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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Matthew H Govorko, Lin Fritschi, Alison Reid
In situ asbestos in the built environment is a remaining source of exposure in countries that have prohibited the manufacture and use of asbestos. However, it is difficult to identify in situ asbestos-containing material in residential settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the mobile phone application ("app"), ACM Check, in identifying in situ asbestos located inside and outside of homes compared with onsite inspections conducted by an experienced environmental consultant...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kerri Wizner, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Edward Fisher, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
The use of respiratory protection, an important component of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare, is dependent on the hazard and environmental conditions in the workplace. This requires the employer and healthcare worker (HCW) to be knowledgeable about potential exposures and their respective protective measures. However, the use of respirators is inconsistent in healthcare settings, potentially putting HCWs at risk for illness or injury. To better understand respirator use, barriers, and influences, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers provided an opportunity to examine self-reported use of respirators and surgical masks for targeted hazards...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Pei-Ting Chang, Po-Chen Hung, Shih-Wei Tsai
Walk-through surveys were carried out for bakeries in this study to determine the environmental characteristics of bakeries in Taiwan. Questionnaires were administrated to discover whether job-related asthma-like symptoms occurred among workers. Air sampling and analysis were also performed. The results show that the levels of inhalable flour dust ranged from 0.01 to 0.83 mg m-3 with an average of 0.27 mg m-3 . Among the samples collected, 23% of them had concentrations higher than the ACGIH TLV-TWA (0.5 mg m-3 ), which indicated that inhalable flour dust was an important air pollutant for bakery workers in Taiwan...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sharyn Gaskin, Leigh Thredgold, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter
This paper presents the first empirical experimental data on the skin absorption of methyl chloride gas using an in vitro technique and human skin. Methyl chloride is a commonly used industrial agent that is known to be an inhalational hazard but is also reported to be absorbed through human skin in amounts that contribute substantially to systemic intoxication. As a result is has been assigned a skin notation by the ACGIH. Other than predictive models, there is a general paucity of experimental data on the skin absorption of methyl chloride and therefore a distinct lack of empirical evidence in the open literature to support the assignment of a skin notation for this chemical...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Dennis Grahn, Megha Makam, H Craig Heller
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of heat related maladies. A means to enhance heat dissipation capacity of individuals clad in PPE would be of benefit. The glabrous skin regions of the hands, face, and feet are portals for direct heat transfer between the body core and the external environment. The effects of PPE outerwear and palmar glabrous skin cooling on heat storage were assessed. Subjects engaged in fixed load treadmill exercise in a thermoneutral environment (Ta = 20 - 24ºC) or rested in a hot environment (45 ± 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Amirabbas Mofidi, Emile Tompa, James Spencer, Christina Kalcevich, Cheryl E Peters, Joanne Kim, Chaojie Song, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Paul A Demers
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the second most prevalent carcinogenic exposure in Canada and is similarly important in other countries with large Caucasian populations. The objective of this article was to estimate the economic burden associated with newly diagnosed non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) attributable to occupational solar radiation exposure. Key cost categories considered were direct costs (healthcare costs, out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs), and informal caregiver costs); indirect costs (productivity/output costs and home production costs); and intangible costs (monetary value of the loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL))...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Manthan P Shah, Derek G Shendell, Qingyu Meng, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, William Halperin
The performances of a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) lead paint analyzer (RMD LPA-1, Protec Instrument Corp., Waltham, MA) and a commercially available colorimetric lead test kit (First Alert Lead Test Kit, eAccess Solutions, Inc., Palatine, IL) were evaluated for use by local or state health departments as potential cost-effective rapid analysis or "spot test" field techniques for tentative identification of lead content in sindoor powders. For both field-sampling methods, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values varied widely for samples containing <300,000 μg/g lead...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Michael Fries, Pamela R D Williams, Jerald Ovesen, Andrew Maier
Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Roy T McKay
