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Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047203/engineered-cross-reacting-nanobodies-simplify-comparative-oncology-between-humans-and-dogs
#1
E Mazzega, A de Marco
Antibodies cross-reacting with homologue antigens in different species would be essential reagents for the development of comparative oncology studies. In comparison with conventional immunoglobulin Gs, recombinant nanobodies (single-domain variable regions of heavy-chain only antibodies of Camelidae origin) can be easily isolated in vitro and engineered into a variety of reagents with optimized characteristics for different research and clinical applications. We recovered an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) nanobody from a naïve llama library by direct panning on whole cells and expressed it fused to Fc and green fluorescent protein...
October 18, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044884/a-dexamethasone-melphalan-actinomycin-d-and-cytarabine-chemotherapy-protocol-as-a-rescue-treatment-for-feline-lymphoma
#2
J Elliott, R Finotello
Nineteen cats with relapsed high-grade/large-cell lymphoma were treated with actinomycin-D and cytarabine (DMAC). All cats had received Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisolone (COP) as first-line chemotherapy and most cats had received at least 2 prior rescue agents with 14 of 19 having received both epirubicin and lomustine. Five cats (26%) exhibited a response (defined as an improvement or resolution of tumour-associated clinical signs/tumour volume, or complete/partial response) to chemotherapy though no patients received more than 2 cycles of DMAC...
October 16, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027350/liposome-encapsulated-chemotherapy-current-evidence-for-its-use-in-companion-animals
#3
REVIEW
B Børresen, A E Hansen, A Kjaer, T L Andresen, A T Kristensen
Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20 years ago, and the first publication regarding its use in a canine cancer patient was published shortly thereafter. Regardless, no general application for liposomal cytotoxic drugs has been established in veterinary oncology till now. Due to the popularity of canines as experimental models for pharmacokinetic analyses and toxicity studies, multiple publications exist describing various liposomal drugs in healthy dogs...
October 13, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960714/feline-vaccine-associated-sarcomagenesis-is-there-an-inflammation-independent-role-for-aluminium
#4
M A AbdelMageed, P Foltopoulou, E A McNiel
Aluminium has been found in feline vaccine-associated sarcomas. In this study, we investigated the potential for aluminium to contribute directly to tumourigenesis. Our results indicated that an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant preparation was cytotoxic and mutagenic in human-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) hybrid cells in vitro. Moreover, CHO cells deficient in DNA double strand break (DSB), but not single-strand break (SSB), repair, were particularly sensitive to aluminium exposure compared with repair proficient cells, suggesting that aluminium is associated with DSBs...
September 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941072/oral-melphalan-for-the-treatment-of-relapsed-canine-lymphoma
#5
M L Mastromauro, S E Suter, M L Hauck, P R Hess
Oral melphalan has been included in multi-agent rescue protocols for canine lymphoma but its activity as a single-agent for this purpose has not been established. Inexpensive cost, ease of administration and tolerability make oral melphalan an attractive candidate for single-agent rescue therapy of canine lymphoma. Retrospective evaluation of 19 cases of relapsed canine lymphoma treated with oral melphalan was performed. Melphalan was primarily administered (n = 16) via a high dose protocol (HDM) with a median dosage of 19...
September 21, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929581/gain-of-function-mutation-in-ptpn11-in-histiocytic-sarcomas-of-bernese-mountain-dogs
#6
T Thaiwong, S Sirivisoot, M Takada, V Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, M Kiupel
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of dendritic cell origin that is common in certain breeds of dogs. High prevalence of fatal, disseminated HS has been described in Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMDs). Support for genetic predisposition to develop HS has been presented in several studies, but to date, causative genetic events have not been reported. In addition, no driver mutations have been identified in tumours. Recently, E76K gain-of-function mutation in SHP2 encoded by the PTPN11 gene has been described in human histiocytic malignancies...
