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Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Johannes Wohlrab, Reinhard H H Neubert, Elfi Sommer, Julia Michael
Mometasone furoate (MMF) is a modern glucocorticoid of the 4th generation, which has been proven not only for inhalation but also for cutaneous treatment. Due to its lipophilic character, it is mainly used in ointments and creams with an outer lipophilic phase (W/O type). However, this study investigated the cutaneous cytotoxicology of MMF and tried to characterize its pharmacokinetic effects on the skin using an O/W preparation. An HPLC method has been developed and validated for the detection of MMF in cutaneous tissue, and concentration-time curves of MMF were created after cutaneous application on unaffected as well as lesional skin...
December 8, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Dorothee Daehnhardt, Stephan Daehnhardt-Pfeiffer, Judith Schulte-Walter, Thomas Neubourg, Eckhard Hanisch, Christel Schmetz, Marion Breuer, Regina Fölster-Holst
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dry skin, or xerosis, is a common condition and a key feature of skin diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD) and ichthyosis vulgaris. Foot xerosis may exist without underlying disease and could be related to very mild forms of AD or ichthyosis vulgaris. The synthesis of important skin lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) is reduced in xerosis and AD, and reduced lipid synthesis is responsible for a lack of lipids and enzymes in the skin barrier. This slows down reorganisation of the lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum (SC)...
November 22, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Cornelia Wiegand, Sarah Fink, Oliver Beier, Kerstin Horn, Andreas Pfuch, Arnd Schimanski, Bernd Grünler, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner
BACKGROUND: Application of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPs) in or on the human body was termed 'plasma medicine'. So far, plasmas were utilized for sterilization of implants, other heat-sensitive products, or employed for chemical surface modifications. By now, CAPs are further used effectively for wound treatment. The present study analyses the effect of a plasma jet with air or nitrogen as process gas, previously evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy, on human cells using a 3D skin model...
November 4, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Wenna Zhou, Heng Xu, Guangxiang Luan, HongLun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Mingkai Ji
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed oil of Caragana korshinskii Kom. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes on an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. METHODS: The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. mentagrophytes, and the animals were divided into five groups: negative control (NC group), positive control (PC group), vehicle control, CK50% group (received topical 50% seed oil of C.korshinskii), and CK100% group (received topical 100% seed oil of C...
September 16, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Anna Färber, Rolf Daniels
Triterpenes of the outer bark of birch are known to improve wound healing. An oleogel with these triterpenes as active principle is approved by the European Medicines Agency. As foams can be applied without touching the skin, they might be an advantageous application form. A comparable wound-healing effect can be expected when the permeation flux of the triterpenes from different types of formulations, namely oleogels, water-in-oil emulsions and water-in-oil foams, is similar. The tested formulations were based on three lipids (medium-chain trigylcerides, sunflower oil and paraffin) which differ in their polarity and solvent power for the triterpenes...
September 16, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Mami Yokota, Yoshihiro Tokudome
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advanced glycation end products, which are linked to both aging and hyperglycemia, cause marked functional and structural alterations in human skin. Though it is well known that the metabolism of glucose is closely associated with that of fatty acid (FA), sharing the same energy-yielding reaction pathways as glucose, its effect on the epidermis has been unclear so far. METHODS: Content of ceramides, cholesterol and FA in a reconstructed epidermal model glycated by glyoxal was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography...
August 23, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Hassaan Tohid, Daniyal Aleem, Chantal Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to highlight the mechanisms involved and the relationship between depression and psoriasis. METHOD: A comprehensive literature search was performed in various databases, and finally 88 studies were deemed relevant. RESULTS: A significant link was found between depression and psoriasis, primarily through immune mechanisms related but not limited to the actions of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-10, interferon-γ, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and IL-8...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Antonella Casiraghi, Umberto M Musazzi, Paolo Rocco, Silvia Franzè, Paola Minghetti
BACKGROUND/AIM: Topical β-blockers have recently been proposed as a valid alternative to oral drugs for treating cutaneous infantile haemangiomas, but clinical results in the literature are inconsistent due to the empirical choice of topical preparations. The current investigation aimed to rationalize the selection of a semi-solid vehicle for a locally applied drug product containing 1% w/w propranolol hydrochloride (PR-Cl). METHODS: A hydrophobic ointment of PR-Cl, two lipophilic creams, and a hydrophilic cream were prepared...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Gunhyuk Park, Dal-Seok Oh, Yong-Ung Kim, Moon-Ki Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Wound healing is a complex regeneration process involving the degradation and reassembly of connective tissues and skin layers. Previous studies have shown that pH plays a significant role in both the direct and indirect regulation of cellular processes in the wound, which, in turn, affect the wound healing process. However, the effects of pH on the collagen breakdown component of wound healing have yet to be investigated. Therefore, we investigated the induction of accelerated collagen breakdown by pH imbalance in the skin...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Jazli Aziz, Hafiz Shezali, Zamri Radzi, Noor Azlin Yahya, Noor Hayaty Abu Kassim, Jan Czernuszka, Mohammad Tariqur Rahman
Collagen and elastin networks make up the majority of the extracellular matrix in many organs, such as the skin. The mechanisms which are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium of these networks are numerous, involving the regulation of genetic expression, growth factor secretion, signalling pathways, secondary messaging systems, and ion channel activity. However, many factors are capable of disrupting these pathways, which leads to an imbalance of homeostatic equilibrium. Ultimately, this leads to changes in the physical nature of skin, both functionally and cosmetically...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Iman Seleit, Ola Ahmed Bakry, Hala Saed El Repey, Raghdaa Ali
