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Journal of Water and Health

A Cassivi, R Johnston, E O D Waygood, C C Dorea
Despite the reported achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with respect to drinking water, lack of access to water remains widespread worldwide. The indicator used there to measure access to water in the MDGs refers to the use of an improved water source. However, the amount of time spent in collecting water is high in countries where access to drinking water supplies located on premises is not common. 26.3% of the world's population did not have such access in 2015. Thus the need to travel to a water point, possibly queue, fill water containers, and carry them home is prevalent...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Adamska
The aim of this study was molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in 36 natural surface water bodies in Poland, including preliminary genotype identification and determination of co-occurrence of this parasite with other protozoa that have been detected in previous studies. The examined DNA samples were obtained before to detect Cryptosporidium, Giardia and free-living amoebae. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on B1 gene and sequencing was performed for both confirmation of parasite presence in water and genotype identification...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Dzodzomenyo, G Fink, W Dotse-Gborgbortsi, N Wardrop, G Aryeetey, N Coleman, A Hill, J Wright
The study's objectives were to assess the extent to which packaged water producers follow product registration procedures and to assess the relationship between product registration and drinking water quality in Accra, Ghana. Following preliminary analysis of a national water quality survey, 118 packaged sachet water samples were collected by sampling all brands sold by 66 vendors. A sample of vendors was selected from two high-income and two low-income areas of Accra, Ghana. Sachet packaging and labelling details were recorded and compared to a regulatory database to assess product registration...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Judit Plutzer, Péter Avar, Dóra Keresztes, Zsófia Sári, Ildikó Kiss-Szarvák, Márta Vargha, Gábor Maász, Zsolt Pirger
Exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can lead to adverse effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in both animals and humans. An adequate strategy for the prevention of environmental contamination and eliminating the effects of them must be established. Chemicals with estrogenic activity were selected, and the effectiveness of their removal during the purification processes in two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using riverbank infiltrated water was determined. Thirty-five water samples in two sampling campaigns throughout different seasons were collected and screened with a yeast estrogen test; furthermore, bisphenol A (BPA), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl-estradiol (EE2) content were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Kaveh Pazand, Davoud Khosravi, Mohammad Reza Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza Rezvanianzadeh
Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies were conducted to assess the origin and geochemical mechanisms driving lead enrichment in groundwaters of semi-arid regions in Central Iran. In this study, 149 water samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations of Pb and As in about 68% and 27% of the samples, respectively, exceeded WHO guidelines. Analyzing the results of ICP-MS of parental rocks and aquifer sediments shows that unweathered volcanic rocks were the primary source for lead mobilizing to groundwaters...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Atefeh Taherkhani, Hossein Movahedyan Attar, Seyyed Abbas Mirzaee, Mehdi Ahmadmoazzam, Neemat Jaafarzadeh, Faeze Hashemi, Mohammad Jalali
The aim of the present study was to assess performance of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) on the removal of Listeria spp. in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 104 samples were taken from eight sampling locations from influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Sewage samples were analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. using selective enrichment protocol. Listeria isolates were also identified by biochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Listeria spp. was enumerated by a three tube most probable number (MPN) for total coliform counts (TC), fecal coliform counts (FC), total suspended solids (TSS), and total dissolved solids (TDS)...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Ekaterina Christensen, Mette Myrmel
Research on microorganism reduction by physicochemical water treatment is often carried out under the assumption that the microbiological enumeration techniques are not affected by the presence of coagulants. Data presented here indicate that bacteriophage enumeration by plaque assay and RT-qPCR (reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction) can be affected by these water treatment chemicals. Treatment of water samples with an alkaline protein-rich solution prior to plaque assay and optimization of RNA extraction for RT-qPCR were implemented to minimize the interference...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Simge Varol, Mediha Şekerci
Groundwater is a major water source for drinking, domestic and agricultural activities in the Korkuteli district. However, the intensive agricultural activities in the region negatively affect the groundwater quality. In this study, 30 water samples were collected from springs, wells, and tap waters in dry and wet seasons. Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 were dominant water types in the study area. According to the Gibbs diagrams, which were prepared to determine the mechanism controlling the groundwater geochemistry, samples from both seasons fell in the rock-dominance zone...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Koichi Ohno, Mari Asami, Yoshihiko Matsui
Two liters per day is generally applied as the default drinking water intake rate for risk assessments, although evidence supporting this value is insufficient. This study aimed to reveal actual water intakes from tap water and other types of drinks, and to explore the relationships between these intakes. For this purpose, we conducted a nationwide Internet questionnaire survey. Tap water intake negatively correlated with bottled water and soft drink intakes, suggesting a mutually complementary relationship...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Ekaterina Sokolova, Göran Lindström, Charlotta Pers, Johan Strömqvist, Susanna Sternberg Lewerin, Helene Wahlström, Kaisa Sörén
While agricultural activities, such as the application of manure on arable land and animal grazing on pastures, provide economic and environmental benefits, they may also pose microbial risks to water sources. The aim of this paper was to study the microbial fate and transport in an agricultural catchment and recipient water source through further development of the hydrological model HYPE. Hydrological modelling was combined with hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the fate and transport of Salmonella spp., verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) and Cryptosporidium parvum in an agricultural catchment of a drinking water source, Lake Vombsjön, in Sweden...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
