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Journal of Water and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040086/compliance-of-brown-mussel-perna-perna-production-areas-in-the-south-of-brazil-with-the-bacteriological-criteria-of-the-shellfish-hygiene-systems-in-the-european-union-and-united-states-of-america-assessing-the-impacts-on-consumer-safety
#1
Robson Ventura de Souza, Carlos José Alexandre de Campos, Luis Hamilton Pospissil Garbossa, Walter Quadros Seiffert
Levels of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) monitored in surface water and brown mussels collected at 28 production areas in Brazil from August 2012 to October 2013 were used to assess compliance with the bacteriological standards of the shellfish hygiene classification systems used in the European Union (EU) and USA. This classification determines the level of post-harvesting purification needed to reduce the risk of illness in consumers. The results indicate that 36% of production areas would be class A under the EU system and 75% would be 'Approved' under the US system...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040085/sources-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-in-swimming-pools
#2
Laura M Suppes, Ching-Hua Huang, Wan-Ning Lee, Kyle J Brockman
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in swimming pool water are hypothesized to originate from fill water and anthropogenic sources like urine, sweat, swimwear and body surfaces. However, research exploring PPCP origins in pools is lacking. This research investigates PPCP sources at 31 swimming pools. Pool water was analyzed for 24 representative PPCPs using advanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Fill water was analyzed as a contamination source and to determine if swimmers introduce PPCPs to pools...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040084/quantification-and-identification-of-aerobic-bacteria-in-holy-water-samples-from-a-german-environment
#3
Christoph König, Stephanie Tauchnitz, Heike Kunzelmann, Christian Horn, Frithjof Blessing, Matthias Kohl, Markus Egert
Despite its frequent use in many religious institutions, the microbiological quality of holy water is clearly underinvestigated. We analyzed the microbial load of 54 holy water samples, repeatedly taken in five Roman Catholic churches in the greater area of Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany, by means of aerobic colony counting and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Biotyping of representative isolates. Over all samples, colony counting indicated an average aerobic microbial load of 5.85 ± 3...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040082/determinants-of-the-use-of-alternatives-to-arsenic-contaminated-shallow-groundwater-an-exploratory-study-in-rural-west-bengal-india
#4
Caroline Delaire, Abhijit Das, Susan Amrose, Ashok Gadgil, Joyashree Roy, Isha Ray
Shallow groundwater containing toxic concentrations of arsenic is the primary source of drinking water for millions of households in rural West Bengal, India. Often, this water also contains unpleasant levels of iron and non-negligible fecal contamination. Alternatives to shallow groundwater are increasingly available, including government-built deep tubewells, water purchased from independent providers, municipal piped water, and household filters. We conducted a survey of 501 households in Murshidabad district in 2014 to explore what influenced the use of available alternatives...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040081/characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-in-asi-orontes-river-in-turkey
#5
Cemil Kürekci, Muhsin Aydin, Mustafa Yipel, Mohammad Katouli, Aycan Gündoğdu
In this study, the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in aquatic environments (the Orontes River and an urban wastewater) was investigated. Fifty-four E. coli strains resistant to cefotaxime were isolated from the river waters and nearby waste water treatment plant and screened for ESBL gene variants, different classes of integrons and sulfonamide resistance genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli strains were further characterized by PhP-typing system, phylogenetic grouping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040080/detection-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-water-samples-collected-from-natural-water-reservoirs-and-wells-in-northern-and-north-eastern-poland-using-lamp-real-time-pcr-and-nested-pcr
#6
Anna Lass, Beata Szostakowska, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Panagiotis Karanis
Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite, transmitted to humans and animals by the faecal-oral route, mainly through contaminated water and food. Knowledge about the distribution of this parasite in surface water in Poland is fragmentary and incomplete. Accordingly, 36 environmental water samples taken from surface water reservoirs and wells were collected in Pomerania and Warmia-Masuria provinces, Poland. The 50 L samples were filtered and subsequently analysed with three molecular detection methods: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and nested PCR...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040079/identification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-hospital-water-by-sequence-analysis-of-the-hsp65-and-16s-rrna-genes
#7
Mehdi Roshdi Maleki, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Naser Harzandi, Seyyed Reza Moaddab
