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Journal of Water and Health

Maria A Kyritsi, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Spyros Pournaras, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
After the Elizabethkingia anophelis outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, an active search for the detection of the microorganism in hospital water systems from Central and Northern Greece was performed from June to December 2016. In total, 457 water samples from 11 hospitals were analyzed. Elizabethkingia spp. was detected in three samples collected from two hospitals, both of which are located in Northern Greece. Two of the three isolated strains were identified as Elizabethkingia anophelis. No cases of Elizabethkingia infection were reported in either hospital during 2016...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Lester Botoman, Elvis Shukla, Erni Johan, Satoshi Mitsunobu, Naoto Matsue
Although many kinds of materials for water purification are known, easy-to-use methods that ensure the safety of drinking water for rural populations are not sufficiently available. Sorbent-embedded sheets provide methods for the easy removal of contaminants from drinking water in the home. As an example of such a sorbent-embedded sheet, we prepared a Linde type A (LTA) zeolite-embedded sheet (ZES) and examined its Pb(II) removal behaviour. Different amounts of LTA were added either as powder or as ZES to 0...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Savina Ditommaso, Monica Giacomuzzi, Elisa Ricciardi, Roberto Garbuio, Carla M Zotti
In this study we evaluated (1) the efficacy of a protocol that combines hydrogen peroxide (shock treatment) and ICX® tablets (continuous treatment) for the control of microbial contamination in dental unit water lines, and (2) the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ICX® tablets on collection and wild strains isolated from dental chair output waters. To assess the treatment effectiveness, the microbial load in the output water samples of three dental chairs were investigated: one control chair received only shock treatment...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
D Diston, R Robbi, A Baumgartner, R Felleisen
Water resources situated in areas with underlying karst geology are particularly vulnerable to fecal pollution. In such vulnerable systems, microbial source tracking (MST) methods are useful tools to elucidate the pathways of both animal and human fecal pollution, leading to more accurate water use risk assessments. Here, we describe the application of a MST toolbox using both culture-dependent bacteriophage and molecular-dependent 16S rRNA assays at spring and well sites in the karstic St Imier Valley, Switzerland...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Tao Lin, Yiwen Tan, Wei Chen
Cladocera zooplankton as carriers of bacteria result in biological risk due to their occurrence in drinking water treatment systems. In this paper, bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate the inhibition effect on Daphnia magna (D. magna) by controlling its phototactic behavior. The results showed that UVA had a negative effect on the phototaxis of D. magna, indicating an active movement away from light source, while blue light was positive in inducing phototactic behavior. The water quality could influence the phototactic behavior of D...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Natalie Wilhelm, Anya Kaufmann, Elizabeth Blanton, Daniele Lantagne
Household water treatment with chlorine can improve the microbiological quality of household water and reduce diarrheal disease. We conducted laboratory and field studies to inform chlorine dosage recommendations. In the laboratory, reactors of varying turbidity (10-300 NTU) and total organic carbon (0-25 mg/L addition) were created, spiked with Escherichia coli, and dosed with 3.75 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. All reactors had >4 log reduction of E. coli 24 hours after chlorine addition. In the field, we tested 158 sources in 22 countries for chlorine demand...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Viviane Girardi, Meriane Demoliner, Caroline Rigotto, Vania Elisabete Schneider, Suelen Paesi, Fernando Rosado Spilki
Adenoviruses (AdV) are related to respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in animals and human beings. Their wide genetic diversity in water bodies and their resistance to environmental conditions allow the use of AdV as a reliable marker for detection of fecal contamination. In this work, the diversity of AdV along Belo Stream - in the city of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - was evaluated. Samples were compared in both concentrated and unconcentrated forms. The identification of different AdV species was performed by amplifying a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Jason Hudgins, Nicholas Lambert, Steven Duranceau, J Russell Butler
Iron is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust, which corresponds to it being a common constituent in drinking water supplies. Residents of Bithlo, an unincorporated community in east-central Florida, have observed that their drinking water tastes like metal and stains clothing and teeth. An evaluation of water samples collected from over 200 private drinking water wells revealed iron concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) secondary standard of 0.3 mg/L. Households with and without point-of-entry treatment were found to have over three times (0...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Jennifer L Murphy, Michele C Hlavsa, Brittany C Carter, Candace Miller, Narayanan Jothikumar, Taryn R Gerth, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill
During the 2012 summer swim season, aquatic venue data and filter backwash samples were collected from 127 metro-Atlanta pools. Last-recorded water chemistry measures indicated 98% (157/161) of samples were from pools with ≥1 mg/L residual chlorine without stabilized chlorine or ≥2 mg/L with stabilized chlorine and 89% (144/161) had pH readings 7.2-7.8. These water quality parameters are consistent with the 2016 Model Aquatic Health Code (2nd edition) recommendations. We used previously validated real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of seven enteric microbes, including Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Michael A Mallin, Matthew R McIver
