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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

D Sayag, C Fournel-Fleury, F Ponce
Correlation between morphotypes and prognosis of canine lymphomas presented discordant results in literature, leading to some dilemma for application in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of literature on the prognostic significance of morphotypes in canine lymphomas. Standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria were applied. Retrospective and prospective studies were included. Level of evidence was determined for each study...
May 19, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
R Iwasaki, M Murakami, M Kawabe, K Heishima, H Sakai, T Mori
The accurate evaluation of sternal lymph nodes (StLNs) is critical for the staging of canine thoraco-abdominal tumours. Computed tomography (CT) provides a non-invasive means of assessing StLNs, but its diagnostic accuracy for identifying metastases is unclear. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we assessed the diagnostic power of various CT measurements. Fifty-seven dogs that underwent concurrent CT and cytological examination of the StLNs were enrolled retrospectively. The size, shape, X-ray attenuation and uniformity of the StLNs were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
M P Starkey, L Compston-Garnett, P Malho, K Dunn, R Dubielzig
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumour in dogs. There is no effective means of predicting whether a tumour will metastasize. microRNA (miRNA) metastasis signatures have been identified for several human cancers, including UM. AIMS: In this study we investigated whether metastasizing and non-metastasizing canine UMs can be distinguished by miRNA expression levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA microarray profiling was used to compare miRNA expression in 8 metastasizing and 12 non-metastasizing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary UM biopsies...
May 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
P M Brown, S Tzannes, S Nguyen, J White, V Langova
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the use of a lomustine (CCNU), vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone (LOPP) protocol used for treatment of chemotherapy naive T-cell lymphoma patients and to describe the response rate, toxicity and disease-free interval compared historically to CHOP chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case study of 31 dogs with naïve T-cell lymphoma treated with a lomustine (CCNU), vincristine, procarbazine and prednisolone (LOPP) protocol...
May 16, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S A van Nimwegen, R C Bakker, J Kirpensteijn, R J J van Es, R Koole, M G E H Lam, J W Hesselink, J F W Nijsen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A "microbrachytherapy" was developed as treatment option for inoperable tumours by direct intratumoral injection of radioactive holmium-166 ( (166) Ho) microspheres (MS). (166) Ho emits β-radiation which potentially enables a high, ablative, radioactive-absorbed dose on the tumour tissue while sparing surrounding tissues. MATERIALS & METHODS: Safety and efficacy of (166) Ho microbrachytherapy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 13 cats with inoperable oral squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of distant metastasis...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
D York, C D Sproul, N Chikere, P J Dickinson, J M Angelastro
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in undifferentiated neural progenitor/stem cells as well as a variety of human cancers including gliomas. AIMS: In this study, we examined the expression and localization of ATF5 protein in canine gliomas, and targeting of ATF5 function in canine glioma cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded canine brain glioma tissue sections and western blots of tumours and glioma cells were immunoassayed with anti-ATF5 antibody...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
H Wilson-Robles, C M Budke, T Miller, N Dervisis, A Novosad, Z Wright, D H Thamm, K Vickery, K Burgess, M Childress, J Lori, C Saba, S Rau, M Silver, G Post, K Reeds, S Gillings, S Schleis, T Stein, B Brugmann, C DeRegis, O Smrkovski, J Lawrence, T Laver
BACKGROUND: In humans geographical differences in the incidence and presentation of various cancers have been reported. However, much of this information has not been collected in veterinary oncology. AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine if a geographic difference in progression free survival exists for dogs with lymphoma treated within the US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 775 cases of canine lymphoma from 3 US regions (west, south and north), treated with CHOP chemotherapy, were retrospectively evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K A Kezer, L G Barber, S H Jennings
BACKGROUND: Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive neoplasm that is generally associated with a poor prognosis. CCNU is considered first-line medical therapy, although the majority of dogs ultimately develop progressive disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dacarbazine as a rescue agent for HS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with HS that received at least one dose of dacarbazine were reviewed. Information collected and analyzed included signalment, disease distribution, treatment history, dacarbazine treatments (including dose, interval and total number of cycles), adverse events, and response to treatment...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Alexandra Keller, Bettina Wingelhofer, Barbara Peter, Karin Bauer, Daniela Berger, Susanne Gamperl, Martin Reifinger, Sabine Cerny-Reiterer, Richard Moriggl, Michael Willmann, Peter Valent, Emir Hadzijusufovic
BACKGROUND: Mastocytoma are frequently diagnosed cutaneous neoplasms in dogs. In non-resectable mastocytoma patients, novel targeted drugs are often applied. The transcription factor STAT5 has been implicated in the survival of human neoplastic mast cells (MC). Our study evaluated the JAK2/STAT5 pathway as a novel target in canine mastocytoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed inhibitors of JAK2 (R763, TG101348, AZD1480, ruxolitinib) and STAT5 (pimozide, piceatannol) and evaluated their effects on 2 mastocytoma cell lines, C2 and NI-1...
