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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103231/correction-mitochondrial-16s-rrna-is-methylated-by-trna-methyltransferase-trmt61b-in-all-vertebrates
#1
Dan Bar-Yaacov, Idan Frumkin, Yuka Yashiro, Takeshi Chujo, Yuma Ishigami, Yonatan Chemla, Amit Blumberg, Orr Schlesinger, Philipp Bieri, Basil Greber, Nenad Ban, Raz Zarivach, Lital Alfonta, Yitzhak Pilpel, Tsutomu Suzuki, Dan Mishmar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002557.].
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103228/human-specific-cortical-synaptic-connections-and-their-plasticity-is-that-what-makes-us-human
#2
Joana Lourenço, Alberto Bacci
One outstanding difference between Homo sapiens and other mammals is the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks and behaviors, such as language, abstract thinking, and cultural diversity. How is this accomplished? According to one prominent theory, cognitive complexity is proportional to the repetition of specific computational modules over a large surface expansion of the cerebral cortex (neocortex). However, the human neocortex was shown to also possess unique features at the cellular and synaptic levels, raising the possibility that expanding the computational module is not the only mechanism underlying complex thinking...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095401/the-nuclear-receptor-hizr-1-uses-zinc-as-a-ligand-to-mediate-homeostasis-in-response-to-high-zinc
#3
Kurt Warnhoff, Hyun C Roh, Zuzana Kocsisova, Chieh-Hsiang Tan, Andrew Morrison, Damari Croswell, Daniel L Schneider, Kerry Kornfeld
Nuclear receptors were originally defined as endocrine sensors in humans, leading to the identification of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Despite intensive efforts, most nuclear receptors have no known ligand, suggesting new ligand classes remain to be discovered. Furthermore, nuclear receptors are encoded in the genomes of primitive organisms that lack endocrine signaling, suggesting the primordial function may have been environmental sensing. Here we describe a novel Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear receptor, HIZR-1, that is a high zinc sensor in an animal and the master regulator of high zinc homeostasis...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085883/the-yin-and-yang-of-memory-consolidation-hippocampal-and-neocortical
#4
Lisa Genzel, Janine I Rossato, Justin Jacobse, Roddy M Grieves, Patrick A Spooner, Francesco P Battaglia, Guillen Fernández, Richard G M Morris
While hippocampal and cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation have long been studied, their interaction is poorly understood. We sought to investigate potential interactions with respect to trace dominance, strengthening, and interference associated with postencoding novelty or sleep. A learning procedure was scheduled in a watermaze that placed the impact of novelty and sleep in opposition. Distinct behavioural manipulations-context preexposure or interference during memory retrieval-differentially affected trace dominance and trace survival, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081144/digital-health-tracking-physiomes-and-activity-using-wearable-biosensors-reveals-useful-health-related-information
#5
Xiao Li, Jessilyn Dunn, Denis Salins, Gao Zhou, Wenyu Zhou, Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Dalia Perelman, Elizabeth Colbert, Ryan Runge, Shannon Rego, Ria Sonecha, Somalee Datta, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael P Snyder
A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Interestingly, we found striking changes in particular environments, such as airline flights (decreased peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2] and increased radiation exposure)...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081142/the-global-distribution-and-drivers-of-alien-bird-species-richness
#6
Ellie E Dyer, Phillip Cassey, David W Redding, Ben Collen, Victoria Franks, Kevin J Gaston, Kate E Jones, Salit Kark, C David L Orme, Tim M Blackburn
Alien species are a major component of human-induced environmental change. Variation in the numbers of alien species found in different areas is likely to depend on a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors, with anthropogenic factors affecting the number of species introduced to new locations, and when, and environmental factors influencing how many species are able to persist there. However, global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#7
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081116/the-sharing-experimental-animal-resources-coordinating-holdings-search-framework-encouraging-reduction-replacement-and-refinement-in-animal-research
#8
Bethny Morrissey, Karen Blyth, Phil Carter, Claude Chelala, Louise Jones, Ingunn Holen, Valerie Speirs
While significant medical breakthroughs have been achieved through using animal models, our experience shows that often there is surplus material remaining that is frequently never revisited but could be put to good use by other scientists. Recognising that most scientists are willing to share this material on a collaborative basis, it makes economic, ethical, and academic sense to explore the option to utilise this precious resource before generating new/additional animal models and associated samples. To bring together those requiring animal tissue and those holding this type of archival material, we have devised a framework called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) with the aim of making remaining material derived from animal studies in biomedical research more visible and accessible to the scientific community...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076354/where-have-all-the-giants-gone-how-animals-deal-with-the-problem-of-size
#9
Taylor J M Dick, Christofer J Clemente
The survival of both the hunter and the hunted often comes down to speed. Yet how fast an animal can run is intricately linked to its size, such that the fastest animals are not the biggest nor the smallest. The ability to maintain high speeds is dependent on the body's capacity to withstand the high stresses involved with locomotion. Yet even when standing still, scaling principles would suggest that the mechanical stress an animal feels will increase in greater demand than its body can support. So if big animals want to be fast, they must find solutions to overcome these high stresses...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068337/a-swarm-of-bee-research
#10
Lauren A Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068336/correction-phylosymbiosis-relationships-and-functional-effects-of-microbial-communities-across-host-evolutionary-history
#11
Andrew W Brooks, Kevin D Kohl, Robert M Brucker, Edward J van Opstal, Seth R Bordenstein
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000225.].