Concentrated (or confined) animal feed operations (CAFOs) are the principal means of livestock production in the United States, and such facilities pollute nearby waterways because of their waste management practices; CAFO waste is pumped from the confinement structure into a cesspit and sprayed on a field. Stocking Head Creek is located in eastern North Carolina, a state with >9,000,000 head of swine confined in CAFOs. This watershed contains 40 swine CAFOs; stream water quality was investigated at seven sites during 2016, with five sampling dates in early spring and five in summer...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Anna L Murray, Emily Kumpel, Rachel Peletz, Ranjiv S Khush, Daniele S Lantagne
In microbiological water quality testing, sample dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate is recommended to ensure that results accurately reflect the water quality at sample collection. Nevertheless, monitoring institutions in low-resource settings do not always dechlorinate samples, and there is limited research describing how this practice impacts drinking water quality results. The effect of dechlorination on indicator bacteria counts was evaluated by spiking laboratory water with five Escherichia coli (E...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Lubna Ghenem, Nasreldin Elhadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Erik Arvin, Allan Bardow, Henrik Spliid
Water quality and socioeconomics influence caries in populations. This study broadens previous studies on how caries is associated with fluoride and calcium in drinking water and with family income by quantifying the combined effect of the three independent variables. The effects of calcium and fluoride can be described as independent effects of the two ions or, alternatively, in the form of saturation with respect to fluorite (CaF2). A general linear model describes this relationship with high significance and the model confirms the important protective effect of calcium and fluoride, independently against caries...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Gemma Agustí, Thomas Le Calvez, Marie-Cecile Trouilhé, Philippe Humeau, Francesc Codony
The presence of Waddlia chondrophila has been related to respiratory tract infections and human and animal fetal death. Although several sources of infection have been suggested, the actual source remains unknown and limited information exists on the prevalence of W. chondrophila in the environment. This pathogen has been previously detected in well water but its presence has not been confirmed in water networks. Since these bacteria have been detected in water reservoirs, it has been hypothesized that they can access artificial water systems and survive until they find appropriate conditions to proliferate...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Sonia Grego, Viswa Barani, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Antony Raj, Prasanna Perumal, Adrian B Berg, Colleen Archer
Water quality and sanitation are inextricably linked to prevalence and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections, a public health concern in resource-limited settings. India bears a large burden of disease associated with poor sanitation. Transformative onsite sanitation technologies are being developed that feature elimination of pathogens including helminth eggs in wastewater treatment. We are conducting third-party testing of multiple sanitation technology systems in Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) India. To ensure stringent testing of the pathogen removal ability of sanitation technologies, the presence of helminth eggs in wastewater across the town of Coimbatore was assessed...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Ray Petrisek, Jonathon Hall
This study compares the performance of a novel most probable number (MPN) method (Legiolert™/Quanti-Tray®) with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 9260 J for the enumeration of Legionella pneumophila from potable and nonpotable waters. Data from the study showed that Legiolert exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of L. pneumophila for potable water and equivalent sensitivity for nonpotable water. The Legiolert medium had a high specificity with no false positive signals reported for either water type...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Rachel Baum, Jamie Bartram
Effective risk management helps ensure safe drinking water and protect public health. Even in high-income countries, risk management sometimes fails and waterborne disease, including outbreaks, occur. To help reduce waterborne disease, the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommend water safety plans (WSPs), a systematic preventive risk management strategy applied from catchment to consumer. Since the introduction of WSPs, international guidelines, national and state legislation, and local practices have facilitated their implementation...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Jessica Stanhope, Philip Weinstein, Angus Cook
Therapeutic use of spring waters has a recorded history dating back to at least 1550 BC and includes both bathing in and drinking such waters for their healing properties. In Australia and New Zealand the use of therapeutic spring waters is a much more recent phenomenon, becoming a source of health tourism from the late 1800s. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the potential health outcomes relating to exposure to Australian or New Zealand natural spring water. We found only low-level evidence of adverse health outcomes relating to this spring water exposure, including fatalities from hydrogen sulphide poisoning, drowning and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Olushola S Ayanda, Simphiwe M Nelana, Leslie F Petrik, Eliazer B Naidoo
The application of nano-TiO2 as adsorbent combined with ultrasound for the degradation of N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (AAP) from aqueous solution was investigated. The nano-TiO2 was characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Experimental results revealed that the adsorption of AAP by nano-TiO2 fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, the equilibrium could be explained by the Freundlich isotherm and the treatment process is exothermic...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
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