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Cristina Mumbardó-Adam, Joan Guàrdia-Olmos, Climent Giné
BACKGROUND: Acting in a self-determined manner, that is, using problem-solving or decision-making strategies, strongly depends on the opportunities the person is given to do so by the context. In fact, context can either facilitate or thwart the opportunities of adolescents and young adults for self-determined action, though there is, to date, a lack of instruments within the Spanish context to assess these opportunities. METHOD: This study aims to address this need by adapting and validating the AIR self-determination scale to the Spanish context with a sample of young Spanish people with and without disabilities...
May 2018: Psicothema
David Pineda, María Martín-Vivar, Bonifacio Sandín, José A Piqueras
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depressive disorders are among the most common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence. As the 30-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS-30) exhibits excellent psychometric properties, it is one of the most commonly used scales for the initial detection and assessment of these symptoms in children and adolescents. This is because of the advantage of its brevity when compared to the 47-item version. The aim of this study was to analyse factorial invariance according to sex, age, and format used to administer the test, and to identify the RCADS-30 subscales...
May 2018: Psicothema
Luis López-González, Alberto Amutio, Xavier Oriol, José J Gázquez, Mª C Pérez-Fuentes, Mª M Molero
BACKGROUND: The aim of this investigation was to validate the Relaxation-Mindfulness Scale for Adolescents (EREMIND-A), consisting of 18 items and three factors (Attention-Concentration in the present moment; Relaxation (abilities and attitudes); and Sensory awareness/Contemplation/Interiority). METHOD: The validation was done with a sample of Secondary Education and Baccalaureate students from four different centres in Spain (n = 1.120). EFA and CFA of the EREMIND-A were performed and construct and incremental validities calculated...
May 2018: Psicothema
Jaime León, Elena Medina-Garrido, Miriam Ortega
BACKGROUND: How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. METHOD: Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality)...
May 2018: Psicothema
Miguel A Santos Rego, María J Ferraces Otero, Agustín Godas Otero, María M Lorenzo Moledo
BACKGROUND: One of the most serious problems in the Spanish education system is the high percentage of school failure in Compulsory Secondary Education. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of a socio-educational program based on cooperative learning and family involvement on a series of variables related to academic performance, paying particular attention to the differences between retained and non-retained students. METHODOLOGY: A two-group quasi-experimental design incorporating pre-testing and post-testing was used...
May 2018: Psicothema
Alexandra Chas Villar, Verónica Betancor Rodríguez, Naira Delgado Rodríguez, Armando Rodríguez Pérez
BACKGROUND: Social pain is considered a feature of humanity. The goal of this study was to confirm whether children, like adults, dehumanise out-group members attributing them less capacity to experience social pain than to in-group members. METHODS: A total of 119 participants aged between 9 and 13 years responded to a questionnaire which collected information about situations that caused physical pain and situations that caused social pain. The task of the participants was to indicate to what extent they considered that two persons (a member of the in-group and a member of an out-group) would experience pain in each situation...
May 2018: Psicothema
Carlos Hernández Blasi, David F Bjorklund
BACKGROUND: Young children often use magical explanations to account for ordinary phenomena (e.g., "The sun's not out today because it is mad"). We labeled these explanations supernatural thinking. Previous research reports that supernatural thinking attributed to preschool-age children evokes both positive affect and perceptions of helplessness from both adults and older (14-17 years old) but not younger (10-13 years old) adolescents. In this study, we asked if cues of cognitive immaturity are more influential in affecting adolescents' judgments of children than physical cues (faces)...
May 2018: Psicothema
María J Díaz-Aguado, Javier Martín-Babarro, Laia Falcón
BACKGROUND: Spain is among the European countries with the highest prevalence of adolescents at risk of Internet addiction, a problem that could be linked to youth unemployment and leaving education early. This research evaluated the role of three variables relative to school context on Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and on the relationship between PIU and Maladaptive Future Time Perspective (MFTP, defined as an excessive focus on the present and a fatalistic attitude towards the future, a variable that had not previously been studied in terms of its relationship to adolescents' PIU)...
May 2018: Psicothema
María L Cuenca Montesino, José L Graña Gómez
BACKGROUND: Agreement about acts of aggression in couples on the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-2) was evaluated. METHOD: We conducted a quota sampling method to recruit a community sample of 590 heterosexual adult couples from the Region of Madrid (Spain). RESULTS: Prevalence rates based on the maximum dyadic report identified more aggressive behaviors than did individual reports of perpetration and victimization in men and women. Partner agreement about physical and psychological aggression was significant and moderate...
May 2018: Psicothema
María Beltrán-Catalán, Izabela Zych, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz, Vicente J Llorent
BACKGROUND: Bullying and cyberbullying are global public health problems. However, very few studies described prevalence, similarities and differences among face-to-face victims, cybervictims and students who are victimised through both bullying and cyberbullying. This study was conducted to describe these different patterns of victimisation and severity of victimisation, emotional intelligence and technology use in different types of victims. METHOD: A total number of 2,139 secondary school students from 22 schools, randomly selected from all provinces of Andalusia, Spain, participated in this study...
