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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

Katelyn W Marlowe, Cecilia S Robat, Dawn L Clarke, Angela Taylor, Maude Touret, Brian D Husbands, David M Vail
Primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma (PHS) has been reported, but is not well characterized. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical characteristics, characterize prognostic factors and report the outcome of a larger group of dogs with primary PHS. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with primary PHS at 11 institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-seven dogs were included; 13 received CCNU-based chemotherapy alone, 18 received surgery and adjuvant CCNU-based chemotherapy, 3 received medical management alone and 3 dogs received surgery alone...
September 23, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Kosei Sakai, Shingo Maeda, Kohei Saeki, Takayuki Nakagawa, Mami Murakami, Yoshifumi Endo, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Tsuyoshi Kadosawa, Takashi Mori, Ryohei Nishimura, Naoaki Matsuki
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for >90% of canine malignant tumours occurring in urinary bladder, and the prognosis is poor. Our previous study, using RNA sequencing, showed that human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) was the most activated upstream regulator related to carcinogenesis in canine TCC. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-tumour effect of lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2, on canine TCC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Five canine TCC cell lines (TCCUB, Love, Sora, LCTCC, and MCTCC) were used...
September 23, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Laura E Selmic, Jonathan Samuelson, Jennifer K Reagan, Kelly J Mesa, Elizabeth Driskell, Joanne Li, Marina Marjanovic, Stephen A Boppart
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapid non-invasive imaging technique that has shown high sensitivity for intraoperative surgical margin assessment in human breast cancer clinical trials. This promising technology has not been evaluated in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to correlate normal and abnormal histological features with OCT images for surgical margins from excised canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to establish image evaluation criteria for identifying positive surgical margins...
September 21, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Genevieve Hartley, Robyn Elmslie, Brent Murphy, Leone Hopkins, Amanda Guth, Steven Dow
Cancer relapse following chemotherapy has been attributed in part to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which drive tumor growth and metastasis and are highly resistant to the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a result, treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy selects for drug-resistant CSC populations that eventually drive tumor recurrence. Little is known currently regarding the role of CSC in dogs with lymphoma, nor the impact of chemotherapy on CSC populations. Therefore, we prospectively quantitated CSC populations in dogs with B cell and T cell lymphoma, using tumor aspirates and flow cytometric analysis with a panel of CSC markers...
September 20, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Sangho Kim, Kenji Hosoya, Ayumi Kobayashi, Masahiro Okumura
Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation following consolidation therapy is a feasible treatment option for canine hematological malignancies. In veterinary medicine, hematopoietic stem cells are generally mobilized into peripheral circulation using a granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the hematopoietic stem cell mobilization effect of three different regimens for PBSC apheresis with Spectra Optia continuous mononuclear cell (CMNC) protocol in healthy dogs...
September 17, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Hyeri Shin, Aryung Nam, Kun-Ho Song, Kupil Lee, Robert B Rebhun, Kyoung-Won Seo
The use of the well-known powerful antioxidant ascorbate has recently become more widespread in human medicine. Intravenous administration of high-dose ascorbate has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects. It has resulted in effective cell death in vitro and inhibition of tumour growth in vivo. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of high-dose ascorbate on canine melanoma in vitro. Four canine melanoma cell lines, UCDK9M1, UCDK9M3, UCDK9M4 and UCDK9M5 were treated with ascorbate for 2 hours at a range of millimolar concentrations (0-20 mM) to investigate the resulting effects on cell viability...
September 6, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Kim A Selting, Sandra M Bechtel, Jahna Espinosa, Carolyn J Henry, Deborah Tate, Jeffrey N Bryan, Lian Rajewski, Brian K Flesner, Charles Decedue, Michael Baltezor
Carriers used to solubilize taxane chemotherapy drugs cause severe hypersensitivity. Nanoparticle formulations can provide improved dissolution and bioavailability of taxanes. Thus, a nanoparticulate, excipient-free formulation of paclitaxel (CTI52010) was evaluated in tumour-bearing dogs with intravenous and subcutaneous delivery. Tumour-bearing dogs were treated with intravenous CTI52010 using a modified rapid dose escalation scheme. Subcutaneous administration was then planned for a small cohort of dogs for comparison...
