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Journal of Water and Health

Faissal Aziz, Naaila Ouazzani, Laila Mandi, Aziz Assaad, Steve Pontvianne, Hélène Poirot, Marie-Noëlle Pons
Water storage tanks, fed directly from the river through opened channels, are particular systems used for water supply in rural areas in Morocco. The stored water is used as drinking water by the surrounding population without any treatment. UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence) have been tested as rapid methods to assess the quality of the water stored in the reservoirs as well as along the river feeding them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS50), collected with a difference of 50 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths, revealed a high tryptophan-like fluorescence, indicative of a pollution induced by untreated domestic and/or farm wastewater...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Lilian Bueno Montanari, Flávio Garcia Sartori, Diórginis Bueno Montrazi Ribeiro, Luís Fernando Leandro, Regina Helena Pires, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, César Alexandre de Mello, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
The use of poorly treated water in hemodialysis centers may lead to fungal contamination, which poses a serious threat to immunologically debilitated hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to isolate and identify yeast species in the water of a Brazilian hemodialysis center by using classic microbiological techniques and Raman spectroscopy. For 12 months, a total of 288 water samples were collected from different points of the hemodialysis treatment distribution center. One hundred and forty-six yeast species were isolated and identified in the samples that tested positive for the presence of yeasts such as Candida parapsilosis (100 isolates, or 68...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Meiyue Ding, Jiahang Li, Xiaodan Liu, Huiru Li, Rui Zhang, Jincai Ma
Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Vilma Marques Santos Bonanno, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 have been described as potential markers of human fecal contamination in water sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of GB-124 phages in raw sewage, secondary effluents and reclaimed water of the São Paulo city using a low-cost microbial source tracking method. Samples were collected monthly from April 2015 to March 2016 in four municipal wastewater treatment plants that operate with activated sludge processes followed by different tertiary treatments (sand-anthracite filtration, membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis) and final chlorination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Muhammed A Usman, Nicolas Gerber, Evita H Pangaribowo
This study aims at assessing the determinants of microbiological contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Ethiopia. For this analysis, a random sample of 454 households was surveyed between February and March 2014, and water samples from community sources and household storage containers were collected and tested for fecal contamination. The number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony-forming units per 100 mL water was used as an indicator of fecal contamination...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Anu Rajasingham, Margaret Leso, Samuel Ombeki, Tracy Ayers, Robert Quick
Many health care facilities (HCFs) and households in low-and-middle-income countries have inadequate access to water for hygiene and consumption. To address these problems, handwashing and drinking water stations were installed in 53 HCFs with prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV programs in Kenya in 2005, and hygiene education was provided to health workers and clinic clients. To assess this program, we selected a random sample of 30 HCFs, observed the percentage of handwashing and drinking water stations that were functional and in use, and after that interviewed health providers and clients about hygiene and water treatment...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Natalie H Aneck-Hahn, Magdalena C Van Zijl, Pieter Swart, Barry Truebody, Bettina Genthe, Jessica Charmier, Christiaan De Jager
Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Duygu Göksay Kadaifciler, Rasime Demirel
Water-related fungi are known to cause taste and odor problems, as well as negative health effects, and can lead to water-pipeline clogging. There is no legal regulation on the occurrence of fungi in water environments. However, much research has been performed, but further studies are needed. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the fungal load and the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi in man-made water systems (for homes, hospitals, and shopping centers) connected to municipal water in Istanbul, Turkey...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Marjolein C F M Peters, Maarten G A Keuten, Aleksandra Knezev, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Johannes S Vrouwenvelder, Luuk C Rietveld, Merle K de Kreuk
Bathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl2 L-1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Alexander Spina, David Beversluis, Andrea Irwin, Alexandra Chen, Jean Noel Nassariman, Abdelkhadir Ahamat, Idriss Noh, Jan Oosterloo, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang, Annick Lenglet, Dawn Louise Taylor
In September 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières responded to a hepatitis E (HEV) outbreak in Chad by implementing water treatment and hygiene interventions. To evaluate the coverage and use of these interventions, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the community. Our results showed that 99% of households interviewed had received a hygiene kit from us, aimed at improving water handling practice and personal hygiene and almost all respondents had heard messages about preventing jaundice and handwashing. Acceptance of chlorination of drinking water was also very high, although at the time of interview, we were only able to measure a safe free residual chlorine level (free chlorine residual (FRC) ≥0...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
H M Ayala S Herath, Tomonori Kawakami, Shiori Nagasawa, Yuka Serikawa, Ayuri Motoyama, G G Tushara Chaminda, S K Weragoda, S K Yatigammana, A A G D Amarasooriya
