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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

Jonathan Suhl, Paul A Romitti, Carissa Rocheleau, Yanyan Cao, Trudy L Burns, Kristin Conway, Erin M Bell, Patricia Stewart, Peter Langlois, The National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects. Reported risks for orofacial clefts associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure are mixed. To examine the role of parental pesticide exposure in OFC development in offspring, this study compared population-based case-control data for parental occupational exposures to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, alone or in combinations, during maternal (one month before through three months after conception) and paternal (three months before through three months after conception) critical exposure periods between orofacial cleft cases and unaffected controls...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Emanuele Cauda, Lauren Chubb, Rustin Reed, Robert Stepp
Monitoring worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica in dusty environments is an important part of a proactive health and safety program. This is the case for surface copper mines in Arizona and New Mexico. The spatial and temporal variability of respirable dust and crystalline silica concentrations in those mines, coupled with the time lapse in obtaining crystalline silica analysis results from accredited laboratories, present a challenge for an effective exposure monitoring approach and the resulting intervention strategies...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kelsey R Babik, Taylor M Shockey, Libby L Moore, Steven J Wurzelbacher
Workers' compensation (WC) insurers collect large amounts of industrial hygiene (IH) data in the United States. The data collected is not easily accessible for research or surveillance purposes. Individual WC insurers are using computerized systems to standardize and store the IH data, leaving a gap in standardization among the different WC insurers. This study sought to standardize IH data collection among WC insurers and to determine the feasibility of pooling collected IH data. IH air and noise survey forms were collected from WC insurers...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Julie F Hart, Daniel A Autenrieth, Emanuele Cauda, Lauren Chubb, Terry M Spear, Siobhan Wock, Scott Rosenthal
Evaluation and control of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposures are critical components of an effective mine industrial hygiene program. To provide more timely exposure data in the field, an end-of-shift Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry method has been developed for evaluation of direct-on-filter RCS. The present study aimed to apply this FT-IR method using field samples collected in three Northwestern U.S. metal/nonmetal mines and compare the results to traditional laboratory X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Adam W Nored, Marie-Cecile G Chalbot, Ilias G Kavouras
The purpose of the study was to determine the potential for release of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in paint dust. The coatings aerosol resuspension system was developed and used for testing the generation and physical, chemical and morphological properties of paint dust particles from mechanical abrasion (i.e., sanding) of coated wood surfaces. The paint dust emissions from bare and coated wood surfaces with multiple coatings using variable sandpaper grits were evaluated. Substantially higher particle number concentrations were measured for paint dust containing particles in the nano range (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nm) than those measured for wood dust...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Maija Leppänen, Bingbing Wu, Jonathan Corey, Michael Yermakov, Sergey A Grinshpun
Millions of workers, including firefighters, use respiratory protective device. The key aspect in assuring the intended protection level of a respirator is its fit. However, even if the respirator originally fits well, the faceseal may be breached during its use. Until now, there have been no practically viable, inexpensive means to monitor the performance of a respirator during actual use. A novel Respirator Seal Integrity Monitor (ReSIM) was developed and recently evaluated on manikins by our team. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ReSIM effectiveness on respirator-wearing firefighters exposed to aerosols while performing simulated routine operational activities...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Matthew H Govorko, Lin Fritschi, Alison Reid
In situ asbestos in the built environment is a remaining source of exposure in countries that have prohibited the manufacture and use of asbestos. However, it is difficult to identify in situ asbestos-containing material in residential settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the mobile phone application ("app"), ACM Check, in identifying in situ asbestos located inside and outside of homes compared with onsite inspections conducted by an experienced environmental consultant...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kerri Wizner, Mahiyar Nasarwanji, Edward Fisher, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
The use of respiratory protection, an important component of personal protective equipment (PPE) in healthcare, is dependent on the hazard and environmental conditions in the workplace. This requires the employer and healthcare worker (HCW) to be knowledgeable about potential exposures and their respective protective measures. However, the use of respirators is inconsistent in healthcare settings, potentially putting HCWs at risk for illness or injury. To better understand respirator use, barriers, and influences, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers provided an opportunity to examine self-reported use of respirators and surgical masks for targeted hazards...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Pei-Ting Chang, Po-Chen Hung, Shih-Wei Tsai
