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PLoS Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462148/vocal-development-through-morphological-computation
#1
Yisi S Zhang, Asif A Ghazanfar
The vocal behavior of infants changes dramatically during early life. Whether or not such a change results from the growth of the body during development-as opposed to solely neural changes-has rarely been investigated. In this study of vocal development in marmoset monkeys, we tested the putative causal relationship between bodily growth and vocal development (without the need to invoke neural growth). During the first two months of life, the spontaneous vocalizations of marmosets undergo (1) a gradual disappearance of context-inappropriate call types and (2) an elongation in the duration of context-appropriate contact calls...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451884/a-damped-oscillator-imposes-temporal-order-on-posterior-gap-gene-expression-in-drosophila
#2
Berta Verd, Erik Clark, Karl R Wotton, Hilde Janssens, Eva Jiménez-Guri, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444090/identification-of-fam173b-as-a-protein-methyltransferase-promoting-chronic-pain
#3
Hanneke L D M Willemen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Judith Prado, Mirjam Maas, Sabine Versteeg, Lara J J Nellissen, Jeshua Tromp, Rafael Gonzalez Cano, Wenjun Zhou, Magnus E Jakobsson, Jędrzej Małecki, George Posthuma, Abdella M Habib, Cobi J Heijnen, Pål Ø Falnes, Niels Eijkelkamp
Chronic pain is a debilitating problem, and insights in the neurobiology of chronic pain are needed for the development of novel pain therapies. A genome-wide association study implicated the 5p15.2 region in chronic widespread pain. This region includes the coding region for FAM173B, a functionally uncharacterized protein. We demonstrate here that FAM173B is a mitochondrial lysine methyltransferase that promotes chronic pain. Knockdown and sensory neuron overexpression strategies showed that FAM173B is involved in persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain via a pathway dependent on its methyltransferase activity...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444072/fruit-flies-are-multistable-geniuses
#4
Christopher C Pack, Jamie C Theobald
Our sensory systems have evolved to provide us with information about the external world. Such information is useful only insofar as it leads to actions that enhance fitness, and thus, the link between sensation and action has been thoroughly studied in many species. In insects, for example, specific visual stimuli lead to highly stereotyped responses. In contrast, humans can exhibit a wide range of responses to the same stimulus, as occurs most notably in the phenomenon of multistable perception. On this basis, one might think that humans have a fundamentally different way of generating actions from sensory inputs, but Toepfer et al...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438378/multi-stability-with-ambiguous-visual-stimuli-in-drosophila-orientation-behavior
#5
Franziska Toepfer, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
It is widely accepted for humans and higher animals that vision is an active process in which the organism interprets the stimulus. To find out whether this also holds for lower animals, we designed an ambiguous motion stimulus, which serves as something like a multi-stable perception paradigm in Drosophila behavior. Confronted with a uniform panoramic texture in a closed-loop situation in stationary flight, the flies adjust their yaw torque to stabilize their virtual self-rotation. To make the visual input ambiguous, we added a second texture...
February 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425197/how-the-microbiome-challenges-our-concept-of-self
#6
Tobias Rees, Thomas Bosch, Angela E Douglas
Today, the three classical biological explanations of the individual self--the immune system, the brain, the genome--are being challenged by the new field of microbiome research. Evidence shows that our resident microbes orchestrate the adaptive immune system, influence the brain, and contribute more gene functions than our own genome. The realization that humans are not individual, discrete entities but rather the outcome of ever-changing interactions with microorganisms has consequences beyond the biological disciplines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420565/catecholamines-alter-the-intrinsic-variability-of-cortical-population-activity-and-perception
#7
Thomas Pfeffer, Arthur-Ervin Avramiea, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Tobias H Donner
The ascending modulatory systems of the brain stem are powerful regulators of global brain state. Disturbances of these systems are implicated in several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, how these systems interact with specific neural computations in the cerebral cortex to shape perception, cognition, and behavior remains poorly understood. Here, we probed into the effect of two such systems, the catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and noradrenergic) and cholinergic systems, on an important aspect of cortical computation: its intrinsic variability...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415043/empirical-evidence-that-metabolic-theory-describes-the-temperature-dependency-of-within-host-parasite-dynamics
#8
Devin Kirk, Natalie Jones, Stephanie Peacock, Jessica Phillips, Péter K Molnár, Martin Krkošek, Pepijn Luijckx
The complexity of host-parasite interactions makes it difficult to predict how host-parasite systems will respond to climate change. In particular, host and parasite traits such as survival and virulence may have distinct temperature dependencies that must be integrated into models of disease dynamics. Using experimental data from Daphnia magna and a microsporidian parasite, we fitted a mechanistic model of the within-host parasite population dynamics. Model parameters comprising host aging and mortality, as well as parasite growth, virulence, and equilibrium abundance, were specified by relationships arising from the metabolic theory of ecology...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408891/neutrophils-kill-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-using-trogocytosis
#9
Frances Mercer, Shek Hang Ng, Taylor M Brown, Grace Boatman, Patricia J Johnson
T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. vaginalis is poorly understood. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]) are the major immune cell present at the T. vaginalis-host interface and are thought to clear T. vaginalis. However, the mechanism of PMN clearance of T. vaginalis has not been characterized. We demonstrate that human PMNs rapidly kill T...
