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Journal of Water and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952337/reservoirs-of-faecal-indicator-bacteria-in-well-head-hand-pumps-in-bangladesh
#1
Thomas H Osborne, Seamus A Ward, Kazi M Ahmed, Joanne M Santini
The majority of the population of Bangladesh (90%) rely on untreated groundwater for drinking and domestic use. At the point of collection, 40% of these supplies are contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Recent studies have disproved the theory that latrines discharging to shallow aquifers are the major contributor to this contamination. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hand pumps are a reservoir of FIB. We sampled the handle, spout, piston and seal from 19 wells in Araihazar Upazila, Bangladesh and identified that the spout and seal were reservoirs of FIB...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952336/distribution-of-natural-radionuclides-and-radon-concentration-in-the-riverine-environs-of-cauvery-south-india
#2
C S Kaliprasad, Y Narayana
Systematic studies were carried out to understand the distribution of natural radionuclides in sediments and radon in water in the riverine environs of Cauvery, one of the major rivers of South India. The activity of radionuclides in the sediment was measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The radon emanation from the sediment was measured by the sealed 'can technique' and the radon in the water was measured using the RAD-7 instrument. The mean values of 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th in the sediment samples were found to be 297...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952335/sea-water-desalination-and-removal-of-iodine-effect-on-thyroid-function
#3
Gideon Koren, Yona Amitai, Meital Shlezinger, Rachel Katz, Varda Shalev
In Israel, about 55% of drinking water is derived from desalination (DSW) which removes all iodine. A recent study from Israel demonstrated high rates of iodine deficiency among school-aged children and pregnant women. There are concerns that low iodine may lead to impaired thyroid function. However, to date, the impact of consuming DSW on body iodine status has not been studied. The objective was to assess whether the increased use of DSW is associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism. Using data from a large health fund in Israel, we compared proportions of patients with higher than normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and lower than normal T3 and T4 levels before and after a massive desalination project became operational in August 2013 in areas with high vs...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952334/detection-of-salmonella-in-the-intestine-of-hypostomus-plecostomus-from-the-upper-san-marcos-river-texas
#4
Anna Y Gates, Trina M Guerra, Fritzina B Morrison, Michael R J Forstner, Thomas B Hardy, Dittmar Hahn
The prevalence of salmonellae in the intestines of the invasive suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus was assessed in the San Marcos River, just down-stream of its spring-fed headwaters. In 2014, H. plecostomus, sediment, and water samples were collected during 15 sampling events. A combination of semi-selective enrichment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the presence of salmonellae in 45% of the fish intestines across the entire year, with a prevalence range of 13-100% per sampling event...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952333/a-quantitative-analysis-of-swimming-pool-recirculation-system-efficiency
#5
Amir Alansari, James Amburgey, Nathan Madding
The primary objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of the hydraulic efficiency of a 1:25 bench-scale swimming pool and to determine whether the recirculation efficiency could be increased by modifying parameters such as turnover rate, inlet/out configuration, and extent of mixing within the pool. Salt tracer studies were conducted using KCl to determine the residence time distribution and describe the hydraulic characteristics of the pool. The results indicated that the removal of the tracer always followed an exponential decay curve, i...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952332/cryptosporidium-parvum-decay-during-air-drying-and-stockpiling-of-mesophilic-anaerobically-digested-sewage-sludge-in-a-simulation-experiment-and-oocyst-counts-in-sludge-collected-from-operational-treatment-lagoons-in-victoria-australia
#6
Frederic E Kong, Margaret A Deighton, Nerida A Thurbon, Stephen R Smith, Duncan A Rouch
The inactivation of Cryptosporidium species oocysts during sewage sludge treatment is important to protect human health when the residual biosolids are applied to agricultural land. Quantifying the decay of Cryptosporidium species during sludge treatment for microbiological assurance purposes is difficult if low numbers are present in wastewater. The rate of decay of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts during solar/air drying treatment and in sludge stockpiles in temperate environment conditions was simulated in laboratory inoculation experiments using sludge sampled from a mesophilic anaerobic digester...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952331/assessing-natural-mineral-water-microbiology-quality-in-the-absence-of-cultivable-pathogen-bacteria
#7
Michele Totaro, Beatrice Casini, Paola Valentini, Mario Miccoli, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Angelo Baggiani
