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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205839/canine-nodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-descriptive-insight-into-the-biological-behaviour
#1
M Cozzi, L Marconato, V Martini, L Aresu, F Riondato, F Rossi, D Stefanello, S Comazzi
Canine nodal marginal zone lymphoma (nMZL) is classified as an indolent lymphoma. Such lymphomas are typified by low mitotic rate and slow clinical progression. While the clinical behaviour of canine splenic MZL has been described, characterized by an indolent course and a good prognosis following splenectomy, there are no studies specifically describing nMZL. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features of and outcome for canine nMZL. Dogs with histologically confirmed nMZL undergoing a complete staging work-up (including blood analysis, flow cytometry [FC] on lymph node [LN], peripheral blood and bone marrow, imaging, histology and immunohistochemistry on a surgically removed peripheral LN) were retrospectively enrolled...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205754/preliminary-investigation-of-blood-concentrations-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-insulin-lactate-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-dogs-with-lymphoma-as-compared-with-matched-controls
#2
B McQuown, K E Burgess, C R Heinze
It is well established that tumour cells have metabolic differences when compared with normal cells. This is particularly true for energy metabolism in which dogs with cancer have been reported to have higher blood insulin and lactate concentrations than control dogs. Moreover, some human and animal studies suggest that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signalling pathway may play a role in tumorigenesis and tumour progression. At present, IGF-1 has not been evaluated in dogs with multicentric lymphoma...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181871/outcome-of-9-dogs-treated-with-stereotactic-radiation-therapy-for-primary-or-metastatic-vertebral-osteosarcoma
#3
K E Swift, S M LaRue
Primary and metastatic vertebral osteosarcoma (OSA) in the dog carries an overall guarded prognosis. Previously reported definitive treatments in dogs with vertebral OSA have included surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of those therapies. This retrospective study was completed to determine patterns of failure, duration of local control and survival time in dogs with vertebral OSA treated with stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT). Nine dogs were treated with SRT for vertebral OSA. Protocols ranged from 1 to 5 fractions with total prescription ranging from 13...
November 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178579/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-canine-mammary-gland-and-relationship-with-clinicopathological-parameters-and-progesterone-oestrogen-receptors
#4
R Sánchez-Céspedes, M D Fernández-Martínez, A Raya, C Pineda, I López, Y Millán
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) belongs to the nuclear class II receptor family. VDR is a ligand transcription factor and mediates the actions of calcitriol, the active product of vitamin D synthesis. Nowadays, it is known that the biological actions of calcitriol include the capacity to modulate cancer features, such as proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. VDR expression has been demonstrated in human breast cancer and vitamin D has emerged as a promising targeted therapy...
November 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178426/the-role-of-sentinel-lymph-node-mapping-in-small-animal-veterinary-medicine-a-comparison-with-current-approaches-in-human-medicine
#5
P Beer, A Pozzi, C Rohrer Bley, N Bacon, N S Pfammatter, C Venzin
The relevance of regional lymph node (LN) assessment to quantify the metastatic spread of cancer is well recognized in veterinary oncology. Evaluation of LNs is critical for tumour staging. However, sampling the correct LN may not be possible without sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. Methods for diagnostic imaging and intraoperative detection of SLNs are well established in human medicine, in particular, the combination of lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative application of blue dyes. Nevertheless, alternative imaging techniques are available and have gained increasing interest...