September 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905476/increased-frequency-of-cd45-negative-t-cells-t-zone-cells-in-older-golden-retriever-dogs
#7
K L Hughes, J D Labadie, J A Yoshimoto, J J Dossey, R C Burnett, A C Avery
T zone lymphoma (TZL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of T cells lacking expression of the pan-leukocyte antigen CD45 (TZ cells). A strong breed predisposition is observed in Golden retrievers. This study aimed to confirm aberrant CD45 mRNA expression and determine if Golden retrievers without clinical lymphoma have an increased frequency of circulating TZ cells. Gene expression analysis on confirmed TZL cases showed a significant decrease in CD45 expression compared to normal dogs. Peripheral blood samples from senior dogs, 242 Golden retrievers and 42 non-Golden retrievers, without evidence of lymphoproliferative disease were assessed for the presence of TZ cells by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892246/novel-hyperthermia-applicator-system-allows-adaptive-treatment-planning-preliminary-clinical-results-in-tumour-bearing-animals
#8
S Dressel, M-C Gosselin, M H Capstick, E Carrasco, M S Weyland, S Scheidegger, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, C Rohrer Bley
Hyperthermia (HT) as an adjuvant to radiation therapy (RT) is a multimodality treatment method to enhance therapeutic efficacy in different tumours. High demands are placed on the hardware and treatment planning software to guarantee adequately planned and applied HT treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the novel HT system in tumour-bearing dogs and cats in terms of local response and toxicity as well as to compare planned with actual achieved data during heating...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891260/rabacfosadine-for-relapsed-canine-b-cell-lymphoma-efficacy-and-adverse-event-profiles-of-2-different-doses
#9
C F Saba, K R Vickery, C A Clifford, K E Burgess, B Phillips, D M Vail, Z M Wright, M A Morges, T M Fan, D H Thamm
Rabacfosadine (RAB), a novel double prodrug of the acyclic nucleotide phosphonate PMEG, preferentially targets neoplastic lymphocytes with reduced off target toxicity. Historical studies have suggested that every 21-day dosing is effective with acceptable toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate RAB's safety and efficacy at 2 different doses every 21 days in dogs with relapsed B-cell lymphoma. Dogs that had failed 1 doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol were eligible for inclusion in this prospective trial...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884928/expression-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-targets-pdgfr-%C3%AE-vegfr2-and-kit-in-canine-transitional-cell-carcinoma
#10
L Walters, O Martin, J Price, M M Sula
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common neoplasia of the canine urinary tract. It tends to be locally invasive and has a moderate metastatic rate. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play an important role in promoting cell growth, differentiation and regulation of cell function. RTK inhibitor toceranib phosphate has been used anecdotally to treat TCC. The goal of this study was to evaluate archived normal urinary bladder, TCC and cystitis bladder samples for expression of toceranib phosphate targets: VEGFR2, PDGFR-β and stem cell factor receptor (KIT)...
September 8, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871659/overexpression-of-her-2-via-immunohistochemistry-in-canine-urinary-bladder-transitional-cell-carcinoma-a-marker-of-malignancy-and-possible-therapeutic-target
#11
F Millanta, J Impellizeri, L McSherry, G Rocchigiani, L Aurisicchio, G Lubas
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in the urinary bladder. Distant metastases to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, abdominal organs or bones are noted in up to 50% of dogs at time of death. Surgical excision is often not practical as TCC typically involve the trigone of the bladder and/or occurs multifocally throughout the bladder with field cancerization. Therapeutic approaches are very challenging and the requirement to evaluate alternative therapeutic protocols that may prolong survival times in dogs bearing these tumours is compelling...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871635/fatty-acid-synthase-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-feline-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
J Z Walz, J Saha, A Arora, A Khammanivong, M G O'Sullivan, E B Dickerson
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an aggressive and treatment-resistant malignancy in both feline and human patients. Recent work has demonstrated aberrant expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an increased capacity for lipogenesis in human OSCC and other cancers. In human OSCC, inhibition of FASN decreased cell viability and growth in vitro, and diminished tumour growth and metastasis in murine preclinical models. This study aimed to characterize FASN as a therapeutic target in feline OSCC. Immunohistochemistry revealed high FASN expression in primary feline OSCC tumours, and FASN expression was detected in OSCC cell lines (3 feline and 3 human) by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857480/principles-for-ethical-treatment-decision-making-in-veterinary-oncology
#13
REVIEW
C Rohrer Bley
Many owners of companion animals with cancer are overwhelmed by having to choose the "right course of action." With the aim of reducing the burden on owners who are forced to act as surrogates for their animals, this work discusses principles that apply to ethical treatment decision-making for animal patients with cancer. Four principles frequently used for ethical decision-making in human medicine will be considered for their potential applicability in veterinary medicine. As a result of these considerations, preliminary guidelines are presented, along which a decision-making discussion can be held...
