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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761612/acute-radiotherapy-toxicity-in-57-dogs-with-gross-and-microscopic-mast-cell-tumours
#1
L Blackwood, J B Tanis, A Harper, I Amores-Fuster, D R Killick, R Finotello
Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each)...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761663/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-early-toxicity-from-a-simultaneously-integrated-boost-technique-for-canine-sinonasal-tumours-using-image-guided-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#2
A Soukup, V Meier, S Pot, K Voelter, C Rohrer Bley
In order to overcome the common local treatment failure of canine sinonasal tumours, integrated boost techniques were tried in the cobalt/orthovoltage era, but dismissed because of unacceptable early (acute) toxicity. Intriguingly, a recent calculation study of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) technique for sinonasal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) predicted theoretical feasibility. In this prospective pilot study we applied a commonly used protocol of 10 × 4.2 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with a 20%-SIB dose to the gross tumour volume (GTV)...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575744/evaluation-of-information-presented-within-soft-tissue-sarcoma-histopathology-reports-in-the-united-states-2012-2015
#3
A M Livaccari, L E Selmic, J K Reagan, E A Driskell, M T Cray, L M Lamoureux, L D Garrett
Despite the existence of the American College of Veterinary Pathology guidelines for tumour biopsy specimens, anecdotally the authors' have seen inconsistency of reporting of information on the pathology report for canine soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). If crucial aspects are not reported this can result in slower or impeded patient care. This retrospective study evaluated 255 STS histopathology reports submitted from across the United States. Reports were evaluated by a single observer to assess for information contained in 5 main categories: patient history and signalment, gross and microscopic description, grading, histologic margins and the comments section...
March 25, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575510/pathological-features-of-intestinal-t-cell-lymphoma-in-shiba-dogs-in-japan
#4
I Matsumoto, K Uchida, K Nakashima, Y Goto-Koshino, J K Chambers, H Tsujimoto, H Nakayama
Intestinal T-cell lymphoma is being more frequently diagnosed in dogs owing to the wide availability of endoscopy and clonality analysis in veterinary medicine. However, no epidemiological study on intestinal T-cell lymphoma has been previously performed, and hence, information about dog breed, age and sex distributions of intestinal T-cell lymphoma has largely remained unclear. In this study, breed predisposition to canine intestinal T-cell lymphoma was determined by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals...
March 25, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527805/prognostic-significance-of-hypermethylation-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-dapk-gene-cpg-island-in-dogs-with-high-grade-b-cell-lymphoma
#5
M Sato, H Mochizuki, Y Goto-Koshino, A Fujiwara-Igarashi, M Takahashi, K Ohno, H Tsujimoto
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a tumour suppressor gene. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with inactivated DAPK through hypermethylation of a CpG island is known to result in a biologically aggressive phenotype in humans. This retrospective study was carried out to analyse the prognostic significance of DAPK CpG island hypermethylation in canine lymphoma. We hypothesized that DAPK CpG island hypermethylation can be a negative prognostic indicator in dogs with nodal high-grade B-cell lymphoma...
