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Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Eman Abd, Heather A E Benson, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey E Grice
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate transfollicular delivery enhancement of caffeine from nanoemulsion formulations incorporating oleic acid (OA) and eucalyptol (EU) as chemical penetration enhancers. METHODS: Caffeine permeation was evaluated from nanoemulsions containing OA or EU and an aqueous control solution through excised human full-thickness skin with hair follicles opened, blocked, or left untreated. Differential tape stripping was performed, followed by cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies to determine the amount of caffeine in the hair follicles, and skin extraction to determine the retention of caffeine in the skin...
July 12, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Delaram Farzanfar, Yekta Dowlati, Lars E French, Michelle A Lowes, Afsaneh Alavi
The prevalence of affective disorders such as depression and anxiety is particularly high in patients with autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hidradenitis suppurativa. A dysregulated immune response has been linked to the precipitation of depression in many patient populations. However, studies examining the extent to which the underlying skin disease inflammatory processes contribute to depression and a subsequent decline in quality of life are limited...
June 28, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Sebastian Batz, Caroline Wahrlich, Arash Alawi, Martina Ulrich, Jürgen Lademann
BACKGROUND: Early detection of various types of nonmelanoma skin cancer has been a challenge in dermatology. Noninvasive examination procedures such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) play an increasingly important role, besides the established gold standard of histological tissue sample analysis. OCT is a noninvasive, cross-sectional, real-time technique that allows conclusions to be drawn with regard to the presence of pathologies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish between different types of nonmelanoma skin cancer using OCT or not...
June 12, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Lujun Yang, Dangui Zhang, Hongjuan Wu, Sitian Xie, Mingjun Zhang, Bingna Zhang, Shijie Tang
AIMS: To elucidate the possible mechanisms of how basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influences epidermal homeostasis in a living skin equivalent (LSE) model. METHODS: Several wound healing-related growth factors were analyzed at protein and mRNA levels for dermal fibroblasts of induced alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive or α-SMA-negative phenotypes. During culturing an LSE model by seeding normal human keratinocytes on a fibroblast-populated type I collagen gel, bFGF or neutralizing antibody for keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) was added to investigate its effects on fibroblast phenotypes and, subsequently, epidermal homeostasis by histology and immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mathias Rohr, Nikolai Ernst, Andreas Schrader
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to define a label sun protection factor (SPF) of topically applied sunscreens, in vivo test methods like ISO 24444, FDA guideline, or the Australian standard are used worldwide. The basis of all these methods is provoking an erythemal skin reaction by UV irradiation to find the level of unprotected and protected minimal erythemal doses (MED). In vitro methods replacing the human skin by any kind of non-human material are still not available. Thus, offering the new hybrid diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (HDRS) technique that is able to stay on an in vivo level for SPF testing but meanwhile neglecting the UV-dose-related erythemal skin reaction is a perfect combination to take care of sun protection and any ethical concerns in SPF testing nowadays...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Lutz Schmitz, Girish Gupta, Marc Hanno Segert, Ricarda Kost, Julia Sternberg, Thilo Gambichler, Eggert Stockfleth, Thomas Dirschka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Actinic keratosis area and severity index (AKASI) is a new assessment tool to quantify the severity of actinic damage on the head. Thus far, it has not been evaluated in monitoring the efficacy of field-directed topical treatments in actinic keratosis (AK) in routine clinical practice. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine treatment outcomes by using AKASI 3 months after the initiation of topical application of diclofenac sodium 3% in hyaluronic acid 2.5% gel (DFS) in patients with AKs on the head...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Ok-Kyung Kim, Minhee Lee, Han Ol Kwon, Dasom Lee, Jeongjin Park, Eungpil Kim, Yanghee You, Young Tae Lim, Woojin Jun, Jeongmin Lee
We investigated the potential effects of Costaria costata (CC) on atopic dermatitis (AD) development in chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. CC is a brown alga distributed across the seas of Korea, China, and Japan. A total of 40 mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 8 mice per group: untreated Balb/c mice, AD control (0.1% w/v DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice), positive control (i.e., DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 66.6 mg/kg of body weight [b.w.] of CJLP133), DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 100 mg/kg b...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Clara Barba Albanell, Victor Carrer, Meritxell Marti, Jordi Iglesias, Joan Iglesias, Luisa Coderch
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Wool wax is a soft, yellow, waxy substance that is secreted by the sebaceous glands of sheep. The purpose of wool wax is to waterproof and protect the wool. Chemically, wool wax is a complex mixture of esters, fatty acids, and alcohols. Wool waxes with different prop-erties can be obtained by following different extraction methodologies. METHODS: Two differently extracted wool waxes are compared in this study. Their effectiveness in mimicking the properties of skin lipids is evaluated...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Kenji Goto, Keiichi Hiramoto, Mayu Kawakita, Miyu Yamaoka, Kazuya Ooi
BACKGROUND: Dry skin induced by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes itching, which negatively influences a patient's quality of life. We previously reported that mast cells are related to dry skin in arthritic mice. However, the mechanism of mast cell activation is unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the formation of dry skin induced by mast cells in arthritis that involves thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), neutrophils, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glucocorticoids...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Andrea Combalia, Ricardo A Losno, Sergio Prieto-González, J Manuel Mascaró
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a frequent mast cell-driven disease that affects approximately 0.5-1% of the population. Antihistamines are currently the drugs of choice in patients with CSU. Omalizumab has been shown to be very effective in CSU and has been recently approved as second-line therapy. However, although its introduction has markedly improved the therapeutic possibilities for CSU, there is still a hard core of patients who do not respond and require effective treatment...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Chisong Lee, Younghyon Andrew Eom, Huisuk Yang, Mingyu Jang, Sang Uk Jung, Ye Oak Park, Si Eun Lee, Hyungil Jung
