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Journal of Water and Health

Winni Alves Ladeia, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Camila Fernanda Rosolen E Silva, Roberta Lemos Freire
The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in a water treatment plant (WTP) using settling sludge and backwash water (BW) samples in previous and post the deflocculation of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) flacks. Eleven collections were performed. BW and settling sludge (SSF) were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, and another aliquot of settling sludge (SSC) by centrifugation. The samples were divided as follows: Group A, containing 33 samples without degradation of PAC flakes, and Group B, with degradation by alkalinization with 10 M NaOH...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
V Sabna, Santosh G Thampi, S Chandrakaran
This is an investigation on oxidative degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) nanorods synthesized by redox co-precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy of MnO2 nanorods at an electron voltage of 10 kV revealed a rod-like morphology for the synthesized nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibited characteristic peaks of MnO2 . Surface area of MnO2 nanorods was 277 m2 /g. Effect of various parameters like initial concentration and pH of RhB solution, time of contact between MnO2 nanorods and RhB, dosage of MnO2 , and stirring speed on decolouration of RhB was evaluated in batch experiments...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Claudia Patricia Acosta, Francesc Codony, Mariana Fittipaldi, Carlos Hernán Sierra-Torres, Jordi Morató
Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. Although the infection may be acquired through different transmission routes, the presence and viability of H. pylori in water sources are not well known. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse the viability of H. pylori cells in urban surface waters collected at the Vallparadís public park in Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. The water samples were analysed by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using propidium monoazide and specific primers for the H...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Jonas Germain Levêque, Robert Clyde Burns
West Virginia has had a history of water quality issues. In parallel, the world is facing a plastic pollution crisis. In order to better understand behavioral responses to perceived water quality, a survey was conducted at a major research university to ask participants about water quality perceptions and drinking water behaviors. A total of 4,188 students completed the survey during the Spring 2017 semester. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict behaviors. Results indicated that a third of the student population primarily used bottled water for drinking purposes at home, while 39% used a filter at home and 26% drank water directly from the tap...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Xiaowei Liu, Lihui Huang, Lisha Wang, Chuang Wang, Xueyuan Wu, Guihua Dong, Yangyang Liu
Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Platanus orientalis leaves by H3 PO4 activation using a microwave heating method and characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) techniques. AC exhibited a surface area of 1089.67 m2 /g and a relatively high pore volume of 1.468 cm3 /g. Utilization of AC for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was researched. The adsorption efficiency was highly pH dependent and adsorption capacity of AC for Cr(VI) could reach up to 135...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Samira Dodangeh, Elham Kialashaki, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Yusef Dadi Moghaddam, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini
Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan that can be found in natural and artificial environments such as hot tubs, surface water and springs and can cause severe diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The present study was conducted owing to the lack of research regarding genotypes of Acanthamoeba in hot springs of Mazandaran province in northern Iran. Twenty-four water samples were collected from all hot springs in Mazandaran province. After filtration through nitrocellulose membrane, samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar medium enriched with TYIS-33...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
E G Mbonimpa, E R Blatchley, B Applegate, W F Harper
UVA and UVB can be applied to solar disinfection of water. In this study, the inactivation and photoreactivation of viruses and bacteria in the UVA-B range were analyzed. MS2 and T4 bacteriophages, and Escherichia coli were used as surrogates to quantify dose-response behaviors. Inactivation in UVC was used to validate the methodology and to expand the inactivation action spectra. The results showed log-linear inactivation for MS2 and T4 in the 254-320 nm wavelength range. T4 inactivation was consistently faster than MS2 (except at 320 nm), and for both phages, inactivation decreased with increasing wavelength...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Aminur Rahman, Hafezur Rahaman
Safe water is essential for life. Consumption of arsenic and manganese contaminated water poses a range of health effects to humans. Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of groundwater at five administrative upazillas in Kushtia District, Bangladesh, have been studied to evaluate the potability of water for drinking purpose from 32 randomly selected tube wells (TWs). APHA (2012) standard analytical methods were applied for analyses of the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of the water samples...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Shanza Rauf Khan, Muhammad Umar Khalid, Saba Jamil, Songnan Li, Aiman Mujahid, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf Janjua
A simple co-precipitation technique is proposed for synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2 ) microrods. Stannous chloride and urea were used during synthesis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the annealed product consists of SnO2 microrods having tetragonal unit cells, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the rod-like morphology of a synthesized product. These synthesized microrods are used as photocatalyst for the degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5). Degradation kinetics of RB5 are monitored under daylight in different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and catalyst...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Gracenea, S Castaño, J Méndez, F Lucena, M S Gómez
