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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317239/the-use-of-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-in-dogs-insight-into-a-modern-cancer-field
#1
REVIEW
T B Gaspar, J Henriques, L Marconato, F L Queiroga
The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233400/features-and-prognostic-impact-of-distant-metastases-in-45-dogs-with-de-novo-stage-iv-cutaneous-mast-cell-tumours-a-prospective-study
#2
S Pizzoni, S Sabattini, D Stefanello, A Dentini, R Ferrari, M Dacasto, M Giantin, P Laganga, M Amati, G Tortorella, L Marconato
BACKGROUND: Distant metastases in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are rare and incurable. The aims of this prospective study were to clarify the clinico-pathological features of stage IV cMCTs and to identify possible prognostic factors for progression-free interval (PFI) and survival time (ST). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dogs were eligible for recruitment if they had a previously untreated, histologically confirmed cMCT and if they underwent complete staging demonstrating stage IV disease...
February 23, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220614/comparative-analysis-of-dna-methylation-patterns-of-equine-sarcoid-and-healthy-skin-samples
#3
E Semik, T Ząbek, A Gurgul, A Fornal, T Szmatoła, K Pawlina, M Wnuk, J Klukowska-Rötzler, C Koch, K Mählmann, M Bugno-Poniewierska
OBJECTIVE: In this study, for the first time we report the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of skin tumour in horses and describe differentially methylated genomic regions (DMRs) with respect to healthy skin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The comparative analysis of DNA methylation patterns detected using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) technique, allowed identification of 136 regions showing differential methylation between sarcoid and normal skin tissue...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217972/clinical-outcome-of-partial-cystectomy-for-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-canine-bladder
#4
S J Marvel, B Séguin, D D Dailey, D H Thamm
Canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder has historically been treated with a combination of chemotherapy, cyclooxygenase inhibitors and radiation therapy. While surgery has been used to treat TCC of the bladder, its efficacy has yet to be established. Thirty-seven client owned dogs that underwent partial cystectomy +/- various nonsurgical treatments for TCC were retrospectively evaluated. The overall median progression-free interval (PFI) was 235 days and the median survival time (ST) was 348 days...
February 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194921/surgical-margins-in-the-veterinary-cancer-patient
#5
REVIEW
M Milovancev, D S Russell
In veterinary oncologic specimens, histopathology is the gold standard for determining adequacy of excision. Despite limitations of this technique, the pathologist's interpretation of margin status significantly impacts patient management, including indications for adjuvant therapy. This article aims to summarize peer-reviewed literature as it relates to histologic margin evaluation in veterinary cancer patients. The value of histologic tumour-free margins and technical factors influencing histopathologic margin outcomes are also discussed...
February 14, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194917/furosemide-for-prevention-of-cyclophosphamide-associated-sterile-haemorrhagic-cystitis-in-dogs-receiving-metronomic-low-dose-oral-cyclophosphamide
#6
L Setyo, M Ma, T Bunn, K Wyatt, P Wang
Sterile haemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) is a known risk of cyclophosphamide treatment. Diuresis using furosemide is effective in canines when maximally tolerated dosed cyclophosphamide is administered. This retrospective study aimed to determine whether orally administered furosemide decreased the incidence of SHC. Secondary aims were to identify predisposing factors for SHC. One-hundred and fifteen dogs treated with metronomic cyclophosphamide were analysed retrospectively. Populations were not randomized. 25 dogs (21...