BACKGROUND: Horse oil (HO) has skin barrier restoration and skin-moisturizing effects. Although cream formulations have been used widely and safely, their limited penetration through the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to maximizing the cosmetic efficacy of HO. Therefore, we aimed to encapsulate HO in a cosmetic dissolving microneedle (DMN) for efficient transdermal delivery. METHODS: To overcome these limitations of skin permeation, HO-loaded DMN (HO-DMN) patches were developed and evaluated for their efficacy and safety using in vitro and clinical studies...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Evangelia Meimeti, Antonios Kafanas, Panagoula Pavlou, Antonia Evangelatou, Panagiota Tsouparelou, Stelios Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis Kipouros, Nikolaos Koliarakis, Georgios Leonis, Efstathia Ioannou, Vassilios Roussis, Michail Rallis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is no treatment, without side effects, efficiently preventing or curing skin burns, caused by radiotherapy. A new experimental topical treatment protocol was assessed in mice receiving orthovoltage X-rays at an equivalent dose to that applied to human breast cancer patients in conventional radiotherapy. METHODS: SKH-HR2 female hairless mice were irradiated on their dorsum with a total dose of 4,300 cGy during a 1-month period (20 fractions)...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Merve Akdeniz, Heiner Boeing, Ursula Müller-Werdan, Volkan Aykac, Annika Steffen, Mareike Schell, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Jan Kottner
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inadequate fluid intake is assumed to be a trigger of water-loss dehydration, which is a major health risk in aged and geriatric populations. Thus, there is a need to search for easy to use diagnostic tests to identify dehydration. Our overall aim was to investigate whether skin barrier parameters could be used for predicting fluid intake and/or hydration status in geriatric patients. METHODS: An explorative observational comparative study was conducted in a geriatric hospital including patients aged 65 years and older...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Thomas L Diepgen, Joachim Kresken, Jean Krutmann, Hans F Merk, Erik Senger, Christian Surber, Rolf-Markus Szeimies
In 2015, the International League of Dermatological Societies and the European Dermatology Forum published a guideline for the treatment of actinic keratosis, which is classified as an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline. From the point of view of the GD Task Force "Licht.Hautkrebs.Prävention," an interdisciplinary expert panel of the Society for Dermopharmacy for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer, this guideline reveals strengths and weaknesses but, in summary, does not meet the claim for an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Joachim Kresken, Ursula Kindl, Walter Wigger-Alberti, Benjamin M Clanner-Engelshofen, Markus Reinholz
Rosacea is a widespread inflammatory skin disease that is chronically recurrent and affects predominately the central parts of the face. Affected individuals typically react to numerous cosmetics with redness, burning, and/or worsening of the complexion. Consequently, there is a high demand for dermocosmetics that do not provoke such reactions and are suitable for use in rosacea. The present guideline of the Society for Dermopharmacy describes the requirements that dermocosmetics for use in rosacea should meet...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Jin Kyung Seok, Jeong-Won Lee, Young Mi Kim, Yong Chool Boo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) causes oxidative damage, inflammation, and premature skin aging. In this study, we evaluated whether polyphenolic antioxidants attenuate the inflammatory responses of PM10-exposed keratinocytes. METHODS: Primary human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed in vitro to PM10 in the absence or presence of punicalagin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which are the major polyphenolic antioxidants found in pomegranate and green tea, respectively...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Işın Sinem Bağcı, Cristel Ruini, Anne-Charlotte Niesert, Orsolya N Horváth, Carola Berking, Thomas Ruzicka, Tanja von Braunmühl
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ethnic skin types are known to differ in their morphological and physiological features. Thus, treatment responses may vary among different races. We aimed to assess skin morphology of different ethnicities and to compare the effect of short-term moisturizer application using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). METHODS: Thirty healthy female subjects of European, Asian and Black ethnicity at 30-45 years of age were included in the study...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Eva K B Pfannes, Lina Weiss, Sabrina Hadam, Jessica Gonnet, Béhazine Combardière, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Annika Vogt
The success of topically applied treatments on skin relies on the efficacy of skin penetration. In order to increase particle or product penetration, mild skin barrier disruption methods can be used. We previously described cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping as an efficient method to open hair follicles, enhance particle penetration, and activate Langerhans cells. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo measurements on human skin to characterize the biological effect and quantify barrier disruption-related inflammation on a molecular level...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Jukkarin Srivilai, Kanjana Nontakhot, Thanawan Nutuan, Neti Waranuch, Nantaka Khorana, Wudtichai Wisuthiprot, C Norman Scholfield, Katechan Champachaisri, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
BACKGROUND: Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. inhibit steroid 5α-reductase and dihydrotestosterone production, and reverse androgenic alopecia. This study sought to show that a high sesquiterpene C. aeruginosa extract (CA-ext) retards axillary hair growth in women. METHODS: Thirty women (age 20-52 years) were recruited into a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention for CA-ext treatment, where they were randomly allocated to a left or right armpit group...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Wei Liu, Xiaochuan Pan, Andrea Vierkötter, Qun Guo, Xuying Wang, Qiaowei Wang, Sophie Seité, Dominique Moyal, Tamara Schikowski, Jean Krutmann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is increasing evidence that exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), might aggravate preexisting skin diseases such as eczema and urticaria. Here we investigated if a possible link exists between air pollution and acne vulgaris. We assessed the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and the number of visits of patients for acne vulgaris to a dermatological outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2014...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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