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Journal of Water and Health

Julia Krolik, Allison Maier, Shawna Thompson, Anna Majury
Many people living in rural areas rely on privately owned wells as their primary source of drinking water. These water sources are at risk for fecal contamination of human, wildlife, and livestock origin. While traditional bacteriological testing involves culture-based methods, microbial source tracking (MST) assays present an opportunity to additionally determine the source of fecal contamination. This study investigated the main host sources of contamination in private well water samples with high levels of Escherichia coli (E...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Lina Xiong, He Yan, Lei Shi, Ziyao Mo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Cimi Ilmiawati, Nguyen Dinh Thang, Machiko Iida, Masao Maeda, Shoko Ohnuma, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Reina Oshino, M M Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Hiromasa Ninomiya, Masashi Kato
Since well water utilized for domestic purposes in the Red River Delta of North Vietnam has been reported to be polluted by arsenic, barium, iron, and manganese, household sand filters consisting of various components are used. Information regarding the effectiveness of various sand filters for removal of the four toxic elements in well water is limited. In this study, arsenic levels in 13/20 of well water samples and 1/7 of tap water samples exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) health-based guideline value for drinking water...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Natalie R Krumdieck, Shalean M Collins, Pauline Wekesa, Patrick Mbullo, Godfred O Boateng, Maricianah Onono, Sera L Young
Water insecurity (WI) is a serious and worsening problem worldwide, but its role in health outcomes among people living with HIV or pregnant women is unknown. We assessed experiences of WI in a cohort of 323 pregnant Kenyan women of mixed HIV status. The majority (77.7%) had at least one experience of WI in the previous month; it was associated with negative economic, nutrition, disease, and psychosocial outcomes. A standardized cross-culturally valid household WI scale would facilitate assessment of the prevalence and consequences of WI, and increased attention to WI could reveal an overlooked, but modifiable, cause of adverse HIV outcomes...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Bernardo Guzman Herrador, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Anneli Carlander, Steen Ethelberg, Hans Olav Hygen, Markku Kuusi, Vidar Lund, Margareta Löfdahl, Emily MacDonald, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Gordon Nichols, Caroline Schönning, Bertrand Sudre, Linda Trönnberg, Line Vold, Jan C Semenza, Karin Nygård
We conducted a matched case-control study to examine the association between heavy precipitation events and waterborne outbreaks (WBOs) by linking epidemiological registries and meteorological data between 1992 and 2012 in four Nordic countries. Heavy precipitation events were defined by above average (exceedance) daily rainfall during the preceding weeks using local references. We performed conditional logistic regression using the four previous years as the controls. Among WBOs with known onset date (n = 89), exceedance rainfall on two or more days was associated with occurrence of outbreak, OR = 3...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Koyomi Nakazawa, Osamu Nagafuchi, Kanji Okano, Ken'ichi Osaka, Etsuji Hamabata, Jamsran Tsogtbaatar, Javzan Choijil
Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from wells near the Tavan Tolgoi and Oyu Tolgoi mines in Mongolia and at a relatively pristine site in northern Mongolia during August to September 2013, and analyzed for the concentrations of F(-), NO3(-), Hg, As, Al, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb. A probabilistic risk assessment found that >95% of the population in the areas was at risk from drinking well water. The hazard index (HI) was >1, indicating a non-carcinogenic risk to human health...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Wendy Pons, Ian Young, David Pearl, Andria Jones-Bitton, Scott A McEwen, Katarina Pintar, Andrew Papadopoulos
The objectives of this work were to investigate the relationships between characteristics of small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs) and the performance of these systems with respect to Escherichia coli testing and risk ratings. Ontario-wide SDWS data were analysed using regression models with outcomes of (1) having an adverse E. coli test result in the 12 months prior to the last inspection and (2) the SDWS risk rating (high/medium vs. low risk) that is assigned by public health inspectors. Almost 34% (2,364/7,003) of SDWSs did not utilize treatment, more commonly for ground water than surface supplies (P < 0...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Ali Naghizadeh, Habibeh Shahabi, Fatemeh Ghasemi, Ahmad Zarei
The main aim of this research was to study the efficiency of modified walnut shell with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the adsorption of humic acid from aqueous solutions. This experimental study was carried out in a batch condition to determine the effects of factors such as contact time, pH, humic acid concentration, dose of adsorbents (raw walnut shell, modified walnut shell with TiO2 and ZnO) on the removal efficiency of humic acid. pHzpc of raw walnut shell, walnut shell modified with TiO2 and walnut shell modified with ZnO were 7...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Hugo Alejandro Nájera-Aguilar, Rubén Fernando Gutiérrez-Hernández, Rocío González de Los Santos, Carlos García-Lara, Roger Méndez-Novelo, María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia
