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PLoS Biology

Sisi Zheng, Guolin Ma, Lian He, Tian Zhang, Jia Li, Xiaoman Yuan, Nhung T Nguyen, Yun Huang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ping Gao, Robert Nwokonko, Donald L Gill, Hao Dong, Yubin Zhou, Youjun Wang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensors stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and STIM2, which connect ER Ca2+ depletion with extracellular Ca2+ influx, are crucial for the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in mammalian cells. Despite the recent progress in unraveling the role of STIM2 in Ca2+ signaling, the mechanistic underpinnings of its activation remain underexplored. We use an engineering approach to direct ER-resident STIMs to the plasma membrane (PM) while maintaining their correct membrane topology, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors that enabled in cellulo real-time monitoring of STIM activities...
November 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Tracy Chih-Ting Koubkova-Yu, Jung-Chi Chao, Jun-Yi Leu
Biological processes in living cells are often carried out by gene networks in which signals and reactions are integrated through network hubs. Despite their functional importance, it remains unclear to what extent network hubs are evolvable and how alterations impact long-term evolution. We investigated these issues using heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a central hub of proteostasis networks. When native Hsp90 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was replaced by the ortholog from hypersaline-tolerant Yarrowia lipolytica that diverged from S...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Biology
Jun Guo, Youhua Zhang, Hua Li, Huiying Chu, Qinshu Wang, Shutan Jiang, Yan Li, Hongbin Shen, Guohui Li, Jianfeng Chen, Chenqi Xu
Protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) are generally hydrophobic, but our bioinformatics analysis shows that many TMDs contain basic residues at terminal regions. Physiological functions of these membrane-snorkeling basic residues are largely unclear. Here, we show that a membrane-snorkeling Lys residue in integrin αLβ2 (also known as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) regulates transmembrane heterodimer formation and integrin adhesion through ionic interplay with acidic phospholipids and calcium ions (Ca2+) in T cells...
November 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
David W Rogers, Ellen McConnell, Jasmine Ono, Duncan Greig
Genome-wide sequence divergence between populations can cause hybrid sterility through the action of the anti-recombination system, which rejects crossover repair of double strand breaks between nonidentical sequences. Because crossovers are necessary to ensure proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, the reduced recombination rate in hybrids can result in high levels of nondisjunction and therefore low gamete viability. Hybrid sterility in interspecific crosses of Saccharomyces yeasts is known to be associated with such segregation errors, but estimates of the importance of nondisjunction to postzygotic reproductive isolation have been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring nondisjunction frequencies...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Biology
Zhuan Qin, Jiagang Tu, Tao Lin, Steven J Norris, Chunhao Li, Md A Motaleb, Jun Liu
Periplasmic flagella are essential for the distinct morphology and motility of spirochetes. A flagella-specific type III secretion system (fT3SS) composed of a membrane-bound export apparatus and a cytosolic ATPase complex is responsible for the assembly of the periplasmic flagella. Here, we deployed cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize the fT3SS machine in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We show, for the first time, that the cytosolic ATPase complex is attached to the flagellar C-ring through multiple spokes to form the "spoke and hub" structure in B...
November 9, 2018: PLoS Biology
Peng Tan, Youqiong Ye, Lian He, Jiansheng Xie, Ji Jing, Guolin Ma, Hongming Pan, Leng Han, Weidong Han, Yubin Zhou
Cancer cells adopt various modes of migration during metastasis. How the ubiquitination machinery contributes to cancer cell motility remains underexplored. Here, we report that tripartite motif (TRIM) 59 is frequently up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer, which is correlated with advanced clinical stages and reduced survival among breast cancer patients. TRIM59 knockdown (KD) promoted apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth, while TRIM59 overexpression led to the opposite effects. Importantly, we uncovered TRIM59 as a key regulator of cell contractility and adhesion to control the plasticity of metastatic tumor cells...
November 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Martin Stegmann
Controlling organ growth and development is crucial for all multicellular organisms and is controlled by plasma membrane localized receptor kinases (RKs) across kingdoms, including animals and plants. A central RK in plants is FERONIA (FER), which perceives endogenous rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptides to regulate a plethora of biological responses, including growth and development. However, it remained largely unknown how RALF sensing by FER at the plasma membrane is translated into a nuclear response...
November 7, 2018: PLoS Biology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040435.].
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Aashish R Jha, Emily R Davenport, Yoshina Gautam, Dinesh Bhandari, Sarmila Tandukar, Katharine M Ng, Gabriela K Fragiadakis, Susan Holmes, Guru Prasad Gautam, Jeff Leach, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Carlos D Bustamante, Justin L Sonnenburg
The composition of the gut microbiome in industrialized populations differs from those living traditional lifestyles. However, it has been difficult to separate the contributions of human genetic and geographic factors from lifestyle. Whether shifts away from the foraging lifestyle that characterize much of humanity's past influence the gut microbiome, and to what degree, remains unclear. Here, we characterize the stool bacterial composition of four Himalayan populations to investigate how the gut community changes in response to shifts in traditional human lifestyles...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Lijun Wang, Ningning Niu, Li Li, Rui Shao, Huiling Ouyang, Weiguo Zou
During the aging process, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibit declined osteogenesis accompanied by excess adipogenesis, which will lead to osteoporosis. Here, we report that the H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), catalyzed by histone methyltransferase SET-domain-containing 2 (SETD2), regulates lineage commitment of BMSCs. Deletion of Setd2 in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs), through conditional Cre expression driven by Prx1 promoter, resulted in bone loss and marrow adiposity...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Aníbal Pauchard, Laura A Meyerson, Sven Bacher, Tim M Blackburn, Giuseppe Brundu, Marc W Cadotte, Franck Courchamp, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Sylvia Haider, Nick D Holmes, Philip E Hulme, Jonathan M Jeschke, Julie L Lockwood, Ana Novoa, Martin A Nuñez, Duane A Peltzer, Petr Pyšek, David M Richardson, Daniel Simberloff, Kevin Smith, Brian W van Wilgen, Montserrat Vilà, John R U Wilson, Marten Winter, Rafael D Zenni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Martin A Schlaepfer
Pauchard et al claim that non-native species should not be granted conservation value, as this could hinder effort to curtail novel introductions. In this response, Schlaepfer counters that the positive contributions of non-native species to biodiversity and conservation must be included to provide a complete and objective snapshot to policy makers.
