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Journal of Water and Health

Kyle Fluegge
Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Akosua Sarpong Boakye-Ansah, Giuliana Ferrero, Maria Rusca, Pieter van der Zaag
Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Zachery R Staley, Thomas A Edge
Several beaches within the Toronto region area of concern have persistent issues with fecal contamination, causing a beach beneficial use impairment (BUI). In this study, Escherichia coli, including ampicillin-resistant strains, were enumerated via culturable and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods. Microbial source tracking (MST) markers (for general Bacteroidales, human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected and enumerated via PCR and qPCR to identify sources of fecal contamination at Sunnyside Beach and in the Humber River...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Brajesh K Shrivastava
This article provides updated status of the arsenic affected rural habitations in India, summarizes the policy initiatives of the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation (Government of India), reviews the technologies for arsenic treatment and analyses the progress made by states in tackling arsenic problems in rural habitations. It also provides a list of constraints based on experiences and recommends suggested measures to tackle arsenic problems in an holistic manner. It is expected that the paper would be useful for policy formulators in states, non-government organizations, researchers of academic and scientific institutions and programme managers working in the area of arsenic mitigation in drinking water, especially in developing countries, as it provides better insights compared to other available information in India on mitigating arsenic problems in drinking water in rural areas...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Urooj Quezon Amjad, Jeanne Luh, Rachel Baum, Jamie Bartram
First developed by the World Health Organization, and now used in several countries, water safety plans (WSPs) are a multi-step, preventive process for managing drinking water hazards. While the beneficial impacts of WSPs have been documented in diverse countries, how to successfully implement WSPs in the United States remains a challenge. We examine the willingness and ability of water utility leaders to implement WSPs in the US state of North Carolina. Our findings show that water utilities have more of a reactive than preventive organizational culture, that implementation requires prioritization of time and resources, perceived comparative advantage to other hazard management plans, leadership in implementation, and identification of how WSPs can be embedded in existing work practices...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Ferdaous Maâtouk, Mouna Maâtouk, Karima Bekir, Houcine Barhoumi, Abderrazak Maaref, Hedi Ben Mansour
In this work we report the development of an electrochemical DNA biosensor with high sensitivity for mercury ion detection. A new matrix based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-glutathione (GSH)/cysteine was investigated. The interaction between DNA oligonucleotides and Hg(2+) ions followed by the formation of Thymine-Hg(2+)-Thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structures was quantified using different electrochemical methods. It has been shown that the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) confirmed the specific interaction between the oligonucleotide receptor layer and the Hg(2+) ions...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Gary A Toranzos, Javier A Arce-Nazario
Urbanization affects the microbial loading into tropical streams, but its impact on water quality varies across watersheds. Rainfall in tropical environments also complicates microbial dynamics due to high seasonal and annual variations. Understanding the dynamics of fecal contamination in tropical surface waters may be further hindered by limitations from the utilization of traditional microbial indicators. We measured traditional (Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli), as well as alternate (enterophages and coliphages) indicators of fecal contamination in a tropical watershed in Puerto Rico during a 1-year period, and examined their relationship with rainfall events across an urbanization gradient...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
A A Al-Gheethi, R M S R Mohamed, A N Efaq, I Norli, Abdullah Abd Halid, H K Amir, M O Ab Kadir
The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Alfred Ndahi Jones, John Bridgeman
The effects of temperature, storage time and water pH on the coagulation performance of okra seed protein in water treatment were assessed. In a jar test experiment, okra salt extract achieved a notable improvement in treatment efficiency with storage time and showed good performance in quality after thermal treatment at 60, 97 and 140 °C temperatures for 6, 4 and 2 hours, respectively. The performance improvement of more than 8% is considered to be due to the denaturation and subsequent removal of coagulation-hindering proteins in okra seed...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
J W Chung, M Breulmann, A Clemens, C Fühner, J W Foppen, P N L Lens