August 31, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857446/diagnostic-accuracy-of-pre-treatment-biopsy-for-grading-cutaneous-mast-cell-tumours-in-dogs
#14
T Shaw, S T Kudnig, S M Firestone
Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy...
August 31, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840668/characterization-of-a-low-expression-haplotype-in-canine-glutathione-s-transferase-gstt1-and-its-prevalence-in-golden-retrievers
#15
S Craft, J Ekena, B Mayer, D H Thamm, C Saba, R Chun, L A Trepanier
Glutathione S-transferase-theta (GSTT1) is a carcinogen detoxification enzyme, and low activity variants are associated with lymphoma in humans. We recently found a variant in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of canine GSTT1, *101_102insT, which was predicted to change miRNA binding and was found in 5 of 17 golden retriever (GR) dogs with lymphoma but none of 14 healthy GRs. The aim of this study was to determine whether this variant led to decreased GSTT1 expression and was a discernible risk factor for lymphoma within the GR breed...
August 25, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836371/prior-joint-disease-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-periarticular-histiocytic-sarcoma-in-dogs
#16
E K Manor, L E Craig, X Sun, C M Cannon
Periarticular histiocytic sarcoma (PAHS) is the most common synovial tumour in dogs and is characterized by aggressive local disease with a high rate of distant metastasis. Previously, an association between PAHS and prior joint disease has been demonstrated in the Bernese Mountain Dog breed and suggested in the Rottweiler. We hypothesized that this association would be present in other breeds and investigated this via a retrospective, case-controlled analysis. Cases were dogs diagnosed with PAHS of the stifle or elbow...
August 23, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834169/transcriptomic-profile-reveals-molecular-events-associated-to-focal-adhesion-and-invasion-in-canine-mammary-gland-tumour-cell-lines
#17
Y G Cordeiro, P L P Xavier, A L Rochetti, P A Alexandre, C M C Mori, R F Strefezzi, H Fukumasu
The prevalence of cancer in animals has increased significantly over the years. Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasia in dogs, in which around 50% are presented in the malignant form. Hence, the development and characterization of in vitro models for the study of canine tumours are important for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize cell lines derived from canine mammary gland neoplasias which could be further used for basic and applied oncology research...
August 18, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799187/safety-evaluation-of-combination-carboplatin-and-toceranib-phosphate-palladia-in-tumour-bearing-dogs-a-phase-i-dose-finding-study
#18
R M Wouda, S E Hocker, M L Higginbotham
Combining conventional cytotoxic maximum tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy with low-dose metronomic and/or anti-angiogenic agents is a exciting area of oncologic research. The objective of this study was to establish the MTD, safety and adverse event (AE) profile of 1 such drug combination. This prospective phase I dose-finding clinical trial assumed an open-label 3 + 3 cohort design. Client-owned dogs with 1 or more cytologically and/or histologically confirmed and macroscopically measurable, naive or recurrent, malignant tumours, were enrolled...
August 10, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766920/temozolomide-alone-or-in-combination-with-doxorubicin-as-a-rescue-agent-in-37-cases-of-canine-multicentric-lymphoma
#19
E Treggiari, J W Elliott, S J Baines, L Blackwood
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent previously used in conjunction with doxorubicin (DOX) to treat dogs with relapsed lymphoma. However, there are very limited data for this drug when used as single agent. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of TMZ in dogs with relapsed multicentric lymphoma that failed multi-agent chemotherapy protocols, and compare the outcome to a group of dogs receiving the same drug in combination with DOX. Twenty-six patients were included in the TMZ group and 11 in the TMZ/DOX group...
August 2, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752538/clinicopathologic-features-of-lingual-canine-t-zone-lymphoma
#20
L J Harris, E D Rout, K L Hughes, J D Labadie, B Boostrom, J A Yoshimoto, C M Cannon, P R Avery, E J Ehrhart, A C Avery
Canine T-zone lymphoma (TZL) is a subtype of T-cell lymphoma characterized by unique histologic pattern and cytomorphology, immunophenotypic loss of CD45 expression, and an indolent clinical behaviour. Dogs with TZL typically present with 1 or more enlarged lymph nodes and/or lymphocytosis. We describe a novel extranodal presentation of TZL involving the tongue. Twelve dogs with tongue masses were diagnosed with lingual TZL based on a variable combination of immunophenotyping via flow cytometry, cytology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry and/or PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) assay...
July 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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