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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422986/a-critical-like-collective-state-leads-to-long-range-cell-communication-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-aggregation
#1
Giovanna De Palo, Darvin Yi, Robert G Endres
The transition from single-cell to multicellular behavior is important in early development but rarely studied. The starvation-induced aggregation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum into a multicellular slug is known to result from single-cell chemotaxis towards emitted pulses of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, how exactly do transient, short-range chemical gradients lead to coherent collective movement at a macroscopic scale? Here, we developed a multiscale model verified by quantitative microscopy to describe behaviors ranging widely from chemotaxis and excitability of individual cells to aggregation of thousands of cells...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422959/molecular-regionalization-of-the-developing-amphioxus-neural-tube-challenges-major-partitions-of-the-vertebrate-brain
#2
Beatriz Albuixech-Crespo, Laura López-Blanch, Demian Burguera, Ignacio Maeso, Luisa Sánchez-Arrones, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Ildiko Somorjai, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Eduardo Puelles, Paola Bovolenta, Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez, Luis Puelles, Manuel Irimia, José Luis Ferran
All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419091/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-compensate-for-the-epistasis-between-resistances
#3
Jorge Moura de Sousa, Roberto Balbontín, Paulo Durão, Isabel Gordo
Mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics are typically costly in the absence of the drug, but bacteria can reduce this cost by acquiring compensatory mutations. Thus, the rate of acquisition of compensatory mutations and their effects are key for the maintenance and dissemination of antibiotic resistances. While compensation for single resistances has been extensively studied, compensatory evolution of multiresistant bacteria remains unexplored. Importantly, since resistance mutations often interact epistatically, compensation of multiresistant bacteria may significantly differ from that of single-resistant strains...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414717/a-ca2-channel-differentially-regulates-clathrin-mediated-and-activity-dependent-bulk-endocytosis
#4
Chi-Kuang Yao, Yu-Tzu Liu, I-Chi Lee, You-Tung Wang, Ping-Yen Wu
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) are two predominant forms of synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis, elicited by moderate and strong stimuli, respectively. They are tightly coupled with exocytosis for sustained neurotransmission. However, the underlying mechanisms are ill defined. We previously reported that the Flower (Fwe) Ca2+ channel present in SVs is incorporated into the periactive zone upon SV fusion, where it triggers CME, thus coupling exocytosis to CME...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414715/transcriptional-regulatory-logic-of-the-diurnal-cycle-in-the-mouse-liver
#5
Jonathan Aryeh Sobel, Irina Krier, Teemu Andersin, Sunil Raghav, Donatella Canella, Federica Gilardi, Alexandra Styliani Kalantzi, Guillaume Rey, Benjamin Weger, Frédéric Gachon, Matteo Dal Peraro, Nouria Hernandez, Ueli Schibler, Bart Deplancke, Felix Naef
Many organisms exhibit temporal rhythms in gene expression that propel diurnal cycles in physiology. In the liver of mammals, these rhythms are controlled by transcription-translation feedback loops of the core circadian clock and by feeding-fasting cycles. To better understand the regulatory interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms, we mapped DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the mouse liver during a diurnal cycle. The intensity of DNase I cleavages cycled at a substantial fraction of all DHSs, suggesting that DHSs harbor regulatory elements that control rhythmic transcription...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414713/less-fear-more-diversity
#6
Gregory J Quirk
Fear is an instinctual response that's adaptive and critical for survival when it is short-lived but can lead to anxiety disorders when chronic. Studying how the brain controls our fears helps us understand the mechanisms required to recover from traumatic experiences and what goes wrong when we don't. Research in rodents has identified neural circuits and molecular mechanisms regulating fear expression. Rodent work has been amenable to translation to humans and has led to improvements in clinical therapies for anxiety disorders...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414712/the-need-for-a-worldwide-consensus-for-cell-line-authentication-experience-implementing-a-mandatory-requirement-at-the-international-journal-of-cancer
#7
Norbert E Fusenig, Amanda Capes-Davis, Franca Bianchini, Sherryl Sundell, Peter Lichter
Cell lines are used in life science research worldwide as biological surrogates. All cell lines are subject to major limitations when used as research tools, including (i) cross-contamination with other cells cultured in the same laboratory environment and (ii) evolution in vitro that renders a given cell line inappropriate as a surrogate for a specific biological hypothesis. There is ample evidence that cross-contamination or phenotypic drift of cells in culture can generate irreproducible or misleading data...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410391/cilia-and-sensory-signaling-the-journey-from-animalcules-to-human-disease
#8
Piali Sengupta
Nearly all cell types in mammals contain cilia, small rod-like or more elaborate structures that extend from the cell surface. Cilia house signaling proteins that allow the cell to sample their environment and respond appropriately. Mutations in ciliary genes alter the functions of a broad range of cell and tissue types, including sensory and central neurons, and underlie a collection of heterogeneous human disorders called ciliopathies. Here, I highlight the critical contributions of nearly three centuries of research in diverse organisms to our current knowledge of cilia function in sensory signaling and human disease...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406906/water-diffusion-closely-reveals-neural-activity-status-in-rat-brain-loci-affected-by-anesthesia
#9
Yoshifumi Abe, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Denis Le Bihan
Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI) reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs), especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406905/a-latitudinal-phylogeographic-diversity-gradient-in-birds
#10