February 14, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185388/characteristics-of-extracellular-cyclic-amp-dependent-protein-kinase-as-a-biomarker-of-cancer-in-dogs
#7
D H Bhang, U S Choi, B G Kim, S-N Lee, S Lee, H-S Roh, W-J Chung, K O Jeon, W J Song, H-Y Youn, K-H Baek
OBJECTIVE: Early and proper diagnosis of cancer is the most critical factor for the survival and treatment of veterinary cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated extracellular cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (ECPKA) level in serum as a useful cancer biomarker in dogs. METHODS: ECPKA levels were detected in sera from dogs with cancers (n = 48), benign tumours (n = 18), and non-tumour diseases (n = 102) as well as healthy control dogs (n = 54) utilizing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 9, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168776/treatment-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-feline-splenic-mast-cell-tumors-a-multi-institutional-retrospective-study-of-64-cases
#8
B J Evans, D O'Brien, S D Allstadt, T P Gregor, K U Sorenmo
BACKGROUND: Mast cell tumors (MCT) are common splenic tumors in cats, but there is limited information on treatment outcomes of cats with this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated treatment outcomes in 64 cats with splenic MCT. Cats were categorized into the following treatment groups: splenectomy (A, n = 20); splenectomy with chemotherapy (B, n = 20); chemotherapy alone (C, n = 15); or supportive care (D, n = 9). RESULTS: Median tumor specific survival (MTSS) was: 856, 853, 244, 365 days for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150469/targeting-canine-mammary-tumours-via-gold-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-promising-co-ii-and-zn-ii-compounds
#9
L R Raposo, C Roma-Rodrigues, J Jesus, L M D R S Martins, A J Pombeiro, P V Baptista, A R Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Despite continuous efforts, the treatment of canine cancer has still to deliver effective strategies. For example, traditional chemotherapy with doxorubicin and/or docetaxel does not significantly increase survival in dogs with canine mammary tumors (CMTs). AIMS: Evaluate the efficiency of two metal compounds [Zn(DION)2 ]Cl (TS262, DION = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) and [CoCl(H2 O)(DION)2 ][BF4 ] (TS265) and novel nanovectorizations designed to improve the anti-cancer efficacy of these compounds in a new CMT derived cell line (FR37-CMT)...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150446/evaluation-of-the-modified-glasgow-prognostic-score-to-predict-outcome-in-dogs-with-newly-diagnosed-lymphoma
#10
S J Fontaine, E McCulloch, P D Eckersall, H Haining, J C Patterson Kane, J S Morris
The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) assigns a numerical value (0-2) from pre-treatment serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin to predict patient outcome. CRP and albumin were evaluated in 77 untreated dogs with lymphoma to determine the relationship of mGPS to clinicopathological parameters and whether it could predict progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in treated dogs. mGPS distribution was significantly associated with clinical stage, substage b, weight loss, gastrointestinal disturbances and lethargy at presentation...
February 2, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133930/in-vitro-evaluation-of-selective-inhibitors-of-nuclear-export-sine-drugs-kpt-185-and-kpt-335-against-canine-mammary-carcinoma-and-transitional-cell-carcinoma-tumor-initiating-cells
#11
J E Grayton, T Miller, H Wilson-Robles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133886/somatic-snps-of-the-brca2-gene-at-the-fragments-encoding-rad51-binding-sites-of-canine-mammary-tumors
#12
O Ozmen, S Kul, A Risvanli, G Ozalp, A Sabuncu, O Kul
Mammary tumors are the most common tumor type both in women and in female dogs. In women, heritable breast cancers have been linked mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 and it contains eight BRC repeats in exon 11 that bind to RAD51. In this study, we investigated the sequence variations of BRC1-BRC8 and C-terminus of canine BRCA2 gene. From a total of 64 canine patients with mammary tumors, 31 mammary tumors with benign and malign carcinomas and the 3 normal mammary glands were used for the study...
January 30, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133880/intra-and-inter-observer-agreement-in-histological-assessment-of-canine-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#13
F W Yap, R Rasotto, S L Priestnall, K J Parsons, J Stewart
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is based on histological assessment. Assessment of criteria such as, degree of differentiation, necrosis score and mitotic score, gives rise to a final tumour grade, which is important in the recommendation of treatment and prognosis of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previously diagnosed cases of STS were independently assessed by three board-certified veterinary pathologists. Participating pathologists were blinded to the original results...
