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Journal of Water and Health

Dielle Monteiro Teixeira, Paula Katharine de Pontes Spada, Lena Líllian Canto de Sá Morais, Tulio Machado Fumian, Ian Carlos Gomes de Lima, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Tereza Cristina Monteiro Gurjão, Maísa Silva de Sousa, Joana D'Arc Pereira Mascarenhas, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
This study investigated the presence of norovirus (NoV) GI and GII in environmental samples from the northern region of Brazil. Water samples were collected monthly (November 2008/October 2010) from different sources and sewage and concentrated by the adsorption-elution method. The NoV investigation used molecular methods followed by sequencing reactions. The general positivity for NoV was 33.9% (57/168). Considering the results obtained only in the semi-nested RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and only in the TaqMan(®) real-time PCR, the rates were 26...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Pierangeli G Vital, Nguyen Thi Van Ha, Le Thi Hong Tuyet, Kenneth W Widmer
Surface water samples in Vietnam were collected from the Saigon River, rural and suburban canals, and urban runoff canals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and were processed to enumerate Escherichia coli. Quantification was done through membrane filtration and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean log colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 ml E. coli counts in the dry season for river/suburban canals and urban canals were log 2.8 and 3.7, respectively, using a membrane filtration method, while using Taqman quantitative real-time PCR they were log 2...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
C Salvinelli, A C Elmore, B R García Hernandez, K D Drake
Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) are an effective means of household water treatment, but the characterization of CPF lifetimes is ongoing. This paper describes a lifetime field study in Guatemala which was made possible by a collaboration between researchers, CPF-using households, and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Disinfection data were collected periodically for two years using field coliform enumeration kits as were flow rate data with the assistance of NGO staff. Consumer acceptance was characterized by surveying householders in the four subject villages at the beginning and end of the study...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
M E M Hassouna, M A ElBably, Asmaa N Mohammed, M A G Nasser
This work evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of kaolin clay and its loaded forms with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against bacterial isolates from different water supplies (tap, underground and surface water) in addition to wastewater. A total of 160 water samples were collected from different water sources in the investigated districts. Samples were cultured for isolation and serological identification of pathogenic bacteria. AgNPs were synthesized by a typical one-step synthesis protocol, where CNTs were carried out in a reactor employing the double bias-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition method...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Şehnaz Şener, Erhan Şener, Ayşen Davraz
Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(2-), and SO4(2). According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Taranpreet Kaur, Moushumi Ghosh
A novel, phosphate-binding exobiopolymer (EBP) produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus MG606 was characterized and its biocompatibility evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells and in mice. EBP was identified as a 50 kDa heteropolysaccharide composed of pentose and hexose sugars. EBP exhibited cytotoxicity, stimulation of free radical production and loss of mitochondrial and lysosomal integrity in RAW 264.7 cells at 500 μg/mL concentration while lower concentrations exhibited no significant (p > 0.05) effect on these parameters...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Janet A Ademola, Oluwaferanmi R Ojeniran
Water samples collected from different sources were analysed for radon concentrations in order to evaluate the health effect associated with radon in water. The radon concentrations were in the range of 3.56-98.57, 0.88-25.49, 0.73-1.35 and 0.24-1.03 Bq.L(-1) for borehole, well, packaged and utility water, respectively. Samples from boreholes had the highest radon concentrations with about 67% being higher than the threshold value of 11.1 Bq.L(-1) recommended by the USEPA. The mean annual effective dose (AED) due to ingestion for adult, child and infant ranged from 8...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
N A Moreira, M Bondelind
The present work compiles a review on drinking waterborne outbreaks, with the perspective of production and distribution of microbiologically safe water, during 2000-2014. The outbreaks are categorised in raw water contamination, treatment deficiencies and distribution network failure. The main causes for contamination were: for groundwater, intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rain; in surface water, discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour; at treatment plants, malfunctioning of the disinfection equipment; and for distribution systems, cross-connections, pipe breaks and wastewater intrusion into the network...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Rhiana D Meade, Anna L Murray, Anjuliee M Mittelman, Justine Rayner, Daniele S Lantagne
Locally manufactured ceramic water filters are one effective household drinking water treatment technology. During manufacturing, silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate are applied to prevent microbiological growth within the filter and increase bacterial removal efficacy. Currently, there is no recommendation for manufacturers to test silver concentrations of application solutions or filtered water. We identified six commercially available silver test strips, kits, and meters, and evaluated them by: (1) measuring in quintuplicate six samples from 100 to 1,000 mg/L (application range) and six samples from 0...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Pankaj Gogoi, Debasish Dutta, Tarun Kr Maji
We present a comparative study on the efficacy of TiO2 nanoparticles for arsenate ion removal after modification with CTAB (N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide) followed by coating with starch biopolymer. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The removal efficiency was studied as a function of contact time, material dose and initial As(V) concentration...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Warita Alves de Melo, Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga, Lilian Carla Carneiro
