoparticle fraction of the inhalable dust...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157155/work-environment-and-occupational-risk-assessment-for-small-animal-portuguese-veterinary-activities
#5
Angela C Macedo, Vânia T Mota, João M Tavares, Osvaldo L Machado, Francisco X Malcata, Marinela P Cristo, Olga N Mayan
The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). This study reports the identification of potential hazards and provides a risk assessment of 15 veterinary clinics based on data from walk-through surveys, interviews with workers, and quantification of indoor air quality parameters including concentration of volatile organic compounds (total, isoflurane and glutaraldehyde)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157154/risk-assessments-using-the-strain-index-and-the-tlv-for-hal-part-ii-multi-task-jobs-and-prevalence-of-cts
#6
Jay M Kapellusch, Barbara A Silverstein, Stephen S Bao, Mathew S Thiese, Andrew S Merryweather, Kurt T Hegmann, Arun Garg
BACKGROUND: The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) have been shown to be associated with prevalence of distal upper limb musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SI and TLV for HAL disagree on more than half of task exposure classifications. Similarly, Time-Weighted-Average (TWA), Peak, and Typical exposure techniques used to quantity physical exposure from multi-task jobs have shown between-technique agreement ranging from 61% to 93%, depending upon whether the SI or TLV for HAL model was used...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157144/personal-exposure-of-dairy-workers-to-dust-endotoxin-muramic-acid-ergosterol-and-ammonia-on-large-scale-dairies-in-the-high-plains-western-united-states
#7
Margaret E Davidson, Joshua Schaeffer, Maggie L Clark, Sheryl Magzamen, Elizabeth J Brooks, Thomas J Keefe, Mary Bradford, Noa Roman-Muniz, John Mehaffy, Gregory Dooley, Jill A Poole, Frank M Mitloehner, Sue Reed, Marc B Schenker, Stephen J Reynolds
Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains western United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia over one work shift...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157142/experimental-study-on-centerline-velocities-of-a-rectangular-capture-hood-under-realistic-conditions
#8
Xinjian He, Braxton V Lewis, Steven E Guffey
Capture hoods are an important component of a local ventilation system designed to reduce exposures to airborne contaminants. The velocity at any point along the centerline of the hood (Vx) is currently estimated using one of many predictive equations developed since the 1930's. It is unproven that those predictive equations for Vx are accurate, despite the prodigious number of studies concerning them. Among other issues, almost all experimental verifications were conducted for conditions that were either unrealistically ideal without competing air currents (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157141/experimental-study-on-effects-of-drilling-parameters-on-respirable-dust-production-during-roof-bolting-operations
#9
Hua Jiang, Yi Luo, Joe McQuerrey
Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090983/assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-heat-stress-and-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-among-groundskeepers-in-an-eastern-north-carolina-university-setting
#10
Nicole Beck, Jo Anne G Balanay, Terri Johnson
Groundskeepers spend most of the year working outdoors, exposing them to heat and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and increasing their risk to related adverse health effects. Various studies on heat and UV exposures in different occupations have been published, but those on groundskeepers are rare. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to heat stress and solar UV radiation among groundskeepers in an eastern North Carolina university setting. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index using a heat stress monitor and UV effective irradiance (UVeff) index using a digital UV meter were recorded in various work areas 3 times a day (morning, noon, afternoon) and during 3 seasons (spring, summer, fall)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083962/a-case-report-of-personal-exposures-to-isoflurane-during-animal-anesthesia-procedures
#11
James Fay
The purpose of this study was to compare personal exposures to isoflurane from participants' breathing zone samples during animal anesthesia procedures by the method of anesthetic gas delivery and the waste anesthetic gas (WAG) control method utilized. WAG control methods included passive scavenging using charcoal canisters, active scavenging using a building vacuum system, and various local exhaust ventilation systems such as laboratory fume hoods and capture hoods. Methods of anesthesia delivery included induction chambers, face masks (also known as nose cones), and intubation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083958/evaluation-of-low-cost-electro-chemical-sensors-for-environmental-monitoring-of-ozone-nitrogen-dioxide-and-carbon-monoxide
#12
Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Christopher Zuidema, Sinan Sousan, Laura Hallett, Marcus Tatum, Ana M Rule, Geb Thomas, Thomas Peters, Kirsten Koehler
Development of an air quality monitoring network with high spatio-temporal resolution requires installation of a large number of air pollutant monitors. However, state-of-the-art monitors are costly and may not be compatible with wireless data logging systems. In this study, low-cost electro-chemical sensors manufactured by Alphasense Ltd. for detection of CO and oxidative gases (predominantly O3 and NO2) were evaluated. The voltages from three oxidative gas sensors and three CO sensors were recorded every 2...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083956/respirable-silica-and-noise-exposures-among-stone-processing-workers-in-northern-thailand