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have emerged as an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. NTM has frequently been isolated from hospital water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to survey the risk of NTM infections and determine the prevalence of NTM species in the hospital water distribution systems in Tabriz, Iran. One hundred and twenty samples of water from different sources of Tabriz hospitals were collected. The samples were filtered through 0.45-µm pore size membranes and decontaminated with 0...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040078/genetic-diversity-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-surface-water-and-groundwater-in-a-rural-environment
#8
Maria Laura Gambero, Monica Blarasin, Susana Bettera, Jesica Giuliano Albo
The genetic characteristics among Escherichia coli strains can be grouped by origin of isolation. Then, it is possible to use the genotypes as a tool to determine the source of water contamination. The aim of this study was to define water aptitude for human consumption in a rural basin and to assess the diversity of E. coli water populations. Thus, it was possible to identify the main sources of fecal contamination and to explore linkages with the hydrogeological environment and land uses. The bacteriological analysis showed that more than 50% of samples were unfit for human consumption...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040077/influence-of-pathogenic-bacterial-activity-on-growth-of-scenedesmus-sp-and-removal-of-nutrients-from-public-market-wastewater
#9
A A Al-Gheethi, R M Mohamed, N M Jais, A N Efaq, Abdullah Abd Halid, A A Wurochekke, M K Amir-Hashim
The present study aims to investigate the influence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in public market wastewater on the removal of nutrients in terms of ammonium (NH4(-)) and orthophosphate (PO4(3)) using Scenedesmus sp. The removal rates of NH4(-) and orthophosphate PO4(3-) and batch kinetic coefficient of Scenedesmus sp. were investigated. The phycoremediation process was carried out at ambient temperature for 6 days. The results revealed that the pathogenic bacteria exhibited survival potential in the presence of microalgae but they were reduced by 3-4 log at the end of the treatment process...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040076/total-coliform-and-escherichia-coli-contamination-in-rural-well-water-analysis-for-passive-surveillance
#10
Jesse Invik, Herman W Barkema, Alessandro Massolo, Norman F Neumann, Sylvia Checkley
With increasing stress on our water resources and recent waterborne disease outbreaks, understanding the epidemiology of waterborne pathogens is crucial to build surveillance systems. The purpose of this study was to explore techniques for describing microbial water quality in rural drinking water wells, based on spatiotemporal analysis, time series analysis and relative risk mapping. Tests results for Escherichia coli and coliforms from private and small public well water samples, collected between 2004 and 2012 in Alberta, Canada, were used for the analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040075/development-of-recreational-water-spray-ground-design-regulations-in-new-york-state-an-engineering-approach
#11
John D Paccione, David M Dziewulski, Pamela L Young
The New York State Department of Health developed regulations for the design and operation of spray grounds to address the potential for recreational water illnesses associated with this type of venue. The water treatment component of the new regulation was based on a first-principles approach to address the unique challenges of spray grounds. The regulation departs from traditional recreational water treatment methods by requiring a novel filtration approach and the installation of UV disinfection. The water treatment system was also required to incorporate automatic control systems to ensure the water quality is maintained with a minimum of operator involvement...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040074/use-of-non-linear-mixed-effects-modelling-and-regression-analysis-to-predict-the-number-of-somatic-coliphages-by-plaque-enumeration-after-3-hours-of-incubation
#12
Javier Mendez, Antonio Monleon-Getino, Juan Jofre, Francisco Lucena
The present study aimed to establish the kinetics of the appearance of coliphage plaques using the double agar layer titration technique to evaluate the feasibility of using traditional coliphage plaque forming unit (PFU) enumeration as a rapid quantification method. Repeated measurements of the appearance of plaques of coliphages titrated according to ISO 10705-2 at different times were analysed using non-linear mixed-effects regression to determine the most suitable model of their appearance kinetics. Although this model is adequate, to simplify its applicability two linear models were developed to predict the numbers of coliphages reliably, using the PFU counts as determined by the ISO after only 3 hours of incubation...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040073/removal-of-model-viruses-e-coli-and-cryptosporidium-oocysts-from-surface-water-by-zirconium-and-chitosan-coagulants
#13
Ekaterina Christensen, Vegard Nilsen, Tor Håkonsen, Arve Heistad, Christophe Gantzer, Lucy J Robertson, Mette Myrmel