Water is fundamental to the survival of living beings. It registers every impact and can function as an indicator of environmental stressors. Our objective in the current study was to assess the sanitary conditions of the waters in the Açude, Maria Lucinda and Santa Rosa streams. This was done by checking pH, running quantitative analyses of heavy metals and testing for total coliforms. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) rays on samples positive for coliforms was evaluated. The average pH of the streams ranged between 4 and 7 and changed between drought and rainy season conditions...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Maja Taučer-Kapteijn, Wim Hoogenboezem, Remco Hoogenboezem, Sander de Haas, Gertjan Medema
Enterococci were detected occasionally in 100 L samples of water abstracted from a shallow aquifer in a natural dune infiltration area for drinking water production. Enterococcus moraviensis was the species most frequently identified in these samples. Because there are no existing reports of faecal sources of E. moraviensis and the closely related E. hemoperoxidus, this study aimed to find such sources of these two species in the dunes. Faecal samples from various animal species living in the vicinity of abstraction wells, were analysed for enterococci on Slanetz and Bartley Agar...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Vincenza Gianfredi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Daniele Nucci, Milena Villarini, Massimo Moretti
This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were of the case-control studies type. From an initial list of 643 potentially eligible articles, seven studies were finally retained in the quantitative analysis...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Elijah Bisung, Susan J Elliott
The lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation has implications for the psychosocial well-being of individuals and households. To review the literature on psychosocial impacts, we completed a scoping review of the published literature using Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Of the included studies, six were conducted in India, one in Nepal, one in Mexico, one in Bolivia, two in Ethiopia, one in Zimbabwe, one in South Africa, and two in Kenya...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Una Ryan, Sheleigh Lawler, Simon Reid
Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of swimming pool outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Transmission occurs through the ingestion of oocysts that are passed in the faeces of an infected person or animal when an accidental faecal release event occurs. Cryptosporidium parasites present specific challenges for infection control as oocysts are highly resistant to chlorine levels used for pool disinfection, infected individuals can shed large numbers of oocysts, there is a long incubation period and shedding of oocysts occurs even after symptom resolution...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Julia Krolik, Allison Maier, Shawna Thompson, Anna Majury
Many people living in rural areas rely on privately owned wells as their primary source of drinking water. These water sources are at risk for fecal contamination of human, wildlife, and livestock origin. While traditional bacteriological testing involves culture-based methods, microbial source tracking (MST) assays present an opportunity to additionally determine the source of fecal contamination. This study investigated the main host sources of contamination in private well water samples with high levels of Escherichia coli (E...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Lina Xiong, He Yan, Lei Shi, Ziyao Mo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Cimi Ilmiawati, Nguyen Dinh Thang, Machiko Iida, Masao Maeda, Shoko Ohnuma, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Reina Oshino, M M Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Hiromasa Ninomiya, Masashi Kato
Since well water utilized for domestic purposes in the Red River Delta of North Vietnam has been reported to be polluted by arsenic, barium, iron, and manganese, household sand filters consisting of various components are used. Information regarding the effectiveness of various sand filters for removal of the four toxic elements in well water is limited. In this study, arsenic levels in 13/20 of well water samples and 1/7 of tap water samples exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) health-based guideline value for drinking water...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Natalie R Krumdieck, Shalean M Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Patrick Mbullo, Godfred O Boateng, Maricianah Onono, Sera L Young
Water insecurity (WI) is a serious and worsening problem worldwide, but its role in health outcomes among people living with HIV or pregnant women is unknown. We assessed experiences of WI in a cohort of 323 pregnant Kenyan women of mixed HIV status. The majority (77.7%) had at least one experience of WI in the previous month; it was associated with negative economic, nutrition, disease, and psychosocial outcomes. A standardized cross-culturally valid household WI scale would facilitate assessment of the prevalence and consequences of WI, and increased attention to WI could reveal an overlooked, but modifiable, cause of adverse HIV outcomes...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Bernardo Guzman Herrador, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Anneli Carlander, Steen Ethelberg, Hans Olav Hygen, Markku Kuusi, Vidar Lund, Margareta Löfdahl, Emily MacDonald, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Gordon Nichols, Caroline Schönning, Bertrand Sudre, Linda Trönnberg, Line Vold, Jan C Semenza, Karin Nygård
We conducted a matched case-control study to examine the association between heavy precipitation events and waterborne outbreaks (WBOs) by linking epidemiological registries and meteorological data between 1992 and 2012 in four Nordic countries. Heavy precipitation events were defined by above average (exceedance) daily rainfall during the preceding weeks using local references. We performed conditional logistic regression using the four previous years as the controls. Among WBOs with known onset date (n = 89), exceedance rainfall on two or more days was associated with occurrence of outbreak, OR = 3...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
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