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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

O Skor, A Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A Tichy, M Kleiter, I Schwendenwein
Leukocyte ratios correlate with outcome in several human cancers. Little is known about their prognostic significance in mast cell tumour (MCT). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment leukocyte concentrations and their ratios in dogs with MCT for survival. Medical records of 92 dogs with MCT were retrospectively reviewed. Tumour diagnosis was made by tumour biopsy or fine-needle aspirate. Only dogs without prior treatment were included. Eosinophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and neutrophil concentration were obtained by ADVIA 2120™ (Siemens Healthcare, Vienna, Austria)...
October 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L R Eichstadt, G E Moore, M O Childress
Piroxicam has antitumour effects in dogs with cancer, although side effects may limit its use. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively identify factors predisposing cancer-bearing dogs to adverse events (AEs) following piroxicam therapy. Medical records of dogs presented to the Purdue Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed, and 137 dogs met the criteria for study inclusion. Toxic effects of piroxicam in these dogs were graded according to an established system. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the extent to which certain factors affected the risk for AEs...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
H Mochizuki, M Breen
Recent discovery of the BRAF V595E mutation in a variety of canine cancers indicates that mutant BRAF may represent a novel therapeutic target. Presence of RAS mutations is associated with poor tumour response to BRAF inhibition but has not been investigated in BRAF-mutated canine cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutational status of three RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS and NRAS) in four types of canine carcinoma with and without the BRAF V595E mutation. Novel HRAS mutations were identified in 18% (3/17) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, whereas 17% (3/18) of pulmonary carcinoma carried KRAS or NRAS mutations...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L Ressel, R Finotello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
G Chamel, A T Gourlan, P Télouk, D Sayag, V Milliard, C Loiseau, M Simon, S Buff, F Ponce
Previous studies in humans with breast, colorectal or liver cancer showed that neoplasia was associated with a modification of the blood ratio between (65) Cu and (63) Cu (∂Cu). The aim of the present study was to compare the blood ∂Cu of dogs with cancer to healthy controls or dogs with non-oncologic disease. One hundred and seventeen dogs were included in the study (35 dogs with cancer, 33 dogs with non-neoplastic disease, and 49 healthy controls). The ∂Cu of dogs with cancer was significantly lower than the ratio of healthy controls (P < 0...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
C M Chan, A E Frimberger, A S Moore
Many chemotherapy drugs used in human patients are discarded after single use or within 24 h of reconstitution, as per the manufacturer's product label recommendations. This can be wasteful and costly to veterinary clients. This report reviews the published stability and storage data for 19 injectable chemotherapy drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine. Based on these data, storage procedures are presented, assuming aseptic technique and a closed system drug transfer device (CSDTD) are used for drug preparation and handling...
October 2, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Carvalho, A L Stoll, S L Priestnall, A Suarez-Bonnet, K Rassnick, S Lynch, I Schoepper, G Romanelli, P Buracco, M Atherton, E M de Merlo, A Lara-Garcia
Limited veterinary literature is available regarding prognostic markers for canine renal cell carcinoma (CRCC). We retrospectively evaluated COX-2 expression, histological and clinical features associated with prognosis of CRCC. Sixty-four cases post-nephrectomy were included, 54 had histopathological assessment and 30 had COX-2 immunostaining performed. Eight dogs (13%) had metastatic disease at initial diagnosis. Twenty-seven dogs (42%) received adjuvant therapy after nephrectomy. On univariate analysis, COX-2 expression, mitotic index (MI), histologic type, vascular invasion, neoplastic invasiveness and metastasis at diagnosis were significantly associated with overall median survival time (MST)...
August 31, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
C Rohrer Bley, V Meier, P Schwarz, M Roos, J Besserer
Technical advances make it possible to deliver radiation therapy for canine intracranial tumours in fewer fractions, under the assumption of equivalent tumour control. With the aim of estimating the late toxicity risk profile for various tumour sizes and locations, the present paper evaluates the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values for the intracranial organs at risk. By making isoeffect calculations, a new 10-fraction radiation protocol was developed with the same tumour control probability (TCP) as a currently used 20-fraction standard protocol, and complication risk profiles for brain, brainstem and optic chiasm were modelled using a representative population of 64 dogs with brain tumours...
August 31, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
R Felisberto, J Matos, M Alves, J Cabeçadas, J Henriques
Paired box gene 5 (Pax5) is a widely used B-cell marker for human and canine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (nHL); however, in the literature there is only one case report using Pax5 in a cat B-cell lymphoma. The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression and detection of B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP) using a monoclonal anti-Pax5 antibody in feline nHL (FnHL) tissue samples to evaluate its diagnostic relevance as a B-cell marker. A total of 45 FnHL samples in 45 cats were evaluated. B-cell lymphoma was the most common immunophenotype (51...
August 22, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Hugen, R E Thomas, A J German, I A Burgener, P J J Mandigers
Gastric carcinoma (GC) is the most common neoplasm in the stomach of dogs. Although incidence in the general population is reported to be low, breed-specific GC has a high incidence. Median age at presentation ranges from 8 to approximately 10 years. The disease is mostly located in the lesser curvature and antropyloric region of the stomach. Unfortunately, diagnosis is usually made when the disease is at an advanced stage and, therefore, prognosis is poor. Due to similarities in clinical presentation, diagnosis, histology and prognosis, canine GC may serve as a valuable model for human GC...
