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Francisco L Atienza González, Isabel Balaguer Solá, Nuno Corte-Real, António M Fonseca
BACKGROUND: The Satisfaction with Life Scale is one of the most widely used scales to measure the global cognitive judgment of satisfaction with one’s life. METHOD: This study assesses the equivalence of the SWLS across Spanish and Portuguese adolescents, using multi-sample Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Participants were Spanish (N = 2183) and Portuguese (N = 4082) junior high school. RESULTS: The results provide high support for the internal consistency of both the Spanish and Portuguese versions of this scale...
August 2016: Psicothema
Manuel Martín-Fernández, Vicente Ponsoda, Julio Olea, Pei-Chun Shih, Javier Revuelta
BACKGROUND: Multistage adaptive testing has recently emerged as an alternative to the computerized adaptive test. The current study details a new multistage test to assess fluid intelligence. METHOD: An item pool of progressive matrices with constructed response format was developed, and divided into six subtests. The subtests were applied to a sample of 724 college students and their psychometric properties were studied (i.e., reliability, dimensionality and validity evidence)...
August 2016: Psicothema
María E Trigo Sánchez, Rafael J Martínez Cervantes
BACKGROUND: Psychological and educational researchers are experiencing many practical difficulties in following the guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) for their statistical analyses: one such difficulty is the reporting of an effect-size measure along with each test of statistical significance (APA, 2010). The problem is exacerbated when researchers focus on contrast analysis instead of omnibus tests and when the Type-I error rate per comparison has to be adjusted...
August 2016: Psicothema
Guillermo Vallejo, Manuel Ato, Paula Fernández García, Pablo E Livacic Rojas, Ellián Tuero Herrero
BACKGROUND:  S. Usami (2014) describes a method to realistically determine sample size in longitudinal research using a multilevel model. The present research extends the aforementioned work to situations where it is likely that the assumption of homogeneity of the errors across groups is not met and the error term does not follow a scaled identity covariance structure.  METHOD:  For this purpose, we followed a procedure based on transforming the variance components of the linear growth model and the parameter related to the treatment effect into specific and easily understandable indices...
August 2016: Psicothema
Manuel Villadangos, José Errasti, Isaac Amigo, Darrick Jolliffe, Eduardo García-Cueto
BACKGROUND: Empathy is a personality feature that can play a major role in predicting the emotional and social functioning of adolescents (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006). Recent research confirms the existence of two fundamental dimensions embedded within this construct, Affective Empathy (experiencing a congruent emotional response with another person) and Cognitive Empathy (understanding rationally the emotions of another person). The Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006) is an up-to-date instrument which has been reported to satisfactorily measure these two dimensions...
August 2016: Psicothema
José J Gázquez, M C Pérez-Fuentes, M M Molero, Ana B Barragán Martín, África Martos Martínez, Cristina Sánchez-Marchán
BACKGROUND: Aggressive behavior in adolescents, along with drug use, has become one of the great issues in education in recent years, among other things, due to its relationship with school failure and delinquency. The purpose of this paper was to find out whether social support fulfils a basic role in decision-making on drug use and the behavior of adolescents. METHOD: 822 high school students participated in the study (M = 14.84, SD = 0.87). Data were collected with the Peer Conflict Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and an ad hoc questionnaire on drug use...
August 2016: Psicothema
Verónica Betancor Rodríguez, Eva Ariño Mateo, Armando Rodríguez-Pérez, Naira Delgado Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Research on infrahumanization shows there is a strong tendency to deprive outgroups of the ability to experience secondary emotions when compared to ingroups. However, it is not known whether this tendency is also applied to social groups towards which ambivalent attitudes are held, such as individuals with Down syndrome. METHODS: In the first study, participants were asked to attribute primary and secondary emotions to members of the ingroup (students) and outgroup (individuals with Down syndrome)...
August 2016: Psicothema
Saray Bonete, Clara Molinero, Sara Mata, M D Calero, M M Gómez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Children with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently present a deficit in interpersonal and social problem solving skills. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Programme for Children (SCI-Children) comprises 10 weekly, one hour sessions working on interpersonal abilities from a mediation strategy for training purposes. METHOD: The first study explores the effectiveness of training through pre- and post-treatment evaluations of a sample of 22 children with ASD (7-13 years of age)...
August 2016: Psicothema
Carles Barcons, Oriol Cunillera, Vanesa Miquel, Irene Ardèvol, Mark Beyebach
BACKGROUND: Combining strategies and techniques from different therapeutic approaches is a common procedure in routine mental health practice. It has been claimed that the integration of systemic brief therapies offers useful psychotherapeutic alternatives, especially in our overloaded public mental health services. However, this claim has rarely been put to the test, and comparison with well-established empirically-based treatments has been scarce. METHOD: Of 419 patients referred to an Adult Ambulatory Mental Health Service, 212 were allocated to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and 207 to an integrative Brief Systemic Therapy (BST)...
August 2016: Psicothema
Eliseo Diez-Itza, Verónica Martínez, Aránzazu Antón
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability and characterised by displaying an atypical neuropsychological profile, with peaks and valleys, where language skills seem better preserved than non-verbal intelligence. METHOD: This study researches the narrative competence of nine Spanish-speaking adults with WS. Oral narratives were elicited from a silent film, and narrative coherence was analysed as a function of sequential order of the events narrated at three structure levels, while narrative cohesion was assessed through the frequency of use and type of discourse markers...