May 2018: Psicothema
Ascensión Fumero, Rosario J Marrero, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that includes positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. The healthy schizotypal model suggests that positive schizotypal features could be associated with better psychological functioning. The aim of this study was to analyze whether schizotypal features are associated with subjective and psychological well-being, and consider whether psychotic-like experiences affect well-being. METHOD: These relationships were investigated in two hundred non-clinical Spanish adults (mean age = 34...
May 2018: Psicothema
Matias M Pulopulos, Vanesa Hidalgo, Sara Puig-Pérez, Alicia Salvador
BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors involved in the psychophysiological response of people in acute stressful situations is crucial to the prevention and treatment of stress-related health problems. We aim to integrate the results of studies investigating the role of sex and age in the inter-individual variability in several biomarkers of the stress response. METHODS: We summarize the main findings of our research group and other laboratories regarding sex and age-related differences in the psychophysiological response to psychosocial stress...
May 2018: Psicothema
Mª C Díaz-González, Carolina Pérez Dueñas, Araceli Sánchez-Raya, Juan A Moriana Elvira, Vicente Sánchez Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a strong movement to implement mindfulness interventions with young people. The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the potential effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for adolescent outpatients in mental health facilities in Cordoba, Spain. METHOD: A total of 101 adolescents aged 13-16 years old, receiving psychological or psychiatric treatment for various disorders, were eligible for the study...
May 2018: Psicothema
Alfredo Ardila
BACKGROUND: Since the mid 19th century, cognitive and behavioral neurosciences have attempted to find the neurological bases of intellectual abilities. During the early 20th century the psychometric concept of "intelligence" was coined; and toward the end of the 20th century the neuropsychological concept of "executive functions" was introduced. Controversies, however, remain about the unity or heterogeneity of so-called executive functions. METHODS: It is proposed that two major executive functions could be separated: metacognitive -or intelectual- and emotional/motivational...
May 2018: Psicothema
Javier Suárez-Álvarez, Ignacio Pedrosa, Luis M Lozano, Eduardo García-Cueto, Marcelino Cuesta, José Muñiz
BACKGROUND: The use of positively worded items and reversed forms aims to reduce response bias and is a commonly used practice nowadays. The main goal of this research is to analyze the psychometric implications of the use of positive and reversed items in measurement instruments. METHOD: A sample of 374 participants was tested aged between 18 and 73 (M=33.98; SD=14.12), 62.60% were women. A repeated measures design was used, evaluating the participants with positive, reversed, and combined forms of a self-efficacy test...
May 2018: Psicothema
Arnold B Bakker, Pilar Ficapal-Cusí, Joan Torrent-Sellens, Joan Boada-Grau, Pedro M Hontangas-Beltrán
BACKGROUND: A literature review reveals that there is no measure of job crafting available in Spanish. This paper presents the translation, adaptation and validation of a scale to measure job crafting behaviors (i.e. the Spanish Job Crafting Scale – SJCS; Tims, Bakker, & Derks, 2012). METHODS: The scale was applied to a sample of 896 employees in Spain (52.26% women and 47.4% men). We tested the reliability and factorial validity of the 21-item instrument...
February 2018: Psicothema
Elena R Serrano-Ibáñez, Gema T Ruiz-Párraga, Rosa Esteve, Carmen Ramírez-Maestre, Alicia E López-Martínez
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequently used instruments to assess posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale. However, there has been limited evaluation of its construct validity in the Spanish language despite Spanish being one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. OBJECTIVE: To provide data on the psychometric properties of the CPSS in a sample of Spanish adolescents, to establish the internal consistency of the measure, and to examine its criterion validity...
February 2018: Psicothema
David Tomé Lourido, Constantino Arce, Dolores Ponte
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the conceptualisation and assessment of athletes’ psychological skills and the study of their impact on sports performance. The aim of this study was to adapt the Test of Performance Strategies 3 competition subscale to the Spanish context. METHOD: The items included in the original test in English were translated using a double-back method, and the test was completed by a sample of 1,003 Spanish athletes of both sexes...
February 2018: Psicothema
Rubén Martín Payo, Xana González Méndez, Cristina Papín Cano, Javier Suárez Álvarez
BACKGROUND: The aim ofthis study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Motiva.Diaf-DM2 questionnaire, which assesses adherence to a healthy diet and physical activity in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). METHOD: Participants were 206 patients who attended primary care services, with a mean age of 69.63 years (SD = 11.05), with 39.3% of the participants being women. To assess the test-retest reliability of the measure, a random subsample (n = 40) of patients who had another appointment scheduled was selected to fill in the questionnaire once again two weeks after the initial administration...
February 2018: Psicothema
Ana M Ruiz-Ruano García, Jorge López Puga
BACKGROUND: The p-value is currently one of the key elements for testing statistical hypothesis despite its critics. Bayesian statistics and Bayes Factors have been proposed as alternatives to improve the scientific decision making when testing a hypothesis. This study compares the performance of two Bayes Factor estimations (the BIC-based Bayes Factor and the Vovk-Sellke p-value calibration) with the p-value when the null hypothesis holds. METHOD: A million pairs of independent data sets were simulated...
February 2018: Psicothema
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