August 22, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
C-K Ku, P H Kass, M M Christopher
Lymph nodes are frequently sampled in dogs and cats for the diagnosis of primary and metastatic neoplasia. We determined the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis in lymph nodes using histology as the gold standard. Lymph node reports (2001-2011) were retrospectively evaluated and diagnoses were categorized as neoplastic or non-neoplastic. Lymph nodes from 296 dogs and 71 cats included 157 (42.7%) non-neoplastic lesions, 62 (16.9%) lymphomas and 148 (40.3%) metastatic neoplasms. Cytology had a sensitivity of 66.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 60...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K M Curran, P A Schaffer, C B Frank, S E Lana, L E Hamil, J H Burton, J Labadie, E J Ehrhart, P R Avery
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common haematopoietic malignancy in dogs. Recently, MYC and BCL2 expression levels determined with immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found to be prognostic in people with DLBCL. We hypothesized that canine DLBCL can be similarly subdivided into prognostic subtypes based on expression of MYC and BCL2. Cases of canine DLBCL treated with CHOP chemotherapy were retrospectively collected and 43 dogs had available histologic tissue and complete clinical follow-up. Median values of percent immunoreactive versus immunonegative cells were used to determine positive or negative expression status...
August 11, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K Bauer, E Hadzijusufovic, S Cerny-Reiterer, G Hoermann, M Reifinger, A Pirker, P Valent, M Willmann
CD30 is a novel therapeutic target in human mast cell (MC) neoplasms. In this 'comparative oncology' study, we examined CD30 expression and regulation in neoplastic canine MC using a panel of immunomodulatory cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and stem cell factor (SCF)] and the canine mastocytoma cell lines NI-1 and C2. Of all cytokines tested IL-4 was found to downregulate expression of CD30 in NI-1 and C2 cells. We also found that the CD30-targeting antibody-conjugate brentuximab vedotin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in both MC lines...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
M A Giuffrida, N J Bacon, D A Kamstock
Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) of bone and telangiectatic osteosarcoma (tOSA) can appear similar histologically, but differ in histogenesis (malignant endothelial cells versus osteoblasts), and may warrant different treatments. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for endothelial cell marker factor VIII-related antigen/von Willebrand factor (FVIII-RAg/vWF) is a well-documented ancillary test to confirm HSA diagnoses in soft tissues, but its use in osseous HSA is rarely described. Archived samples of 54 primary appendicular bone tumours previously diagnosed as HSA or tOSA were evaluated using combination routine histopathology (RHP) and IHC...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A Pawlak, E Ziolo, J Kutkowska, A Blazejczyk, J Wietrzyk, A Krupa, W Hildebrand, P Dziegiel, S Dzimira, B Obminska-Mrukowicz, L Strzadala, A Rapak
We established a new B-cell leukaemia cell line CLB70 from a dog with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. This cell line is positive for CD20, CD45, CD79a, MHC class II, IgG, IgM; weakly positive for CD21; and negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD14, CD34, CD117. PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangement (PARR) analysis revealed a biclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement and negative result for TCRγ. Western blot analysis of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins showed increased expression of Bcl-2, Mcl-1, NF-kB, and Ras, and decreased expression of p53...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L Cicchelero, S Denies, H Haers, K Vanderperren, E Stock, L Van Brantegem, H de Rooster, N N Sanders
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a powerful immunostimulatory cytokine with a strong antitumoural activity. In this work, the immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of three consecutive intratumoural IL-12 electrogene therapy (EGT) treatments were evaluated in nine dogs with spontaneous cancer. In all the dogs, tumour biopsies and blood samples were taken prior, during and after the intratumoural IL-12 EGT (on days 1, 8, 35 and 1, 3, 8, 15, 35, respectively). An initial decrease in immune cells was followed by an increase above baseline 1-3 weeks after treatment initiation...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A Ruple, A C Avery, P S Morley
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in the geographic distribution of two distinct subtypes of canine lymphoma (CL), B-cell lymphoma (BCL) and T-zone lymphoma (TZL), in the USA while accounting for heritable risks associated with the outcome of disease through inclusion of only one breed of dog. This study included 454 Golden retrievers and associations between geographic areas of the USA and the phenotypic variant of lymphoma were examined using multivariable logistic regression...
July 27, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Filippo Scarpa, Silvia Sabattini, Giuliano Bettini
The cover image, by Giuliano Bettini et al., is based on the Original Article Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours, DOI: 10.1111/vco.12090.
September 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A Khammanivong, B H Gorden, A M Frantz, A J Graef, E B Dickerson
Canine hemangiosarcoma is a rapidly progressive disease that is poorly responsive to conventional chemotherapy. Despite numerous attempts to advance treatment options and improve outcomes, drug resistance remains a hurdle to successful therapy. To address this problem, we used recently characterized progenitor cell populations derived from canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and grown as non-adherent spheres to identify potential drug resistance mechanisms as well as drug-resistant cell populations. Cells from sphere-forming cultures displayed enhanced resistance to chemotherapy drugs, expansion of dye-excluding side populations and altered ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression...
September 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
P Pessina, V Castillo, I Sartore, J Borrego, A Meikle
Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts...
September 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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