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Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338353/the-burden-of-familial-chylomicronemia-syndrome-interim-results-from-the-in-focus-study
#1
Michael Davidson, Michael Stevenson, Andrew Hsieh, Zahid Ahmad, Caroline Crowson, Joseph L Witztum
BACKGROUND: Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome (FCS) is a rare genetic disorder that is caused by a decrease or an absence of lipoprotein lipase activity. FCS is characterized by marked accumulation of chylomicrons and extreme hypertriglyceridemia, which have major effects on both physical and mental health. To date, there have been no systematic efforts to characterize the impact of chylomicronemia on FCS patients' lives. In particular, the impact of FCS on the burden of illness (BoI) and quality of life (QoL) has not been fully described in the literature...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293976/evolution-of-hybrid-interventions-for-congenital-heart-disease
#2
Hitesh Agrawal, Wail Alkashkari, Damien Kenny
Surgical and transcatheter interventions have seen a tremendous evolution in last three decades. Hybrid technology combines the achievements of both disciplines to bring substantial hemodynamic benefit to patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) in a minimally invasive manner. This collaboration between surgeons and interventionalists will continue to grow as the technology evolves to meet the demands of CHD patients, potentially avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass and vascular access complications as well as optimizing immediate technical outcomes with exit angiography...
March 23, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282497/andexanet-alfa-for-the-reversal-of-anticoagulant-activity-in-patients-treated-with-direct-and-indirect-factor-xa-inhibitors
#3
Tarek Nafee, Aysha Aslam, Gerald Chi, Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, Dima Nimri, Aravind Reddy Kuchkuntla, Usama Talib, Nathan Michalak, Yazan Daaboul, Serge Korjian, Anthony Gallo, C Michael Gibson
Andexanet alfa is a recombinant factor Xa decoy molecule that inhibits direct and indirect factor Xa inhibitors to allow the normal coagulation process to resume. Its development arises in a space where novel oral anticoagulants are receiving expanded indications yet their use is limited by the lack of an effective reversal agent. Areas covered: This article reviews the biochemical properties, mechanism of action and the preclinical and clinical trials on andexanet alfa. It additionally aims to provide expert commentary and future perspectives on the efficacy, safety and challenges facing andexanet alfa as a universal antidote for direct and indirect factor Xa inhibitors...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317398/cardiac-transplantation-towards-a-new-noninvasive-approach-of-cardiac-allograft-rejection
#4
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Athanasopoulos, Aggeliki Gouziouta, Evangelos Leontiadis, Stamatis Adamopoulos, Genovefa Kolovou
Cardiac allograft rejection (CAR) may occur after transplantation and remains silent, until hemodynamic deterioration takes place. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is applied to early detect CAR. Although, flexible bioptoms have decreased the incidence of lethal complications, EMB remains an invasive procedure carrying risk of tamponade and permanent heart block. Therefore, a new non-invasive approach is needed. Areas covered: AlloMap molecular expression testing and graft-derived cell-free DNA (GcfDNA) test can be used as blood indices of acute and chronic CAR, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319424/rivaroxaban-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-from-rocket-af-to-everyday-practice
#5
Gonzalo Barón-Esquivias, Francisco Marín, Marcelo Sanmartín
Registries and non-interventional studies offer relevant and complementary information to clinical trials, since they have a high external validity. Areas covered: The information regarding the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin, or rivaroxaban alone in clinical practice was reviewed in this manuscript. For this purpose, a search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed. The MEDLINE and EMBASE search included both medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords including: atrial fibrillation (AF) OR warfarin OR clinical practice OR ROCKET AF AND rivaroxaban...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306362/cardiac-passive-aggressive-behavior-the-right-ventricle-in-patients-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device
#6
Donna May Kimmaliardjuk, Marc Ruel
Right ventricular failure (RVF) affects up to 50% of patients post-left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, and carries significant morbidity and mortality. There is no widely-used long-term mechanical support option for the right ventricle, thus early identification, prevention and medical treatment of RVF is of the upmost importance. Areas covered: A PubMed search was first completed searching "Right ventricular failure post-LVAD" which yielded 152 results, and a subsequent search was performed under "RV mechanical support" which yielded 374 results, and was filtered to "humans" and literature written in English, generating 219 results...