March 12, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512278/common-germline-haplotypes-and-genotypes-identified-in-brca2-exon-11-of-dogs-with-mammary-tumors-and-histopathological-analyses
#6
T Maués, K B El-Jaick, F B Costa, G E F Araujo, M V G Soares, A S Moreira, M L G Ferreira, A M R Ferreira
The canine BRCA2 is a tumor supressor gene which encodes the BRCA2 protein, involved in DNA repair through interaction with the RAD51 recombinase. This process is mediated by eigth BRC repeats that are encoded by BRCA2 exon 11. Two variants corresponding to human mutations in human BRC3 repeat have been reported in canine BRC3 repeat. In addition, other variants have also been described in canine BRCA2 exon 11. Considering the importance of polymorphisms in human BRCA2 to breast cancer development, this study aimed to investigate the frequency of variants in BRCA2 exon 11 in 48 blood and tissue DNA samples from bitches with canine mammary tumors (CMT), as well as, to analyze tumor stage and histopathological features...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508493/survival-analysis-of-dogs-with-advanced-primary-lung-carcinoma-treated-by-metronomic-cyclophosphamide-piroxicam-and-thalidomide
#7
G Polton, R Finotello, S Sabattini, F Rossi, P Laganga, M E Vasconi, A Barbanera, K Stiborova, C Rohrer Bley, L Marconato
Unresectable or metastatic (advanced) primary pulmonary carcinoma (PPC) represents a therapeutic challenge where surgery may be contraindicated and the therapeutic role of maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy remains uncertain. This study was undertaken to explore the impact of metronomic chemotherapy (MC) in dogs with advanced PPC. Previously untreated dogs with advanced (T3 or N1 or M1) PPC, with complete staging work-up and follow-up data, receiving MC (comprising low-dose cyclophosphamide, piroxicam and thalidomide), surgery, MTD chemotherapy or no oncologic treatment were eligible for inclusion...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508538/does-the-tumour-microenvironment-alter-tumorigenesis-and-clinical-response-in-transmissible-venereal-tumour-in-dogs
#8
H Ballestero Fêo, L Montoya Flórez, R S Yamatogi, A Prado Duzanski, J P Araújo, R A Oliveira, N S Rocha
The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a transmissible cancer that is spread naturally between dogs, with the ability to develop and evade the immune system, despite strict immune surveillance of the host. Furthermore, molecular signalling between cells of the immune system and the tumour microenvironment appear to influence the behaviour and development of the tumour. Thus, this study aimed to quantify the expression of genes related to the immune system such as IL-6, IFN-γ, and TGF-β, as well as angiogenic factors (VEGF, CXCR4), in CTVT cells in vivo and in vitro (primary culture), correlating with the clinical response of the animals treated with vincristine...
March 5, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498186/inter-and-intra-rater-reliability-and-agreement-in-determining-subcutaneous-tumour-margins-in-dogs
#9
B Ranganathan, M Milovancev, H Leeper, K L Townsend, S Bracha, K Curran
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate agreement and reliability of calliper-based measurements of locally invasive subcutaneous malignant tumours in dogs. Four raters measured the longest diameter of 12 subcutaneous tumours (7 soft tissue sarcomas and 5 mast cell tumours) from 11 client-owned dogs during 3 randomized, blinded measurement trials, both pre- and post-sedation. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740986/when-is-an-aspirate-a-biopsy-always
#10
LETTER
R E Raskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465825/editorial
#11
EDITORIAL
D H Thamm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239110/association-of-prognostic-features-and-treatment-on-survival-time-of-dogs-with-systemic-mastocytosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-40-dogs
#12
S J Moirano, S F Lima, K R Hume, E M Brodsky
Systemic mastocytosis is a rare phenomenon, with limited information regarding prognostic features and effective treatment of canine patients with this disease. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of certain features and treatments on dogs with systemic mastocytosis. The medical records of 40 dogs from 4 northeastern US veterinary hospitals, with evidence of systemic mast cell disease, were evaluated retrospectively. Variables analysed with relation to overall survival and prognostic significance included treatment protocol used, substage, presence of a cutaneous or visceral tumour, presence of multiple cutaneous Mast cell tumours, grade of the primary tumour and metastatic site(s)...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181871/outcome-of-9-dogs-treated-with-stereotactic-radiation-therapy-for-primary-or-metastatic-vertebral-osteosarcoma
#13
K E Swift, S M LaRue
Primary and metastatic vertebral osteosarcoma (OSA) in the dog carries an overall guarded prognosis. Previously reported definitive treatments in dogs with vertebral OSA have included surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of those therapies. This retrospective study was completed to determine patterns of failure, duration of local control and survival time in dogs with vertebral OSA treated with stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT). Nine dogs were treated with SRT for vertebral OSA. Protocols ranged from 1 to 5 fractions with total prescription ranging from 13...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178579/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-canine-mammary-gland-and-relationship-with-clinicopathological-parameters-and-progesterone-oestrogen-receptors
