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Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA

Wenjing Zhang, Sophia Jang, Colleen B Jonsson, Linda J S Allen
Inflammatory responses to an infection from a zoonotic pathogen, such as avian influenza viruses, hantaviruses and some coronaviruses, are distinctly different in their natural reservoir versus human host. While not as well studied in the natural reservoirs, the pro-inflammatory response and viral replication appear controlled and show no obvious pathology. In contrast, infection in humans results in an initial high viral load marked by an aggressive pro-inflammatory response known as a cytokine storm. The key difference in the course of the infection between the reservoir and human host is the inflammatory response...
June 29, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Artur C Fassoni, Hyun M Yang
Tumorigenesis has been described as a multistep process, where each step is associated with a genetic alteration, in the direction to progressively transform a normal cell and its descendants into a malignant tumour. Into this work, we propose a mathematical model for cancer onset and development, considering three populations: normal, premalignant and cancer cells. The model takes into account three hallmarks of cancer: self-sufficiency on growth signals, insensibility to anti-growth signals and evading apoptosis...
June 27, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Miquel Gomez, Francisco Maduell
Kinetic modelling in haemodialysis is usually based upon the resolution of volume-defined compartment models. The interaction among these compartments is described by purely diffusive processes. In this paper we present an alternative kinetic model for uremic toxins in post-dilutional haemodiafiltration treatments by means of a unidimensional diffusion equation. A wide range of solutes such as urea, creatinine, $\beta _{2}$-microglobulin, myoglobin and prolactin were studied by imposing appropriate boundary and initial conditions in a virtual [0,1] domain...
June 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
S Heyden, M Ortiz
We develop a mathematical model of information transmission across the biological neural network of the human brain. The overall function of the brain consists of the emergent processes resulting from the spread of information through the neural network. The capacity of the brain is therefore related to the rate at which it can transmit information through the neural network. The particular transmission model under consideration allows for information to be transmitted along multiple paths between points of the cortex...
May 28, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Natacha Go, Catherine Belloc, Caroline Bidot, Suzanne Touzeau
Understanding the impact of pathogen exposure on the within-host dynamics and its outcome in terms of infectiousness is a key issue to better understand and control the infection spread. Most experimental and modelling studies tackling this issue looked at the impact of the exposure dose on the infection probability and pathogen load, very few on the within-host immune response. Our aim was to explore the impact on the within-host response not only of the exposure dose, but also of its duration and peak, for contrasted virulence levels...
May 21, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Angela M Jarrett, Nicholas G Cogan
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern worldwide due to the increasing number of strains that exhibit antibiotic resistance. Recent studies have indicated that some percentage of people carry the bacteria in the nasal cavity and therefore are at a higher risk of subsequent, and more serious, infections in other parts of the body. However, individuals carrying the infection can be classified as only intermittent carriers versus persistent carriers, being able to eliminate the bacteria and later colonized again...
May 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Larisse Bolton, Alain H J J Cloot, Schalk W Schoombie, Jacobus P Slabbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Todd R Young, Erik M Boczko
As technological improvements continue to infiltrate and impact medical practice, it has become possible to non-invasively collect dense physiological time series data from individual patients in real time. These advances continue to improve physicians' ability to detect and to treat infections early. One important benefit of early detection and treatment of nascent infections is that it leads to earlier resolution. In response to current and anticipated advances in data capture, we introduce the Early Treatment Gain (ETG) as a measure to quantify this benefit...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Ryan Nikin-Beers, Stanca M Ciupe
Cross-reactive T cell responses induced by a primary dengue virus infection may contribute to increased disease severity following heterologous infections with a different virus serotype in a phenomenon known as the original antigenic sin. In this study, we developed and analyzed in-host models of T cell responses to primary and secondary dengue virus infections that considered the effect of T cell cross-reactivity in disease enhancement. We fitted the models to published patient data and showed that the overall infected cell killing is similar in dengue heterologous infections, resulting in dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Ana Victoria Ponce Bobadilla, Philip K Maini, Helen Byrne
The tumour control probability (TCP) is the probability that a treatment regimen of radiation therapy (RT) eradicates all tumour cells in a given tissue. To decrease the toxic effects on healthy cells, RT is usually delivered over a period of weeks in a series of fractions. This allows tumour cells to repair sublethal damage (RSD) caused by radiation. In this article, we introduce a stochastic model for tumour response to radiotherapy which accounts for the effects of RSD. The tumour is subdivided into two cell types: 'affected' cells which have been damaged by RT and 'unaffected' cells which have not...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Jian Du, Aaron L Fogelson
We present a two-phase model of platelet aggregation in coronary-artery-sized blood vessels. The model tracks the number densities of three platelet populations as well as the concentration of a platelet activating chemical. Through the formation of elastic bonds, activated platelets can cohere with one another to form a platelet thrombus. Bound platelets in a thrombus move in a velocity field different from that of the bulk fluid. Stresses produced by the elastic bonds act on the bound platelet material. Movement of the bound platelet material and that of the background fluid are coupled through an interphase drag and an incompressibility constraint...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Richard J Braun, Tobin A Driscoll, Carolyn G Begley, P Ewen King-Smith, Javed I Siddique
We report the results of some recent experiments to visualize tear film dynamics. We then study a mathematical model for tear film thinning and tear film breakup (TBU), a term from the ocular surface literature. The thinning is driven by an imposed tear film thinning rate which is input from in vivo measurements. Solutes representing osmolarity and fluorescein are included in the model. Osmolarity causes osmosis from the model ocular surface, and the fluorescein is used to compute the intensity corresponding closely to in vivo observations...
