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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820898/perceived-effort-for-motor-control-and-decision-making
#1
Ignasi Cos
How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806752/the-escrt-iii-pathway-facilitates-cardiomyocyte-release-of-cbin1-containing-microparticles
#2
Bing Xu, Ying Fu, Yan Liu, Sosse Agvanian, Robert C Wirka, Rachel Baum, Kang Zhou, Robin M Shaw, TingTing Hong
Microparticles (MPs) are cell-cell communication vesicles derived from the cell surface plasma membrane, although they are not known to originate from cardiac ventricular muscle. In ventricular cardiomyocytes, the membrane deformation protein cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1 or BIN1+13+17) creates transverse-tubule (t-tubule) membrane microfolds, which facilitate ion channel trafficking and modulate local ionic concentrations. The microfold- generated microdomains continuously reorganize, adapting in response to stress to modulate the calcium signaling apparatus...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800596/fungal-genome-and-mating-system-transitions-facilitated-by-chromosomal-translocations-involving-intercentromeric-recombination
#3
Sheng Sun, Vikas Yadav, R Blake Billmyre, Christina A Cuomo, Minou Nowrousian, Liuyang Wang, Jean-Luc Souciet, Teun Boekhout, Betina Porcel, Patrick Wincker, Joshua A Granek, Kaustuv Sanyal, Joseph Heitman
Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million infections globally annually. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829781/different-patterns-of-neuronal-activity-trigger-distinct-responses-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-corpus-callosum
#4
Balint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Ruxandra Barzan, Ting-Jiun Chen, Maria Kukley
In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827801/object-segmentation-controls-image-reconstruction-from-natural-scenes
#5
Peter Neri
The structure of the physical world projects images onto our eyes. However, those images are often poorly representative of environmental structure: well-defined boundaries within the eye may correspond to irrelevant features of the physical world, while critical features of the physical world may be nearly invisible at the retinal projection. The challenge for the visual cortex is to sort these two types of features according to their utility in ultimately reconstructing percepts and interpreting the constituents of the scene...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821013/rictor-positively-regulates-b-cell-receptor-signaling-by-modulating-actin-reorganization-via-ezrin
#6
Lu Huang, Yongjie Zhang, Chenguang Xu, Xiaomei Gu, Linlin Niu, Jinzhi Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Xiaoming Bai, Xingtian Xuan, Qubei Li, Chunwei Shi, Bing Yu, Heather Miller, Gangyi Yang, Lisa S Westerberg, Wanli Liu, Wenxia Song, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu
As the central hub of the metabolism machinery, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been well studied in lymphocytes. As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive. Rictor is involved in B cell development, especially the peripheral development. However, the role of Rictor on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling as well as the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study used B cell-specfic Rictor knockout (KO) mice to investigate how Rictor regulates BCR signaling...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820884/let-s-rise-up-to-unite-taxonomy-and-technology
#7
Holly M Bik
What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792497/history-of-antibiotic-adaptation-influences-microbial-evolutionary-dynamics-during-subsequent-treatment
#8
Phillip Yen, Jason A Papin
Antibiotic regimens often include the sequential changing of drugs to limit the development and evolution of resistance of bacterial pathogens. It remains unclear how history of adaptation to one antibiotic can influence the resistance profiles when bacteria subsequently adapt to a different antibiotic. Here, we experimentally evolved Pseudomonas aeruginosa to six 2-drug sequences. We observed drug order-specific effects, whereby adaptation to the first drug can limit the rate of subsequent adaptation to the second drug, adaptation to the second drug can restore susceptibility to the first drug, or final resistance levels depend on the order of the 2-drug sequence...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777795/regulation-of-gli-ciliary-localization-and-hedgehog-signaling-by-the-py-nls-karyopherin-%C3%AE-2-nuclear-import-system
#9
Yuhong Han, Yue Xiong, Xuanming Shi, Jiang Wu, Yun Zhao, Jin Jiang
