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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650960/phosphatidylserine-externalization-necroptotic-bodies-release-and-phagocytosis-during-necroptosis
#1
Sefi Zargarian, Inbar Shlomovitz, Ziv Erlich, Aria Hourizadeh, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Ben A Croker, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Liat Edry-Botzer, Motti Gerlic
Necroptosis is a regulated, nonapoptotic form of cell death initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) proteins. It is considered to be a form of regulated necrosis, and, by lacking the "find me" and "eat me" signals that are a feature of apoptosis, necroptosis is considered to be inflammatory. One such "eat me" signal observed during apoptosis is the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that necroptotic cells also expose PS after phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase-like (pMLKL) translocation to the membrane...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644827/what-drives-cooperative-breeding
#2
Walter D Koenig
Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636615/family-living-sets-the-stage-for-cooperative-breeding-and-ecological-resilience-in-birds
#3
Michael Griesser, Szymon M Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A Botero
Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636612/laminin-211-inhibits-protein-kinase-a-in-schwann-cells-to-modulate-neuregulin-1-type-iii-driven-myelination
#4
Monica Ghidinelli, Yannick Poitelon, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dominique Ameroso, Courtney Williamson, Cinzia Ferri, Marta Pellegatta, Kevin Espino, Amit Mogha, Kelly Monk, Paola Podini, Carla Taveggia, Klaus-Armin Nave, Lawrence Wrabetz, Hwan Tae Park, Maria Laura Feltri
Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632788/high-throughput-identification-and-rational-design-of-synergistic-small-molecule-pairs-for-combating-and-bypassing-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Morgan A Wambaugh, Viplendra P S Shakya, Adam J Lewis, Matthew A Mulvey, Jessica C S Brown
Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#6
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632741/aging-mortality-and-the-fast-growth-trade-off-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#7
Hidenori Nakaoka, Yuichi Wakamoto
Replicative aging has been demonstrated in asymmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, seemingly caused by unequal damage partitioning. Although asymmetric segregation and inheritance of potential aging factors also occur in symmetrically dividing species, it nevertheless remains controversial whether this results in aging. Based on large-scale single-cell lineage data obtained by time-lapse microscopy with a microfluidic device, in this report, we demonstrate the absence of replicative aging in old-pole cell lineages of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cultured under constant favorable conditions...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632738/correction-phenotypic-heterogeneity-promotes-adaptive-evolution
#8
Zoltán Bódi, Zoltán Farkas, Dmitry Nevozhay, Dorottya Kalapis, Viktória Lázár, Bálint Csörgő, Ákos Nyerges, Béla Szamecz, Gergely Fekete, Balázs Papp, Hugo Araújo, José L Oliveira, Gabriela Moura, Manuel A S Santos, Tamás Székely, Gábor Balázsi, Csaba Pál
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000644.].
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617796/egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-in-auditory-cortex
#9
Stephen M Town, W Owen Brimijoin, Jennifer K Bizley
A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object's location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604818/cacna1c-gene-regulates-behavioral-strategies-in-operant-rule-learning
#10
Georgia Koppe, Anne Stephanie Mallien, Stefan Berger, Dusan Bartsch, Peter Gass, Barbara Vollmayr, Daniel Durstewitz
Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604782/viral-genetic-variation-accounts-for-a-third-of-variability-in-hiv-1-set-point-viral-load-in-europe
#11
François Blanquart, Chris Wymant, Marion Cornelissen, Astrid Gall, Margreet Bakker, Daniela Bezemer, Matthew Hall, Mariska Hillebregt, Swee Hoe Ong, Jan Albert, Norbert Bannert, Jacques Fellay, Katrien Fransen, Annabelle J Gourlay, M Kate Grabowski, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Huldrych F Günthard, Pia Kivelä, Roger Kouyos, Oliver Laeyendecker, Kirsi Liitsola, Laurence Meyer, Kholoud Porter, Matti Ristola, Ard van Sighem, Guido Vanham, Ben Berkhout, Paul Kellam, Peter Reiss, Christophe Fraser
HIV-1 set-point viral load-the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection-is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%-43%)...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594832/the-road-not-taken-could-stress-specific-mutations-lead-to-different-evolutionary-paths
#12
Deepa Agashe
Organisms often encounter stressful conditions, some of which damage their DNA. In response, some organisms show a high expression of error-prone DNA repair machinery, causing a temporary increase in the genome-wide mutation rate. Although we now have a detailed map of the molecular mechanisms underlying such stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM), it has been hotly debated whether SIM alters evolutionary dynamics. Key to this controversy is our poor understanding about which stresses increase mutagenesis and their long-term consequences for adaptation...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594819/wide-open-accelerating-public-data-release-by-automating-detection-of-overdue-datasets