Evidence of the negative effects of several pharmaceutical molecules, such as hormones and steroids, on the environment can be observed throughout the world. This paper presents the results of the anodic oxidation of the mixture of gestodene steroid hormones and 17 α-ethinylestradiol present in aqueous medium. The tests were conducted in an undivided cell containing a working volume of 50 mL, using a Na2SO4 solution as support electrolyte and boron-doped diamond electrodes. The experiments were adjusted to the structure of a 3(3) factorial design...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Digbijoy Dey, A T M Ridwanul Haque, Babar Kabir, Sharmin Farhat Ubaid
Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Mosimanegape Jongman, Lise Korsten
The study aimed at assessing the microbiological quality and suitability of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) for crop irrigation and domestic use. In total, 80 rainwater tanks (246 samples) across three rural villages (Ga-Molepane, Jericho and Luthngele) were visited. Culture-based techniques were used to isolate bacterial microbes and identities were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS). Uncultured fungal populations were also identified using pyrosequencing...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Kyle S Enger, Emaly S Leak, Tiong Gim Aw, Angela D Coulliette, Joan B Rose
Many different household water treatment (HWT) methods have been researched and promoted to mitigate the serious burden of diarrheal disease in developing countries. However, HWT methods using bromine have not been extensively evaluated. Two gravity-fed HWT devices (AquaSure™ and Waterbird™) were used to test the antimicrobial effectiveness of HaloPure(®) Br beads (monobrominated hydantoinylated polystyrene) that deliver bromine. As water flows over the beads, reactive bromine species are eluted, which inactivate microorganisms...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Kumarasingam Kalaiselvi, Vincent Mangayarkarasi, Doraisami Balakrishnan, Vasudevan Chitraleka
Hospital wastewater has the potential to be a threat to the hospital environment as it can contain pathogenic bacteria that may facilitate the resistant nature of organisms within effluent or water treatment plants. The recycling of hospital wastewater should have good quality. This study was carried out to highlight the incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospital-generated recycled water. This study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital during June 2013-June 2014. One hundred and forty wastewater samples were aseptically collected at different stages in the recycling plant...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Bart W Durham, Lucy Porter, Allie Webb, Joshua Thomas
This study investigated patterns of Escherichia coli in urban lakes in Lubbock, Texas. Specific objectives were to (1) document seasonal patterns in abundance of E. coli over a 3-year period, (2) identify environmental factors, including effects of migratory geese and artificial aeration devices that may influence E. coli abundance, and (3) determine if E. coli abundance over time was similar for individual lakes. Water samples were collected monthly for 36 months from six lakes, three of which contained artificial aeration devices (fountains)...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
A A Wurochekke, R M S Mohamed, A A Al-Gheethi, Hauwa Atiku, H M Amir, H M Matias-Peralta
Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
C Pellacani, F Cassoni, C Bocchi, A Martino, G Pinto, F Fontana, M Furlini, A Buschini
The assessment of the toxicological properties of raw groundwater may be useful to predict the type and quality of tap water. Contaminants in groundwater are known to be able to affect the disinfection process, resulting in the formation of substances that are cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Though the European directive (98/83/EC, which establishes maximum levels for contaminants in raw water (RW)) provides threshold levels for acute exposure to toxic compounds, the law does not take into account chronic exposure at low doses of pollutants present in complex mixture...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Suranie Horn, Rialet Pieters, Carlos Bezuidenhout
Evidence suggests that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria may be hazardous to humans with weakened health. We investigated the pathogenic potential of HPC bacteria from untreated borehole water, consumed by humans, for: their haemolytic properties, the production of extracellular enzymes such as DNase, proteinase, lipase, lecithinase, hyaluronidase and chondroitinase, the effect simulated gastric fluid has on their survival, as well as the bacteria's antibiotic-susceptible profile. HuTu-80 cells acted as model for the human intestine and were exposed to the HPC isolates to determine their effects on the viability of the cells...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Kato, Makoto Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Katayama, Satoshi Ishii, Satoshi Okabe, Daisuke Sano
The virus reduction efficiency of each unit process is commonly determined based on the ratio of virus concentration in influent to that in effluent of a unit, but the virus concentration in wastewater has often fallen below the analytical quantification limit, which does not allow us to calculate the concentration ratio at each sampling event. In this study, left-censored datasets of norovirus (genogroup I and II), and adenovirus were used to calculate the virus reduction efficiency in unit processes of secondary biological treatment and chlorine disinfection...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Kyle Fluegge
Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Akosua Sarpong Boakye-Ansah, Giuliana Ferrero, Maria Rusca, Pieter van der Zaag
Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
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