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Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Camila O Vieira, Jeffrey E Grice, Michael S Roberts, Isha N Haridass, Marcelo Dutra Duque, Patrícia S Lopes, Vânia R Leite-Silva, Tereza S Martins
AIM: We evaluated the effects of the incorporation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in a mesoporous matrix, aiming to improve the textural, structural and morphological properties and verify their safety so that they can be applied in sunscreen cosmetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnO nano-particles were incorporated into an ordered mesoporous silica matrix known as Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), using post-synthesis methodology. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and predicted in vitro sun protector factor (SPF) estimation...
October 31, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Santo Scalia, Sarah Battaglioli, Anna Bianchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The data available on the skin permeability of ethylhexyl triazone (EHT), a widely used high-molecular-weight (823.1-Da) UV filter, are scarce and obtained only via in vitro studies. Therefore, we evaluated in vivo the penetration of EHT in human stratum corneum by the tape stripping technique. Moreover, the effect of EHT encapsulation in lipid microparticles (LMs) on its diffusion through the stratum corneum was examined. METHODS: LMs loaded with EHT were prepared using glyceryl behenate and phosphatidylcholine...
October 31, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Astrid Pany, Victoria Klang, Marion Brunner, Johanna Ruthofer, Elisabeth Schwarz, Claudia Valenta
BACKGROUND: Although very common in our society, the effect of hair removal on physiological skin parameters and on the ingress of applied chemicals has not been systematically investigated. Thus, as a first step, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of hair removal through epilation (electric epilation, waxing) and depilation (dry and wet shaving, depilatory cream) on skin properties in vitro using the porcine ear model. METHODS: Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, measurement of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL), visualization by capacitance-based contact imaging, confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS), diffusion cell studies and tape stripping experiments were employed...
October 19, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Peter M Elias, Joan S Wakefield, Mao-Qiang Man
We compare here the principal characteristics of over-the-counter moisturizers with physiologic lipid-based barrier repair therapy. Moisturizers are standard ancillary therapy for anti-inflammatory skin disorders, like atopic dermatitis (AD), and can attenuate the emergence of AD, the initial step in the "atopic march." But not all moisturizers are beneficial; some can make skin function worse, and can even induce inflammation, possibly accounting for the frequent occurrence of "sensitive skin" in women...
October 18, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Kamila Zduńska, Agnieszka Dana, Anna Kolodziejczak, Helena Rotsztejn
Ferulic acid has low toxicity and possesses many physiological functions (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, and antidiabetic effect). It has been widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industry. Ferulic acid is a free radical scavenger, but also an inhibitor of enzymes that catalyze free radical generation and an enhancer of scavenger enzyme activity. Ferulic acid has a protective role for the main skin structures: keratinocytes, fibroblasts, collagen, elastin...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mridvika Narda, Laurent Peno-Mazzarino, Jean Krutmann, Carles Trullas, Corinne Granger
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in skin has been associated with skin aging. Inhibition of glycation of proteins of extracellular matrix may help skin texture and appearance. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the antiglycation activity of topically applied carnosine and novel facial cream (FC) containing carnosine in human skin explants ex vivo. METHODS: Glycation was induced in human skin explants by methylglyoxal (MG) in culture media...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mahsa Sabouri, Aniseh Samadi, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Effat Sadat Farboud, Bahareh Mirrahimi, Hournaz Hassanzadeh, Mansour Nassiri Kashani, Rassoul Dinarvand, Alireza Firooz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory skin condition which is treated using Tretinoin (TRE), a widely used retinoid. Nano emulations (NEs) are colloidal nano-sized particles that enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRE and minimize adverse effects. This study is aimed at developing a TRE-loaded NE (NE-TRE) and at assessing the therapeutic effects of the formulation in acne vulgaris lesions, compared to conventional 0.05% TRE emulsion. METHOD: The high energy emulsification method was used to make NE-TRE...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Katharina Ossadnik, Sandra Philipp, Wolfgang Bost, Marc Fournelle, Heike Richter, Jürgen Lademann
Psoriasis is prone to relapses and requires long-term therapy that may induce a range of adverse effects; therefore, an efficient and early detection of relapses is desirable. In this study, photoacoustic imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) methods were investigated for their suitability in psoriasis follow-up examinations. Using a high-resolution photoacoustic system, the vascular structures of 11 psoriatic patients and 6 healthy volunteers were investigated. No differences were detected with respect to the average vessel diameter and vasculature per unit volume in the tissue of healthy volunteers and non-lesional and lesional skin areas of psoriatic patients...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Dindar S Bari, Haval Y Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy, Ørjan G Martinsen
BACKGROUND/AIM: Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a widely used measure in psychophysiological research, and its use in wearable devices has grown in recent times. It is recommended to have proper conditions for EDA measurement, and skin hydration is one factor that has a significant influence. It is, however, not known to what extent the ambient humidity influences the recording. This study explored the influence of relative humidity (RH) on EDA levels, and also the responses using a new technique for simultaneous recording of all measures of EDA: skin conductance (SC), skin susceptance (SS), and skin potential (SP) at the same skin site...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Johannes Wohlrab, Alexander Gabel, Martin Wolfram, Ivo Grosse, Reinhard H H Neubert, Sophie C Steinbach