February 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401206/parallel-trends-in-cortical-gray-and-white-matter-architecture-and-connections-in-primates-allow-fine-study-of-pathways-in-humans-and-reveal-network-disruptions-in-autism
#10
Basilis Zikopoulos, Miguel Ángel García-Cabezas, Helen Barbas
Noninvasive imaging and tractography methods have yielded information on broad communication networks but lack resolution to delineate intralaminar cortical and subcortical pathways in humans. An important unanswered question is whether we can use the wealth of precise information on pathways from monkeys to understand connections in humans. We addressed this question within a theoretical framework of systematic cortical variation and used identical high-resolution methods to compare the architecture of cortical gray matter and the white matter beneath, which gives rise to short- and long-distance pathways in humans and rhesus monkeys...
February 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389974/olig2-and-hes-regulatory-dynamics-during-motor-neuron-differentiation-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptomics
#11
Andreas Sagner, Zachary B Gaber, Julien Delile, Jennifer H Kong, David L Rousso, Caroline A Pearson, Steven E Weicksel, Manuela Melchionda, S Neda Mousavy Gharavy, James Briscoe, Bennett G Novitch
During tissue development, multipotent progenitors differentiate into specific cell types in characteristic spatial and temporal patterns. We addressed the mechanism linking progenitor identity and differentiation rate in the neural tube, where motor neuron (MN) progenitors differentiate more rapidly than other progenitors. Using single cell transcriptomics, we defined the transcriptional changes associated with the transition of neural progenitors into MNs. Reconstruction of gene expression dynamics from these data indicate a pivotal role for the MN determinant Olig2 just prior to MN differentiation...
February 1, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385141/contrasting-impacts-of-competition-on-ecological-and-social-trait-evolution-in-songbirds
#12
Jonathan P Drury, Joseph A Tobias, Kevin J Burns, Nicholas A Mason, Allison J Shultz, Hélène Morlon
Competition between closely related species has long been viewed as a powerful selective force that drives trait diversification, thereby generating phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales. However, although the impact of interspecific competition has been documented in a handful of iconic insular radiations, most previous studies have focused on traits involved in resource use, and few have examined the role of competition across large, continental radiations. Thus, the extent to which broad-scale patterns of phenotypic diversity are shaped by competition remain largely unclear, particularly for social traits...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381698/role-of-the-ap-5-adaptor-protein-complex-in-late-endosome-to-golgi-retrieval
#13
Jennifer Hirst, Daniel N Itzhak, Robin Antrobus, Georg H H Borner, Margaret S Robinson
The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions...