S J Kaishwa, E M Marwa, J J Msaky, W N Mwakalasya
An analytical study was carried out to determine the level of uranium in the soil and rock and associate it with the levels in surface and underground water, which are the main sources of drinking water in Singida Urban District, Tanzania. Fifteen water samples, 12 soil samples and nine rock samples were collected in Singida Urban District in February 2016. Water samples were analysed by the Government Chemist Laboratory Agency using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (2007) and analyses for soil and rock samples were carried out through total X-ray fluorescence (XL3 ANALYSER) at Sokoine University of Agriculture in the Department of Soil and Geological Sciences...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
M Salari, G R Rakhshandehroo, M R Nikoo
Optimization methods are used to study and survey the optimal values for input factors and effect of optimized parameters on response variables. In this study, the effect of different factors on ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal of water soluble was studied. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization was performed utilizing the Taguchi method based on a grey relational analysis. Optimum levels of factors were determined to optimize three responses simultaneously with grey Taguchi. Meanwhile, grey relational analysis was applied to model and optimize three target responses, namely, CIP removal, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and sludge to iron ratio...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Rebecca A Guy, Julie Arsenault, Serge Olivier Kotchi, Maxime Gosselin-Théberge, Marie-Josée Champagne, Philippe Berthiaume
Campylobacter is an important cause of gastrointestinal illness and exposure to recreational water is one potential source of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and concentrations of Campylobacter, and determine the influence of agricultural activities and precipitation on their presence, at lake beaches used for water recreation in southern Quebec, Canada. A total of 413 water samples were collected from June to August, from 22 beaches, between 2011 and 2013. The overall proportion of positive water samples was estimated to be 33...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Lixia Zhang, Xiu'E Li, Rui Wu, Hailong Chen, Jifeng Liu, Zengguo Wang, Yuan Xing, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Jingjun Wang, Pengbo Yu, Jiru Xu, Chaofeng Ma
An acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at a private college in June 2014 in northwest China. This outbreak involved two teachers and 629 students (range: 17-27 years, average 21.3 years). The main symptoms included non-bloody watery diarrhea, stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting, and the duration of illness ranged from 1 to 7 days. Eight of 18 water samples were disqualified. Thirty-four norovirus (NoV) RNA-positive samples were identified from 48 stool-related samples (genotyping results: 13 GII, 13 GI and 8 GI + GII mixture)...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Douglas Mushi
Clostridium perfringens was analysed in soils from a tropical highland catchment and corresponding headwater streams at baseflow condition in order to understand the contribution of soils to the microbiological quality of stream water and the feasibility of using these streams as surrogate for negative control (reference streams). The concentrations of C. perfringens depended on the sample matrix. C. perfringens concentrations were significantly higher in the catchment soil than in the stream water (P < 0...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Gerard N Stelma
Because Clostridium perfringens spores are both specific to sewage contamination and environmentally stable, they are considered as possible conservative indicators of human fecal contamination and possible surrogates for environmentally stable pathogens. This review discusses the reasons and summarizes methods for monitoring spores in water. Cultural methods are still preferred over qPCR for routine water quality monitoring because of their low costs. Membrane filter (MF) methods are preferred over the more laborious and less accurate most probable number methods...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Thomas H Osborne, Seamus A Ward, Kazi M Ahmed, Joanne M Santini
The majority of the population of Bangladesh (90%) rely on untreated groundwater for drinking and domestic use. At the point of collection, 40% of these supplies are contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Recent studies have disproved the theory that latrines discharging to shallow aquifers are the major contributor to this contamination. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hand pumps are a reservoir of FIB. We sampled the handle, spout, piston and seal from 19 wells in Araihazar Upazila, Bangladesh and identified that the spout and seal were reservoirs of FIB...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
C S Kaliprasad, Y Narayana
Systematic studies were carried out to understand the distribution of natural radionuclides in sediments and radon in water in the riverine environs of Cauvery, one of the major rivers of South India. The activity of radionuclides in the sediment was measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The radon emanation from the sediment was measured by the sealed 'can technique' and the radon in the water was measured using the RAD-7 instrument. The mean values of 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th in the sediment samples were found to be 297...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Gideon Koren, Yona Amitai, Meital Shlezinger, Rachel Katz, Varda Shalev
In Israel, about 55% of drinking water is derived from desalination (DSW) which removes all iodine. A recent study from Israel demonstrated high rates of iodine deficiency among school-aged children and pregnant women. There are concerns that low iodine may lead to impaired thyroid function. However, to date, the impact of consuming DSW on body iodine status has not been studied. The objective was to assess whether the increased use of DSW is associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism. Using data from a large health fund in Israel, we compared proportions of patients with higher than normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and lower than normal T3 and T4 levels before and after a massive desalination project became operational in August 2013 in areas with high vs...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Anna Y Gates, Trina M Guerra, Fritzina B Morrison, Michael R J Forstner, Thomas B Hardy, Dittmar Hahn
The prevalence of salmonellae in the intestines of the invasive suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus was assessed in the San Marcos River, just down-stream of its spring-fed headwaters. In 2014, H. plecostomus, sediment, and water samples were collected during 15 sampling events. A combination of semi-selective enrichment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the presence of salmonellae in 45% of the fish intestines across the entire year, with a prevalence range of 13-100% per sampling event...
June 2018: Journal of Water and Health
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