A study was conducted of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in indoor heated public swimming pools and of three bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli, faecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) on pool surrounds. Although all examined pools adhered strictly to the Spanish regulations, the influence of several parameters related to water conditions, pool structure, users and location on the presence of protozoa and bacteria was analysed. Cryptosporidium was detected in 18.8% of pools in 60% of the five towns studied...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
J Zhang, N Sinha, M Ross, A E Tejada-Martínez
Hydraulic or filtration efficiency of residential swimming pools, quantified in terms of residence time characteristics, is critical to disinfection and thus important to public health. In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model together with Eulerian and Lagrangian-based techniques are used for investigating the residence time characteristics of a passive tracer and particles in the water, representative of chemicals and pathogens, respectively. The flow pattern in the pool is found to be characterized by dead zone regions where water constituents may be retained for extended periods of times, thereby potentially decreasing the pool hydraulic efficiency...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Layla Ben Ayed, Khaoula Belhassen, Sonia Sabbahi, Panagiotis Karanis, Issam Nouiri
Limited access to safe water enhances poverty, hunger and diseases. This study evaluated the drinking water quality stored in home-based systems, located in rural areas of Tunisia. Water management was also documented as an improvement of good practice as most of the water contamination could be related to behavioral patterns. Thirty-nine water samples from five different sources (rainwater, truck cistern, mix, etc.) were screened for enteric parasitic contamination with the modified Bailenger technique. This technique allowed the detection of three protozoa: Giardia spp...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Almea Matanock, Xin Lu, Gordana Derado, Victoria M Cuéllar, Patricia Juliao, Maricruz Alvarez, Beatriz López, Fredy Muñoz, Andrew Thornton, Jaymin C Patel, Gerard Lopez, Lissette Reyes, Wences Arvelo, Anna J Blackstock, Kim A Lindblade, Sharon L Roy
Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. To assess water quality associations with diarrhea and STH, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in households of south-eastern Guatemala. Diarrhea was self-reported in the past week and month. STH was diagnosed by stool testing using a fecal parasite concentrator method. We explored associations between Escherichia coli-positive source water (water quality) and disease outcomes using survey logistic regression models...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Ananda Tiwari, Anna-Maria Hokajärvi, Jorge W Santo Domingo, Ari Kauppinen, Michael Elk, Hodon Ryu, Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash, Tarja Pitkänen
Intestinal enterococci indicate the fecal contamination of bathing waters. This study defines the performance characteristics of the reference method ISO 7899-2:2000 with water samples collected from inland and coastal bathing areas in Finland. From a total of 341 bacterial isolates grown on Slanetz and Bartley medium, 63.6% were confirmed as intestinal enterococci on bile aesculin agar. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clades accounted for 93.1% of the confirmed isolates...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Frida Ridderstedt, Micael Widerström, Johan Lindh, Mikael Lilja
We investigated sick leave from work, studies, preschool, and kindergarten occurring between 1 November 2010 and 31 January 2011 and associated with a waterborne outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in late November 2010 in Östersund, Sweden with 45.2% of 60,000 residents being symptomatic. A questionnaire defining acute watery diarrhoea and/or ≥3 diarrhea episodes/day as cryptosporidiosis was sent to 1,508 residents in late January 2011 (response rate 69.2%). Among adults aged 18-60 years, 24...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Surbhi Tak, Bhanu Prakash Vellanki
Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and if present can cause varied drinking water quality issues, the major one being disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are major classes of DBP that are formed during chlorination of NOM. The best way to remove DBPs is to target the precursors (NOM) directly. The main aim of this review is to study conventional as well as advanced ways of treating NOM, with a broad focus on NOM removal using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and biofiltration...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Adel Al-Gheethi, Efaq Noman, Bala Jeremiah David, Radin Mohamed, Abd Halid Abdullah, Sasitharan Nagapan, Amir Hashim Mohd
The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the population has sewerage systems...
October 2018: Journal of Water and Health
A Cassivi, R Johnston, E O D Waygood, C C Dorea
Despite the reported achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with respect to drinking water, lack of access to water remains widespread worldwide. The indicator used there to measure access to water in the MDGs refers to the use of an improved water source. However, the amount of time spent in collecting water is high in countries where access to drinking water supplies located on premises is not common. 26.3% of the world's population did not have such access in 2015. Thus the need to travel to a water point, possibly queue, fill water containers, and carry them home is prevalent...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Adamska
The aim of this study was molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in 36 natural surface water bodies in Poland, including preliminary genotype identification and determination of co-occurrence of this parasite with other protozoa that have been detected in previous studies. The examined DNA samples were obtained before to detect Cryptosporidium, Giardia and free-living amoebae. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on B1 gene and sequencing was performed for both confirmation of parasite presence in water and genotype identification...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Dzodzomenyo, G Fink, W Dotse-Gborgbortsi, N Wardrop, G Aryeetey, N Coleman, A Hill, J Wright
The study's objectives were to assess the extent to which packaged water producers follow product registration procedures and to assess the relationship between product registration and drinking water quality in Accra, Ghana. Following preliminary analysis of a national water quality survey, 118 packaged sachet water samples were collected by sampling all brands sold by 66 vendors. A sample of vendors was selected from two high-income and two low-income areas of Accra, Ghana. Sachet packaging and labelling details were recorded and compared to a regulatory database to assess product registration...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
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