September 4, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Ana Canadas, Marta Santos, Ricardo Pinto, Rui Medeiros, Patrícia Dias-Pereira
The enzyme catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) is responsible for inactivation of catechol estrogens, which are well-recognized carcinogenic metabolites. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in canine COMT gene were previously associated with the age of onset of mammary tumours and with the clinical progression of the disease. However, no information is available regarding the impact of other known SNPs in COMT gene in canine mammary tumours. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of COMT SNP in clinicopathological features and outcome of canine mammary tumours...
August 30, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Sita S Withers, Katherine A Skorupski, Daniel York, Jin W Choi, Kevin D Woolard, Renee Laufer-Amorim, Ellen E Sparger, Carlos O Rodriguez, Stephen J McSorley, Arta M Monjazeb, William J Murphy, Robert J Canter, Robert B Rebhun
Immunotherapeutic strategies have shown promise for the treatment of canine osteosarcoma (cOSA). Very little is known about the immune microenvironment within cOSA, however, limiting our ability to identify potential immune targets and biomarkers of therapeutic response. We therefore prospectively assessed the disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival time (ST) of 30 dogs with cOSA treated with amputation and six doses of adjuvant carboplatin. We then quantified lymphocytic (CD3+, FOXP3+) and macrophage (CD204+) infiltrates within the primary tumours of this cohort using immunohistochemistry, and evaluated their association with outcome...
August 28, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Matthew James Woodruff, Kathryn L Heading, Peter Bennett
Few veterinary studies have evaluated the response to chemotherapy treatment of canine intranasal tumours, while many have focused on the efficacy of radiation therapy. Given the higher costs and limited access to radiation therapy, alternative treatment options are needed. The study describes a cohort of dogs with histologically confirmed intranasal tumours treated with chemotherapy as a sole therapy. This retrospective study was conducted using data from the Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre (MVSC) database between 2004 and 2017...
August 26, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Michael Willmann, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Olivier Hermine, Mauro Dacasto, Laura Marconato, Karin Bauer, Barbara Peter, Susanne Gamperl, Gregor Eisenwort, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Mathias Müller, Michel Arock, David M Vail, Peter Valent
In humans, advanced mast cell (MC) neoplasms are rare malignancies with a poor prognosis. Only a few preclinical models are available and current treatment options are limited. In dogs, MC neoplasms are the most frequent malignant skin tumors. Unlike low-grade MC neoplasms, high-grade MC disorders usually have a poor prognosis with short survival. In both species, neoplastic MCs display activating KIT mutations which are considered to contribute to disease evolution. Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors against KIT have been developed...
August 22, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Valeria Meier, Jürgen Besserer, Malgorzata Roos, Carla Rohrer Bley
Previous trials showed the importance of administering radiation therapy (RT) with small doses per fraction in canine pelvic tumours to maintain acceptable toxicity levels. With increased accuracy/precision of RT, namely intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), this approach might be challenged. Theoretical toxicity calculations for a new definitive-intent moderately hypofractionated RT protocol for canine anal sac adenocarcinomas (ASAC) were performed, focussing on the risk of toxicity in pelvic organs at risk (OAR)...
August 22, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Yi-Chen Chen, Ying-Yu Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Shih-Chieh Chang
C-met is a receptor normally expressed on epithelial cells and dysregulated in human breast cancers. Mammary tumors are the most common tumor in female dogs. The aims of this study were to detect the expression of c-met in canine mammary tumors (CMTs) and evaluate the correlations between c-met expression and clinicopathological features. A total of 240 specimens of canine mammary tissues composed of 30 normal glands, 30 hyperplastic ones, 90 benign tumors and 90 malignant carcinomas obtained from 127 bitches were examined by immunohistochemical staining...
