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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206227/slam-protein-dictates-subcellular-localization-and-translation-of-its-own-mrna
#1
Shuling Yan, Sreemukta Acharya, Stephanie Gröning, Jörg Großhans
Many mRNAs specifically localize within the cytoplasm and are present in RNA-protein complexes. It is generally assumed that localization and complex formation of these RNAs are controlled by trans-acting proteins encoded by genes different than the RNAs themselves. Here, we analyze slow as molasses (slam) mRNA that prominently colocalizes with its encoded protein at the basal cortical compartment during cellularization. The functional implications of this striking colocalization have been unknown. Here, we show that slam mRNA translation is spatiotemporally controlled...
December 4, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206225/task-relevance-modulates-the-behavioural-and-neural-effects-of-sensory-predictions
#2
Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Karl J Friston, Anna C Nobre
The brain is thought to generate internal predictions to optimize behaviour. However, it is unclear whether predictions signalling is an automatic brain function or depends on task demands. Here, we manipulated the spatial/temporal predictability of visual targets, and the relevance of spatial/temporal information provided by auditory cues. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure participants' brain activity during task performance. Task relevance modulated the influence of predictions on behaviour: spatial/temporal predictability improved spatial/temporal discrimination accuracy, but not vice versa...
December 4, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190685/evaluation-of-rnai-and-crispr-technologies-by-large-scale-gene-expression-profiling-in-the-connectivity-map
#3
Ian Smith, Peyton G Greenside, Ted Natoli, David L Lahr, David Wadden, Itay Tirosh, Rajiv Narayan, David E Root, Todd R Golub, Aravind Subramanian, John G Doench
The application of RNA interference (RNAi) to mammalian cells has provided the means to perform phenotypic screens to determine the functions of genes. Although RNAi has revolutionized loss-of-function genetic experiments, it has been difficult to systematically assess the prevalence and consequences of off-target effects. The Connectivity Map (CMAP) represents an unprecedented resource to study the gene expression consequences of expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Analysis of signatures for over 13,000 shRNAs applied in 9 cell lines revealed that microRNA (miRNA)-like off-target effects of RNAi are far stronger and more pervasive than generally appreciated...
November 30, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190640/perceptual-integration-rapidly-activates-dorsal-visual-pathway-to-guide-local-processing-in-early-visual-areas
#4
Ling Liu, Fan Wang, Ke Zhou, Nai Ding, Huan Luo
Rapidly grouping local elements into an organized object (i.e., perceptual integration) is a fundamental yet challenging task, especially in noisy contexts. Previous studies demonstrate that ventral visual pathway, which is widely known to mediate object recognition, engages in the process by conveying object-level information processed in high-level areas to modulate low-level sensory areas. Meanwhile, recent evidence suggests that the dorsal visual pathway, which is not typically attributable to object recognition, is also involved in the process...
November 30, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186135/regulation-of-actions-and-habits-by-ventral-hippocampal-trkb-and-adolescent-corticosteroid-exposure
#5
Elizabeth T Barfield, Kyle J Gerber, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Kerry J Ressler, Ryan G Parsons, Shannon L Gourley
In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task...
November 29, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176757/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exoproducts-determine-antibiotic-efficacy-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Lauren Radlinski, Sarah E Rowe, Laurel B Kartchner, Robert Maile, Bruce A Cairns, Nicholas P Vitko, Cindy J Gode, Anne M Lachiewicz, Matthew C Wolfgang, Brian P Conlon
Chronic coinfections of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently fail to respond to antibiotic treatment, leading to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Currently, the impact of interspecies interaction on S. aureus antibiotic susceptibility remains poorly understood. In this study, we utilize a panel of P. aeruginosa burn wound and cystic fibrosis (CF) lung isolates to demonstrate that P. aeruginosa alters S. aureus susceptibility to bactericidal antibiotics in a variable, strain-dependent manner and further identify 3 independent interactions responsible for antagonizing or potentiating antibiotic activity against S...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161253/mutualism-in-museums-a-model-for-engaging-undergraduates-in-biodiversity-science
#7
Anna E Hiller, Carla Cicero, Monica J Albe, Theresa L W Barclay, Carol L Spencer, Michelle S Koo, Rauri C K Bowie, Eileen A Lacey
Museums have an untapped potential to engage students in hands-on learning. Here, we describe the development of a tiered museum-based program at the University of California, Berkeley as a model for engaging undergraduates in biodiversity science. This decade-long effort to increase student participation in collections demonstrates the mutual benefits of undergraduate involvement. Museums benefit from critical help in collections care and an increased intellectual vitality, while students simultaneously gain essential research skills and an unparalleled exposure to biodiversity...