April 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Noguchi, S Shibutani, K Fukushima, T Mori, M Igase, T Mizuno
BACKGROUND: SRC kinase (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) is a promising target for the treatment of solid cancers including human melanoma. Bosutinib (Bosu), a SRC inhibitor, has already been applied to the treatment of human chronic myelogenous leukemia and also has been assessed its safety in dogs. AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify a novel anti-tumour mechanism of Bosu in canine and human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The canine and human melanoma cells were treated with Bosu and its effects were evaluated by the cell viability, the protein expression levels such as caspase-3 and LC3, Annexin V/Propidium iodide staining, and confocal immunostaining...
March 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J Paczuska, M Świtalska, M Nowak, Z Kiełbowicz
BACKGROUND: The important goal of modern research in the field of surgical oncology is the quest for a tool that could improve the outcomes of tumour excision. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of the CO2 laser with flexible hollow waveguide and scalpel in mammary tumour excision. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 112 female BALB/c mice with implanted orthotopically 4T1-luc2-tdTomato tumour cells were included in the research...
March 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
G B Gelaleti, T F Borin, L B Maschio-Signorini, M G Moschetta, E Hellmén, A M Viloria-Petit, D A P C Zuccari
BACKGROUND: Melatonin has oncostatic actions and IL-25 is active in inflammatory processes that induce apoptosis in tumor cells AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate melatonin and IL-25 in metastatic (CF-41) and non-metastatic (CMT-U229) canine mammary tumor cells cultured as monolayers and tridimensional structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cells were treated with melatonin, IL-25 and IL-17B silencing gene and performed cell viability, gene and protein expression of caspase-3 and VEGFA (Vascular endothelial growth factor A) and an apoptosis membrane protein array...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
T B Gaspar, J Henriques, L Marconato, F L Queiroga
The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
S Pizzoni, S Sabattini, D Stefanello, A Dentini, R Ferrari, M Dacasto, M Giantin, P Laganga, M Amati, G Tortorella, L Marconato
BACKGROUND: Distant metastases in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are rare and incurable. The aims of this prospective study were to clarify the clinico-pathological features of stage IV cMCTs and to identify possible prognostic factors for progression-free interval (PFI) and survival time (ST). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dogs were eligible for recruitment if they had a previously untreated, histologically confirmed cMCT and if they underwent complete staging demonstrating stage IV disease...
February 23, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J S Fowles, D D Dailey, D L Gustafson, D H Thamm, D L Duval
Mammalian cell tissue culture has been a critical tool leading to our current understanding of cancer including many aspects of cellular transformation, growth and response to therapies. The current use of large panels of cell lines with associated phenotypic and genotypic information now allows for informatics approaches and in silico screens to rapidly test hypotheses based on simple as well as complex relationships. Current cell line panels with large amounts of associated drug sensitivity and genomics data are comprised of human cancer cell lines (i...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
B A Marker, L G Barber, C A Clifford, S S Correa, P L Thalhofer, T A LaDue, C M Mullin, M L Sauerbrey, C C Wood
Pamidronate is a bisphosphonate drug widely utilized in veterinary oncologic practice for the palliation of malignant osteolysis. Pamidronate has not been previously reported to cause tissue injury upon extravasation in dogs. The medical records of 11 client-owned dogs undergoing palliative treatment for primary bone tumors with known or suspected pamidronate extravasation reactions were reviewed. The majority of adverse events were low grade in nature, however in some cases, the reactions were severe and led to euthanasia in one instance...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
K F Castro, A Strakova, M Tinucci-Costa, E P Murchison
The canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a transmissible cancer that is spread between dogs by the allogeneic transfer of living cancer cells. The infectious agents in CTVT are the living cancer cells themselves, which are transmitted between dogs during coitus. CTVT first arose several thousand years ago and the disease has a global distribution and is frequently observed in dogs from Brazil. We evaluated the utility of a LINE-MYC quantitative polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of CTVT cases in Brazil...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L M Magestro, T L Gieger
The purpose of our study was to describe synchronous primary tumours and previously undetected metastases in 736 dogs with confirmed neoplasia in which computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for diagnostic, staging and/or radiation treatment planning purposes. All CTs were reviewed by a radiologist. Tumour-associated CT abnormalities were detected in 38/736 (5%), including confirmed or suspected synchronous primary neoplasms (n = 24), metastases of the primary tumour (n = 9) or both (n = 3)...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
J Pierro, E Krick, A Flory, R Regan, C DeRegis, B Boudreaux, L Barber, D Saam, C Saba
The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, potential causative agents, treatment and outcome of febrile neutropenia (FN) in chemotherapy-treated cats. Medical records from eight institutions were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 22 FN events in 20 cats were evaluated. Lymphoma was the most common cancer diagnosis; lomustine and vinca alkaloids were the most frequently implicated causative agents. Presenting clinical signs included decreased appetite, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhoea...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
L H Pulz, C N Barra, S R Kleeb, J G Xavier, J L Catão-Dias, R A Sobral, H Fukumasu, R F Strefezzi
Canine mast cell tumour (MCT) is a biologically heterogeneous disease. The extracellular matrix degradation promoted by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been studied in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the biological behaviour of tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of MMP-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 in canine cutaneous MCTs and to evaluate their prognostic values. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2 and TIMP-1 was performed in 46 canine cases of MCTs...
June 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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