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Clinical & Developmental Immunology

Mikolaj Piotr Zaborowski, Slawomir Michalak
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are disorders of the nervous system that are associated with remote effects of malignancy. PNS are considered to have an autoimmune pathology. It has been suggested that immune antitumor responses are the origin of improved outcome in PNS. We describe cell-mediated immune responses in PNS and their potential contributions to antitumor reactions. Experimental and neuropathological studies have revealed infiltrates in nervous tissue and disturbances in lymphocyte populations in both cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Lee D Chaves, Liby Mathew, Mohammed Shakaib, Anthony Chang, Richard J Quigg, Tipu S Puri
Using a reversible UUO model (rUUO), we have demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to development of CKD after obstruction-mediated kidney injury while BALB/c mice are resistant. We hypothesized that selective systemic depletion of subpopulations of inflammatory cells during injury or repair might alter the development of CKD. To investigate the impact of modification of Th-lymphocytes or macrophage responses on development of CKD after rUUO, we used an anti-CD4 antibody (GK1.5) or liposomal clodronate to systemically deplete CD4(+) T cells or monocyte/macrophages, respectively, prior to and throughout the rUUO protocol...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Tanja Grubić-Kezele, Gordana Blagojević Zagorac, Hrvoje Jakovac, Robert Domitrović, Cedomila Milin, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
In a search of peripheral factors that could be responsible for the discrepancy in susceptibility to EAE in Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats, we estimated the expression of metallothioneins I/II (MT), heat shock protein-gp96, interleukin (IL)-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)- β in the livers of these animals. Rats were immunized with bovine brain homogenate (BBH) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) or only with CFA. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were done on day 12 after the immunization, as well as in intact rats...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Eduardo Luzía França, Glilciane Morceli, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França
Immune response changes induced by diabetes are a risk factor for infections during pregnancy and may modify the development of the newborn's immune system. The present study analyzed colostrum and maternal and cord blood of diabetic women to determine (1) the levels of the cytokines IFN- γ and TGF- β and (2) phagocytic activity after incubation with cytokines. Methods. Colostrum and maternal and cord blood samples were classified into normoglycemic (N = 20) and diabetic (N = 19) groups. Cytokine levels, superoxide release, rate of phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and intracellular Ca(2+) release by phagocytes were analyzed in the samples...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Carlos Barcia, James Curtin, Jeffrey Zirger, Daniel Larocque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Min-Chao Duan, Hai-Juan Tang, Xiao-Ning Zhong, Ying Huang
Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm) and destructive index (DI)...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, Sadanori Furudate, Aya Kakizaki, Setsuya Aiba
An imbalance of immunosuppressive cells and cytotoxic cells plays an important role in inhibiting the antitumor immune response of the tumor-bearing host. We previously reported the profiles of tumor infiltrating leukocytes in cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS) and suggested that a combination of docetaxel (DTX) with bisphosphonate risedronate sodium (RS) might be effective for MMP9-expressing AS by targeting immunosuppressive cells such as M2 macrophages. To further confirm the effect of this combination therapy, in this report we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of DTX and RS on CD163(+) arginase 1 (Arg1)(+) M2 macrophages in vitro...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Sudheer Gupta, Pooja Vir, G P S Raghava
The secretion of Interleukin-4 (IL4) is the characteristic of T-helper 2 responses. IL4 is a cytokine produced by CD4+ T cells in response to helminthes and other extracellular parasites. It has a critical role in guiding antibody class switching, hematopoiesis and inflammation, and the development of appropriate effector T-cell responses. In this study, it is the first time an attempt has been made to understand whether it is possible to predict IL4 inducing peptides. The data set used in this study comprises 904 experimentally validated IL4 inducing and 742 noninducing MHC class II binders...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Simone Kennedy Bedoya, Brandon Lam, Kenneth Lau, Joseph Larkin
Th17 and IL-17 play important roles in the clearance of extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. However, strong evidence also implicates the Th17 lineage in several autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and asthma. The Th17 subset has also been connected with type I diabetes, although whether it plays a role in the pathogenicity of or protection from the disease remains a controversial issue. In this review we have provided a comprehensive overview of Th17 pathogenicity and function, including novel evidence for a protective role of Th17 cells in conjunction with the microbiota gut flora in T1D onset and progression...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Darya Alizadeh, Emmanuel Katsanis, Nicolas Larmonier
While the role of T helper 17 lymphocytes (Th17) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and in infectious immunity has been relatively well defined, the impact of these cells and their associated cytokines on cancer development is still under debate. Although multiple reports have indicated that Th17 can promote anticancer immunity, others have argued that these cells may exhibit tumor-promoting properties. This dichotomy in the function of Th17 lymphocytes in cancer may be related to the versatile nature of these cells, being capable of differentiating into either proinflammatory Th1 or suppressive FoxP3-expressing Treg cells or hybrid T cell subsets depending on the underlying environmental conditions...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Yu Nobuoka, Shugo Mizuno, Kouhei Nishikawa, Kaname Nakatani, Yuichi Muraki, Tomomi Yamada, Masahiro Okuda, Tsutomu Nobori, Yoshiki Sugimura, Shuji Isaji