The present work evaluates the effect of contact filtration, preceded by coagulation with zirconium (Zr) and chitosan coagulants, on model microorganisms and waterborne pathogens. River water intended for potable water production was spiked with MS2 and Salmonella Typhimurium 28B bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts prior to coagulation. The hygienic performance demonstrated by Zr comprised 3.0-4.0 log10 removal of viruses and 5.0-6.0 log10 removal of E. coli and C. parvum oocysts...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040072/enterococci-populations-of-a-metropolitan-river-after-an-extreme-flood-event-prevalence-persistence-and-virulence-determinants
#14
Nicole M Masters, Aaron Wiegand, Jasmin M Thompson, Tara L Vollmerhausen, Eva Hatje, Mohammad Katouli
We investigated the prevalence, persistence and virulence determinants of enterococci populations in water samples collected over three rounds following an extreme flood event in a metropolitan river. Enterococci (n = 482) were typed using the high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method (PhP typing) and grouped into common (C) or single (S) biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). In all, 23 C-BPTs (72.6% of isolates) were found across the sites. A representative isolate of each C-BPT was identified to the species level and tested for the presence of seven virulence genes (VGs), biofilm formation and resistance to 14 antibiotics...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040071/prevalence-and-direct-costs-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations-for-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states
#15
E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, J W Gargano, M J Beach
National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771162/modelling-spatio-temporal-heterogeneities-in-groundwater-quality-in-ghana-a-multivariate-chemometric-approach
#16
Frederick Ato Armah, Arnold Paintsil, David Oscar Yawson, Michael Osei Adu, Justice O Odoi
Chemometric techniques were applied to evaluate the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in groundwater quality data for approximately 740 goldmining and agriculture-intensive locations in Ghana. The strongest linear and monotonic relationships occurred between Mn and Fe. Sixty-nine per cent of total variance in the dataset was explained by four variance factors: physicochemical properties, bacteriological quality, natural geologic attributes and anthropogenic factors (artisanal goldmining). There was evidence of significant differences in means of all trace metals and physicochemical parameters (p < 0...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771161/hydrochemical-and-multivariate-analysis-of-groundwater-quality-in-the-northwest-of-sinai-egypt
#17
M F El-Shahat, M A Sadek, W M Salem, A A Embaby, F A Mohamed
The northwestern coast of Sinai is home to many economic activities and development programs, thus evaluation of the potentiality and vulnerability of water resources is important. The present work has been conducted on the groundwater resources of this area for describing the major features of groundwater quality and the principal factors that control salinity evolution. The major ionic content of 39 groundwater samples collected from the Quaternary aquifer shows high coefficients of variation reflecting asymmetry of aquifer recharge...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771160/staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-tunisia-occurrence-of-human-and-animal-associated-lineages
#18
Meriam Ben Said, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Paula Gómez, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Senda Sghaier, Chourouk Ibrahim, Carmen Torres, Abdennaceur Hassen
The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates)...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771159/verification-of-an-alternative-sludge-treatment-process-for-pathogen-reduction-at-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-victoria-australia
#19
R Irwin, A Surapaneni, D Smith, J Schmidt, H Rigby, S R Smith
At South East Water wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs) in Victoria, Australia, biosolids are stockpiled for three years in compliance with the State guidelines to achieve the highest pathogen reduction grade (T1), suitable for unrestricted use in agriculture and landscaping. However, extended stockpiling is costly, may increase odour nuisance and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduces the fertiliser value of the biosolids. A verification programme of sampling and analysis for enteric pathogens was conducted at two WwTPs where sludge is treated by aerobic and anaerobic digestion, air drying (in drying pans or solar drying sheds) and stockpiling, to enumerate and, if present, monitor the decay of a range of enteric pathogens and parasites...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771158/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-practice-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-in-arba-minch-town-southern-ethiopia
#20
Desta Haftu, Gebrekiros Gebremichael, Desalegn Ajema, Genet Gedamu, Eskezyiaw Agedew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people have substantially greater need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Many opportunistic infections cause high morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) than in immune competent populations. The objective of the study was to assess WASH practices and associated factors among PLHIV. A cross-sectional study design was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate logistic model was employed. According to this study, 97 (23.5%) of the households have unimproved water status, 221 (53...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
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