November 21, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149178/drivers-of-genetic-diversity-in-secondary-metabolic-gene-clusters-within-a-fungal-species
#8
Abigail L Lind, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Catarina Lameiras, Philipp Wiemann, Jonathan M Palmer, Nancy P Keller, Fernando Rodrigues, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas
Filamentous fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) critical for defense, virulence, and communication. The metabolic pathways that produce SMs are found in contiguous gene clusters in fungal genomes, an atypical arrangement for metabolic pathways in other eukaryotes. Comparative studies of filamentous fungal species have shown that SM gene clusters are often either highly divergent or uniquely present in one or a handful of species, hampering efforts to determine the genetic basis and evolutionary drivers of SM gene cluster divergence...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141002/correlates-of-decisional-dynamics-in-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#9
Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses are neither entirely pre- nor post-decisional...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216180/the-ink4a-arf-locus-operates-as-a-regulator-of-the-circadian-clock-modulating-ras-activity
#10
Rukeia El-Athman, Nikolai N Genov, Jeannine Mazuch, Kaiyang Zhang, Yong Yu, Luise Fuhr, Mónica Abreu, Yin Li, Thomas Wallach, Achim Kramer, Clemens A Schmitt, Angela Relógio
The mammalian circadian clock and the cell cycle are two major biological oscillators whose coupling influences cell fate decisions. In the present study, we use a model-driven experimental approach to investigate the interplay between clock and cell cycle components and the dysregulatory effects of RAS on this coupled system. In particular, we focus on the Ink4a/Arf locus as one of the bridging clock-cell cycle elements. Upon perturbations by the rat sarcoma viral oncogene (RAS), differential effects on the circadian phenotype were observed in wild-type and Ink4a/Arf knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which could be reproduced by our modelling simulations and correlated with opposing cell cycle fate decisions...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190283/sonic-kayaks-environmental-monitoring-and-experimental-music-by-citizens
#11
Amber G F Griffiths, Kirsty M Kemp, Kaffe Matthews, Joanne K Garrett, David J Griffiths
The Sonic Kayak is a musical instrument used to investigate nature and developed during open hacklab events. The kayaks are rigged with underwater environmental sensors, which allow paddlers to hear real-time water temperature sonifications and underwater sounds, generating live music from the marine world. Sensor data is also logged every second with location, time and date, which allows for fine-scale mapping of water temperatures and underwater noise that was previously unattainable using standard research equipment...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190275/correction-approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#12
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000638.].
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182630/connectivity-and-systemic-resilience-of-the-great-barrier-reef
#13
Karlo Hock, Nicholas H Wolff, Juan C Ortiz, Scott A Condie, Kenneth R N Anthony, Paul G Blackwell, Peter J Mumby
Australia's iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR) continues to suffer from repeated impacts of cyclones, coral bleaching, and outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), losing much of its coral cover in the process. This raises the question of the ecosystem's systemic resilience and its ability to rebound after large-scale population loss. Here, we reveal that around 100 reefs of the GBR, or around 3%, have the ideal properties to facilitate recovery of disturbed areas, thereby imparting a level of systemic resilience and aiding its continued recovery...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166398/correction-perceived-effort-for-motor-control-and-decision-making
#14
Ignasi Cos
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2002885.].
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161268/nucleic-acid-purification-from-plants-animals-and-microbes-in-under-30-seconds
#15
Yiping Zou, Michael Glenn Mason, Yuling Wang, Eugene Wee, Conny Turni, Patrick J Blackall, Matt Trau, Jose Ramon Botella
Nucleic acid amplification is a powerful molecular biology tool, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively cumbersome methods required to extract nucleic acids from biological samples. To address this issue, we investigated a variety of materials for their suitability for nucleic acid capture and purification. We report here that untreated cellulose-based paper can rapidly capture nucleic acids within seconds and retain them during a single washing step, while contaminants present in complex biological samples are quickly removed...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161267/sugar-industry-sponsorship-of-germ-free-rodent-studies-linking-sucrose-to-hyperlipidemia-and-cancer-an-historical-analysis-of-internal-documents
#16
Cristin E Kearns, Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145518/the-prehistory-of-biology-preprints-a%C3%A2-forgotten-experiment-from-the-1960s
#17
Matthew Cobb
In 1961, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began to circulate biological preprints in a forgotten experiment called the Information Exchange Groups (IEGs). This system eventually attracted over 3,600 participants and saw the production of over 2,500 different documents, but by 1967, it was effectively shut down following the refusal of journals to accept articles that had been circulated as preprints. This article charts the rise and fall of the IEGs and explores the parallels with the 1990s and the biomedical preprint movement of today...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145398/conservation-demands-safe-gene-drive
#18
Kevin M Esvelt, Neil J Gemmell
Interest in developing gene drive systems to control invasive species is growing, with New Zealand reportedly considering the nascent technology as a way to locally eliminate the mammalian pests that threaten its unique flora and fauna. If gene drives successfully eradicated these invasive populations, many would rejoice, but what are the possible consequences? Here, we explore the risk of accidental spread posed by self-propagating gene drive technologies, highlight new gene drive designs that might achieve better outcomes, and explain why we need open and international discussions concerning a technology that could have global ramifications...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135981/pioneer-cells-established-by-the-swi-prion-can-promote-dispersal-and-out-crossing-in-yeast
#19
Gregory A Newby, Susan Lindquist
To thrive in an ever-changing environment, microbes must widely distribute their progeny to colonize new territory. Simultaneously, they must evolve and adapt to the stresses of unpredictable surroundings. In both of these regards, diversity is key-if an entire population moved together or responded to the environment in the same way, it could easily go extinct. Here, we show that the epigenetic prion switch [SWI+] establishes a specialized subpopulation with a "pioneer" phenotypic program in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121043/the-poverty-related-neglected-diseases-why-basic-research-matters
#20
Peter J Hotez
Together, malaria and the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) kill more than 800,000 people annually, while creating long-term disability in millions more. International support for mass drug administration, bed nets, and other preventive measures has resulted in huge public health gains, while support for translational research is leading to the development of some new neglected disease drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. However, funding for basic science research has not kept up, such that we are missing opportunities to create a more innovative pipeline of control tools for parasitic and related diseases...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
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