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Geobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548907/mineralized-microbialites-as-archives-of-environmental-evolution-laguna-negra-catamarca-province-argentina
#1
Joy Buongiorno, Fernando J Gomez, David A Fike, Linda C Kah
Environmental fluctuations are recorded in a variety of sedimentary archives of lacustrine depositional systems. Geochemical signals recovered from bottom sediments in closed-basin lakes are among the most sensitive paleoenvironmental indicators and are commonly used in reconstructing lake evolution. Microbialites (i.e., organosedimentary deposits accreted through microbial trapping and binding of detrital sediment or in situ mineral precipitation on organics [Palaios, 2, 1987, 241]), however, have been largely overlooked as paleoenvironmental repositories...
December 13, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525281/the-organic-stratigraphy-of-ontong-java-plateau-tuff-correlated-with-the-depth-related-presence-and-absence-of-putative-microbial-alteration-structures
#2
Graham Purvis, Cees van der Land, Naoko Sano, Charles Cockell, Anders Barlow, Peter Cumpson, Elisa Lopez-Capel, Neil Gray
Structures in geological samples are often interpreted as fossilised life; however, such interpretations are equivocal, as abiotic processes can be invoked to explain their presence. Thus, additional lines of chemical evidence are invaluable in confirming or refuting such morphological evidence. Glass shards in tuff from the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) contain microtubular structures that are in close proximity to functionalised nitrogen substituted aromatic compounds that may be indicative of the chemical remnants of biological activity...
December 7, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474350/seawater-recirculation-through-subducting-sediments-sustains-a-deeply-buried-population-of-sulfate-reducing-bacteria
#3
Toni L Cox, Han Ming Gan, John W Moreau
Subseafloor sulfate concentrations typically decrease with depth as this electron acceptor is consumed by respiring microorganisms. However, studies show that seawater can flow through hydraulically conductive basalt to deliver sulfate upwards into deeply buried overlying sediments. Our previous work on IODP Site C0012A (Nankai Trough, Japan) revealed that recirculation of sulfate through the subducting Philippine Sea Plate stimulated microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface (SBI). Here, we describe the microbial ecology, phylogeny, and energetic requirements of population of aero-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria in the deep subseafloor...
November 25, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450841/microbially-influenced-formation-of-neoarchean-ooids
#4
David T Flannery, Abigail C Allwood, Robert Hodyss, Roger Everett Summons, Michael Tuite, Malcolm R Walter, Kenneth H Williford
Ooids are accretionary grains commonly reported from turbulent, shallow-water environments. They have long been associated with microbially dominated ecosystems and often occur in close proximity to, or embedded within, stromatolites, yet have historically been thought to form solely through physicochemical processes. Numerous studies have revealed both constructive and destructive roles for microbes colonizing the surfaces of modern calcitic and aragonitic ooids, but there has been little evidence for the operation of these processes during the Archean and Proterozoic, when both ooids and microbially dominated ecosystems were more widespread...
November 18, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417524/a-small-marine-biosphere-in-the-proterozoic
#5
Thomas A Laakso, Daniel P Schrag
The riverine supply of the globally limiting nutrient, phosphorus, to the ocean accounts for only a few percent of nutrient supply to photosynthetic organisms in surface waters. Recycling of marine organic matter by heterotrophic organisms provides almost all of the phosphorus that drives net primary production in the modern ocean. In the low-oxygen environments of the Proterozoic, the lack of free oxygen would have limited rates of oxic respiration, slowing the recycling of nutrients and thus limiting global rates of photosynthesis...
November 11, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411862/early-archean-origin-of-photosystem-ii
#6
Tanai Cardona, Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, A William Rutherford, Anthony W Larkum
Photosystem II is a photochemical reaction center that catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of water to molecular oxygen. Water oxidation is the distinctive photochemical reaction that permitted the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and the eventual rise of eukaryotes. At what point during the history of life an ancestral photosystem evolved the capacity to oxidize water still remains unknown. Here, we study the evolution of the core reaction center proteins of Photosystem II using sequence and structural comparisons in combination with Bayesian relaxed molecular clocks...