Seventy living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and 39 kidney transplantation (KT) patients were randomly screened by using the peripheral blood CD4+ adenosine triphosphate activity (ATP) assay (IMK assay). The patients were divided into 2 groups in each organ transplantation with low IMK ATP level (<225 ng/mL) or high (>225) (LT-L: n = 23, KT-L: n = 19, LT-H: n = 47, and KT-H: n = 20, resp.). The incidence of bacterial and/or viral infection was significantly higher in LT-L group than in LT-H group (74...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Lenin Pavón, Hugo Besedosky, Oscar Bottasso, Rogelio Hernández, Marco Velasco, Roger Loria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Yuko Morishima, Satoshi Ano, Yukio Ishii, Shigeo Ohtsuka, Masashi Matsuyama, Mio Kawaguchi, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Steroid-insensitive asthma is an infrequent but problematic airway disease that presents with persistent symptoms, airflow limitation, or recurrent exacerbations even when treated with steroid-based therapies. Because of unsatisfactory results obtained from currently available therapies for steroid-insensitive asthma, a better understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of new targeted molecular therapies are warranted. Recent studies indicated that levels of interleukin (IL)-17 are increased and both eosinophils and neutrophils infiltrate the airways of severe asthmatics...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Anne S De Groot, Leslie Cousens, Federico Mingozzi, William Martin
Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes) that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008). When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs), increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4(+) T cells. We have now shown that coadministration of the Tregitopes in vivo, in a number of different murine models of autoimmune disease, can suppress immune responses to antigen in an antigen-specific manner, and that this response is mediated by Tregs...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Esther Blanco, Carolina Cubillos, Noelia Moreno, Juan Bárcena, Beatriz G de la Torre, David Andreu, Francisco Sobrino
Synthetic peptides incorporating protective B- and T-cell epitopes are candidates for new safer foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. We have reported that dendrimeric peptides including four copies of a B-cell epitope (VP1 136 to 154) linked to a T-cell epitope (3A 21 to 35) of FMD virus (FMDV) elicit potent B- and T-cell specific responses and confer protection to viral challenge, while juxtaposition of these epitopes in a linear peptide induces less efficient responses. To assess the relevance of B-cell epitope multivalency, dendrimers bearing two (B2T) or four (B4T) copies of the B-cell epitope from type O FMDV (a widespread circulating serotype) were tested in CD1 mice and showed that multivalency is advantageous over simple B-T-epitope juxtaposition, resulting in efficient induction of neutralizing antibodies and optimal release of IFN γ ...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Toshiaki Nakano, Shigeru Goto, Chia-Yun Lai, Li-Wen Hsu, Hui-Peng Tseng, Kuang-Den Chen, King-Wah Chiu, Chih-Chi Wang, Yu-Fan Cheng, Chao-Long Chen
Concanavalin A (Con A) is a lectin originating from the jack-bean and well known for its ability to stimulate T cells and induce autoimmune hepatitis. We previously demonstrated the induction of immunosuppressive antinuclear autoantibody in the course of Con A-induced transient autoimmune hepatitis. This study aimed to clarify the effects of Con A-induced hepatitis on liver allograft rejection and acceptance. In this study, we observed the unique phenomenon that the induction of transient de novo autoimmune hepatitis by Con A injection paradoxically overcomes the rejection without any immunosuppressive drug and exhibits significantly prolonged survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT)...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Maria Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna, Norma Guadalupe Gonzalez-Montoya, Arnulfo Nava, Jorge I Gamez-Nava, Maria Cristina Moran-Moguel, Roberto Carlos Rosales-Gomez, Susan Andrea Gutierrez-Rubio, Jose Sanchez-Corona, Laura Gonzalez-Lopez, Ingrid Patricia Davalos-Rodriguez, Mario Salazar-Paramo
Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4) is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG) is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Oxana V Potapova, Tatyana V Sharkova, Vyacheslav A Shkurupiy, Alexander M Shestopalov
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α , IL-6) and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase) by Kupffer cells...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Maria Victoria Legorreta-Haquet, Rocio Flores-Fernández, Francisco Blanco-Favela, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Luis Chávez-Sánchez, Rafael Hernández-González, Emiliano Tesoro-Cruz, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adriana Karina Chávez-Rueda
Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Kai Naumann, Rebekka Wehner, Anett Schwarze, Christiane Petzold, Marc Schmitz, Jacques Rohayem
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonists emerged as attractive candidates for vaccination strategies against tumors and pathogens. An important mechanism of action of such agonists is based on the activation of TLR3-expressing dendritic cells (DCs), which display a unique capacity to induce and stimulate T-cell responses. In this context, it has been demonstrated that targeting of TLR3 by double-stranded RNA such as poly(I:C) results in potent activation of DCs. Major disadvantages of poly(I:C) comprise its undefined chemical structure and very poor homogeneity, with subsequent unpredictable pharmacokinetics and high toxicity...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
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