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Bonifacio Sandín, Jeffrey S Simons, Rosa M Valiente, Raluca M Simons, Paloma Chorot
BACKGROUND: Distress tolerance is defined as the individual’s capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and to test its relationship with psychopathological symptoms and personality. METHOD: A sample of 650 participants completed the DTS, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised–Abbreviated) (EPQR-A), and the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45)...
August 2017: Psicothema
Ana Martínez-Pampliega, Laura Merino, Leire Iriarte, David H Olson
INTRODUCTION: Building on the expanding cross cultural interest in FACES, the Spanish version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES IV), aimed at the assessment of the dimensions of cohesion and flexibility of the Circumplex Model, was validated following the author´s guidelines. METHOD: The sample was composed by 665 college students. Besides, FACES II was also used and family communication, satisfaction, stress and strengths were also measured...
August 2017: Psicothema
Alejandro Magallares, Guendalina Graffigna, Serena Barello, Andrea Bonanomi, Edoardo Lozza
BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Engagement scale is an instrument based on evidence about the experiences and preferences of patients with chronic diseases regarding their engagement with the treatment they receive. AIMS: The main goal of this study was to adapt the Patient Health Engagement scale to the Spanish population (S.PHE-s) following the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptations. METHODS: The sample comprised 413 patients with different chronic diseases...
August 2017: Psicothema
José Fernández-Valdés, Aurora Gavino, Lidia Valderrama-Martos, Antonio Godoy, Jeff Laurent
BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity is a useful construct in explaining anxiety disorders. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index for Children (ASIC) is a brief self-report designed to assess anxiety sensitivity in youth. METHOD: Students (N = 1348; ages 10-17) completed a Spanish translation of the ASIC and measures of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses found that scores on the ASIC- Spanish version can be fitted to two factorial structures: A single factor and two first-order factors grouped into one higher-order factor...
August 2017: Psicothema
Cristiano M Assis Gomes, Leandro S Almeida, José C Núñez
BACKGROUND: In last few years, the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has become dominant in structural validation of psychological tests. However, the requirement of latent variables only loading on specific target items introduces some constraints on the solutions found, namely a factor solution that links some items only in one specific dimension. The most recent use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), which allows items to be predominantly related to a factor, with non-zero loadings on other factors, has been identified as the one that best respects the proper functioning of the assessed psychological attributes...
August 2017: Psicothema
María D Nieto, Francisco J Abad, Alejandro Hernández-Camacho, Luis E Garrido, Juan R Barrada, David Aguado, Julio Olea
BACKGROUND: Even though the Five Factor Model (FFM) has been the dominant paradigm in personality research for the past two decades, very few studies have measured the FFM adaptively. Thus, the purpose of this research was the building of a new item pool to develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for personality assessment. METHOD: A pool of 480 items that measured the FFM facets was developed and applied to 826 participants. Facets were calibrated separately and item selection was performed being mindful of the preservation of unidimensionality of each facet...
August 2017: Psicothema
David Paniagua, Pedro J Amor, Enrique Echeburúa, Francisco J Abad
BACKGROUND: The development of an effective instrument to assess the risk of partner violence is a topic of great social relevance. This study evaluates the scale of “Predicción del Riesgo de Violencia Grave Contra la Pareja” –Revisada– (EPV-R - Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale-Revised), a tool developed in Spain, which is facing the problem of how to treat the high rate of missing values, as is usual in this type of scale. METHOD: First, responses to the EPV-R in a sample of 1215 male abusers who were reported to the police were used to analyze the patterns of occurrence of missing values, as well as the factor structure...
August 2017: Psicothema
Sílvia Indias García, Joaquín de Paul Ochotorena
BACKGROUND: The damaging effects of direct and indirect experience of interpersonal violence on children’s development are widely acknowledged. The objective of the present study was to analyze lifetime victimization among adolescents of a community sample. METHOD: Participants were 608 adolescents aged 12-18 from Northern Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was used to measure lifetime victimization. RESULTS: Over 90% of the adolescent population has been exposed to some kind of victimization...
August 2017: Psicothema
Jesús M Rodríguez-Mantilla, Mª J Fernández-Díaz
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that teachers, especially in Secondary Education present varying levels of burnout syndrome. This problem could be caused by internal factors unique to the subject (psychological characteristics) or external factors (overwork, social climate, etc.). METHOD: The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of interpersonal relationships on the development of burnout in a sample of 794 secondary education teachers from the Community of Madrid, applying structural equation modeling methodology...
August 2017: Psicothema
Pedro J Rosa, Jorge Oliveira, Daniyal Alghazzawi, Habib Fardoun, Pedro Gamito
BACKGROUND: Despite the multisensory nature of perception, previous research on emotions has been focused on unimodal emotional cues with visual stimuli. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence on the extent to which incongruent emotional cues from visual and auditory sensory channels affect pupil size. AIMS: To investigate the effects of audiovisual emotional information perception on the physiological and affective response, but also to determine the impact of mismatched cues in emotional perception on these physiological indexes...
August 2017: Psicothema
María S Beato, Jason Arndt
BACKGROUND: Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. METHOD: In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words...