November 9, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387274/influence-of-ph-on-the-balance-between-methanogenesis-and-iron-reduction
#7
Kyle A Marquart, Ben R Haller, Janet M Paper, Theodore M Flynn, Maxim I Boyanov, Ganiyat Shodunke, Colleen Gura, Qusheng Jin, Matthew F Kirk
Methanogenesis and iron reduction play major roles in determining global fluxes of greenhouse gases. Despite their importance, environmental factors that influence their interactions are poorly known. Here, we present evidence that pH significantly influences the balance between each reaction in anoxic environments that contain ferric (oxyhydr)oxide minerals. In sediment bioreactors that contained goethite as a source of ferric iron, both iron reduction and methanogenesis occurred but the balance between them varied significantly with pH...
November 1, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378757/early-archean-planktonic-mode-of-life-implications-from-fluid-dynamics-of-lenticular-microfossils
#8
Tomoki Kozawa, Kenichiro Sugitani, Dorothy Z Oehler, Christopher H House, Izumi Saito, Takeshi Watanabe, Toshiyuki Gotoh
Lenticular, and commonly flanged, microfossils in 3.0-3.4 Ga sedimentary deposits in Western Australia and South Africa are unusually large (20-80 μm across), robust, and widespread in space and time. To gain insight into the ecology of these organisms, we performed simulations of fluid dynamics of virtual cells mimicking lenticular forms of variable sizes, oblateness, flange presence, and flange thickness. Results demonstrate that (a) the flange reduces sedimentation velocity, (b) this flange function works more effectively in larger cells, and (c) modest oblateness lowers sedimentation rate...
October 31, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289610/morphological-and-isotopic-changes-of-heterocystous-cyanobacteria-in-response-to-n-2-partial-pressure
#9
Shaelyn N Silverman, Sebastian H Kopf, Brad M Bebout, Richard Gordon, Sanjoy M Som
Earth's atmospheric composition has changed significantly over geologic time. Many redox active atmospheric constituents have left evidence of their presence, while inert constituents such as dinitrogen gas (N2 ) are more elusive. In this study, we examine two potential biological indicators of atmospheric N2 : the morphological and isotopic signatures of heterocystous cyanobacteria. Biological nitrogen fixation constitutes the primary source of fixed nitrogen to the global biosphere and is catalyzed by the oxygen-sensitive enzyme nitrogenase...
October 5, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369004/microbial-communities-associated-with-phosphogenic-sediments-and-phosphoclast-associated-dna-of-the-benguela-upwelling-system
#10
Roman Zoss, Fernando Medina Ferrer, Beverly E Flood, Daniel S Jones, Deon C Louw, Jake Bailey
The processes that lead to the precipitation of authigenic calcium phosphate minerals in certain marine pore waters remain poorly understood. Phosphogenesis occurs in sediments beneath some oceanic upwelling zones that harbor polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria. These bacteria are believed to concentrate phosphate in sediment pore waters, creating supersaturated conditions with respect to apatite precursors. However, the relationship between microbes and phosphorite formation is not fully resolved. To further study this association, we examined microbial community data generated from two sources: sediment cores recovered from the shelf of the Benguela upwelling region where phosphorites are currently forming, and DNA preserved within phosphoclasts recovered from a phosphorite deposit along the Benguela shelf...
October 3, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281902/a-combined-lipidomic-and-16s-rrna-gene-amplicon-sequencing-approach-reveals-archaeal-sources-of-intact-polar-lipids-in-the-stratified-black-sea-water-column
#11
Martina Sollai, Laura Villanueva, Ellen C Hopmans, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Archaea are important players in marine biogeochemical cycles, and their membrane lipids are useful biomarkers in environmental and geobiological studies. However, many archaeal groups remain uncultured and their lipid composition unknown. Here, we aim to expand the knowledge on archaeal lipid biomarkers and determine the potential sources of those lipids in the water column of the euxinic Black Sea. The archaeal community was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and by quantitative PCR. The archaeal intact polar lipids (IPLs) were investigated by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry...