Hydrothermal carbonization technology can convert fecal waste into a valuable carbonaceous product referred to as hydrochar. We investigated the potential of fecal waste-derived hydrochar as an adsorbent for virus removal in water treatment. Swine feces was hydrothermally treated under two conditions: at 180 °C for 2 h and 230 °C for 7 h. The resulting solid products (hydrochar) were evaluated as virus adsorbents in water treatment. Simultaneous removal of pathogenic rotavirus (RV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) was investigated using a sand column set-up of 10 cm bed height with and without hydrochar supplement (1...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Maureen N Kinyua, Ileana Wald, Fabricio Camacho-Céspedes, Ricardo Izurieta, Charles N Haas, Sarina J Ergas
Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
John Moat, Athanasios Rizoulis, Graeme Fox, Mathew Upton
The domestic environment can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. We show here that domestic shower hoses may harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Well-developed biofilms were physically removed from the internal surface of shower hoses collected in four locations in England and Scotland. Amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA targets revealed the presence of common aquatic and environmental bacteria, including members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Timothy J Wade, Mary Turyk, Samuel Dorevitch
The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. This dichotomous measure fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, and those who develop GI symptoms but who do not satisfy the definition of GI illness. Data from two US cohort studies were used to assess use of ordinal and semi-continuous measures of GI symptoms, such as duration of GI symptoms and responses to those symptoms such as medication use, interference with daily activities, and utilization of healthcare service...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Thanh-Son Dao, Jorge Nimptsch, Claudia Wiegand
This study evaluates the water quality from Tri An Reservoir, a drinking water supply for several million people in southern Vietnam, in terms of cyanobacterial biomass and their potent toxins, microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria, their toxins and environmental parameters were monitored monthly for 1 year (April 2008-March 2009) at six stations covering a transect through the reservoir. Dynamics of cyanobacterial abundance in relation to cyanobacterial biomass, toxins and environmental factors were investigated...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Xiaohui Bai, Chuanwu Xi, Jianfeng Wu
Contaminated water may play a key role in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori, resulting in gastrointestinal diseases in humans. The wastewater treatment process is an important barrier to control the transmission of H. pylori. However, the presence and viability of H. pylori in the treatment process is not well known. In this paper, the real colony morphology of H. pylori was confirmed by two types of culture media. The survival of H. pylori through the tertiary wastewater treatment process, especially UV disinfection, and in the receiving Huron River in Ann Arbor, Michigan, was investigated by plates cultivation, regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and quantitative real-time PCR from DNA...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Kiril D Hristovski, Tatjana Pacemska-Atanasova, Larry W Olson, Jasmina Markovski, Trajce Mitev
Potential health implications of deficient sanitation infrastructure and reduced surface water flows due to climate change are examined in the case study of the Republic of Macedonia. Changes in surface water flows and wastewater discharges over the period 1955-2013 were analyzed to assess potential future surface water contamination trends. Simple model predictions indicated a decline in surface water hydrology over the last half century, which caused the surface waters in Macedonia to be frequently dominated by >50% of untreated sewage discharges...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Karen Levy, Mitchel Klein, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, Samina Panwhar, Alexandra Huttinger, Paige Tolbert, Christine Moe
Recent outbreak investigations suggest that a substantial proportion of waterborne disease outbreaks are attributable to water distribution system issues. In this analysis, we examine the relationship between modeled water residence time (WRT), a proxy for probability of microorganism intrusion into the distribution system, and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal (GI) illness for two water utilities in Metro Atlanta, USA during 1993-2004. We also examine the association between proximity to the nearest distribution system node, based on patients' residential address, and GI illness using logistic regression models...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Johana Kiplagat Too, Willy Kipkemboi Sang, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Musa Otieno Ngayo
Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
M Tahir Nalbantcilar, Sukru Yavuz Pinarkara
In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn)...
August 2016: Journal of Water and Health
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