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is spreading gradually in Sri Lanka. In the current research, 1,435 well water samples from all 25 districts of Sri Lanka, 91 rice samples, and 84 human urine samples from both CKDu-endemic and non-endemic areas in Sri Lanka were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium to detect whether toxic elements could be a cause of CKDu. The liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) concentration and arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium concentrations of the urine samples were analyzed to determine the relation of L-FABP with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Rachelle Janicki, M Kate Thomas, Katarina Pintar, Manon Fleury, Andrea Nesbitt
In Canada, over 400,000 enteric diseases related to drinking water occur each year, highlighting the importance of understanding sources of Canadians' drinking and recreational water exposures. To address this need, a population-based telephone survey of 10,942 Canadians was conducted between 2014 and 2015, assessing Canadian's drinking water sources and recreational water exposures using a seven-day recall method. Results were analyzed by province/territory, season, age group, gender, income, education, and urban/rural status...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Funanani Mashau, Esper Jacobeth Ncube, Kuku Voyi
Epidemiological studies have found that maternal exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes although the findings tend to be inconsistent. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence in associated with drinking water DBP exposure in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Peer-reviewed articles were identified using electronic databases searched for studies published in the English language. Studies selected for review were evaluated for exposure assessment, confounders, and analyses risks of bias in the selection, outcomes assessment, and attrition...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Dan Liu, Yiqin Mao, Lijun Ding
Waterborne diseases significantly affect human health and are responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Antibiotics have been known for decades for treatment of bacterial strains and their overuse and irrational applications are causing increasing bacteria resistance. Therefore, there is a strong need to find alternative ways for efficient water disinfection and microbial control. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties due to their remarkable structure. This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of CNTs, discusses diverse mechanisms of action against microorganisms as well as their applicability for water disinfection and microbial control...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Maria A Kyritsi, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Spyros Pournaras, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
After the Elizabethkingia anophelis outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, an active search for the detection of the microorganism in hospital water systems from Central and Northern Greece was performed from June to December 2016. In total, 457 water samples from 11 hospitals were analyzed. Elizabethkingia spp. was detected in three samples collected from two hospitals, both of which are located in Northern Greece. Two of the three isolated strains were identified as Elizabethkingia anophelis. No cases of Elizabethkingia infection were reported in either hospital during 2016...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Lester Botoman, Elvis Shukla, Erni Johan, Satoshi Mitsunobu, Naoto Matsue
Although many kinds of materials for water purification are known, easy-to-use methods that ensure the safety of drinking water for rural populations are not sufficiently available. Sorbent-embedded sheets provide methods for the easy removal of contaminants from drinking water in the home. As an example of such a sorbent-embedded sheet, we prepared a Linde type A (LTA) zeolite-embedded sheet (ZES) and examined its Pb(II) removal behaviour. Different amounts of LTA were added either as powder or as ZES to 0...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Savina Ditommaso, Monica Giacomuzzi, Elisa Ricciardi, Roberto Garbuio, Carla M Zotti
In this study we evaluated (1) the efficacy of a protocol that combines hydrogen peroxide (shock treatment) and ICX® tablets (continuous treatment) for the control of microbial contamination in dental unit water lines, and (2) the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ICX® tablets on collection and wild strains isolated from dental chair output waters. To assess the treatment effectiveness, the microbial load in the output water samples of three dental chairs were investigated: one control chair received only shock treatment...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
D Diston, R Robbi, A Baumgartner, R Felleisen
Water resources situated in areas with underlying karst geology are particularly vulnerable to fecal pollution. In such vulnerable systems, microbial source tracking (MST) methods are useful tools to elucidate the pathways of both animal and human fecal pollution, leading to more accurate water use risk assessments. Here, we describe the application of a MST toolbox using both culture-dependent bacteriophage and molecular-dependent 16S rRNA assays at spring and well sites in the karstic St Imier Valley, Switzerland...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Tao Lin, Yiwen Tan, Wei Chen
Cladocera zooplankton as carriers of bacteria result in biological risk due to their occurrence in drinking water treatment systems. In this paper, bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate the inhibition effect on Daphnia magna (D. magna) by controlling its phototactic behavior. The results showed that UVA had a negative effect on the phototaxis of D. magna, indicating an active movement away from light source, while blue light was positive in inducing phototactic behavior. The water quality could influence the phototactic behavior of D...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Natalie Wilhelm, Anya Kaufmann, Elizabeth Blanton, Daniele Lantagne
Household water treatment with chlorine can improve the microbiological quality of household water and reduce diarrheal disease. We conducted laboratory and field studies to inform chlorine dosage recommendations. In the laboratory, reactors of varying turbidity (10-300 NTU) and total organic carbon (0-25 mg/L addition) were created, spiked with Escherichia coli, and dosed with 3.75 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. All reactors had >4 log reduction of E. coli 24 hours after chlorine addition. In the field, we tested 158 sources in 22 countries for chlorine demand...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
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