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in vertebrates depends on primary cilia. Upon stimulation, Hh pathway components, including Gli transcription factors, accumulate at primary cilia to transduce the Hh signal, but the mechanisms underlying their ciliary targeting remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the PY-type nuclear localization signal (PY-NLS)/karyopherinβ2 (Kapβ2) nuclear import system regulates Gli ciliary localization and Hh pathway activation. Mutating the PY-NLS in Gli or knockdown of Kapβ2 diminished Gli ciliary localization...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771474/a-flagellum-specific-chaperone-facilitates-assembly-of-the-core-type-iii-export-apparatus-of-the-bacterial-flagellum
#10
Florian D Fabiani, Thibaud T Renault, Britta Peters, Tobias Dietsche, Eric J C Gálvez, Alina Guse, Karen Freier, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Till Strowig, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Samuel Wagner, Michael Hensel, Marc Erhardt
Many bacteria move using a complex, self-assembling nanomachine, the bacterial flagellum. Biosynthesis of the flagellum depends on a flagellar-specific type III secretion system (T3SS), a protein export machine homologous to the export machinery of the virulence-associated injectisome. Six cytoplasmic (FliH/I/J/G/M/N) and seven integral-membrane proteins (FlhA/B FliF/O/P/Q/R) form the flagellar basal body and are involved in the transport of flagellar building blocks across the inner membrane in a proton motive force-dependent manner...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771471/the-genomic-observatories-metadatabase-geome-a-new-repository-for-field-and-sampling-event-metadata-associated-with-genetic-samples
#11
John Deck, Michelle R Gaither, Rodney Ewing, Christopher E Bird, Neil Davies, Christopher Meyer, Cynthia Riginos, Robert J Toonen, Eric D Crandall
The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe, http://www.geome-db.org/) is an open access repository for geographic and ecological metadata associated with biosamples and genetic data. Whereas public databases have served as vital repositories for nucleotide sequences, they do not accession all the metadata required for ecological or evolutionary analyses. GeOMe fills this need, providing a user-friendly, web-based interface for both data contributors and data recipients. The interface allows data contributors to create a customized yet standard-compliant spreadsheet that captures the temporal and geospatial context of each biosample...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771466/assembly-and-stoichiometry-of-the-core-structure-of-the-bacterial-flagellar-type-iii-export-gate-complex
#12
Takuma Fukumura, Fumiaki Makino, Tobias Dietsche, Miki Kinoshita, Takayuki Kato, Samuel Wagner, Keiichi Namba, Katsumi Imada, Tohru Minamino
The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771465/ebv-epigenetically-suppresses-the-b-cell-to-plasma-cell-differentiation-pathway-while-establishing-long-term-latency
#13
Christine T Styles, Quentin Bazot, Gillian A Parker, Robert E White, Kostas Paschos, Martin J Allday
Mature human B cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) become activated, grow, and proliferate. If the cells are infected ex vivo, they are transformed into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) that carry EBV DNA as extra-chromosomal episomes, express 9 latency-associated EBV proteins, and phenotypically resemble antigen-activated B-blasts. In vivo similar B-blasts can differentiate to become memory B cells (MBC), in which EBV persistence is established. Three related latency-associated viral proteins EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C are transcription factors that regulate a multitude of cellular genes...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763440/developing-international-open-science-collaborations-funder-reflections-on-the-open-science-prize
#14
Elizabeth Kittrie, Audie A Atienza, Robert Kiley, David Carr, Aki MacFarlane, Vinay Pai, Jennifer Couch, Jared Bajkowski, Joseph F Bonner, Daniel Mietchen, Philip E Bourne
The Open Science Prize was established with the following objectives: first, to encourage the crowdsourcing of open data to make breakthroughs that are of biomedical significance; second, to illustrate that funders can indeed work together when scientific interests are aligned; and finally, to encourage international collaboration between investigators with the intent of achieving important innovations that would not be possible otherwise. The process for running the competition and the successes and challenges that arose are presented...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763438/dynamic-transcriptome-changes-during-adipose-tissue-energy-expenditure-reveal-critical-roles-for-long-noncoding-rna-regulators
#15
Zhiqiang Bai, Xiao-Ran Chai, Myeong Jin Yoon, Hye-Jin Kim, Kinyui Alice Lo, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Dan Xu, Diana Teh Chee Siang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Shao-Hai Xu, Sook-Yoong Chia, Peng Chen, Hongyuan Yang, Sujoy Ghosh, Lei Sun