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060820/proteolytic-origin-of-the-soluble-human-il-6r-in-vivo-and-a-decisive-role-of-n-glycosylation
#12
Steffen Riethmueller, Prasath Somasundaram, Johanna C Ehlers, Chien-Wen Hung, Charlotte M Flynn, Juliane Lokau, Maria Agthe, Stefan Düsterhöft, Yijue Zhu, Joachim Grötzinger, Inken Lorenzen, Tomas Koudelka, Kosuke Yamamoto, Ute Pickhinke, Rielana Wichert, Christoph Becker-Pauly, Marisa Rädisch, Alexander Albrecht, Markus Hessefort, Dominik Stahnke, Carlo Unverzagt, Stefan Rose-John, Andreas Tholey, Christoph Garbers
Signaling of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) via its soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) is responsible for the proinflammatory properties of IL-6 and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target, but how the sIL-6R is generated in vivo remains largely unclear. Here, we use liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify an sIL-6R form in human serum that originates from proteolytic cleavage, map its cleavage site between Pro-355 and Val-356, and determine the occupancy of all O- and N-glycosylation sites of the human sIL-6R...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060818/a-webcast-of-bird-nesting-as-a-state-of-the-art-citizen-science
#13
Markéta Zárybnická, Petr Sklenicka, Piotr Tryjanowski
The quality of people's knowledge of nature has always had a significant influence on their approach to wildlife and nature conservation. However, direct interactions of people with nature are greatly limited nowadays, especially because of urbanization and modern lifestyles. As a result, our isolation from the natural world has been growing. Here, we present an example of a state-of-the-art Citizen Science project with its educational, scientific, and popularizing benefits. We conclude that modern media and new forms of education offer an effective opportunity for inspiring children and others to have fun learning to act like scientists...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056064/marine-reserve-targets-to-sustain-and-rebuild-unregulated-fisheries
#14
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033606/correction-activating-receptor-signals-drive-receptor-diversity-in-developing-natural-killer-cells
#15
Jacquelyn Freund, Rebecca M May, Enjun Yang, Hongchuan Li, Matthew McCullen, Bin Zhang, Todd Lenvik, Frank Cichocki, Stephen K Anderson, Taku Kambayashi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002526.].
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033326/languages-are-still-a-major-barrier-to-global-science
#16
Tatsuya Amano, Juan P González-Varo, William J Sutherland
While it is recognized that language can pose a barrier to the transfer of scientific knowledge, the convergence on English as the global language of science may suggest that this problem has been resolved. However, our survey searching Google Scholar in 16 languages revealed that 35.6% of 75,513 scientific documents on biodiversity conservation published in 2014 were not in English. Ignoring such non-English knowledge can cause biases in our understanding of study systems. Furthermore, as publication in English has become prevalent, scientific knowledge is often unavailable in local languages...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033324/correction-associative-mechanisms-allow-for-social-learning-and-cultural-transmission-of-string-pulling-in-an-insect
#17
Sylvain Alem, Clint J Perry, Xingfu Zhu, Olli J Loukola, Thomas Ingraham, Eirik Søvik, Lars Chittka
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002564.].
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033323/transient-duplication-dependent-divergence-and-horizontal-transfer-underlie-the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-bacterial-cell-cell-signaling
#18
Eran Even-Tov, Shira Omer Bendori, Shaul Pollak, Avigdor Eldar
Evolutionary expansion of signaling pathway families often underlies the evolution of regulatory complexity. Expansion requires the acquisition of a novel homologous pathway and the diversification of pathway specificity. Acquisition can occur either vertically, by duplication, or through horizontal transfer, while divergence of specificity is thought to occur through a promiscuous protein intermediate. The way by which these mechanisms shape the evolution of rapidly diverging signaling families is unclear...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027308/cell-fate-decision-as-high-dimensional-critical-state-transition
#19
Mitra Mojtahedi, Alexander Skupin, Joseph Zhou, Ivan G Castaño, Rebecca Y Y Leong-Quong, Hannah Chang, Kalliopi Trachana, Alessandro Giuliani, Sui Huang
Cell fate choice and commitment of multipotent progenitor cells to a differentiated lineage requires broad changes of their gene expression profile. But how progenitor cells overcome the stability of their gene expression configuration (attractor) to exit the attractor in one direction remains elusive. Here we show that commitment of blood progenitor cells to the erythroid or myeloid lineage is preceded by the destabilization of their high-dimensional attractor state, such that differentiating cells undergo a critical state transition...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027306/collective-resistance-in-microbial-communities-by-intracellular-antibiotic-deactivation
#20
Robin A Sorg, Leo Lin, G Sander van Doorn, Moritz Sorg, Joshua Olson, Victor Nizet, Jan-Willem Veening
The structure and composition of bacterial communities can compromise antibiotic efficacy. For example, the secretion of β-lactamase by individual bacteria provides passive resistance for all residents within a polymicrobial environment. Here, we uncover that collective resistance can also develop via intracellular antibiotic deactivation. Real-time luminescence measurements and single-cell analysis demonstrate that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae grows in medium supplemented with chloramphenicol (Cm) when resistant bacteria expressing Cm acetyltransferase (CAT) are present...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
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