Brian Tilston Smith, Glenn F Seeholzer, Michael G Harvey, Andrés M Cuervo, Robb T Brumfield
High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403143/a-novel-mechanism-of-cone-photoreceptor-adaptation
#11
Marcus H C Howlett, Robert G Smith, Maarten Kamermans
An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403138/bordetella-bronchiseptica-exploits-the-complex-life-cycle-of-dictyostelium-discoideum-as-an-amplifying-transmission-vector
#12
Dawn L Taylor-Mulneix, Liron Bendor, Bodo Linz, Israel Rivera, Valerie E Ryman, Kalyan K Dewan, Shannon M Wagner, Emily F Wilson, Lindsay J Hilburger, Laura E Cuff, Christopher M West, Eric T Harvill
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that Bordetella species have a significant life stage outside of the mammalian respiratory tract that has yet to be defined. The Bordetella virulence gene (BvgAS) two-component system, a paradigm for a global virulence regulon, controls the expression of many "virulence factors" expressed in the Bvg positive (Bvg+) phase that are necessary for successful respiratory tract infection. A similarly large set of highly conserved genes are expressed under Bvg negative (Bvg-) phase growth conditions; however, these appear to be primarily expressed outside of the host and are thus hypothesized to be important in an undefined extrahost reservoir...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399148/convergent-evolution-of-sws2-opsin-facilitates-adaptive-radiation-of-threespine-stickleback-into-different-light-environments
#13
David A Marques, John S Taylor, Felicity C Jones, Federica Di Palma, David M Kingsley, Thomas E Reimchen
Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394935/enos-s-nitrosylates-%C3%AE-actin-on-cys374-and-regulates-pkc-%C3%AE-at-the-immune-synapse-by-impairing-actin-binding-to-profilin-1
#14
Almudena García-Ortiz, Noa B Martín-Cofreces, Sales Ibiza, Ángel Ortega, Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez, Antonio Trullo, Víctor M Victor, Enrique Calvo, Begoña Sot, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Jesús Vázquez, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Juan M Serrador
The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the organization of signaling microclusters at the immune synapse (IS); however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show here that nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) controls the coalescence of protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) at the central supramolecular activation cluster (c-SMAC) of the IS. eNOS translocated with the Golgi to the IS and partially colocalized with F-actin around the c-SMAC. This resulted in reduced actin polymerization and centripetal retrograde flow of β-actin and PKC-θ from the lamellipodium-like distal (d)-SMAC, promoting PKC-θ activation...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388632/ongoing-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-dentate-gyrus-mediates-behavioral-responses-to-ambiguous-threat-cues
#15
Lucas R Glover, Timothy J Schoenfeld, Rose-Marie Karlsson, David M Bannerman, Heather A Cameron
Fear learning is highly adaptive if utilized in appropriate situations but can lead to generalized anxiety if applied too widely. A role of predictive cues in inhibiting fear generalization has been suggested by stress and fear learning studies, but the effects of partially predictive cues (ambiguous cues) and the neuronal populations responsible for linking the predictive ability of cues and generalization of fear responses are unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus decreases hippocampal network activation and reduces defensive behavior to ambiguous threat cues but has neither of these effects if the same negative experience is reliably predicted...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388615/should-biomedical-research-be-like-airbnb
#16
Vivien R Bonazzi, Philip E Bourne
The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384158/accurate-predictions-of-population-level-changes-in-sequence-and-structural-properties-of-hiv-1-env-using-a-volatility-controlled-diffusion-model
#17
Orlando DeLeon, Hagit Hodis, Yunxia O'Malley, Jacklyn Johnson, Hamid Salimi, Yinjie Zhai, Elizabeth Winter, Claire Remec, Noah Eichelberger, Brandon Van Cleave, Ramya Puliadi, Robert D Harrington, Jack T Stapleton, Hillel Haim
The envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of HIV-1 continuously evolve in the host by random mutations and recombination events. The resulting diversity of Env variants circulating in the population and their continuing diversification process limit the efficacy of AIDS vaccines. We examined the historic changes in Env sequence and structural features (measured by integrity of epitopes on the Env trimer) in a geographically defined population in the United States. As expected, many Env features were relatively conserved during the 1980s...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379951/correction-the-mechanism-of-sirtuin-2-mediated-exacerbation-of-alpha-synuclein-toxicity-in-models-of-parkinson-disease
#18
Rita Machado de Oliveira, Hugo Vicente Miranda, Laetitia Francelle, Raquel Pinho, Éva M Szegö, Renato Martinho, Francesca Munari, Diana F Lázaro, Sébastien Moniot, Patrícia Guerreiro, Luis Fonseca-Ornelas, Zrinka Marijanovic, Pedro Antas, Ellen Gerhardt, Francisco Javier Enguita, Bruno Fauvet, Deborah Penque, Teresa Faria Pais, Qiang Tong, Stefan Becker, Sebastian Kügler, Hilal Ahmed Lashuel, Clemens Steegborn, Markus Zweckstetter, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000374.].
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358805/fasting-regulates-egr1-and-protects-from-glucose-and-dexamethasone-dependent-sensitization-to-chemotherapy
#19
Stefano Di Biase, Hong Seok Shim, Kyung Hwa Kim, Manlio Vinciguerra, Francesca Rappa, Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Francesco Cappello, Hamed Mirzaei, Changhan Lee, Valter D Longo
Fasting reduces glucose levels and protects mice against chemotoxicity, yet drugs that promote hyperglycemia are widely used in cancer treatment. Here, we show that dexamethasone (Dexa) and rapamycin (Rapa), commonly administered to cancer patients, elevate glucose and sensitize cardiomyocytes and mice to the cancer drug doxorubicin (DXR). Such toxicity can be reversed by reducing circulating glucose levels by fasting or insulin. Furthermore, glucose injections alone reversed the fasting-dependent protection against DXR in mice, indicating that elevated glucose mediates, at least in part, the sensitizing effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358800/mitochondria-a-billion-years-of-cohabitation
#20
Roland G Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: PLoS Biology
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