August 2017: Psicothema
María X Froján Parga, Miguel Núñez de Prado Gordillo, Ricardo de Pascual Verdú
BACKGROUND: the main purpose of this study is to offer an alternative explanatory account of the functioning of cognitive techniques that is based on the principles of associative learning and highlights their verbal nature. The traditional accounts are questioned and analyzed in the light of the situation of psychology in the 1970s. METHOD: conceptual analysis is employed to revise the concepts of language, cognition and behavior. Several operant- and Pavlovian-based approaches to these phenomena are presented, while particular emphasis is given to Mowrer’s (1954) approach and Ryle (1949) and Wittgenstein’s (1953) philosophical contributions to the field...
August 2017: Psicothema
Andrés Molero-Chamizo, G N Rivera-Urbina
BACKGROUND: Latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is sensitive to external and internal cues. Time of day can serve as an internal cue, and latent inhibition may be reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. This contextual cue attributed to a change in the time of day may reveal a temporal specificity of latent inhibition. Although the habituation period to spatial contexts is a determinant variable for the spatial specificity of latent inhibition of CTA, the influence of contextual-temporal familiarity (time of day) on latent inhibition of CTA has not been explored through direct comparisons between different periods of habituation to the temporal context...
August 2017: Psicothema
Alfonso Pitarque, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Rita Redondo, Juan C Meléndez
BACKGROUND: Given the uneven results about the role self-referencing plays in false recognition, we planned an experiment that would allow us to analyze whether self-referencing affects false recognition, and its relationship with healthy aging. METHOD: A sample of healthy older people (n = 30) and another sample of young people (n = 38) rated whether 40 personality-trait adjectives (20 with a positive valence and 20 with a negative valence) described them or not (self-referencing condition)...
August 2017: Psicothema
Maite Garaigordobil, Juan M Machimbarrena
BACKGROUND: The family can be a protective/risk factor for violence. The study analyzes differences in family variables (parental stress, parental competence and parenting styles) among severe student victims, aggressors, cybervictims, and cyberaggressors (who have very frequently suffered or carried out bullying/cyberbullying behaviors in the past year) and those who have neither suffered nor carried out any aggressive behavior or only occasionally. METHOD: Participants were 1,993 students in the 5th-6th grade (9-13 years old)...
August 2017: Psicothema
Javier Fenollar-Cortés, Joaquín Parra-Martínez, Encarnación Hernández-Pérez, José-Antonio Rabadán-Rubio
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with academic difficulties both short- and long-term. The aim of the study was to provide a new brief ADHD screening scale that could be easily used by teachers and educational professionals in elementary schools. METHOD: Participants were teachers of 158 children with a prior diagnosis of ADHD and 169 children without a diagnosis of ADHD. An initial pool of 38 items was generated from ADHD symptoms of both DSM-5 and CIE-10 criteria, as well from Conners 3, EDAH, SDQ and ADHD-RS-IV scales...
August 2017: Psicothema
Sandra Pérez Rodríguez, José H Marco Salvador, Joaquín García-Alandete
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) lie on a continuum of self-harm, and literature has shown that patients with suicidal intent constitute a more severe group. METHOD: This study aimed to explore differences in the facets of hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale) and meaning in life (Purpose in Life Test) in a clinical sample of 150 patients with a diagnosis of a mental disorder with: a) no NSSI/SA, b) only NSSI, or c) SA/NSSI and SA...
August 2017: Psicothema
Carmen Bento, Ana T Pereira, Carolina Roque, Jorge M Tavares Saraiva, António J Ferreira Macedo E Santos
Perfectionism is a personality disposition characterized by a person´s striving for flawlessness and the setting of excessively high performance standards. This trait has been associated with a broad range of psychopathological conditions. Consequently, prevention of its harmful effects must start early. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if one group session to manage perfectionism has the effect of reducing the levels of this trait, two and six months later. METHOD: A community-based sample of 978 Portuguese adolescents from three different high schools completed a self-reporting questionnaire including the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, before and after one skill session...
August 2017: Psicothema
Fernando Chacón, Gema Gutiérrez, Verónica Sauto, María L Vecina, Alfonso Pérez
The objective of this research study was to conduct a systematic review of the research on volunteers using Clary et al.’s VFI (1998). A total of 48 research studies including 67 independent samples met eligibility criteria. The total sample of the studies analyzed ranged from 20375 to 21988 participants, depending on the motivation analyzed. The results show that the Values factor obtained the highest mean score, both overall and in each type of volunteering, whereas the lowest scores were for the Career and Enhancement factors...
August 2017: Psicothema
María Valero de Vicente, Lluís Ballester Brage, María C Orte Socías, Joan A Amer Fernández
BACKGROUND: Substance consumption (SC) begins in adolescence and has been linked to protection factors such as family relationships (FR) and positive parenting (PP). There are few studies concerning the effectiveness of prevention programs based on the family, even though assessing interventions is one of the objectives of preventive science. The aim of this study was to analyze the evidence on family-based selective prevention programs in relation to drug consumption in adolescents. METHODOLOGY: A meta-analysis of 9 studies with 102 measures grouped in three dimensions, FR, PP and SC, ranging between 2001 and 2015, was conducted...
August 2017: Psicothema
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