January 30, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357351/identification-of-osmoadaptive-strategies-in-the-halophile-heterotrophic-ciliate-schmidingerothrix-salinarum
#14
Lea Weinisch, Steffen Kühner, Robin Roth, Maria Grimm, Tamara Roth, Daili J A Netz, Antonio J Pierik, Sabine Filker
Hypersaline environments pose major challenges to their microbial residents. Microorganisms have to cope with increased osmotic pressure and low water activity and therefore require specific adaptation mechanisms. Although mechanisms have already been thoroughly investigated in the green alga Dunaliella salina and some halophilic yeasts, strategies for osmoadaptation in other protistan groups (especially heterotrophs) are neither as well known nor as deeply investigated as for their prokaryotic counterpart...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357348/evolution-of-mitotic-spindle-behavior-during-the-first-asymmetric-embryonic-division-of-nematodes
#15
Aurore-Cécile Valfort, Caroline Launay, Marie Sémon, Marie Delattre
Asymmetric cell division is essential to generate cellular diversity. In many animal cells, the cleavage plane lies perpendicular to the mitotic spindle, and it is the spindle positioning that dictates the size of the daughter cells. Although some properties of spindle positioning are conserved between distantly related model species and different cell types, little is known of the evolutionary robustness of the mechanisms underlying this event. We recorded the first embryonic division of 42 species of nematodes closely related to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is an excellent model system to study the biophysical properties of asymmetric spindle positioning...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346381/control-of-recollection-by-slow-gamma-dominating-mid-frequency-gamma-in-hippocampus-ca1
#16
Dino Dvorak, Basma Radwan, Fraser T Sparks, Zoe Nicole Talbot, André A Fenton
Behavior is used to assess memory and cognitive deficits in animals like Fmr1-null mice that model Fragile X Syndrome, but behavior is a proxy for unknown neural events that define cognitive variables like recollection. We identified an electrophysiological signature of recollection in mouse dorsal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus. During a shocked-place avoidance task, slow gamma (SG) (30-50 Hz) dominates mid-frequency gamma (MG) (70-90 Hz) oscillations 2-3 s before successful avoidance, but not failures...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337987/identification-of-a-noncanonical-function-for-ribose-5-phosphate-isomerase-a-promotes-colorectal-cancer-formation-by-stabilizing-and-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-via-a-novel-c-terminal-domain
#17
Yu-Ting Chou, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Muh-Hwa Yang, Jeng-Wei Lu, Hua-Kuo Lin, Horng-Dar Wang, Chiou-Hwa Yuh
Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancers. Deregulation of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A (RPIA) in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is known to promote tumorigenesis in liver, lung, and breast tissues. Yet, the molecular mechanism of RPIA-mediated colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. Our study demonstrates a noncanonical function of RPIA in CRC. Data from the mRNAs of 80 patients' CRC tissues and paired nontumor tissues and protein levels, as well as a CRC tissue array, indicate RPIA is significantly elevated in CRC...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337984/anteroposterior-axis-patterning-by-early-canonical-wnt-signaling-during-hemichordate-development
#18
Sébastien Darras, Jens H Fritzenwanker, Kevin R Uhlinger, Ellyn Farrelly, Ariel M Pani, Imogen A Hurley, Rachael P Norris, Michelle Osovitz, Mark Terasaki, Mike Wu, Jochanan Aronowicz, Marc Kirschner, John C Gerhart, Christopher J Lowe
The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324742/functional-characterization-of-adaptive-variation-within-a-cis-regulatory-element-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-growth
#19
Amanda Glaser-Schmitt, John Parsch
Gene expression variation is a major contributor to phenotypic diversity within species and is thought to play an important role in adaptation. However, examples of adaptive regulatory polymorphism are rare, especially those that have been characterized at both the molecular genetic level and the organismal level. In this study, we perform a functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster CG9509 enhancer, a cis-regulatory element that shows evidence of adaptive evolution in populations outside the species' ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320492/metallochaperone-ureg-serves-as-a-new-target-for-design-of-urease-inhibitor-a-novel-strategy-for-development-of-antimicrobials
#20
Xinming Yang, Mohamad Koohi-Moghadam, Runming Wang, Yuen-Yan Chang, Patrick C Y Woo, Junwen Wang, Hongyan Li, Hongzhe Sun
Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a significant challenge due to the deeply buried active site and highly specific substrate of a bacterial urease. Conventionally, urease inhibitors are designed by either targeting the active site or mimicking substrate of urease, which is not efficient. Up to now, only one effective inhibitor-acetohydroxamic acid (AHA)-is clinically available, but it has adverse side effects...
January 10, 2018: PLoS Biology
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