#13
Maxim Grechkin, Hoifung Poon, Bill Howe
Open data is a vital pillar of open science and a key enabler for reproducibility, data reuse, and novel discoveries. Enforcement of open-data policies, however, largely relies on manual efforts, which invariably lag behind the increasingly automated generation of biological data. To address this problem, we developed a general approach to automatically identify datasets overdue for public release by applying text mining to identify dataset references in published articles and parse query results from repositories to determine if the datasets remain private...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594817/a-shifting-mutational-landscape-in-6-nutritional-states-stress-induced-mutagenesis-as-a-series-of-distinct-stress-input-mutation-output-relationships
#14
Ram P Maharjan, Thomas Ferenci
Environmental stresses increase genetic variation in bacteria, plants, and human cancer cells. The linkage between various environments and mutational outcomes has not been systematically investigated, however. Here, we established the influence of nutritional stresses commonly found in the biosphere (carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, oxygen, or iron limitation) on both the rate and spectrum of mutations in Escherichia coli. We found that each limitation was associated with a remarkably distinct mutational profile...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591227/correction-resource-availability-modulates-the-cooperative-and-competitive-nature-of-a-microbial-cross-feeding-mutualism
#15
Tim A Hoek, Kevin Axelrod, Tommaso Biancalani, Eugene A Yurtsev, Jinghui Liu, Jeff Gore
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002540.].
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586347/what-makes-a-reach-movement-effortful-physical-effort-discounting-supports-common-minimization-principles-in-decision-making-and-motor-control
#16
Pierre Morel, Philipp Ulbrich, Alexander Gail
When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570608/the-spread-of-wolbachia-through-mosquito-populations
#17
Francis M Jiggins
In many regions of the world, mosquito-borne viruses pose a growing threat to human health. As an alternative to traditional control measures, the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia has been transferred from Drosophila into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where it can block the transmission of dengue and Zika viruses. A recent paper has reported large-scale releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti in the city of Cairns, Australia. Wolbachia, which is maternally transmitted, invaded and spread through the populations due to a sperm-egg incompatibility called cytoplasmic incompatibility...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570591/statin-and-rottlerin-small-molecule-inhibitors-restrict-colon-cancer-progression-and-metastasis-via-macc1
#18
Manisha Juneja, Dennis Kobelt, Wolfgang Walther, Cynthia Voss, Janice Smith, Edgar Specker, Martin Neuenschwander, Björn-Oliver Gohlke, Mathias Dahlmann, Silke Radetzki, Robert Preissner, Jens Peter von Kries, Peter Michael Schlag, Ulrike Stein
MACC1 (Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1) is a key driver and prognostic biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis in a large variety of solid tumor types, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no MACC1 inhibitors have been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to target MACC1 expression using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput screening with the ChemBioNet library of more than 30,000 compounds. The small molecules lovastatin and rottlerin emerged as the most potent MACC1 transcriptional inhibitors...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562604/an-appetite-for-understanding-appetite
#19
Gabriel Gasque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557993/local-introduction-and-heterogeneous-spatial-spread-of-dengue-suppressing-wolbachia-through-an-urban-population-of-aedes-aegypti
#20
Tom L Schmidt, Nicholas H Barton, Gordana Rašić, Andrew P Turley, Brian L Montgomery, Inaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Peter E Cook, Peter A Ryan, Scott A Ritchie, Ary A Hoffmann, Scott L O'Neill, Michael Turelli
Dengue-suppressing Wolbachia strains are promising tools for arbovirus control, particularly as they have the potential to self-spread following local introductions. To test this, we followed the frequency of the transinfected Wolbachia strain wMel through Ae. aegypti in Cairns, Australia, following releases at 3 nonisolated locations within the city in early 2013. Spatial spread was analysed graphically using interpolation and by fitting a statistical model describing the position and width of the wave. For the larger 2 of the 3 releases (covering 0...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
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