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Sophie Bagur, Marie Masako Lacroix, Gaëtan de Lavilléon, Julie M Lefort, Hélène Geoffroy, Karim Benchenane
Real-time tracking of vigilance states related to both sleep or anaesthesia has been a goal for over a century. However, sleep scoring cannot currently be performed with brain signals alone, despite the deep neuromodulatory transformations that accompany sleep state changes. Therefore, at heart, the operational distinction between sleep and wake is that of immobility and movement, despite numerous situations in which this one-to-one mapping fails. Here we demonstrate, using local field potential (LFP) recordings in freely moving mice, that gamma (50-70 Hz) power in the olfactory bulb (OB) allows for clear classification of sleep and wake, thus providing a brain-based criterion to distinguish these two vigilance states without relying on motor activity...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Jianqiu Xiao, Chun Wang, Juo-Chin Yao, Yael Alippe, Canxin Xu, Dustin Kress, Roberto Civitelli, Yousef Abu-Amer, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Daniel C Link, Gabriel Mbalaviele
Mutated NLRP3 assembles a hyperactive inflammasome, which causes excessive secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and, ultimately, a spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders known as cryopyrinopathies of which neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) is the most severe phenotype. NOMID mice phenocopy several features of the human disease as they develop severe systemic inflammation driven by IL-1β and IL-18 overproduction associated with damage to multiple organs, including spleen, skin, liver, and skeleton...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Samantha Fox, Paul Southam, Florent Pantin, Richard Kennaway, Sarah Robinson, Giulia Castorina, Yara E Sánchez-Corrales, Robert Sablowski, Jordi Chan, Verônica Grieneisen, Athanasius F M Marée, J Andrew Bangham, Enrico Coen
A developing plant organ exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns of growth, cell division, cell size, cell shape, and organ shape. Explaining these patterns presents a challenge because of their dynamics and cross-correlations, which can make it difficult to disentangle causes from effects. To address these problems, we used live imaging to determine the spatiotemporal patterns of leaf growth and division in different genetic and tissue contexts. In the simplifying background of the speechless (spch) mutant, which lacks stomatal lineages, the epidermal cell layer exhibits defined patterns of division, cell size, cell shape, and growth along the proximodistal and mediolateral axes...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
Samuel H Crossman, Sebastian J Streichan, Jean-Paul Vincent
Extensive apoptosis is often seen in patterning mutants, suggesting that tissues can detect and eliminate potentially harmful mis-specified cells. Here, we show that the pattern of apoptosis in the embryonic epidermis of Drosophila is not a response to fate mis-specification but can instead be explained by the limiting availability of prosurvival signaling molecules released from locations determined by patterning information. In wild-type embryos, the segmentation cascade elicits the segmental production of several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, including the transforming growth factor Spitz (TGFα), and the neuregulin, Vein...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Nada Abdel Aziz, Justin Komguep Nono, Thabo Mpotje, Frank Brombacher
Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3+) regulatory T (Treg)-cell function is controlled by environmental cues of which cytokine-mediated signaling is a dominant component. In vivo, interleukin-4 (IL-4)-mediated signaling via IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) mediates Treg cell transdifferentiation into ex-Foxp3 T helper 2 (Th2) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. However, IL-4-mediated signaling also reinforces the Foxp3 Treg compartment in vitro. We generated Foxp3-specific IL-4Rα-deficient mice and demonstrated differential efficiency of IL-4Rα deletion in male (approximately 90%) and female (approximately 40%) animals, because of cyclic recombinase (Cre)-mediated X-linked foxp3 inactivation...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Erin S Kelleher, Jaweria Jaweria, Uchechukwu Akoma, Lily Ortega, Wenpei Tang
Transposable elements (TEs) are obligate genetic parasites that propagate in host genomes by replicating in germline nuclei, thereby ensuring transmission to offspring. This selfish replication not only produces deleterious mutations-in extreme cases, TE mobilization induces genotoxic stress that prohibits the production of viable gametes. Host genomes could reduce these fitness effects in two ways: resistance and tolerance. Resistance to TE propagation is enacted by germline-specific small-RNA-mediated silencing pathways, such as the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, and is studied extensively...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Colin D Meiklejohn, Justin P Blumenstiel
Organisms are locked in an eternal struggle with parasitic DNA sequences that live inside their genomes and wreak havoc on their host's chromosomes as they spread through populations. To combat these parasites, host species have evolved elaborate mechanisms of resistance that suppress their activity. A new study in Drosophila indicates that, prior to the acquisition of resistance, individuals can vary in their ability to tolerate the activity of these genomic parasites, ignoring or repairing the damage they induce...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Fabrice Arcizet, Richard J Krauzlis
The basal ganglia are important for action selection. They are also implicated in perceptual and cognitive functions that seem far removed from motor control. Here, we tested whether the role of the basal ganglia in selection extends to nonmotor aspects of behavior by recording neuronal activity in the caudate nucleus while animals performed a covert spatial attention task. We found that caudate neurons strongly select the spatial location of the relevant stimulus throughout the task even in the absence of any overt action...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
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