Of particular importance for Stratum corneum (SC) lipids are the free fatty acids (FFAs). Age-related changes of the SC structure lead to diminished capacity for barrier compensation. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify even-numbered especially odd-numbered FFAs within the intercorneocytic lamellar lipid structures of the SC and to explore age- and diabetes-related changes in FFAs. Gas chromatography - flame ionisation detection was used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess FFAs extracted from the SC...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Jarika Kaewbanjong, Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Eliana B Souto, Prapaporn Boonme
AIM: Antifungal activity, skin permeation and skin retention of water-in-oil microemulsion (ME) and microemulsion-based gel (MBG) containing clotrimazole (CTZ) were evaluated in comparison to a conventional CTZ cream. METHODS: CTZ-ME and CTZ-MBG containing 1% w/w of CTZ were produced. Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was assessed by the agar diffusion method. Pig skin was used in the in vitro penetration study using modified Franz diffusion cells...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Philip Wertz
In the mid-1950s and 1960s, transmission electron microscopes became widely available, leading to many studies of the ultrastructure of various tissues including the epidermis. Most of these studies involved tissue fixation with formaldehyde and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. A few studies employed freeze-fracture electron microscopy. One set of these studies identified a small organelle variously called lamellar granules (LGs), lamellar bodies, membrane-coating granules, cementsomes, and Odland bodies...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Megan N Kelchen, Gopi Menon, Patrick Ten Eyck, Donald Prettypaul, Nicole K Brogden
Application of exogenous products, such as creams, to the skin can result in subclinical changes in selected epidermal functions such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration, redness, and pH; these changes may lead to or contribute to irritation. Changes in skin surface inflammatory factors may provide further insight into this potential for irritation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in epidermal properties and inflammatory mediators after 4 days of topical application of 2 different polymers formulated in cosmetic creams...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Franz Trautinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Eman Abd, Heather A E Benson, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey E Grice
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate transfollicular delivery enhancement of caffeine from nanoemulsion formulations incorporating oleic acid (OA) and eucalyptol (EU) as chemical penetration enhancers. METHODS: Caffeine permeation was evaluated from nanoemulsions containing OA or EU and an aqueous control solution through excised human full-thickness skin with hair follicles opened, blocked, or left untreated. Differential tape stripping was performed, followed by cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies to determine the amount of caffeine in the hair follicles, and skin extraction to determine the retention of caffeine in the skin...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Delaram Farzanfar, Yekta Dowlati, Lars E French, Michelle A Lowes, Afsaneh Alavi
The prevalence of affective disorders such as depression and anxiety is particularly high in patients with autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hidradenitis suppurativa. A dysregulated immune response has been linked to the precipitation of depression in many patient populations. However, studies examining the extent to which the underlying skin disease inflammatory processes contribute to depression and a subsequent decline in quality of life are limited...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Sebastian Batz, Caroline Wahrlich, Arash Alawi, Martina Ulrich, Jürgen Lademann
BACKGROUND: Early detection of various types of nonmelanoma skin cancer has been a challenge in dermatology. Noninvasive examination procedures such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) play an increasingly important role, besides the established gold standard of histological tissue sample analysis. OCT is a noninvasive, cross-sectional, real-time technique that allows conclusions to be drawn with regard to the presence of pathologies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to distinguish between different types of nonmelanoma skin cancer using OCT or not...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Lujun Yang, Dangui Zhang, Hongjuan Wu, Sitian Xie, Mingjun Zhang, Bingna Zhang, Shijie Tang
AIMS: To elucidate the possible mechanisms of how basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influences epidermal homeostasis in a living skin equivalent (LSE) model. METHODS: Several wound healing-related growth factors were analyzed at protein and mRNA levels for dermal fibroblasts of induced alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive or α-SMA-negative phenotypes. During culturing an LSE model by seeding normal human keratinocytes on a fibroblast-populated type I collagen gel, bFGF or neutralizing antibody for keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) was added to investigate its effects on fibroblast phenotypes and, subsequently, epidermal homeostasis by histology and immunohistochemistry...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mathias Rohr, Nikolai Ernst, Andreas Schrader
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to define a label sun protection factor (SPF) of topically applied sunscreens, in vivo test methods like ISO 24444, FDA guideline, or the Australian standard are used worldwide. The basis of all these methods is provoking an erythemal skin reaction by UV irradiation to find the level of unprotected and protected minimal erythemal doses (MED). In vitro methods replacing the human skin by any kind of non-human material are still not available. Thus, offering the new hybrid diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (HDRS) technique that is able to stay on an in vivo level for SPF testing but meanwhile neglecting the UV-dose-related erythemal skin reaction is a perfect combination to take care of sun protection and any ethical concerns in SPF testing nowadays...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Lutz Schmitz, Girish Gupta, Marc Hanno Segert, Ricarda Kost, Julia Sternberg, Thilo Gambichler, Eggert Stockfleth, Thomas Dirschka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Actinic keratosis area and severity index (AKASI) is a new assessment tool to quantify the severity of actinic damage on the head. Thus far, it has not been evaluated in monitoring the efficacy of field-directed topical treatments in actinic keratosis (AK) in routine clinical practice. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine treatment outcomes by using AKASI 3 months after the initiation of topical application of diclofenac sodium 3% in hyaluronic acid 2.5% gel (DFS) in patients with AKs on the head...
2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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