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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

A Sumi, J K Chambers, M Doi, T Kudo, T Omachi, K Uchida
The biological behaviour and prognostic factors of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in 20 cats were studied. The tumours were surgically removed and histopathologically examined. The animals were 8 to 20 years old (median age: 14 years), and the tumours were predominantly located in the neck and head. Follow-up data were available in 17 cases, and 12 cats died within a year of surgery. The overall median survival time after resection was 243 days (range 16-360 days). Recurrence occurred in 11 cases, although 6 of them (55%) were found to be margin-negative...
July 18, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K Patatsos, T M Shekhar, C J Hawkins
Osteosarcoma, a common malignancy in large dog breeds, typically metastasises from long bones to lungs and is usually fatal within 1 to 2 years of diagnosis. Better therapies are needed for canine patients and their human counterparts, a third of whom die within 5 years of diagnosis. We compared the in vitro sensitivity of canine osteosarcoma cells derived from 4 tumours to the currently used chemotherapy drugs doxorubicin and carboplatin, and 4 new anti-cancer drugs. Agents targeting histone deacetylases or PARP were ineffective...
July 12, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
D Berlato, S Murphy, S Laberke, R Rasotto
A previous study found that minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) score was associated with prognosis in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) independent of histological grade. The primary aim of this study was to validate this score in a different cohort of dogs focusing exclusively on patients with Patnaik intermediate grade MCTs treated with surgery alone and followed for a minimum of 1 year. A secondary aim was to evaluate the prognostic performance of MCM7 in relation to Kiupel histological grade, mitotic index (MI) and Ki67 index in the same cohort of dogs...
July 10, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
O T Skinner, S E Boston, R F Giglio, E M Whitley, J C Colee, E G Porter
The diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT for detection of cervical lymph node metastasis in dogs is unknown. The purpose of this retrospective, observational, diagnostic accuracy study was to assess the efficacy of CT for detection of mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in dogs. Histopathology of dogs with cancer of the head, CT and bilateral mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy was reviewed. A single radiologist measured lymph nodes to derive short axis width and long-short axis ratios...
July 10, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J Ekena, E Wood, A Manchester, R Chun, L A Trepanier
The antineoplastic agent cyclophosphamide (CP) has dose-limiting side effects including sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC), bone marrow (BM) suppression and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in dogs. The metabolites acrolein and phosphoramide that mediate these toxicities are glutathione-S-transferase (GST) substrates, and low functioning GST alleles are associated with CP toxicity in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants in 2 canine GST genes, GSTT1 and GSTT5, were over-represented in dogs that developed CP toxicity...
July 8, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Sabattini, A Renzi, L Marconato, G Militerno, C Agnoli, L Barbiero, A Rigillo, O Capitani, D Tinto, G Bettini
Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are often diagnosed by cytology based on the identification of purple intracytoplasmic granules with methanolic Romanowsky stains, including May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). In clinical practice, aqueous rapid stains (RS) are commonly used, but mast cell granules may not stain properly. Aim of this prospective study was to investigate the frequency of MCT hypogranularity with RS and its potential implications in tumour identification, cytological grading assessment and recognition of nodal metastatic disease...
July 1, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J Pradel, D Berlato, M Dobromylskyj, R Rasotto
Metastatic rates and survival times of canine anal sac gland adenocarcinomas (ASGACs) vary among studies, making prognostication difficult. Little is known about the prognostic significance of histopathology of ASGACs. This retrospective study investigated associations between histological features, clinical presentation and outcome for 39 ASGACs. Most tumours were incompletely excised (62%) and had moderate to marked peripheral infiltration (74%). The predominant growth pattern was solid, tubules/rosettes/pseudorosettes and papillary in 49%, 46% and 5% of the cases, respectively...
July 1, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
R Ferrari, L Marconato, P Buracco, P Boracchi, C Giudice, S Iussich, V Grieco, L E Chiti, E Favretto, D Stefanello
Metastasis to regional lymph nodes (RLNs) in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumour (cMCT) has been correlated with shortened survival time and higher risk of spread to distant sites. In the present study, extirpation of non-palpable or normal-sized RLNs was included in the surgical management of cMCT in dogs. Correlations between histological nodal status (HN0-3) and tumour variables were analysed. Ninety-three dogs with single cMCT without distant metastasis that underwent wide surgical excision of the primary tumour and extirpation of non-palpable or normal-sized RLN were included...
June 12, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J L Bisson, D J Argyle, S A Argyle
Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature...