#13
Stephanie K Sayler, Rachel N Long, Kowit Nambunmee, Richard L Neitzel
Silica and noise are highly prevalent occupational exposures in the stone processing industry. Monitoring for silica and noise are expensive tasks that may be especially difficult to perform in low resource settings, but exposure awareness is vital for protecting worker health. This study evaluated personal noise and silica measurements at a stone processing facility in Northern Thailand to investigate the differing exposure potentials and risk for over exposure among the varying job categories. Our research team performed personal noise and respirable silica measurements on 46 workers during three separate work shifts each...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059039/ambulance-disinfection-using-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-effects-of-fixture-location-and-surface-reflectivity
#14
William G Lindsley, Tia L McClelland, Dylan T Neu, Stephen B Martin, Kenneth R Mead, Robert E Thewlis, John D Noti
Ambulances are frequently contaminated with infectious microorganisms shed by patients during transport that can be transferred to subsequent patients and emergency medical service workers. Manual decontamination is tedious and time-consuming, and persistent contamination is common even after cleaning. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) has been proposed as a terminal disinfection method for ambulance patient compartments. However, no published studies have tested the use of UVGI in ambulances. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of a UVGI system in an ambulance patient compartment and to examine the impact of UVGI fixture position and the UV reflectivity of interior surfaces on the time required for disinfection...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059020/determinants-of-respirable-quartz-exposure-in-farming
#15
Andrew Swanepoel, Cornelia Swanepoel, David Rees
The objectives of this paper are to quantify personal respirable quartz exposure on sandy, sandy loam and clay soil farms and to identify exposure determinants. The methods applied included observing and examining the variables soil type, commodity farmed, activity, process, quartz % in respirable dust and weather variables. Multiple linear regression was used to identify determinants of respirable quartz concentration and logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of respirable quartz concentration > 50 µg...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059019/evaluating-optical-hazards-from-plasma-arc-cutting
#16
Eric Glassford, Gregory Burr
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated a steel building materials manufacturer. The employer requested the evaluation because of concerns about optical radiation hazards from a plasma arc cutting system and the need to clarify eye protection requirements for plasma operators, other employees, and visitors. The strength of the ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation (light), and infrared radiation generated by the plasma arc cutter was measured at various distances from the source and at different operating amperages...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053946/measurement-of-area-and-personal-breathing-zone-concentrations-of-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-during-oil-and-gas-extraction-operations-including-hydraulic-fracturing
#17
Eric J Esswein, Marissa Alexander-Scott, John Snawder, Michael Breitenstein
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing) and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four year period from 2008-2012 The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m(3); measurements ranged from 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053941/a-point-source-outbreak-of-coccidioidomycosis-among-a-highway-construction-crew
#18
Mark Nicas
Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhaling spores of the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis (hereafter termed Cocci). Cocci is endemic in certain areas of California. When soil containing the fungus is disturbed, as during earth-moving activities, respirable Cocci spores can become airborne and be inhaled by persons in the vicinity. This paper describes a cluster of seven Cocciodioidomycosis cases among a highway construction crew that occurred in June/July 2008 in Kern County, CA, which is among the most highly endemic regions for Cocci in California...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053939/a-conceptual-model-for-take-home-workplace-exposures
#19
Rachael Jones, Igor Burstyn
The boundary between occupational and environmental exposures is often artificial, as occupational hazards can readily escape the workplace. One way that this occurs is when workers "take-home" occupational hazards, exposing family members. While take-home exposures have long been recognized, there is no comprehensive framework describing the pathways by which workers bring home workplace hazards. In this work we provide such a conceptual model that includes three pathways for take-home exposures: external contamination, internal dose and behavior change of workers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053936/evaluation-of-an-improved-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#20
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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