June 13, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Sean G Smith, Boyce E Griffith, David A Zaharoff
Ailments of the bladder are often treated via intravesical delivery-direct application of therapeutic into the bladder through a catheter. This technique is employed hundreds of thousands of times every year, but protocol development has largely been limited to empirical determination. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of intravesical delivery performed to date have been restricted to static geometries and have not accounted for bladder deformation. This study uses a finite element analysis approach with biphasic solute transport to investigate several parameters pertinent to intravesical delivery including solute concentration, solute transport properties and instillation volume...
April 5, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Julien Aniort, Laurent Chupin, Nicolae Cîndea
Calcium has two important roles in haemodialysis. It participates in the activation of blood coagulation and calcium intakes have a major impact on patient mineral and bone metabolism. The aim of this article is to propose a mathematical model for calcium ions concentration in a dialyzer during haemodialysis using a citrate dialysate. The model is composed of two elements. The first describes the flows of blood and dialysate in a dialyzer fibre. It was obtained by asymptotic analysis and takes into account the anisotropy of the fibres forming a dialyzer...
March 16, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Alun Thomas, Karim Khader, Andrew Redd, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Makoto Jones, Tom Greene, Matthew Samore
We consider extensions to previous models for patient level nosocomial infection in several ways, provide a specification of the likelihoods for these new models, specify new update steps required for stochastic integration, and provide programs that implement these methods to obtain parameter estimates and model choice statistics. Previous susceptible-infected models are extended to allow for a latent period between initial exposure to the pathogen and the patient becoming themselves infectious, and the possibility of decolonization...
March 16, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Longfei Li, R J Braun, W D Henshaw, P E King-Smith
Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness...
March 16, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Alexander Nestor-Bergmann, Georgina Goddard, Sarah Woolner, Oliver E Jensen
Using a popular vertex-based model to describe a spatially disordered planar epithelial monolayer, we examine the relationship between cell shape and mechanical stress at the cell and tissue level. Deriving expressions for stress tensors starting from an energetic formulation of the model, we show that the principal axes of stress for an individual cell align with the principal axes of shape, and we determine the bulk effective tissue pressure when the monolayer is isotropic at the tissue level. Using simulations for a monolayer that is not under peripheral stress, we fit parameters of the model to experimental data for Xenopus embryonic tissue...
March 16, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Ryan S Waters, Justin S A Perry, SunPil Han, Bibiana Bielekova, Tomas Gedeon
The immune system has many adaptive and dynamic components that are regulated to ensure appropriate, precise and rapid response to a foreign pathogen. A delayed or inadequate immune response can lead to prolonged disease, while an excessive or under-regulated response can lead to autoimmunity. The cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor IL-2R play an important role in maintaining this balance.The IL-2 receptor transduces pSTAT5 signal through both the intermediate and high affinity receptors, which differ from each other by the presence of CD25 chain in IL-2 receptor...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Ezio Di Costanzo, Alessandro Giacomello, Elisa Messina, Roberto Natalini, Giuseppe Pontrelli, Fabrizio Rossi, Robert Smits, Monika Twarogowska
We propose a discrete in continuous mathematical model describing the in vitro growth process of biophsy-derived mammalian cardiac progenitor cells growing as clusters in the form of spheres (Cardiospheres). The approach is hybrid: discrete at cellular scale and continuous at molecular level. In the present model, cells are subject to the self-organizing collective dynamics mechanism and, additionally, they can proliferate and differentiate, also depending on stochastic processes. The two latter processes are triggered and regulated by chemical signals present in the environment...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
N Eymard, V Volpert, P Kurbatova, V Volpert, N Bessonov, K Ogungbenro, L Aarons, P Janiaud, P Nony, A Bajard, S Chabaud, Y Bertrand, B Kassaï, C Cornu, P Nony
T lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a rare type of lymphoma with a good prognosis with a remission rate of 85%. Patients can be completely cured or can relapse during or after a 2-year treatment. Relapses usually occur early after the remission of the acute phase. The median time of relapse is equal to 1 year, after the occurrence of complete remission (range 0.2-5.9 years) (Uyttebroeck et al., 2008). It can be assumed that patients may be treated longer than necessary with undue toxicity.The aim of our model was to investigate whether the duration of the maintenance therapy could be reduced without increasing the risk of relapses and to determine the minimum treatment duration that could be tested in a future clinical trial...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
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