March 17, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292197/sudden-death-risk-stratification-in-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-using-old-and-new-tools-a-clinical-challenge
#7
Antonis S Manolis
Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) remains a clinical challenge. Areas Covered: Currently, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), severity of heart failure symptoms according to NYHA classification, and morphology and duration of the QRS complex guide device management in these patients with implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Recently, the results of a randomized trial stirred some controversy regarding the utility of ICD in NIDCM patients, however, a subsequent meta-analysis confirmed prior findings of the survival-prolonging benefit of device therapy...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292194/clinical-utility-of-sympathetic-blockade-in-cardiovascular-disease-management
#8
Chan Soon Park, Hae-Young Lee
A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290228/ethnic-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Antonios Vitalis, Gregory Y H Lip, Mark Kay, Rajiv K Vohra, Alena Shantsila
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated higher rates of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in blacks and lower in Asians compared to whites. The aim of this study is to undertake a comprehensive review of literature and identify ethnic differences in the epidemiology of PAD in general and in diabetic population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systemic review and meta-analysis of literature was performed for studies reporting PAD prevalence in general or diabetic populations, as well as studies that compare PAD prevalence in different ethnic groups...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271726/molecular-mechanisms-of-atrial-fibrosis-implications-for-the-clinic
#10
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Dennis H Lau, Thomas Agbaedeng, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders
Recent research has unravelled an increasing list of cardiac conditions and risk factors that may be responsible for the abnormal underlying atrial substrate that predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial fibrosis has been demonstrated as the pivotal structural abnormality underpinning conduction disturbances that promote AF in different disease models. Despite the advancement in our discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in the profibrotic milieu, targeted therapeutics against atrial fibrosis remain lacking...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271724/adjuncts-to-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#11
Hzr McConkey, S S Arri, J P Joseph, B D Prendergast, S Redwood
The appreciable rise in percutaneous valve procedures has been pursued by a wave of development in advanced technology to help guide straightforward, streamlined and safe intervention. This review article aims to highlight the adjunctive devices, tools and techniques currently used in transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures to avoid potential pitfalls. Areas covered: The software and devices featured here are at the forefront of technological advances, most of which are not yet in widespread use...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267401/clinical-electrophysiological-and-imaging-predictors-of-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-outcome
#12
Louisa O'Neill, James Harrison, Mark O'Neill, Steven E Williams
Significant technological advances for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) have occurred over the last decade, with a consequent increase in numbers of patients referred for AF ablation worldwide. Despite this, long-term success rates, particularly in those with persistent AF, remain modest. The patient population presenting for AF ablation are heterogeneous with regard to age, type of AF and presence of associated cardiovascular disease. Improved understanding of factors predicting response to AF ablation may therefore help to improve patient selection for ablation procedures...