June 12, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A Sammarco, G Finesso, L Cavicchioli, S Ferro, F Caicci, R Zanetti, R Sacchetto, V Zappulli
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles produced by cells, known to play a key role in cell-to-cell communication. They exert pleiotropic biological functions via the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules (DNA, RNAs, proteins, and lipids) within the tumour microenvironment and throughout the body. In human cancer, EVs are known to interfere with pathways that lead to tumour progression and are used as novel cancer biomarkers. In veterinary medicine, very little is known on cancer-derived EVs...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Ravicini, S J Baines, A Taylor, I Amores-Fuster, S L Mason, E Treggiari
Literature describing medical treatment of canine prostatic carcinoma (PC) is sparse. The aims of this study were to assess outcomes, including time to progression (TTP) and median survival time (MST), of canine PC treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or chemotherapy, and to identify prognostic factors. Records from 8 institutions were searched for dogs with cytologically or histologically confirmed PC without bladder involvement: 67 dogs were included. Presenting signs were urinary (25), gastrointestinal ([GI], 11) and systemic (3); 16 dogs had GI and urinary signs, 7 dogs had systemic signs with concurrent GI or urinary signs and in 5 dogs the tumour was an incidental finding...
May 27, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
F Rossi, S Sabattini, M Vascellari, L Marconato
In dogs, inflammatory mammary carcinoma is a clinicopathological entity characterized by rapid progression and aggressive behavior from onset of disease. Reported median survival time is short, with no effective treatment options. The aims of this prospective, noncontrolled clinical trial were to investigate outcome variables and safety profile of toceranib, thalidomide and piroxicam with or without hypofractionated radiation therapy in dogs with measurable histologically confirmed inflammatory mammary carcinoma that underwent a complete staging...
May 27, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S J Moirano, C W Dewey, K Z Wright, P W Cohen
Intracranial gliomas are a common malignancy in dogs, and are associated with a poor prognosis due to their aggressive nature and a lack of clinically effective treatments. The efficacies of various treatment modalities for canine brain tumours have been previously described, though little data exist on the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. A comparative retrospective study, including 40 cases from 5 northeastern US veterinary hospitals, from 2008 to 2017, was conducted. Variables analysed in this study with relation to overall survival and prognostic significance included: age, sex, clinical signs, clinical sign duration, tumour location and treatment protocol used...
May 24, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
E Abma, W De Spiegelaere, K Vanderperren, E Stock, L Van Brantegem, I Cornelis, S Daminet, Y Ni, M Vynck, G Verstraete, P Smets, H de Rooster
Combretastatin A4-phosphate (CA4P) is an anti-tumour vascular targeting agent which selectively blocks tumour blood flow. Research on CA4P in rodent tumour models is extensive; however, knowledge of its effect on spontaneous cancer is scarce. This study was conducted in canine patients with spontaneous solid tumours. The goal was to assess the toxicity and efficacy of CA4P in various spontaneous tumour types. Eight dogs with spontaneous tumours were enrolled and treated with a single dose of 75 mg m-2 intravenous CA4P...
May 24, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
R E G Rici, S E A L Will, A C L Luna, L F Melo, A C Santos, R F Rodrigues, R M Leandro, D A Maria
Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone cancer in children and dogs. The therapeutic protocols adopted for dogs and humans are very similar, involving surgical options such as amputation. Besides surgical options, radiotherapy and chemotherapy also are adopted. However, hematologic, gastrointestinal and renal toxicity may occur because of chemotherapy treatments. Recent study clearly showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) may be associated with decreases of the tumorigenic potential of canine OSA...
May 20, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L Blackwood, J B Tanis, A Harper, I Amores-Fuster, D R Killick, R Finotello
Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each)...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A Soukup, V Meier, S Pot, K Voelter, C Rohrer Bley
In order to overcome the common local treatment failure of canine sinonasal tumours, integrated boost techniques were tried in the cobalt/orthovoltage era, but dismissed because of unacceptable early (acute) toxicity. Intriguingly, a recent calculation study of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) technique for sinonasal irradiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) predicted theoretical feasibility. In this prospective pilot study we applied a commonly used protocol of 10 × 4.2 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with a 20%-SIB dose to the gross tumour volume (GTV)...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
R E Raskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
M S Kent, M M Turek, J Farrelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Y-C Lai, N Ushio, M M Rahman, Y Katanoda, K Ogihara, Y Naya, A Moriyama, T Iwanaga, Y Saitoh, T Sogawa, T Sunaga, Y Momoi, H Izumi, N Miyoshi, Y Endo, M Fujiki, H Kawaguchi, N Miura
Canine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic tumour in dogs. MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation has been reported in human HCC and shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value; however, there are no data on miRNA expression in canine HCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in canine HCC. Analysis of miRNA expression in canine HCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that miR-1, miR-122, let-7a, and let-7g were downregulated, whereas miR-10b and miR-21 were upregulated in canine HCC...
June 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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