October 3, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281196/a-sluggish-mid-proterozoic-biosphere-and-its-effect-on-earth-s-redox-balance
#12
Kazumi Ozaki, Christopher T Reinhard, Eiichi Tajika
The possibility of low but nontrivial atmospheric oxygen (O2 ) levels during the mid-Proterozoic (between 1.8 and 0.8 billion years ago, Ga) has important ramifications for understanding Earth's O2 cycle, the evolution of complex life and evolving climate stability. However, the regulatory mechanisms and redox fluxes required to stabilize these O2 levels in the face of continued biological oxygen production remain uncertain. Here, we develop a biogeochemical model of the C-N-P-O2 -S cycles and use it to constrain global redox balance in the mid-Proterozoic ocean-atmosphere system...
October 3, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264482/the-sirius-passet-lagerst%C3%A3-tte-of-north-greenland-a-geochemical-window-on-early-cambrian-low-oxygen-environments-and-ecosystems
#13
Emma U Hammarlund, M Paul Smith, Jan A Rasmussen, Arne T Nielsen, Donald E Canfield, David A T Harper
The early Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of northernmost Greenland (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3) contains exceptionally preserved soft tissues that provide an important window to early animal evolution, while the surrounding sediment holds critical data on the palaeodepositional water-column chemistry. The present study combines palaeontological data with a multiproxy geochemical approach based on samples collected in situ at high stratigraphic resolution from Sirius Passet. After careful consideration of chemical alterations during burial, our results demonstrate that fossil preservation and biodiversity show significant correlation with iron enrichments (FeHR /FeT ), trace metal behaviour (V/Al), and changes in nitrogen cycling (δ15 N)...
September 27, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248245/survival-of-the-fewest-microbial-dormancy-and-maintenance-in-marine-sediments-through-deep-time
#14
James A Bradley, Jan P Amend, Douglas E LaRowe
Microorganisms buried in marine sediments are known to endure starvation over geologic timescales. However, the mechanisms of how these microorganisms cope with prolonged energy limitation is unknown and therefore yet to be captured in a quantitative framework. Here, we present a novel mathematical model that considers (a) the physiological transitions between the active and dormant states of microorganisms, (b) the varying requirement for maintenance power between these phases, and (c) flexibility in the provenance (i...
September 24, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30248226/a-stable-and-productive-marine-microbial-community-was-sustained-through-the-end-devonian-hangenberg-crisis-within-the-cleveland-shale-of-the-appalachian-basin-united-states
#15
Aaron M Martinez, Diana L Boyer, Mary L Droser, Craig Barrie, Gordon D Love
The end-Devonian Hangenberg Crisis constituted one of the greatest ecological and environmental perturbations of the Paleozoic Era. To date, however, it has been difficult to precisely constrain the occurrence of the Hangenberg Crisis in the Appalachian Basin of the United States and thus to directly assess the effects of this crisis on marine microbial communities and paleoenvironmental conditions. Here, we integrate organic and inorganic chemostratigraphic records compiled from two discrete outcrop locations to characterize the onset and paleoenvironmental transitions associated with the Hangenberg Crisis within the Cleveland Shale member of the Ohio Shale...
September 24, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133143/nitrous-oxide-from-chemodenitrification-a-possible-missing-link-in-the-proterozoic-greenhouse-and-the-evolution-of-aerobic-respiration
#16
Chloe L Stanton, Christopher T Reinhard, James F Kasting, Nathaniel E Ostrom, Joshua A Haslun, Timothy W Lyons, Jennifer B Glass
The potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) may have been an important constituent of Earth's atmosphere during Proterozoic (~2.5-0.5 Ga). Here, we tested the hypothesis that chemodenitrification, the rapid reduction of nitric oxide by ferrous iron, would have enhanced the flux of N2 O from ferruginous Proterozoic seas. We empirically derived a rate law, <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mrow> <mml:mfrac> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mfenced> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>N</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mfenced> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>d</mml:mi> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:mfrac> <mml:mo>=</mml:mo> <mml:mn>7...