#14
R Sánchez-Céspedes, M D Fernández-Martínez, A Raya, C Pineda, I López, Y Millán
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) belongs to the nuclear class II receptor family. VDR is a ligand transcription factor and mediates the actions of calcitriol, the active product of vitamin D synthesis. Nowadays, it is known that the biological actions of calcitriol include the capacity to modulate cancer features, such as proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. VDR expression has been demonstrated in human breast cancer and vitamin D has emerged as a promising targeted therapy...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152844/faecal-microbiota-in-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma
#15
A Gavazza, G Rossi, G Lubas, M Cerquetella, Y Minamoto, J S Suchodolski
Malignant lymphoma B-cell type is the most common canine haematopoietic malignancy. Changes in intestinal microbiota have been implicated in few types of cancer in humans. The aim of this prospective and case-control study was to determine differences in faecal microbiota between healthy control dogs and dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Twelve dogs affected by multicentric, B-cell, stage III-IV lymphoma, and 21 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. For each dog, faecal samples were analysed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for selected bacterial groups...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152836/modulation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-immune-suppression-are-features-of-in-vitro-tumour-sphere-formation-in-ontogenetically-distinct-dog-cancers
#16
J-H Kim, A M Frantz, A L Sarver, B H Gorden Klukas, M Lewellen, T D O'Brien, E B Dickerson, J F Modiano
Non-adherent, 3-dimensional sphere formation is used as an in vitro surrogate to evaluate cellular potential for tumour initiation and self-renewal. To determine if a shared molecular program underlies the capacity for sphere formation by cells originating from diverse tumour types, we characterized molecular and functional properties of 10 independent cell lines derived from 3 ontogenetically distinct dog cancers: hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glial brain tumours. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified tumour-of-origin-dependent patterns of adjustment to sphere formation in a uniform culture condition...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152834/retrospective-analysis-of-factors-affecting-clinical-outcome-following-chop-based-chemotherapy-in-dogs-with-primary-nodal-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
M O Childress, J A Ramos-Vara, A Ruple
Numerous factors are known to affect the prognosis of dogs with chemotherapy-treated lymphomas. However, prognostic factors for dogs with specific subtypes of lymphoma are less clearly defined. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for dogs receiving CHOP-based chemotherapy for primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Medical records of dogs treated for DLBCL at the Purdue Veterinary Teaching Hospital (PUVTH) from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed. Factors potentially related to prognosis were analysed using multivariable statistical methods...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047203/engineered-cross-reacting-nanobodies-simplify-comparative-oncology-between-humans-and-dogs
#18
E Mazzega, A de Marco
Antibodies cross-reacting with homologue antigens in different species would be essential reagents for the development of comparative oncology studies. In comparison with conventional immunoglobulin Gs, recombinant nanobodies (single-domain variable regions of heavy-chain only antibodies of Camelidae origin) can be easily isolated in vitro and engineered into a variety of reagents with optimized characteristics for different research and clinical applications. We recovered an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) nanobody from a naïve llama library by direct panning on whole cells and expressed it fused to Fc and green fluorescent protein...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044884/a-dexamethasone-melphalan-actinomycin-d-and-cytarabine-chemotherapy-protocol-as-a-rescue-treatment-for-feline-lymphoma
#19
J Elliott, R Finotello
Nineteen cats with relapsed high-grade/large-cell lymphoma were treated with dexamethasone, melphalan, actinomycin-D and cytarabine (DMAC). All cats had received Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisolone (COP) as first-line chemotherapy and most cats had received at least 2 prior rescue agents with 14 of 19 having received both epirubicin and lomustine. Five cats (26%) exhibited a response (defined as an improvement or resolution of tumour-associated clinical signs/tumour volume, or complete/partial response) to chemotherapy though no patients received more than 2 cycles of DMAC...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027350/liposome-encapsulated-chemotherapy-current-evidence-for-its-use-in-companion-animals
#20
REVIEW
B Børresen, A E Hansen, A Kjaer, T L Andresen, A T Kristensen
Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20 years ago, and the first publication regarding its use in a canine cancer patient was published shortly thereafter. Regardless, no general application for liposomal cytotoxic drugs has been established in veterinary oncology till now. Due to the popularity of canines as experimental models for pharmacokinetic analyses and toxicity studies, multiple publications exist describing various liposomal drugs in healthy dogs...
March 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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