November 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152844/faecal-microbiota-in-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma
#6
A Gavazza, G Rossi, G Lubas, M Cerquetella, Y Minamoto, J S Suchodolski
Malignant lymphoma B-cell type is the most common canine haematopoietic malignancy. Changes in intestinal microbiota have been implicated in few types of cancer in humans. The aim of this prospective and case-control study was to determine differences in faecal microbiota between healthy control dogs and dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Twelve dogs affected by multicentric, B-cell, stage III-IV lymphoma, and 21 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. For each dog, faecal samples were analysed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for selected bacterial groups...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152836/modulation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-immune-suppression-are-features-of-in-vitro-tumour-sphere-formation-in-ontogenetically-distinct-dog-cancers
#7
J-H Kim, A M Frantz, A L Sarver, B H Gorden Klukas, M Lewellen, T D O'Brien, E B Dickerson, J F Modiano
Non-adherent, 3-dimensional sphere formation is used as an in vitro surrogate to evaluate cellular potential for tumour initiation and self-renewal. To determine if a shared molecular program underlies the capacity for sphere formation by cells originating from diverse tumour types, we characterized molecular and functional properties of 10 independent cell lines derived from 3 ontogenetically distinct dog cancers: hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma and glial brain tumours. Genome-wide gene expression profiling identified tumour-of-origin-dependent patterns of adjustment to sphere formation in a uniform culture condition...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152834/retrospective-analysis-of-factors-affecting-clinical-outcome-following-chop-based-chemotherapy-in-dogs-with-primary-nodal-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#8
M O Childress, J A Ramos-Vara, A Ruple
Numerous factors are known to affect the prognosis of dogs with chemotherapy-treated lymphomas. However, prognostic factors for dogs with specific subtypes of lymphoma are less clearly defined. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for dogs receiving CHOP-based chemotherapy for primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Medical records of dogs treated for DLBCL at the Purdue Veterinary Teaching Hospital (PUVTH) from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed. Factors potentially related to prognosis were analysed using multivariable statistical methods...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076241/oncolytic-reovirus-therapy-pilot-study-in-dogs-with-spontaneously-occurring-tumours
#9
C C Hwang, M Igase, M Sakurai, T Haraguchi, K Tani, K Itamoto, T Shimokawa, M Nakaichi, Y Nemoto, S Noguchi, M Coffey, M Okuda, T Mizuno
Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel treatment involving replication-competent virus in the elimination of cancer. We have previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in various canine cancer cell lines. This study aims to establish the safety profile of reovirus in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours and to determine a recommended dosing regimen. Nineteen dogs with various tumours, mostly of advanced stages, were treated with reovirus, ranging from 1.0 × 10(8) to 5.0 × 10(9) TCID50 given as intratumour injection (IT) or intravenous infusion (IV) daily for up to 5 consecutive days in 1 or multiple treatment cycles...
October 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047203/engineered-cross-reacting-nanobodies-simplify-comparative-oncology-between-humans-and-dogs
#10
E Mazzega, A de Marco
Antibodies cross-reacting with homologue antigens in different species would be essential reagents for the development of comparative oncology studies. In comparison with conventional immunoglobulin Gs, recombinant nanobodies (single-domain variable regions of heavy-chain only antibodies of Camelidae origin) can be easily isolated in vitro and engineered into a variety of reagents with optimized characteristics for different research and clinical applications. We recovered an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) nanobody from a naïve llama library by direct panning on whole cells and expressed it fused to Fc and green fluorescent protein...
October 18, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044884/a-dexamethasone-melphalan-actinomycin-d-and-cytarabine-chemotherapy-protocol-as-a-rescue-treatment-for-feline-lymphoma
#11
J Elliott, R Finotello
Nineteen cats with relapsed high-grade/large-cell lymphoma were treated with actinomycin-D and cytarabine (DMAC). All cats had received Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisolone (COP) as first-line chemotherapy and most cats had received at least 2 prior rescue agents with 14 of 19 having received both epirubicin and lomustine. Five cats (26%) exhibited a response (defined as an improvement or resolution of tumour-associated clinical signs/tumour volume, or complete/partial response) to chemotherapy though no patients received more than 2 cycles of DMAC...
October 16, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027350/liposome-encapsulated-chemotherapy-current-evidence-for-its-use-in-companion-animals
#12
REVIEW
B Børresen, A E Hansen, A Kjaer, T L Andresen, A T Kristensen
Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20 years ago, and the first publication regarding its use in a canine cancer patient was published shortly thereafter. Regardless, no general application for liposomal cytotoxic drugs has been established in veterinary oncology till now. Due to the popularity of canines as experimental models for pharmacokinetic analyses and toxicity studies, multiple publications exist describing various liposomal drugs in healthy dogs...
October 13, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960714/feline-vaccine-associated-sarcomagenesis-is-there-an-inflammation-independent-role-for-aluminium
#13
M A AbdelMageed, P Foltopoulou, E A McNiel
Aluminium has been found in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas. In this study, we investigated the potential for aluminium to contribute directly to tumourigenesis. Our results indicated that an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant preparation was cytotoxic and mutagenic in human-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) hybrid cells in vitro. Moreover, CHO cells deficient in DNA double strand break (DSB), but not single-strand break (SSB), repair, were particularly sensitive to aluminium exposure compared with repair proficient cells, suggesting that aluminium is associated with DSBs...