March 7, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056579/corrigendum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256180/left-main-coronary-artery-stenosis-severity-evaluation-and-implications-for-management
#14
REVIEW
Susan E Habibi, Rahman Shah, Chalak O Berzingi, Ryan Melchior, Kevin F Sumption, Ion S Jovin
The significant stenosis of the left main coronary artery is associated with poor outcomes and is considered a strong indication for revascularization. However, deciding whether the stenosis is significant can sometimes be challenging, especially when the degree of stenosis is intermediate, and can necessitate additional tests and imaging modalities. Areas covered: We did a literature search using keywords like 'left main', 'imaging', 'intravascular ultrasound', 'fractional flow reserve', 'computed tomographic angiography' and 'magnetic resonance imaging'...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256179/invasive-or-non-invasive-imaging-for-detecting-high-risk-coronary-lesions
#15
REVIEW
Kush Patel, Jason Tarkin, Patrick W Serruys, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Nicolas Foin, Yao-Jun Zhang, Tom Crake, James Moon, Anthony Mathur, Christos V Bourantas
Advances in our understanding about atherosclerotic evolution have enabled us to identify specific plaque characteristics that are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability and cardiovascular events. With constant improvements in signal and image processing an arsenal of invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities have been developed that are capable of identifying these features allowing in vivo assessment of plaque vulnerability. Areas covered: This review article presents the available and emerging imaging modalities introduced to assess plaque morphology and biology, describes the evidence from the first large scale studies that evaluated the efficacy of invasive and non-invasive imaging in detecting lesions that are likely to progress and cause cardiovascular events and discusses the potential implications of the in vivo assessment of coronary artery pathology in the clinical setting...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256178/adjunctive-ablation-strategies-improve-the-efficacy-of-pulmonary-vein-isolation-in-non-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad R Afzal, Anweshan Samanta, Jawaria Chatta, Brihh Ansari, Sam Atherton, Syed Sabzwari, Mohit Turagam, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy, Mahmoud Houmsse
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI) has suboptimal outcomes in patients with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Adjunctive strategies employed to ablate non-PV triggers have shown favorable outcomes. AIMS: To delineate the incremental benefit of adjunctive ablation in patients with non-paroxysmal AF through a meta-analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Database searches through August 2016 identified five non-randomized and seven randomized controlled trials (enrolling 1694 patients)...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256177/complications-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-development-implications-for-the-occurrence-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ashley D Newsome, Gwendolyn K Davis, Norma B Ojeda, Barbara T Alexander
Numerous epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between birth weight and the risk for chronic kidney disease. Areas covered: Historically, the first studies to address the developmental origins of chronic disease focused on the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. A reduction in nephron number was a consistent finding in low birth weight individuals and experimental models of developmental insult. Recent studies indicate that a congenital reduction in renal reserve in conjunction with an increase in blood pressure that has its origins in fetal life increases vulnerability to renal injury and disease...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256176/stress-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-current-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Thu-Thao Le, Weiting Huang, Jennifer Ann Bryant, Stuart Alexander Cook, Calvin Woon-Loong Chin
Vasodilator and dobutamine are the main pharmacological agents used in current stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Exercise stress has well-established advantages and it is commonly used in other stress imaging, but the technical considerations have limited its use in stress CMR. In this review, we will describe the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, strengths and challenges of current stress CMR techniques. We will also discuss future perspectives of exercise stress CMR. Areas covered: Despite notable mechanistic differences, vasodilator and dobutamine stress CMR offer similar diagnostic and prognostic value in coronary artery disease...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256175/recanalization-of-peripheral-chronic-total-occlusions-no-fancy-devices-just-a-crossing-catheter
#19
Alessandro Cannavale, Tariq Ali, Chen-Yang Shen, George Kassimis, Miltiadis Krokidis
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are challenging to treat endovascularly. Classic subintimal approach is offering only moderate success rates mainly due of the lack of dedicated crossing catheters. Purpose of this study is to assess the acute procedural success of the use of a novel hydrophilic crossing catheter in the recanalization of peripheral CTOs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-centre study of patients with femoropopliteal CTOs...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128673/the-impact-of-coffee-consumption-on-blood-pressure-cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Steven G Chrysant
Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage, next to water. However, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding its safety on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and intuitively, physicians dissuaded their patients from coffee drinking. Areas covered: This controversy was, primarily, based on older prospective studies or case reports, which showed a positive association of coffee drinking with the incidence of hypertension and CVD. In contrast to these reports, recent, well controlled, studies have demonstrated either a neutral or beneficial effect of moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups/day), on BP, CVD, heart failure (HF), cardiac arrhythmias, or diabetes mellitus (DM)...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
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