January 30, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127949/glycolysis-inhibition-improves-photodynamic-therapy-response-rates-for-equine-sarcoids
#14
J P Golding, J G Kemp-Symonds, J M Dobson
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) holds great promise in treating veterinary and human dermatological neoplasms, including equine sarcoids, but is currently hindered by the amount of photosensitiser and light that can be delivered to lesions thicker than around 2 mm, and by the intrinsic antioxidant defences of tumour cells. We have developed a new PDT technique that combines an efficient transdermal penetration enhancer solution, for topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photosensitiser, with acute topical post-PDT application of the glycolysis inhibitor lonidamine...
January 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120550/pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-in-humans-and-dogs
#15
REVIEW
S Galac, E Korpershoek
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are described in several species. In humans and dogs they have many similarities: the excessive catecholamine release in hormonally active PCC causes similar clinical signs, the frequency of metastasis is similar, and they are histopathologically almost identical. Surgery is curative when PCC and PGL have not metastasized, while only palliative treatment is possible for patients with metastatic disease. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are associated with metastatic behaviour in human PCC/PGL and the same mutation has been described in dogs...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120522/sigma-2-receptor-expression-levels-in-blood-and-bladder-from-healthy-and-bladder-cancer-cattle
#16
V Russo, C Inglese, L Avallone, F Roperto, C Abate, N Zizzo, J S Munday, F Berardi, N A Colabufo, S Roperto
The expression of sigma-2 receptor (S2R) was assayed in blood and bladder samples from healthy cattle and in blood and bladder of cattle with deltapapillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors. Samples of bladder from cattle with neoplasia had significantly higher S2R than samples of bladder from healthy cattle (95% CI 0.31-0.82, P < 0.05). In addition, significantly higher S2R was detected in the blood of cattle with bladder cancer than blood from healthy cattle (95% CI 0.22-0.41, P < 0.05). The results provide evidence that increased expression of SR2 in blood could be useful as circulating biomarker for bladder cancer in cattle...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120478/potency-and-stability-of-compounded-formulations-of-chlorambucil-melphalan-and-cyclophosphamide
#17
J H Burton, H K Knych, S D Stanley, R B Rebhun
BACKGROUND: Oral chemotherapy agents are frequently compounded in veterinary medicine however, the potency of some formulations have been shown to vary from that of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products. AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency and stability of three compounded oral chemotherapeutics commonly prescribed to be administered over time. MATERIALS & METHODS: Compounded chlorambucil 1 mg, cyclophosphamide 5 mg and melphalan 1 mg were obtained and for potency tested upon receipt and 6 weeks later...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120417/pd-1-expression-by-canine-t-cells-and-functional-effects-of-pd-1-blockade
#18
J Coy, A Caldwell, L Chow, A Guth, S Dow
The co-inhibitory checkpoint molecule programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) can trigger T cell functional exhaustion upon binding to its ligand PD-L1 expressed on tumour cells or macrophages. PD-1 blocking antibodies have generated remarkable results in human cancer patients, including inducing durable responses in a number of advanced cancers. Therefore, monoclonal antibodies specific for canine PD-1 were assessed for T cell binding and induction of functional activation. A total of 5-10% of CD4 T cells and 20-25% of CD8 T cells from healthy dogs expressed PD-1, and PD-1 expression was upregulated on T cells from dogs with cancer...
January 25, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111882/programmed-death-ligand-1-is-expressed-in-canine-b-cell-lymphoma-and-downregulated-by-mek-inhibitors
#19
S R Kumar, D Y Kim, C J Henry, J N Bryan, K L Robinson, A M Eaton
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in antigen-presenting cells and tumors can inhibit T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression was evaluated in canine B cell lymphoma (CLL17-71), large T-cell leukemia (CLGL-90), B cell leukemia (GL-1) and primitive leukocyte round cell neoplasia (CLL-1390). Variable PD-L1 mRNA and protein were observed in these cells with high endogenous expression present in CLL17-71 cells. PD-L1 protein was also observed in canine patient B cell lymphoma tissues using immunostaining...
January 22, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097820/cytograding-of-mast-cell-tumours-in-dogs-destaining-or-not-and-staining-with-what
#20
LETTER
R Marcos, P Macieira, M Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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