September 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941072/oral-melphalan-for-the-treatment-of-relapsed-canine-lymphoma
#14
M L Mastromauro, S E Suter, M L Hauck, P R Hess
Oral melphalan has been included in multi-agent rescue protocols for canine lymphoma but its activity as a single-agent for this purpose has not been established. Inexpensive cost, ease of administration and tolerability make oral melphalan an attractive candidate for single-agent rescue therapy of canine lymphoma. Retrospective evaluation of 19 cases of relapsed canine lymphoma treated with oral melphalan was performed. Melphalan was primarily administered (n = 16) via a high dose protocol (HDM) with a median dosage of 19...
September 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929581/gain-of-function-mutation-in-ptpn11-in-histiocytic-sarcomas-of-bernese-mountain-dogs
#15
T Thaiwong, S Sirivisoot, M Takada, V Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, M Kiupel
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of dendritic cell origin that is common in certain breeds of dogs. High prevalence of fatal, disseminated HS has been described in Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMDs). Support for genetic predisposition to develop HS has been presented in several studies, but to date, causative genetic events have not been reported. In addition, no driver mutations have been identified in tumours. Recently, E76K gain-of-function mutation in SHP2 encoded by the PTPN11 gene has been described in human histiocytic malignancies...
September 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905476/increased-frequency-of-cd45-negative-t-cells-t-zone-cells-in-older-golden-retriever-dogs
#16
K L Hughes, J D Labadie, J A Yoshimoto, J J Dossey, R C Burnett, A C Avery
T zone lymphoma (TZL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of T cells lacking expression of the pan-leukocyte antigen CD45 (TZ cells). A strong breed predisposition is observed in Golden retrievers. This study aimed to confirm aberrant CD45 mRNA expression and determine if Golden retrievers without clinical lymphoma have an increased frequency of circulating TZ cells. Gene expression analysis on confirmed TZL cases showed a significant decrease in CD45 expression compared to normal dogs. Peripheral blood samples from senior dogs, 242 Golden retrievers and 42 non-Golden retrievers, without evidence of lymphoproliferative disease were assessed for the presence of TZ cells by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120478/potency-and-stability-of-compounded-formulations-of-chlorambucil-melphalan-and-cyclophosphamide
#17
J H Burton, H K Knych, S D Stanley, R B Rebhun
BACKGROUND: Oral chemotherapy agents are frequently compounded in veterinary medicine however, the potency of some formulations have been shown to vary from that of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products. AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency and stability of three compounded oral chemotherapeutics commonly prescribed to be administered over time. MATERIALS & METHODS: Compounded chlorambucil 1 mg, cyclophosphamide 5 mg and melphalan 1 mg were obtained and for potency tested upon receipt and 6 weeks later...
December 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892246/novel-hyperthermia-applicator-system-allows-adaptive-treatment-planning-preliminary-clinical-results-in-tumour-bearing-animals
#18
S Dressel, M-C Gosselin, M H Capstick, E Carrasco, M S Weyland, S Scheidegger, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, C Rohrer Bley
Hyperthermia (HT) as an adjuvant to radiation therapy (RT) is a multimodality treatment method to enhance therapeutic efficacy in different tumours. High demands are placed on the hardware and treatment planning software to guarantee adequately planned and applied HT treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the novel HT system in tumour-bearing dogs and cats in terms of local response and toxicity as well as to compare planned with actual achieved data during heating...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891260/rabacfosadine-for-relapsed-canine-b-cell-lymphoma-efficacy-and-adverse-event-profiles-of-2-different-doses
#19
C F Saba, K R Vickery, C A Clifford, K E Burgess, B Phillips, D M Vail, Z M Wright, M A Morges, T M Fan, D H Thamm
Rabacfosadine (RAB), a novel double prodrug of the acyclic nucleotide phosphonate PMEG, preferentially targets neoplastic lymphocytes with reduced off target toxicity. Historical studies have suggested that every 21-day dosing is effective with acceptable toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate RAB's safety and efficacy at 2 different doses every 21 days in dogs with relapsed B-cell lymphoma. Dogs that had failed 1 doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective trial...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884928/expression-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-targets-pdgfr-%C3%AE-vegfr2-and-kit-in-canine-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#20
L Walters, O Martin, J Price, M M Sula
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common neoplasia of the canine urinary tract. It tends to be locally invasive and has a moderate metastatic rate. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play an important role in promoting cell growth, differentiation and regulation of cell function. RTK inhibitor toceranib phosphate has been used anecdotally to treat TCC. The goal of this study was to evaluate archived normal urinary bladder, TCC and cystitis bladder samples for expression of toceranib phosphate targets: VEGFR2, PDGFR-β and stem cell factor receptor (KIT)...
September 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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