Italian Directives recommend the good quality of natural mineral waters but literature data assert a potential risk from microorganisms colonizing wellsprings and mineral water bottling plants. We evaluated the presence of microorganisms in spring waters (SW) and bottled mineral waters (BMW) samples. Routine microbiological indicators, additional microorganisms like Legionella spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and amoebae (FLA) were assessed in 24 SW and 10 BMW samples performing cultural and molecular methods...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952330/in-situ-electrochemical-fe-vi-for-removal-of-microcystin-lr-from-drinking-water-comparing-dosing-of-the-ferrate-ion-by-electrochemical-and-chemical-means
#8
K L Dubrawski, M Cataldo, Z Dubrawski, A Mazumder, D P Wilkinson, M Mohseni
Harmful algal blooms (HAB) release microtoxins that contaminate drinking water supplies and risk the health of millions annually. Crystalline ferrate(VI) is a powerful oxidant capable of removing algal microtoxins. We investigate in-situ electrochemically produced ferrate from common carbon steel as an on-demand alternative to crystalline ferrate for the removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and compare the removal efficacy for both electrochemical (EC) and chemical dosing methodologies. We report that a very low dose of EC-ferrate in deionized water (0...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952329/assessment-of-drinking-water-suitability-in-low-income-rural-areas-a-case-study-in-sixaola-costa-rica
#9
Leonardo Mena-Rivera, José Quirós-Vega
Vegas-Las Palmas is a rural settlement located in the southern Caribbean region of Costa Rica on the border with Panama. Its population does not have access to potable water, and inhabitants depend on water from wells at the water table level to meet their needs. These wells lack basic infrastructure to protect this water from contamination. In this study, water quality was evaluated at 12 wells from 2014 to 2016 (n = 72). The results revealed high concentrations of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli with maximum values of 4...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952328/a-pvc-pipe-device-as-a-sanitary-barrier-for-improving-rainwater-quality-for-drinking-purposes-in-the-brazilian-semiarid-region
#10
José Roberto Santo de Carvalho, Julio Luz, Sylvana Melo Santos, Sávia Gavazza
We evaluate the behavior of a device designed to automatically divert and store the first flush of harvested rainwater in cisterns. The first phase (PI) was conducted with artificial precipitation in an experimental installation seeking to identify how many millimeters of rainwater should be diverted to preserve the rainwater quality. In the second phase (PII), we designed a PVC-pipe device to store the first millimeter of rainwater, and tested it in field (a rural area in Brazil) during two real rainfall events...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952327/fate-of-escherichia-coli-in-dialysis-device-exposed-into-sewage-influent-and-activated-sludge
#11
Porsry Ung, Chanthol Peng, Sokunsreiroat Yuk, Vannak Ann, Hasika Mith, Reasmey Tan, Kazuhiko Miyanaga, Yasunori Tanji
Tracing the fate of pathogens in environmental water, particularly in wastewater, with a suitable methodology is a demanding task. We investigated the fate of Escherichia coli K12 in sewage influent and activated sludge using a novel approach that involves the application of a biologically stable dialysis device. The ion concentrations inside the device could reach that of surrounding solution when it was incubated in phosphate buffered saline for 2 h. E. coli K12 above 107 CFU mL-1 (inoculated in distilled water, influent, activated sludge) were introduced into the device and incubated in influent and activated sludge for 10 days...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952326/consumer-water-quality-evaluation-of-private-and-public-drinking-water-sources
#12
Drew M Gholson, Diane E Boellstorff, Scott R Cummings, Kevin L Wagner, Monty C Dozier
Private water wells have no requirements to be tested or monitored to ensure safe drinking water quality, and yet those receiving their primary drinking water from private supplies are more frequently confident that their tap drinking water is safe. Using data from surveys administered in 2008 and 2014, this study assesses public attitudes and perceptions regarding drinking water. This study examines the results of a random sample survey of Texans to evaluate citizen awareness and attitudes on water issues...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952325/locally-produced-hydrogen-sulphide-detecting-water-quality-test-kits-increase-household-level-monitoring-in-rural-tanzania
#13
Fatuma Matwewe, Kate Hyland, Jacqueline Thomas
In developing countries, rural water sources have the highest levels of faecal contamination but are the least monitored. Affordable field-based water quality tests are needed. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria can be determined with hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) detecting tests, that are inexpensive and simple to make locally. In rural Tanzania, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) designed, produced and evaluated a new H2 S water quality test kit. The H2 S test results correlated with log10 Escherichia coli densities from conventional water quality tests...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952324/microorganism-levels-in-spray-from-warm-water-bidet-toilet-seats-factors-affecting-total-viable-and-heterotrophic-plate-counts-and-examination-of-the-fluctuations-and-origins-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Toru Iyo, Keiko Asakura, Makiko Nakano, Kazuyuki Omae