November 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102836/phosphatized-tungsten-metabolizing-coccoid-microbes-interpreted-from-oil-shale-of-an-eocene-lake-green-river-formation-utah-usa
#17
Dave Keighley, Suporn Boonsue, Douglas Hall
Microscopic globular structures have been observed in some beds of oil shale from eastern Utah. These beds comprise carbonate-dominated mud that is interlaminated with variably thick and continuous organic-rich layers. Collectively they are enriched in phosphorus, REEs, and actinides. The beds are considered of lacustrine origin and assigned to the Eocene Green River Formation. The globules themselves are of microcrystalline carbonate fluorapatite (μCFA), often contain concentric internal structures, and usually group together in clusters of up to 80, possibly more...
November 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062734/authigenesis-of-biomorphic-apatite-particles-from-benguela-upwelling-zone-sediments-off-namibia-the-role-of-organic-matter-in-sedimentary-apatite-nucleation-and-growth
#18
Kaarel Mänd, Kalle Kirsimäe, Aivo Lepland, Chris H Crosby, Jake V Bailey, Kurt O Konhauser, Richard Wirth, Anja Schreiber, Kaarel Lumiste
Sedimentary phosphorites comprise a major phosphorus (P) ore, yet their formation remains poorly understood. Extant polyphosphate-metabolizing bacterial communities are known to act as bacterial phosphate-pumps, leading to episodically high dissolved phosphate concentrations in pore waters of organic-rich sediment. These conditions can promote the precipitation of amorphous precursor phases that are quickly converted to apatite-usually in carbonate fluorapatite form [Ca10 (PO4 ,CO3 )6 F2-3 ]. To assess the mechanisms underpinning the nucleation and growth of sedimentary apatite, we sampled P-rich sediments from the Namibian shelf, a modern environment where phosphogenesis presently occurs...
November 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035382/from-microbial-eukaryotes-to-metazoan-vertebrates-wide-spectrum-paleo-diversity-in-sedimentary-ancient-dna-over-the-last-14-500-years
#19
Veljo Kisand, Liisi Talas, Anu Kisand, Normunds Stivrins, Triin Reitalu, Tiiu Alliksaar, Jüri Vassiljev, Merlin Liiv, Atko Heinsalu, Heikki Seppä, Siim Veski
Most studies that utilize ancient DNA have focused on specific groups of organisms or even single species. Instead, the whole biodiversity of eukaryotes can be described using universal phylogenetic marker genes found within well-preserved sediment cores that cover the post-glacial period. Sedimentary ancient DNA samples from Lake Lielais Svētiņu, eastern Latvia, at a core depth of 1,050 cm in ~150 year intervals were used to determine phylotaxonomy in domain Eukaryota. Phylotaxonomic affiliation of >1,200 eukaryotic phylotypes revealed high richness in all major eukaryotic groups-Alveolata, Stramenopiles, Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Nucletmycea, and Holozoa...
November 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035368/subsurface-processes-influence-oxidant-availability-and-chemoautotrophic-hydrogen-metabolism-in-yellowstone-hot-springs
#20
Melody R Lindsay, Maximiliano J Amenabar, Kristopher M Fecteau, Randal V Debes, Maria C Fernandes Martins, Kirsten E Fristad, Huifang Xu, Tori M Hoehler, Everett L Shock, Eric S Boyd
The geochemistry of hot springs and the availability of oxidants capable of supporting microbial metabolisms are influenced by subsurface processes including the separation of hydrothermal fluids into vapor and liquid phases. Here, we characterized the influence of geochemical variation and oxidant availability on the abundance, composition, and activity of hydrogen (H2 )-dependent chemoautotrophs along the outflow channels of two-paired hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The hydrothermal fluid at Roadside East (RSE; 82...
November 2018: Geobiology
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