Enhancing brown fat activity and promoting white fat browning are attractive therapeutic strategies for treating obesity and associated metabolic disorders. To provide a comprehensive picture of the gene regulatory network in these processes, we conducted a series of transcriptome studies by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantified the mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) changes during white fat browning (chronic cold exposure, beta-adrenergic agonist treatment, and intense exercise) and brown fat activation or inactivation (acute cold exposure or thermoneutrality, respectively)...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763436/the-beneficial-effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-learning-are-distinct-from-its-effects-on-longevity-and-mediated-by-depletion-of-a-neuroinhibitory-metabolite
#16
Mihir Vohra, George A Lemieux, Lin Lin, Kaveh Ashrafi
In species ranging from humans to Caenorhabditis elegans, dietary restriction (DR) grants numerous benefits, including enhanced learning. The precise mechanisms by which DR engenders benefits on processes related to learning remain poorly understood. As a result, it is unclear whether the learning benefits of DR are due to myriad improvements in mechanisms that collectively confer improved cellular health and extension of organismal lifespan or due to specific neural mechanisms. Using an associative learning paradigm in C...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759563/the-costs-of-saving-nature-does-it-make-cents
#17
Andrew J Tanentzap
Clearing wild forests to grow food, fibre, and fuel products can deliver large financial gains. However, the benefits that people obtain from forests-known as ecosystem services-are rarely considered in economic calculations, partly because there are few markets onto which they can be traded. In some regions, the benefits delivered by nature might be more economically valuable. A new study maps where it is profitable to replace tropical forests with cropland and how this might change under future agricultural production and carbon prices...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749982/comparative-genomics-of-the-tardigrades-hypsibius-dujardini-and-ramazzottius-varieornatus
#18
Yuki Yoshida, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Dominik R Laetsch, Lewis Stevens, Sujai Kumar, Daiki D Horikawa, Kyoko Ishino, Shiori Komine, Takekazu Kunieda, Masaru Tomita, Mark Blaxter, Kazuharu Arakawa
Tardigrada, a phylum of meiofaunal organisms, have been at the center of discussions of the evolution of Metazoa, the biology of survival in extreme environments, and the role of horizontal gene transfer in animal evolution. Tardigrada are placed as sisters to Arthropoda and Onychophora (velvet worms) in the superphylum Panarthropoda by morphological analyses, but many molecular phylogenies fail to recover this relationship. This tension between molecular and morphological understanding may be very revealing of the mode and patterns of evolution of major groups...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749943/integrated-time-lapse-and-single-cell-transcription-studies-highlight-the-variable-and-dynamic-nature-of-human-hematopoietic-cell-fate-commitment
#19
Alice Moussy, Jérémie Cosette, Romuald Parmentier, Cindy da Silva, Guillaume Corre, Angélique Richard, Olivier Gandrillon, Daniel Stockholm, András Páldi
Individual cells take lineage commitment decisions in a way that is not necessarily uniform. We address this issue by characterising transcriptional changes in cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at the single-cell level and integrating data with cell division history and morphological changes determined by time-lapse microscopy. We show that major transcriptional changes leading to a multilineage-primed gene expression state occur very rapidly during the first cell cycle. One of the 2 stable lineage-primed patterns emerges gradually in each cell with variable timing...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742850/genes-cells-and-biobanks-yes-there-s-still-a-consent-problem
#20
Timothy Caulfield, Blake Murdoch
From a research perspective, the interest in biobanking continues to intensify. Governments and industry have invested heavily in biobanks, as exemplified by initiatives like the United Kingdom Biobank and United States' Precision Medicine Initiative. But despite this enthusiasm, many profound legal and ethical challenges remain unresolved. Indeed, there continues to be disagreements about how best to obtain consent and the degree and nature of control that research participants retain over donated samples and health information...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
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