August 2016: Psicothema
Núria Voltas, Carmen Hernández-Martínez, Victoria Arija, Josefa Canals
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a period of vulnerability regarding the emergence of internalizing disorders such as anxiety. Anxiety symptoms can persist into adulthood and involve negative outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine the developmental trajectory of several anxiety subtypes by gender, in a non-clinical sample of early adolescents over three phases. METHOD: Using a prospective design, 1514 children (mean-age = 10.23, SD = 1.23) underwent anxiety and depression screening in the first phase...
August 2016: Psicothema
Elena Fernández Del Río, Ana López-Durán, Úrsula Martínez, Elisardo Becoña
BACKGROUND: There is consistent evidence about the relationship between smoking and mental health. This study compares the relationship between tobacco use and personality disorders (PDs) in Spanish adults from general and clinical population, taking into account nicotine dependence (ND), and the presence of any mental disorder. METHOD: The sample was made up of 1,079 smokers (519 from general population, 560 from clinical population). PDs were assessed by means of the International Personality Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Module DSM-IV...
August 2016: Psicothema
Elvira Medina Ruiz, Gustavo Marcos-Matás, Manuel E Medina Tornero
BACKGROUND: The presence of older volunteers in third-sector organisations has increased in recent years. In this sense, it is important to know what institutions can do in order to retain these volunteers. The present study analyses organisational support to volunteers and their satisfaction with the tasks they perform as explanatory factors of satisfaction with organisational management and the relationship between the organisation and volunteers’ intention of remaining in service...
August 2016: Psicothema
Carmen Berrocal Montiel, Teresa Rivas Moya, Francesca Venditti, Olivia Bernini
BACKGROUND: This study explored the contribution of Psychological Flexibility (PF) to predict adjustment to breast cancer. METHOD: Sixty-four females with breast cancer completed self-report measures of PF and adjustment (anxiety, depression, negative and positive affect) at baseline, and forty-two patients returned for assessment six months later. RESULTS: Higher flexibility at baseline significantly contributed to predict lower anxiety, depression and negative affect at follow-up...
August 2016: Psicothema
Manuel Fernández-Alcántara, Miguel Pérez-García, M N Pérez-Marfil, Andrés Catena-Martínez, César Hueso-Montoro, Francisco Cruz-Quintana
BACKGROUND: Intense and complex symptoms of grief seem to be related to a series of biases and difficulties in areas such as attention, autobiographical memory and problem solving. However, studies of neuropsychological performance have reported contradictory evidence. The role of executive function (EF) in bereaved individuals has not been systematically studied by differentiating between its components. METHOD: A total of 38 participants who had experienced the death of a loved one participated in this study...
August 2016: Psicothema
Débora Areces, Luis J Rodríguez Muñiz, Javier Suárez Álvarez, Yolanda de la Roca, Marisol Cueli
INTRODUCTION: Searching for information is a necessary step for young people to decide what to study and prevent school drop-out. The aim of this study is to identify the main sources of information used by students in choosing a university career and to assess the degree of usefulness of these sources. METHOD: A new measuring instrument to assess the use and usefulness of the information sources used in choosing university studies was developed. 2,005 high school students aged 17 to 24 (M = 17...
August 2016: Psicothema
Carina Carbia, Montserrat Corral, Luis M García-Moreno, Fernando Cadaveira, Francisco Caamaño-Isorna
BACKGROUND: Adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol.  Plus, psychopathological disorders tend to emerge in this period. Consequently, early alcohol use may increase the risk of psychopathological disorders, with time and sex-dependent effects. However, few studies have analyzed the relationship between alcohol consumption and adolescent psychopathology in the general population. The objective was to determine the association between age of onset of alcohol use and psychopathological symptoms in university students, separately for both sexes...
August 2016: Psicothema
Ignacio Fernández-Arias, Gloria García-Fernández, Mónica Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Francisco J Estupiñá Puig, Francisco J Labrador Encinas, Marta Labrador-Méndez
BACKGROUND: Empirically supported psychological treatments (ESTs) have demonstrated their effectiveness and clinical utility for the treatment of anxiety disorders (AD) but few studies have assessed the factors associated with premature termination in ESTs for AD. METHOD: The goals of this study, which involved 291 patients with a diagnosis of anxiety who had received outpatient psychological care, consisted of examining premature termination of treatment (PTT), comparing the individual characteristics of the patients who successfully completed treatment with those who terminate it prematurely, and analyzing the predictors of PTT...
August 2016: Psicothema
Amparo Carreras Alabau, José A Carrobles Isabel, Carmen Almendros Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Stress is a known risk factor in addiction relapse, and prior studies show that relapse induced by stress may be more likely than drug-cue induced relapse. The main goal of our research was to establish the influence of perceived stress in methadone withdrawal outcome and the psychological factors involved. METHOD: A sample of 81 methadone maintenance treatment outpatients was evaluated and then observed during methadone dose reduction. RESULTS: a multivariate analysis first showed that successful detoxification was predicted by perceived stress, patient-clinic staff agreement, pharmacotherapy support and social care; and second, perceived stress was predicted by anxiety, depression, self-control, social care and benzodiazepine use...
August 2016: Psicothema
Rocío Polo-López, Karmele Salaberria, María S Cruz-Sáez, Enrique Echeburua
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, research shows that families of people affected by severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction) may suffer emotional distress and lack of self-esteem. AIMS: In this study, long-term effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed for relatives of people with severe mental illness was evaluated. METHOD: A total of 30 relatives living with a person affected by a severe mental disorder received 10 sessions of tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy...
August 2016: Psicothema
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