The objectives of this study were to conduct an appropriate microbial evaluation of warm-water bidet toilet seats. Health-related advantages and disadvantages have been associated with using warm-water bidet toilet seats, which are classified according to the tank type, including tanks equipped with reservoir water heaters and on-demand tankless systems equipped with an instantaneous water heater. However, related bacterial research is sparse. Here, we performed a long-term survey of the behavior of microorganisms (i...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952323/ph-dependent-octanol-water-partitioning-coefficients-of-microcystin-congeners
#15
James McCord, Johnsie R Lang, Donna Hill, Mark Strynar, Neil Chernoff
Hazardous algal blooms can generate toxic compounds with significant health impacts for exposed communities. The ubiquitous class of algal toxins known as microcystins exhibits significant heterogeneity in its peptide structure, which has been minimally studied, given the significant impact this has on hydrophobicity, acid/base character and related environmental fate and health effects. Octanol-water partition coefficients for the microcystin congeners MCLR, MCRR, MCLY, MCLF, and MCLA were calculated over an environmentally and physiologically relevant pH range...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952322/faecal-contamination-and-visual-clarity-in-new-zealand-rivers-correlation-of-key-variables-affecting-swimming-suitability
#16
Rob Davies-Colley, Amanda Valois, Juliet Milne
Swimming is a popular activity in Aotearoa-New Zealand (NZ). Two variables that strongly influence swimming suitability of waters are faecal contamination, as indicated by the bacterium Escherichia coli, and visual clarity as it affects aesthetics and safety with respect to submerged hazards. We show that E. coli and visual clarity are inversely related overall in NZ rivers (R = -0.54), and more strongly related in many individual rivers, while similar (but positive) correlations apply also to turbidity. This finding, apparently reflecting co-mobilisation of faecal contamination and fine sediment, suggests that visual clarity, measured or estimated from appearance of submerged features, should be a valuable indicator of faecal contamination status and (more generally) swimming suitability...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676767/characterization-by-fluorescence-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-rural-drinking-water-storage-tanks-in-morocco
#17
Faissal Aziz, Naaila Ouazzani, Laila Mandi, Aziz Assaad, Steve Pontvianne, Hélène Poirot, Marie-Noëlle Pons
Water storage tanks, fed directly from the river through opened channels, are particular systems used for water supply in rural areas in Morocco. The stored water is used as drinking water by the surrounding population without any treatment. UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence) have been tested as rapid methods to assess the quality of the water stored in the reservoirs as well as along the river feeding them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS50), collected with a difference of 50 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths, revealed a high tryptophan-like fluorescence, indicative of a pollution induced by untreated domestic and/or farm wastewater...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676766/yeast-isolation-and-identification-in-water-used-in-a-brazilian-hemodialysis-unit-by-classic-microbiological-techniques-and-raman-spectroscopy
#18
Lilian Bueno Montanari, Flávio Garcia Sartori, Diórginis Bueno Montrazi Ribeiro, Luís Fernando Leandro, Regina Helena Pires, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, César Alexandre de Mello, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
The use of poorly treated water in hemodialysis centers may lead to fungal contamination, which poses a serious threat to immunologically debilitated hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to isolate and identify yeast species in the water of a Brazilian hemodialysis center by using classic microbiological techniques and Raman spectroscopy. For 12 months, a total of 288 water samples were collected from different points of the hemodialysis treatment distribution center. One hundred and forty-six yeast species were isolated and identified in the samples that tested positive for the presence of yeasts such as Candida parapsilosis (100 isolates, or 68...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676765/exploring-links-between-water-quality-and-e-coli-o157-h7-survival-potential-in-well-waters-from-a-rural-area-of-southern-changchun-city-china
#19
Meiyue Ding, Jiahang Li, Xiaodan Liu, Huiru Li, Rui Zhang, Jincai Ma
Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676764/distribution-of-human-fecal-marker-gb-124-bacteriophages-in-urban-sewage-and-reclaimed-water-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#20
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
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