Skin is a target organ of sex steroids which play important roles in skin health and disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and androgen receptor (AR) in human skin from different age groups for a better understanding of the hormonal regulation of skin aging. Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, biopsies of sun-unprotected and sun-protected skin were taken from 60 normal subjects. Sun-protected skin showed significantly higher immunoreactivity for ERβ and AR compared to sun-unprotected skin of all age groups...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Estibalitz Fernández, Lluís Fajarí, Gelen Rodríguez, Mercedes Cócera, Verónica Moner, Lucyanna Barbosa-Barros, Christina S Kamma-Lorger, Alfonso de la Maza, Olga López
AIM: In this work the effect of infrared (IR) radiation, at temperatures between 25 and 30°C, on the formation of free radicals (FRs) in the skin is studied. Additionally, the influence of IR radiation at high temperatures in the degradation of skin collagen is evaluated. In both experiments the protective effect against IR radiation of phospholipid nanostructures (bicosomes) incorporating β-carotene (Bcb) is also evaluated. METHODS: The formation of FRs in skin under IR exposure was measured near physiological temperatures (25-30°C) using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Schapoor Hessam, Michael Sand, Dimitrios Georgas, Agnes Anders, Falk G Bechara
BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial colonization in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) lesions is poorly understood. To date, data on the related microbial profile and especially on bacterial resistance rates are scarce. METHODS: The results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility patterns of the isolated microorganisms obtained from deep portions of HS lesions from patients who underwent surgery at our HS Centre between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Analyses of 113 bacterial samples from 113 HS patients revealed bacterial growth in 95 samples (84...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
The present study assessed the possibility for the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) as an antiaging compound for the skin by assaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), a biomarker of senescence and cell viability. The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased in SA-β-Gal-positive cells in cultured human fibroblasts and mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly inhibited the effect of SNP. Moreover, SNP induced cell death in cultured mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly prevented NO stress-induced death of keratinocytes...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Sabine Sawatzky, Marianne Schario, Andrea Stroux, Lena Lünnemann, Torsten Zuberbier, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Natalie Garcia Bartels
BACKGROUND: Dry skin is a common skin condition in childhood. Few studies exist investigating the influence of daily skin care on dry skin in infants at risk of developing atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to assess the effect of skin care on dry skin in this special cohort using validated scores for AD and analysis of skin microtopography. METHODS: 43 children were randomized to group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2) and 22 infants to group 3 (G3). During 16 weeks, G1 and G3 applied daily a plant-based emollient and G2 a petrolatum-based emollient...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Simon G Danby, Kirsty Brown, Tim Higgs-Bayliss, John Chittock, Lujain Albenali, Michael J Cork
Xerosis affects up to 75% of older people and develops as a result of a skin barrier defect. Emollients are widely used to treat xerosis; however, there is limited understanding of the differences between them and their effects on the skin barrier in older people. This study aimed to compare the effect of a commercially available emollient containing 5% urea, ceramide NP and lactate (test emollient) to an alternative emollient without these additives (control emollient) on the properties of the skin barrier in older people...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Reinhard H H Neubert, Stefan Sonnenberger, Bodo Dobner, Charles W Gray, K Natalie Barger, Kara Sevi-Maxwell, Elfi Sommer, Johannes Wohlrab
Ceramides (CERs) are integral parts of the intercellular lipid lamellae of the stratum corneum (SC), which is responsible for the barrier function of the skin. Many skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are associated with the depletion or disturbance of the level of CERs in the SC. Administration of an exogenous novel dimeric ceramide (dCER) deep into the SC may help to stabilize the SC barrier substantially and to treat some skin disease conditions. Consequently, with the help of the existing technology, it might be possible to formulate various pharmaceutical dosage forms that can facilitate penetration of dCER into the SC...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Russel M Walters, Preeya Khanna, Melissa Chu, M Catherine Mack
The structure of the stratum corneum (SC) and the corresponding skin barrier develops from before birth up to about 4 years of age. Large subject-to-subject variability within an age group requires a large population to observe trends in skin barrier properties over time. Barrier function, quantified by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC thickness, was measured on the upper inner arm and dorsal forearm in subjects aged 3 months to 4 years (n = 171) and a subset of mothers (n = 44). The rate of skin surface area expansion as a function of age peaked before birth (∼90 cm2/week) and declined to a steady plateau (∼10 cm2/week) by 1 year of age...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Alessia Quatela, Lynda Miloudi, Ali Tfayli, Arlette Baillet-Guffroy
BACKGROUND: In vivo Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for real-time analysis and in situ evaluation of tissues such as the skin. The efficiency of this technique has been widely demonstrated as a label-free method for in vivo evaluation of the skin. The aim of this study is to gather information about inter- and intra-individual variations in the spectral descriptors of water content and structure, organization of the lipid barrier and structure of proteins in the stratum corneum (SC)...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Alexandra R Teagle, James C Birchall, Rachel Hargest
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative skin disease, currently treated empirically with immunosuppression. PG is a good target for gene therapy since the skin is easily accessible. This study used the FDA-approved vector Lipofectamine® 2000 to investigate in vitro transfection of skin keratinocytes. The aim was to determine an optimum transfection protocol, including the effect of drugs currently used to treat PG on the efficiency of gene transfer, since gene therapy is unlikely to be used as monotherapy...
2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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