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires at least annual respirator fit testing for persons required to wear tight-fitting respirators in the workplace. OSHA also requires fit testing be administered using one of the protocols in mandatory Appendix A of the Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) and has enforced these protocols since 1998.( 1 ) It is the opinion of some that fit testing is a time consuming process and faster fit testing protocols could potentially save time and money for those in general industry, healthcare, and other settings...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sonia El Zaemey, Deborah Glass, Lin Fritschi, Ellie Darcey, Renee Carey, Tim Driscoll, Michael Abramson, Si Si, Geza Benke, Alison Reid
Exposure to isocyanates has consistently been reported as the most common cause of occupational asthma. The objectives of this study were to assess how many Australian workers are currently exposed to isocyanates, identify the occupations with highest proportion of exposed workers and identify the main circumstances of exposures. Data comes from the Australian Workplace Exposure Study-Asthma, a national telephone survey which explored the prevalence of current occupational exposure to 227 asthmagens, grouped into 27 groups, among current Australian workers aged 18-65 years...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Alan da Silveira Fleck, Caroline Couture, Jean-François Sauvé, Pierre-Eric Njanga, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Guillaume Lachapelle, Hugo Coulombe, Stéphane Hallé, Simon Aubin, Jérôme Lavoué, Maximilien Debia
Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is frequently assessed by measuring indicators of carbon speciation, but these measurements may be affected by organic carbon (OC) interference. Furthermore, there are still questions regarding the reliability of direct-reading instruments (DRI) for measuring DPM, since these instruments are not specific and may be interfered by other aerosol sources. This study aimed to to assess DPM exposure in two underground mines by filter-based methods and DRI; and to assess the relationship between the measures of elemental carbon (EC) and the DRI to verify the association of these instruments to DPM...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yufei Liu, Min Yang
Hearing protection fit testing was conducted on workers (n = 189) in a textile factory in southern China. The 3M™ E-A-Rfit™ Dual-Ear Validation System was used to measure the personal attenuation rating (PAR) on an over-the-head style earmuff at the work site. In addition, PARs were obtained at several times throughout the same work shift to capture different fits on 39 workers. Follow-up visits were conducted in approximate 6-month or 12-month intervals to repeat the fit testing. Both the immediate and residual effects of training on the field attenuation of hearing protection devices obtained by workers, and the effects of training toward improving the attenuation and protection of earmuffs after a period of daily use were observed...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Andrew F Oberta, Lee Poye, Steven P Compton
Chrysotile asbestos fibers were added to roofing products, including roof cement, for several decades. The fibers were described as "encapsulated" and therefore incapable of being released, an assertion that is disproved by the study reported herein. Three test panels of roof cement from the original container were exposed to ambient weathering in 2015 and 2016. Two panels were then sampled using the ASTM D5755 microvacuum method. Sampling revealed a light brown sub-layer under the dark brown surface layer, both of which crumbled and became friable during sampling...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Taylor M Shockey, Kelsey R Babik, Steven J Wurzelbacher, Libby L Moore, Michael S Bisesi
Despite substantial financial and personnel resources being devoted to occupational exposure monitoring (OEM) by employers, workers' compensation insurers, and other organizations, the United States (US) lacks comprehensive occupational exposure databases to use for research and surveillance activities. OEM data are necessary for determining the levels of workers' exposures; compliance with regulations; developing control measures; establishing worker exposure profiles; and improving preventive and responsive exposure surveillance and policy efforts...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Catherine Beaucham, Bradley King, Karl Feldmann, Martin Harper, Alan Dozier
Erionite is a naturally occurring fibrous mineral found in many parts of the world, including the western United States. Inhalational exposure to erionite fibers in some localities is associated with health effects similar to those caused by asbestos exposure, including malignant mesothelioma. Therefore, there is concern regarding occupational exposures in the western United States. Currently there are no standard sampling and analytical methods for airborne erionite fibers, as well as no established occupational exposure limits...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
C L Geraci, S S Tinkle, S A Brenner, L L Hodson, C A Pomeroy-Carter, N Neu-Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
S Bau, R Payet, A Toussaint, O Witschger, A M Todea, C Monz, C Asbach
Because nanomaterials have been increasingly developed and used in many technology and industry sectors over the last 20 years, increasing numbers of workers are likely to be exposed to airborne nanoparticles. In addition, the question of the nanomaterial characteristics that should be assessed in epidemiological studies remains open. Thus, assessing occupational exposure to airborne nanoparticles shall not only rely on mass concentration and chemical composition; key parameters, such as particle size, have to be included in measurement strategies...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Philip A Smith, Michael K Simmons, Phillip Toone
It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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