Walk-through surveys were carried out for bakeries in this study to determine the environmental characteristics of bakeries in Taiwan. Questionnaires were administrated to discover whether job-related asthma-like symptoms occurred among workers. Air sampling and analysis were also performed. The results show that the levels of inhalable flour dust ranged from 0.01 to 0.83 mg m-3 with an average of 0.27 mg m-3 . Among the samples collected, 23% of them had concentrations higher than the ACGIH TLV-TWA (0.5 mg m-3 ), which indicated that inhalable flour dust was an important air pollutant for bakery workers in Taiwan...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sharyn Gaskin, Leigh Thredgold, Linda Heath, Dino Pisaniello, Michael Logan, Christina Baxter
This paper presents the first empirical experimental data on the skin absorption of methyl chloride gas using an in vitro technique and human skin. Methyl chloride is a commonly used industrial agent that is known to be an inhalational hazard but is also reported to be absorbed through human skin in amounts that contribute substantially to systemic intoxication. As a result is has been assigned a skin notation by the ACGIH. Other than predictive models, there is a general paucity of experimental data on the skin absorption of methyl chloride and therefore a distinct lack of empirical evidence in the open literature to support the assignment of a skin notation for this chemical...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Dennis Grahn, Megha Makam, H Craig Heller
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of heat related maladies. A means to enhance heat dissipation capacity of individuals clad in PPE would be of benefit. The glabrous skin regions of the hands, face, and feet are portals for direct heat transfer between the body core and the external environment. The effects of PPE outerwear and palmar glabrous skin cooling on heat storage were assessed. Subjects engaged in fixed load treadmill exercise in a thermoneutral environment (Ta = 20 - 24ºC) or rested in a hot environment (45 ± 0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Manthan P Shah, Derek G Shendell, Qingyu Meng, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, William Halperin
The performances of a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) lead paint analyzer (RMD LPA-1, Protec Instrument Corp., Waltham, MA) and a commercially available colorimetric lead test kit (First Alert Lead Test Kit, eAccess Solutions, Inc., Palatine, IL) were evaluated for use by local or state health departments as potential cost-effective rapid analysis or "spot test" field techniques for tentative identification of lead content in sindoor powders. For both field-sampling methods, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values varied widely for samples containing <300,000 μg/g lead...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Amirabbas Mofidi, Emile Tompa, James Spencer, Christina Kalcevich, Cheryl E Peters, Joanne Kim, Chaojie Song, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Paul A Demers
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the second most prevalent carcinogenic exposure in Canada and is similarly important in other countries with large Caucasian populations. The objective of this article was to estimate the economic burden associated with newly diagnosed non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) attributable to occupational solar radiation exposure. Key cost categories considered were direct costs (healthcare costs, out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs), and informal caregiver costs); indirect costs (productivity/output costs and home production costs); and intangible costs (monetary value of the loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL))...
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yufei Liu, Min Yang
A hearing protection fit testing was conducted on workers (n = 189) in a textile factory in southern China. The 3M E-A-Rfit Dual-Ear Validation System was used to measure the personal attenuation rating (PAR) on an over-the-head style earmuff at the work site. In addition, PARs were obtained several times throughout the same work shift to capture different fits on 39 workers. Follow-up visits were conducted in approximate 6-month or 12-month intervals to repeat the fit testing. Both the immediate and residual effects of training on the field attenuation of hearing protection devices obtained by workers, and the effects of training toward improving the attenuation and protection of earmuffs after a period of daily use, were observed...
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Andrew F Oberta, Lee Poye, Steven P Compton
Chrysotile asbestos fibers were added to roofing products, including roof cement, for several decades. The fibers were described as "encapsulated" and therefore incapable of being released, an assertion that is disproved by the study reported herein. Three test panels of roof cement from the original container were exposed to ambient weathering in 2015 and 2016. Two panels were then sampled using the ASTM D5755 microvacuum method. Sampling revealed a light brown sub-layer under the dark brown surface layer, both of which crumbled and became friable during sampling...
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Taylor M Shockey, Kelsey R Babik, Steven J Wurzelbacher, Libby L Moore, Michael S Bisesi
Despite substantial financial and personnel resources being devoted to occupational exposure monitoring (OEM) by employers, workers' compensation insurers, and other organizations, the United States (U.S.) lacks comprehensive occupational exposure databases to use for research and surveillance activities. OEM data are necessary for determining the levels of workers' exposures; compliance with regulations; developing control measures; establishing worker exposure profiles; and improving preventive and responsive exposure surveillance and policy efforts...
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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