August 20, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Charlène Rico, Derek Boerboom, Marilène Paquet
Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are common neoplasms in dogs that feature many of the clinical, genetic and molecular characteristics of human breast cancer. Despite their high metastatic potential, few adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment options exist for malignant CMTs, and the development of novel, targeted pharmacological approaches will require a better understanding of their pathogenesis. As recent evidence suggests that dysregulated Hippo signalling is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, we sought to determine if this pathway could also play a role in CMT...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K Harding, N Bergman, A Smith, S Lindley, A Szivek, R Milner, W Brawner, A Lejeune
Vincristine is included in vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy protocols, which are the gold-standard treatment for high-grade canine lymphoma. Vincristine can result in relatively high rates of gastrointestinal toxicity, whereas vinblastine is generally well tolerated and thus may represent an under-utilized and minimally toxic alternative to vincristine. Our objective was to determine the response rate and toxicity associated with a single dose of vinblastine administered to dogs with treatment-naïve, intermediate to large-cell, multicentric lymphoma...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
E Morgan, K O'Connell, M Thomson, A Griffin
Canine T cell lymphoma has previously been found to be a poor prognostic indicator compared with its B cell counterpart. The cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone protocol is widely accepted as a first line treatment for canine lymphoma. There have been several studies investigating alternative protocols for T cell lymphoma. This study investigated the use of a modified lomustine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone protocol as a first line treatment in 35 dogs with T Cell lymphoma...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
A L F V Assumpção, Z Lu, K W Marlowe, K S Shaffer, X Pan
Canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common hematologic malignancy of dogs, is associated with poor overall survival. The lack of conventional chemotherapies with sustainable efficacy warrants investigation of novel therapies. Pevonedistat (MLN4924) is a potent and selective small molecule NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor. In human activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, pevonedistat induces lymphoma cell apoptosis, DNA damage and G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway...
August 13, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Sita S Withers, Daniel York, Eric Johnson, Sami Al-Nadaf, Katherine A Skorupski, Carlos O Rodriguez, Jenna H Burton, Teri Guerrero, Kriste Sein, Luke Wittenburg, Robert B Rebhun
Curcumin has well-established anti-cancer properties in vitro, however, its therapeutic potential has been hindered by its poor bioavailability. Lipocurc is a proprietary liposome-encapsulated curcumin formulation that enables intravenous delivery and has been shown to reach its highest concentration within lung tissue. The goal of this study was to characterize the anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic activity of Lipocurc in vitro, in addition to evaluating Lipocurc infusions in dogs with naturally occurring cancer...
August 8, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Laura Marconato, Gerry Polton, Damiano Stefanello, Emanuela Morello, Roberta Ferrari, Joaquim Henriques, Giovanni Tortorella, Silvia L Benali, Raffaella Bergottini, Maria E Vasconi, Maurizio Annoni, Silvia Sabattini
Lymph node (LN) metastasis in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours (cMCTs) is a well-known negative prognostic factor. The role of lymphadenectomy in the treatment of stage II disease remains controversial because of its uncertain therapeutic benefit. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the impact of lymphadenectomy on tumour control and survival for dogs with stage II cMCTs. Dogs with firstly occurring, histologically confirmed cMCT with LN metastasis undergoing resection of the primary tumour and medical treatment thereafter were retrospectively enrolled...
July 26, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Pedro L P Xavier, Yonara G Cordeiro, Arina L Rochetti, Juliano R Sangalli, Debora A P C Zuccari, Juliano C Silveira, Fabiana F Bressan, Heidge Fukumasu
Mammary tumours are the most frequent in female dogs as in women and half are malignant. Tumorigenicity and invasiveness are important acquired characteristics for the development and progression of cancers and could be regulated by transcription factors associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, SLUG and STAT3. Thus, here, we evaluate the expression of EMT-associated transcription factors in canine mammary cancer (CMC) cell lines characterized for invasiveness and tumorigenicity to determine if these could be considered good targets for future development of therapies...
July 25, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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